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PHYSICS
Topic Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity-1

Q.1 A star of mass M0, radius R0 contracts to radius R. Energy radiated by the star assuming uniform density in
each case while temperature remains unchanged is -
(1 M0c
!
(! M0c
!

1
1
]
1

,
_

!
0
" 1
R
R
(# M0c
!

,
_

0
" 1
R
R
($ M0c
!
1
1
]
1

,
_

#
0
" 1
R
R
Q.2 %he total energy E of a sub-atomic particle of rest mass m0 mo&ing at non-relati&istic speed
& is -
(1 E ' m0c
!
(! E '
!
1
m0&
!
(# E ' m0c
!
(
!
1
m0&
!
($ E ' m0c
!
"
!
1
m0&
!
Q.3 )f u denotes 1 atomic mass unit. *ne atom of an element has mass e+actly e,ual to Au, where A is mass
number of element -
(1 A ' 1 (! A ' 1!
(# A ' 1- ($ A can ta.e up any integral &alue from 1 to 110
Q.4 /ast neutrons can easily be slowed down by -
(1 the use of lead shielding (! passing them through hea&y water
(# elastic collisions with hea&y nuclei ($ applying a strong electric field
Q.5 0hich of the following statements is correct -
(1 1eta rays are same as cathode rays (! 2amma rays are high energy neutrons
(# Alpha particles are singly ioni3ed helium atoms ($ 4rotons and neutrons ha&e e+actly the same mass
Q.6 Mar. the correct statement -
(1 E&ery element has only two stable isotopes
(! All isotopes of e&ery element are radioacti&e
(# *nly one isotope of each element is stable
($ 5uclei of different elements can ha&e the same number of neutrons
Q. %he chemical beha&iour of an atom depends upon -
(1 the number of nucleons in its nucleus (! the number of protons in its nucleus
(# the number of neutrons in its nucleus ($ the number of electrons in its atom
Q.! 6uring a nuclear fusion reaction 7
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E!IEERI!
"PPS #$ - 0% 6iscussion on 7 1"-6-2"14
(1 a hea&y nucleus brea.s into two fragments by itself
(! a light nucleus bombarded by thermal neutrons brea.s up
(# a hea&y nucleus bombarded by thermal neutrons brea.s up
($ two light nuclei combine to gi&e a moderate nucleus and possibly other products
Q.# 1oron rods in a nuclear reactor are used to -
(1 absorb e+cess neutrons (! absorb alpha-particles
(# slow down the reaction ($ speed up the reaction
Q.1" 0hich of the following statement (s is (are correct 8
(1 %he rest mass of a stable nucleus is less than the sum of the rest masses of its separated nucleons.
(! %he rest mass of a stable nucleus is greater than the sum of the rest masses of its separated nucleons.
(# )n nuclear fusion, energy is released by fusing two nuclei of medium mass (appro+imately. 100 amu
($ 5one of these
Q.11 9et m
p
be the mass of a proton, m
n
the mass of neutron, M
1
the mass of a
10
5e
!0
nucleus and M
!
the mass of a
!0
:a
$0
nucleus. %hen -
(1 M
!
' !M
1
(! M
!
; !M
1
(# M
!
< !M
1
($ M
1
< 10 (m
n
( m
p

Q.12 *rder of magnitude of density of =ranium nucleus is,>m


p
' 1.-? @ 10
"!?
.gA
(1 10
!0
.gBm
#
(! 10
1?
.gBm
#
(# 10
1$
.gBm
#
($ 10
11
.gBm
#
Q.13 1inding energy per necleon &ersus mass number cur&e for nuclei is shown in the figure. 0, C, D and E are
four neclei indicated on the cur&e. %he process that would release energy is 7
(1 D !E (! 0 C ( E (# 0 !D ($ C ' D ( E
Q.14 )n a star all Felium nuclei are con&erted into o+ygen. )f atomic mass of M
Fe
' $.00!-= and atomic mass of
o+ygen M
0
' 1G.HHH$=, then the reaction energy per atom of o+ygen -
(1 10.!- MeI (! 0 MeI (# G.!$ MeI ($ !0.$ MeI
Q.15 %he nucleus of element C (A ' !!0 undergoes -decay. )f J-&alue of the reaction is G.G MeI, then
appro+imate .inetic energy of -particle is -
(1 G.- MeI (! G.$ MeI (# $.H MeI ($ -.G MeI
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ANSWERS $
1.%4& 6ensity of star of mass M0, radius R0 is '
#
0
0
#
$
R
M

*n contracting the new mass becomes


M '
#
$
R
#
' M0
#
0

,
_

R
R
9oss in mass due to contraction ' " M
Loss = M0 M
Energy radiated ' c
!
M
2.%3& E ' mc
!
E ' m0c
!

! B 1
!
!
" 1

,
_

c
V
Kince
c
&
<< 1
E L

m0c
!

,
_

+
!
!
!
&
1
c
E L

m0c
!
(
!
1
m0&
!

3.%2& )t is -:
1!
, A ' 1!, 3 ' -
4.%2& 1est moderator is hea&y water
5.%1& 1eta rays are cathode rays.
6.%3&
.%2& %he chemical property of different elements
are different.
!.%4& )n a nuclear fusion reaction two lighter nuclei
combine to gi&en a moderate nucleus and
energy is released.
#.%1'3& 1oron rods act as control rods in a nuclear
reactor as it absorb e+cess of neutrons.
1".%1& 1y theory
11.%3'4&
104 ( 105 ' M1M
!04 ( !05 ' M!M
M!M ' !M1M
M1 ' M1M " m1

N M! ' M!M " m!
$0
c m
!
!

;
!0
c m
!
1


m!

; !m1
M!M " m! ; !M1M " !m1
M! ; !M1

12.%2& 1y theory nuclear density is same
13.%3& unstable nucleus can brea. into stable nuclei
14.%1& $ @ !Fe
$
O*
1-
m ' $ @ $.00!- " 1G.HHH$
' 0.011 =
E ' m @ H#1 MeI
' 10.!$1 MeI
15.%2& J &alue ' G.G MeI.
J &alue ' E ' Energy librated.
5ucleus is hea&y, Ma+. part of energy go as
to -particle
P

' J @

+ m m
m
y
y

C
!!0
D
!1-
(
$

P

' G.G @
!1- $
!1-
+

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