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"Deductive and Inductive are two methods of logical reasoning.

Deductive reasoning works from the


more general to the more specific, often referred to as a top down approach. We may start by thinking
up a theory about our topic, and then narrow it down to a more specific hypotheses that we can test.
We then narrow it down even more where we use observations to address the hypothesis, and then
draw our conclusion














Deductive approach of teaching follows the steps given below for effective teaching
Clear recognition of the problem
Search for a tentative hypothesis
Formulating of a tentative hypothesis
Verification

theory hypothesis observation confirmation
MERITS
It is short and time saving method.
It is suitable for all topics.
This method is useful for revision and drill work
There is use of learners memory
It is very simple method
It helps all types of learners
It provides sufficient practice in the application of various mathematical formulae and
rules.
The speed and efficiency increase by the use of this method.
Probability in induction gets converted into certainty by this method.

DEMERITS
It is not a psychological method.
It is not easy to understand
It taxes the pupils mind.
It does not impart any training is scientific method
It is not suitable for beginners.
It encourages cramming.
It puts more emphasis on memory.
Students are only passive listeners.
It is not found quite suitable for the development of thinking, reasoning, and
discovery.


Steps involved in deductive method
1) Like the inductive method, the first step is the clear understanding of the problem.
2) It may involve the study of a particular thing and phenomenon.
3) Principles and generalizations are reviewed to find the one which may be
applicable to find a solution.
4) In this step the rule, principle or generalization is applied to a problem andinference is
formulated that the problem falls under such rule, principle orgeneralization.
5) Verification of the inference is done by applying it to a case. If it solves the
problem then it is accepted otherwise the procedure is repeated to find the correct one.
Merits of deductive method
1) Deductive method is short and time-saving. It takes little time to solve the problem
by predetermined formulae.
2) In the deductive method, the teachers work is very much simplified. He/shesimply gives a
rule and asks the pupils to verify it by application to several concreteexamples. For example,
students are told that the area of rectangle = Length xBreadth. Then a few sums are solved
before the students. The students apply theseformulae to solve these problems and they
memorize it for future use.
3) This method is very useful for small children because with small children we
generally use story or telling method.
4) This method glorifies memory, as the students have to memorize a considerable
number of formulae and definitions.
5) This method is adequate and advantageous during practice and revision stage.
Inductive Method Deductive Method-A Comparison
1. It proceeds from particular to general;
concrete to abstract.
2. It takes care of the needs of the pupils.It is a developmental process and takesthem through
easy to difficult phase.
3. It encourages discovery and
stimulates thinking.
4. The generalization or rule isformulated by the child; therefore heremembers it with ease.
5. The how and why of the process is
made clear through reasoning.
6. It starts from observation and directexperience and ends in developing a rulein abstract
form.
7. It encourages child participation and
group work.
1. It proceeds from general to particular;
abstract to concrete.
2. In this method facts are thrust upon thepupils. The principle of growth is notconsidered.
3. The authority decides or gives the
formula and encourages memorization.
4. The rule is given to the child. He doesnot appreciate its nature and is likely toforget it easily.
5. The process is taken for granted and
accepted without reasoning.
6. Does not encourage learning but itstarts with a rule and provides for practiceand applications.
7. It demands individual learning and
treats the child as a passive recipient.
So it can be concluded that in inductive method we proceed from particular instancesto general
laws or formulae. Through this method, children discover many new thingsthemselves and
learning becomes very easy. It provides self-reliance and confidencein the students. Inductive
method is slow and safe as the general law is reached step-by-step. Students climb up the stairs
of thought leading to definitions, principles or rules.
In deductive method, we start with general law or formulae and then solve particularproblems by
applying this law or formulae. It is a method of verification andexplanation and provides
instruction. Deduction can give us the formal validitybecause the rule is taken for granted. The
aim of this method is to fit the pupilgenerally for the battle of life.