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Rules of Phonics

The English Sound/Symbol Relationship


Vowels &
Consonants
There are two kinds of letters: vowels and consonants.
Vowel sounds are made in your throat with your mouth open.
Consonants are made with your lips, tongue, teeth and
sometimes breath or voice.
The main vowels are a, e, i, o and u. They are always vowels.
Y and W are sometimes vowels, too. (They are always
consonants when they are at the beginning of a word.) All other
letters are consonants.
Every word has a vowel in it. Even the smallest words, which
are I and A, include a vowel. There are no words that have just
consonants. In fact, it is very difficult to pronounce consonants
clearly without a vowel.
Every letter has a name. It also has a sound. As children
begin to read and write, usually from kindergarten through third
grade, they come to understand that the "alphabetic" layer of
English spelling, simple sound/symbol correspondences, can't
account for the way many English words are spelled. They also
gradually come to understand that one symbol or group of
symbols can stand for more than one sound, and sometimes a
sound can be spelled several different ways. They also will learn
that groups of letters can subtly change the meaning of a word --
such as the addition of ed, s and es.
Some teaching strategies for helping students to develop
pattern and meaning:
Meet the Vowels: a, e, i, o, and u and sometimes y and
sometimes w. All other letters are consonants. Sometimes
vowels have short sounds as in man, hen, pit, hop and sun.
When a word has only one vowel between two consonants, the
vowel usually says its short sound.
Sometimes vowels have long sounds, mail, feet, ripe, goat,
cube. When a word has two vowels, we usually hear only the
first vowel and it says its long sound.
Word sort activities:
Do word sorts with simple words, e.g. at, ate, pin, pine, mad,

made, can, cane, cut, cute, dim, dime, rip, ripe, bit , bite, etc.
Look for patterns of short/long vowel sounds. See if they can
guess the secret? The "final e" rule - The "e' is so strong, it's
magic. When a word has a vowel, then a consonant, then a final
"e", the first vowel says it's name and the "e' has no sound. It
actually follows the rule: When two vowels are close together
(and in this case, there is only one consonant between them) the
first one usually says its name.
Do word sorts with vowel digraphs that make long vowel
sounds: met, meat; ran, rain; far, fair; pant, paint; man, main;
her, hear; set, seat; bed, bead; got, goat; cot, coat; rod, road;
cost, coast. Help them come up with the rule by themselves as
they see the pattern: When a word has two vowels we usually
hear only the first vowel sound and it says it long sound. Or
"When two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking."
(When you use this latter saying, be sure they understand what
the first vowel is saying -- i.e. its name.) (Another important
note: the "u" in the 'qu' digraph is never considered a vowel -- it
is part of the untouchable "qu".)
Have student make a new word by adding a silent helper to
these words: met, bet, cot, ran, pin, fed, got, pant, etc.
Do a word sort of words ending in a vowel: by, why, she, fry,
go, cry, he, fly, me, sky, no, be, so, sky, my, we, dry, spy, yo-
yo, spry, try, we, my, etc. What is the rule? When a word has
only one vowel and the vowel is at the end of the word, the long
sound is usually the only one heard. And this is one of the
places where "y" becomes a vowel.
Do a word sort with words 'c' and 'g' words: candy, cold, curl,
corn, scale, circus, dance, pencil, center, bicycle, police, cup,
city, cent, cat, dice, etc. gate, golf, gum, gem, giant, gym,
general, gold, wage, germ, glad, huge, grade, goose, garden,
age, gas, ago, get,, etc. Have them say the words, listening for
the hard or soft sounds of the letters. Have them see if they can
find the pattern and make up a rule. When "c" or "g" come
before a, o, or u, it usually says its hard sound. The hard sound
of "c" is like "k". When 'c' or 'g' come before 'e, i, or y, it usually
says their soft sound. The soft sound of 'c' is like 's'. The soft
sound of 'g' is like the sound of 'j'. We call 'c' and 'g' copycats.
They sometimes copy 's' and 'j'.
Variant Sounds of the Vowels and Vowel Combinations
Sometimes vowels and vowel combinations have more than one
sound. For instance, the letters "ow" have two sounds, as in now
(where it is a dipthong) and slow (where it is silent w, acting as
a vowel.) And to make things even more confusing, sometimes
"ow" words are spelled the same, but do not sound the same or
have the same meaning, as in the bow in the girl's hair and the
bow that was taken at the end of the recital.
Word sort for different sounds of "ow": town, slow, clown,
brown, throw, grow, down, crow, allow, grown, window,
flower, flowed, snowed, flowed, snowing, blowing, towing,
row, bow, row, etc. The student may come up with a rule, such
as 'ow' (dipthong) in the middle of a word or syllable is
pronounced one way, whereas at the end of a word or syllable it
is pronounced as long 'o'. Word sorts often help students to
come up with their own rules, which is much more beneficial
than being told the rule over and over.
When 'l' follows a, the 'a' usually makes an "aw" sound. Do a
word sort using all, ball, fall, call, tall, wall, always, fan, can,
mask, etc. Again have them note the pattern and make up their
own rule. Note that there are exceptions, such as "shall".
When 'r' follows 'a' the sound is also distorted and sounds much
like "ah" as in far. Do a word sort with these words: farm, park,
barn, dart, dark, car, far. (Note: Some parts of the United States
almost eliminate the 'r' sound in these words, typically
Northeastern area.
When 'lk' follows 'a', the sound is "aw": walk, chalk, talk, stalk.
There are two sounds of oo, too. Double vowel oo can have a
short sound, as in wool. Or it can have a long sound as in
school. The only way to know is to try them both and see which
word sounds right in the sentence.
Have child read these words and decide whether they have the
short or long sounds. foot, rooster, school, took, spoon, root,
stood, wool, good, book, hook, food, shook, loop, smooth,
bloom, droop, stood, moon, igloo, crook, wood, spool.
We hear another sound in boil and boy.
Have student do a word sort and see if they can think of the rule:
boil, boy, toy, toil, spoil, noise, oyster, joy, join, moist, choice,
coin. [They may be confused by oyster. Because the rule is that
oi is used in the middle of words (or syllables) and y is used at
the end of words. The y is at the end of the first syllable of
oyster, so it still follows the rules of phonics.]
Consonant Digraphs - Untouchables : Because the English needed
more sounds, they decided to put two letters together to make a whole
new sound. We call them the "untouchables" because when you see
them together, you know they make a new, distinct sound and they are
not sounded separately as the individual consonants are in a blend.
The consonant digraphs or untouchables are sh, ch, th, wh, qu, and the
less common ph. All but wh and qucan come at the beginning or ending
of a word. Wh only comes at the beginning of words. Can you guess
why? [It has too much air to come at the end of a word. It would be too
difficult to pronounce.]
Hear the sh sounds in shop, shake, cash, fresh, shoes, shut. Hear the ch
sounds in chair, chase, such, teach, much, each, chin, chop,
chimpanzee, church, etc. Hear the th sound in thing, thin, three, teeth,
with, this, etc. Hear the ph sound in phone, phonics, graph, etc. Hear the
'kw' sound in quasi, quake, quail. Now hear the wh sound in what,
when, white, wheel, which, and while. Hold a torn piece of paper
before your mouth and notice the difference in the amount of air that
comes out when you say "witch" and "which." There should be a big
difference if you are enunciating correctly.
Silent Letters
Tell students that they can usually tell how to pronounce a word
or spell it by listening to it carefully, but there are some words
that have silent letters. We call these "oddballs!" Words with
silent letters have to be learned by visual memory in order to be
able to spell them.
Using the following words with silent letters, read over them
together: knee, known, knew, calf, wren, thumb, knit, half,
written, knock, climb, wrote, knot, lamb, ghost. Talk about the
silent letters. Then give them this list to have them make
corrections in the misspelled words: lam, ritten, new, thum,
nock, nown, nit, clim, haf, gost, nee, not, rote, caf, ren. Have
child summarize what has been learned about silent letters: [The
sounds /n/, /f/, /m/, /r/, and /g/ can be spelled by "silent letters.]
and What are the silent letters that spell these sounds? [/n/ kn, /f/
lf, /m/ mb, /r/ wr, /g/ gh. Here are some more words to play
with: kneel, wreck, knead, chalk, knife, wrist, crumbs, knead,
knock, thumb.
Contractions
To make writing more informal and to more accurately copy our
speech, contractions were invented: Instead of saying "I will
leave for school in fifteen minutes," most people would say in
their speech, "I'll leave for school in fifteen minutes." To say "I
will" in one word, we write "I'll". This small mark, ', is called an
apostrophe. It means that one or more letters have been left out
and the new word is called a contraction. See if you can say
some contractions for these words: could not, we will, are not,
that is, you will, she will, was not, do not, there is, let us, should
not, that is, I am, it is, would not. Dictate the words and have
student write the contractions.

Syllabication ...
Not An Exact Science
First and foremost, it is important to acknowledge that "syllabication" is not an exact science. It
is the inexact process of analyzing a long unfamiliar word and dividing it into shorter segments,
and often by trial and error, sounding it out, chunk by chunk, to try to find the pronunciation of
a recognizable and meaningful word that fits in the context of the reading. It is my opinion that
syllabication should not be introduced until student knows all of the consonants sounds and has
an understanding of the basic rules of phonics. A good rule of thumb is that mid-second graders
should be able to read and spell two-syllable words. By third grade, they whould be able to read
and spell three-syllable words, and children older than that should be able to read and spell four-
syllable words whose meaning they understand.
Syllabication is one of the most difficult reading skills to teach because there are no clear-cut
right or wrong ways of dividing words. It is important to note that a reader doesn't necessarily
have to divide a word the way the dictionary does and that it is often a matter of trial and error,
experimenting with various divisions and sounds until reader comes to a familiar word that
makes sense in context.
Your student may more easily understand the word "chunk" or " "bit" than the more
complicated word "syllable." Syllables are "chunks" of words. The first step in teaching
syllabication is to have student learn that big words are just several little syllables or chunks
strung together -- from left to right -- and that syllables generally follow the rules of phonics for
smaller words. As with other areas of language development, syllabication starts with
"listening."
Teacher or tutor should speak a multisyllable word, such as "sing/ing" and explain that
the word has two syllables or chunks, indicating a mark between the two chunks so that
the first chunk will be read before going on to the second chunk. (I often will put my
finger over all but the first chunk of a multisyllable word until the child has read it, then
move to the next, etc. This is a good strategy for children to employ.) E.g. sing/ing,
per/mit, mi/gra/tion, hy/drant, sprink/le, o/cean/og/raph/y. With repetition, hopefully,
your student will learn quickly to hear and clap syllables correctly. (The Phonics Game
has a card game called Divide and Conquer, which has the syllables alternately printed
in black, gray, black, etc. for ease in learning how to divide syllables into words.)

During step 1, you might want to point out how syllables are sounded out according to
rules of phonics, which have already been learned. For instance, every syllable must
have a vowel sound just as does every short word. E.g. in/vent, in/vent/ory. Every
vowel sound must have a syllable. (Note: vowel sound -- e.g. 'make' has only one
vowel sound; sail has only one vowel sound.) Two separate vowel sounds cannot be in
the same syllable, e.g. O/hi/o, re/in/vest. (This would be a good example to model trial
and error. Student might on reading the word 'reinvest' have to experiment between a
two or three syllable word, e.g. rein/vest with the long a sound for 'ei', but when that
does not produce a recognizable word or one that makes sense in the context of the
reading, student would be encouraged to regroup, and make another try by dividing
between the e and the i, and producing a three syllable word and a discussion of two
prefixes in the word, which changes the meaning of the root word.) (Another point to
discuss would be that prefixes and suffixes usually make up a syllable and are not
divided. This is one of the reasons to study affixes -- it's a shortcut for students to
instantly recognize root words, prefixes and suffixes and know to divide accordingly.)
Syllabication is even more difficult for students with limited vocabularies. This is one of
the reasons we encourage parents to read to their children from infancy, building their
verbal vocabularies, as well as their background knowledge. And one of the reasons I
encourage a study of prefixes, suffixes and root words.
Step 2: After student has mastered hearing and tapping out the syllables, print may be
introduced. Show student how to look at an unfamiliar word, divide it, and using the
rules of phonics pronounce it. Have they heard that word before? Does it make sense in
the context of the reading? It helps to identify prefixes, suffixes and any familiar word
parts, such as sail/boat, mail/box, re/cite, swords/man, en/ter/tain. If it is an
unrecognizable word or does not make sense in the context of the reading, student
should be encouraged to try a different division, different emphasis, etc.
Multisyllable words are not spoken in monotone. Explain to your student about
emphasis, loud and quiet syllables. Reader will have to determine whether word sounds
right and alter emphasis accordingly. Reader may have to read emphasis with trial and
error, too, until recognizable and meaningful word is found.
It is also important for students to understand the "schwa" or "weak vowel" sound that
occurs in multisyllable words, such as in "about" or "ribbon", "lettuce." To help with
spelling, student should be advised to enunciate as clearly as possible and to "think"
a/bout with a long a, and rib/bon with two short vowels, even though that is not the way
they are typically pronounced.
A syllable break usually occurs between double consonants: chat/ted, bit/ter, mis/spell.
(Remind student why the consonant is doubled in chatted and bitter. (The doubled
consonant is used to retain the short vowel sound which precedes it.) The 's' is doubled
in misspell for another reason: 'mis' is a prefix added to the root word 'spell.'
A syllable break usually occurs between two consonants that cannot blend together,such
as b and j, n and v, t and m, etc. e.g. sub/ject, in/vite.
A single vowel (e.g. I) or a single vowel at the end of a syllable is often long (says the
name of the vowel): he, she, my, hi, de/fy, Ju/ly, re/peal.
A single vowel in a syllable followed by one or more consonants is often short. E.g. mat,
sun, in/tend, cof/fee, en/ter.
The rules of phonics which work for little words usually work for syllables in longer
words. The English language is a sound/symbol code. Various sounds are represented by
various symbols, which determines the meaning of words, e.g. meat, meet; their, there, they're.
So to assess an unfamiliar word, one looks at one sound symbol at a time and blends sounds
into syllables (smaller chunks) and the chunks (syllables) into words. Not only are there
individual "chunks" that usually follow the rules of phonics, but these chunks or syllables can
be stressed differently to determine division, as well as correct pronunciation to aid in finding a
recognizable word, and thus comprehension, which can be very difficult at times for those with
limited English vocabularies, e.g. at/ro/cit/ies vs. a/troc/it/ies. It would have helped the reader to
know that atrocis is Latin for cruelty and cities comes from the Latin word for citizen, ergo
cruelty against citizenry or community. Another related word coming from the same Latin root
would be atrocious, although atrocious and atrocities are pronounced differently, whether
linguistically correct or through tradition and/or cultural differences.
Root Words
New words can be built from root words. For example, 'wish' can turn into wishing, wishes,
wishful, wished; 'cook' can turn into cooked, cooking, cooks, uncooked, cookbook.
We can read multisyllable words by blending sounds into chunks and then chunks into
meaningful words. It is helpful to study prefixes and suffixes and root words. At the
time of this writing, there was a website with a Selection of Latin and Greek Roots,
Combining Forms, Words, and Prefixes, http://www.imt.net/\`nwwa/homeschool/roots-
class/book/introLatin.html, with a reference for ordering: Strathnaver Books, 1517 14th
Street West, Suite 227, Billings, Mt. 59102. English From the Roots Up by Joegil
Lundquist is available through Timberdoodle or through Literacy Unlimited
Publications, P. O. Box 278, Medina, Wa. 98039-0278.
Have student go through an old magazine with a highlighter, looking for root words
within other words. Wonderful, quietly, rejoin, depart, taken, gardener, etc.
Have student make up some new words from root words: tall, slow, write, care, show,
salt, paint, join, quiet, etc.
English from the Roots Up b Joegil Lundquist, published by Literacy Unlimited,
Bellevue, Washington, gives children and adults a firm foundation in common Latin and
Greek root words and affixes. A quick and easy way to increase vocabulary and spelling
skills. Latin and Greek are as essential to developing a good vocabulary as phonics is to
reading.
Prefixes and Suffixes
A syllable at the beginning of a root word, which modifies or changes its meaning is
called a prefix. Some common prefixes are: un as in undo, in as in inside, dis as in
disapprove, re as in reply, de as in defrost.
A syllable added at the end of a root word to form a new word, which is related in
meaning, is called a suffix.some suffixes are: -er, -ly, -ful, -less, -y, -en, -ness.
Spelling
We can spell multisyllable words by blending sounds into chunks and then the chunks
into words. Encourage your student to say the word and think about what the first chunk
is and what letters represent the sounds in that chunk and then in sequence spell the
remaining syllables. For instance, in entertainment, we would ask ourselves: "What are
the syllables (small chunks) that we hear? En/ter/tain/ment. What are the sounds in en'?
e' n' -- what are the symbols for en?' Then we would move on to ter', tain,' ment.
Noting, if necessary, that the long a sound in tain' is a vowel combination. If he is
uncertain how to spell it, have student write all the ways it might be written and see if he
can select the correct one from the written word.
Multisyllable words almost always have a dominant syllable, one that has a natural high
and or low, or is more pronounced or stressed than the others. It is often subtle, but if
read in the wrong way can alter the meaning.
A syllable is a word or part of a word (a little chunk of a bigger word), containing one
vowel sound.
How many vowel sounds do you hear in these words: play (1), open (2), grape (1), goat
(1), singing (2) , brown (1), flash (1), magic (2), garden (2) , person (2), staying (2), coat
(1). The number of vowel sounds heard tells you the number of syllables in a word.
Note: Even though there are two vowels in 'coat', there is only one vowel sound.
When two consonants separate two vowel sounds, the first syllable usually ends after the
first consonant. cor/ner, gar/den, big/gest, tim/ber, yel/low, un/til. Write out a bunch of
two syllable words and have student divide them as I have done.
In words that have a short vowel sound and one consonant at the end, the final
consonant is usually doubled before adding the suffix ed , ing. er, or est. Have student
add ed, ing, er, or est,, as appropriate , to the following words: plan, chop, tan, rob, drag,
knit, tag, clap, step, drop, rip, spot. big, thin, flat, sad, mad.
When adding y to words with a short vowel sound and one consonant at the end, the
final consonant is also usually doubled, as in happy, foggy, sunny, and funny. However,
when you want to add er or est to words which end in y, you first change the y to i. Have
student add "y" to root words mud, fog, sun, fun. Then have them change the words by
adding er and est.
There are exceptions: With some words the final consonant is not doubled when adding
y, such as in sleepy, salty, dirty, dusty. But when er or est are added to the root word, the
y is still first changed to i.
When a root word has a prefix or a suffix added to it, the prefix or the suffix usually
make a syllable. Divide these words into syllables: refill, unlock, inside, unhappy,
handful, kindness, impure, owner, refresh, replace, helpless, gladly, reread, replace,
dislike, hopping, discount.
Encourage students to use their best phonetic spelling. To listen to the syllables in a
word and apply the rules of phonics to each syllable. Write the following words on a
sheet of paper or the chalkboard: country, countries, worry, worried, worrying. Which
words are nouns and which are verbs? Ask student to identify the last letter in country
and worry. [y] Is it a consonant or a vowel? [It is acting as a vowel in this case -- and is
copying 'e'. What happened when the noun was made into a plural? [Changed the y to i
and added es.] What happened to the verb when ed and ing were added? [The y changed
to i when ed was added. The y did not change when ing was added.]
Here are some practice exercises:
Write the plurals of : family, company, lady, party, pony.
Write the singulars of: libraries, pennies, bodies.
Write these verbs with ed: hurry, marry, carry, copy.
Write the following verbs with ing: study, cry, carry, play
Have students develop their own personal dictionaries with words they are learning.
Have students identify their own "problem" words and put them in the journal.
Have students act as their own spelling editors, using a box for each phoneme to help
them think it through. Example: chain would have three boxes because it has three
phonemes:
ch ai n.
Children with learning difficulties profit by creating word lists, doing word sorts, and
organizing by word families.
Have student read their own writing and make their own corrections. Never mark up a
student's paper. Often when a student self-corrects, he will recognize that he has made
an error....for instance, mak will be read with a short vowel sound and he will know that
he needs to do something to make the long /a/ sound...then it is a decision about whether
it will be a_e or ai, etc. Have him write it all the ways that it could be if he doesn't
immediately come up with the silent e.

Read, read, read!
Write, write, write!
Phonics is a word-attack skill in which you "sound-out" difficult words by using the
common sounds of letters in the word. It is often the first reading skill taught to people and is considered
one of the "basic skills". Knowledge of phonics is most helpful in linking the words one knows through
simply hearing them with the actual written word.
Phonics Rules
The vowels are "a,e,i,o, and u"; also sometimes "y" & "w". This also includes the diphthongs
"oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others.
The consonants are all the other letters which stop or limit the flow of air from the throat in speech. They
are: "b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,p,qu,r,s,t,v,w,x,y,z,ch,sh,th,ph,wh, ng, and gh".

1. Sometimes the rules don't work.
There are many exceptions in English because of the vastness of the language and the many languages
from which it has borrowed. The rules do work however, in the majority of the words.

2. Every syllable in every word must have a vowel.
English is a "vocal" language; Every word must have a vowel.

3. "C" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "s". Examples: "cyst", "central", and "city".

4. "G" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of "j". Example: "gem", "gym", and "gist".

5. When 2 consonants a joined together and form one new sound, they are a consonant digraph.
They count as one sound and one letter and are never separated. Examples: "ch,sh,th,ph and wh".

6. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel, that vowel is short. Examples: "fat,
bed, fish, spot, luck".

7. When a syllable ends in a silent "e", the silent "e" is a signal that the vowel in front of it is long.
Examples: "make, fete, kite, rope, and use".

8. When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second is silent.
Examples: "pain, eat, boat, res/cue, say, grow". NOTE: Diphthongs don't follow this rule; In a diphthong,
the vowels blend together to create a single new sound. The diphthongs are: "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and
many others.

9. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long. Examples:
"pa/per, me, I, o/pen, u/nit, and my".

10. When a vowel is followed by an "r" in the same syllable, that vowel is "r-controlled". It is not
long nor short. "R-controlled "er,ir,and ur" often sound the same (like "er"). Examples: "term, sir, fir, fur,
far, for, su/gar, or/der".


Basic Syllable Rules
1. To find the number of syllables:
---count the vowels in the word,
---subtract any silent vowels, (like the silent "e" at the end of a word or the second vowel when two
vowels a together in a syllable)
---subtract one vowel from every dipthong, (diphthongs only count as one vowel sound.)
---the number of vowels sounds left is the same as the number of syllables.
The number of syllables that you hear when you pronounce a word is the same as the number of vowels
sounds heard. For example:
The word "came" has 2 vowels, but the "e" is silent, leaving one vowel sound and one syllable.
The word "outside" has 4 vowels, but the "e" is silent and the "ou" is a diphthong which counts as only
one sound, so this word has only two vowels sounds and therefore, two syllables.

2. Divide between two middle consonants.
Split up words that have two middle consonants. For example:
hap/pen, bas/ket, let/ter, sup/per, din/ner, and Den/nis. The only exceptions are the consonant
digraphs. Never split up consonant digraphs as they really represent only one sound. The exceptions are
"th", "sh", "ph", "th", "ch", and "wh".

3. Usually divide before a single middle consonant.
When there is only one syllable, you usually divide in front of it, as in:
"o/pen", "i/tem", "e/vil", and "re/port". The only exceptions are those times when the first syllable has
an obvious short sound, as in "cab/in".

4. Divide before the consonant before an "-le" syllable.
When you have a word that has the old-style spelling in which the "-le" sounds like "-el", divide before the
consonant before the "-le". For example: "a/ble", "fum/ble", "rub/ble" "mum/ble" and "thi/stle". The
only exception to this are "ckle" words like "tick/le".

5. Divide off any compound words, prefixes, suffixes and roots which have vowel sounds.
Split off the parts of compound words like "sports/car" and "house/boat". Divide off prefixes such at
"un/happy", "pre/paid", or "re/write". Also divide off suffixes as in the words "farm/er", "teach/er",
"hope/less" and "care/ful". In the word "stop/ping", the suffix is actually "-ping" because this word follows
the rule that when you add "-ing" to a word with one syllable, you double the last consonant and add the
"-ing".

Accent Rules
When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is always a little louder than the others. The
syllable with the louder stress is the accented syllable. It may seem that the placement of accents in
words is often random or accidental, but these are some rules that usually work.

1. Accents are often on the first syllable. Examples: ba'/sic, pro'/gram.

2. In words that have suffixes or prefixes, the accent is usually on the main root word. Examples: box'/es,
un/tie'.

3. If de-, re-, ex-, in-,po-, pro-, or a- is the first syllable in a word, it is usually not accented. Examples:
de/lay', ex/plore'.

4. Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often indicates an accented last syllable.
Examples: com/plain', con/ceal'.

5. When there are two like consonant letters within a word, the syllable before the double consonants is
usually accented. Examples: be/gin'/ner, let'/ter.

6. The accent is usually on the syllable before the suffixes -ion, ity, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ial, or -ious, and on the
second syllable before the suffix -ate. Examples: af/fec/ta'/tion, dif/fer/en'/ti/ate.

7. In words of three or more syllables, one of the first two syllables is usually accented. Examples:
ac'/ci/dent, de/ter'/mine.
honics, Syllable and Accent Rules
Phonics Rules

The vowels are "a,e,i,o, and u"; also sometimes "y" & "w". This also
includes the diphthongs "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many others.
The consonants are all the other letters which stop or limit the
flow of air from the throat in speech. They are:
"b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,p,qu,r,s,t,v,w,x,y,z,ch,sh,th,ph,wh, ng, and gh".

1. Sometimes the rules don't work.
There are many exceptions in English because of the vastness of
the language and the many languages from which it has borrowed.
The rules do work however, in the majority of the words.

2. Every syllable in every word must have a vowel.
English is a "vocal" language; Every word must have a vowel.

3. "C" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of
"s". Examples: "cyst", "central", and "city".

4. "G" followed by "e, i or y" usually has the soft sound of
"j". Example: "gem", "gym", and "gist".

5. When 2 consonants are joined together and form one new
sound, they are a consonant digraph. They count as one sound
and one letter and are never separated. Examples: "ch,sh,th,ph
and wh".

6. When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel,
that vowel is short. Examples: "fat, bed, fish, spot, luck".

7. When a syllable ends in a silent "e", the silent "e" is a
signal that the vowel in front of it is long. Examples: "make,
fete, kite, rope, and use".

8. When a syllable has 2 vowels together, the first vowel is
usually long and the second is silent. Examples: "pain, eat, boat,
res/cue, say, grow". NOTE: Diphthongs don't follow this rule; In a
diphthong, the vowels blend together to create a single new
sound. The diphthongs are: "oi,oy,ou,ow,au,aw, oo" and many
others.

9. When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel,
that vowel is usually long. Examples: "pa/per, me, I, o/pen, u/nit,
and my".

10. When a vowel is followed by an "r" in the same syllable,
that vowel is "r-controlled". It is not long nor short. "R-
controlled "er,ir,and ur" often sound the same (like "er").
Examples: "term, sir, fir, fur." The /or/ as in "for" and /ar/ as in
"car, art, and smart."

Basic Syllable Rules

1. To find the number of syllables:
---count the vowel sounds in the word,
---subtract any silent vowels, (like the silent "e" at the end of a
word or the second vowel when two vowels a together in a
syllable)
---subtract one vowel from every diphthong, (diphthongs only
count as one vowel sound.)
---the number of vowels sounds left is the same as the
number of syllables.
The number of syllables that you hear when you pronounce a word
is the same as the number of vowels sounds heard. For example:
The word "came" has 2 vowels, but the "e" is silent, leaving one
vowel sound and one syllable.
The word "outside" has 4 vowels, but the "e" is silent and the "ou"
is a diphthong which counts as only one sound, so this word has
only two vowel sounds and therefore, two syllables.

2. Divide between two middle consonants.
Split up words that have two middle consonants. For example:
hap/pen, bas/ket, let/ter, sup/per, din/ner, and Den/nis. The
only exceptions are the consonant digraphs. Never split up
consonant digraphs as they really represent only one sound. The
exceptions are "th", "sh", "ph", "th", "ch", and "wh".

3. Usually divide before a single middle consonant.
When there is only one syllable, you usually divide in front of it,
as in:
"o/pen", "i/tem", "e/vil", and "re/port". The only exceptions are
those times when the first syllable has an obvious short sound, as
in "cab/in".

4. Divide before the consonant before an "-le" syllable.
When you have a word that has the old-style spelling in which the
"-le" sounds like "-el", divide before the consonant before the "-
le". We call these final, stable, syllables. For example: "a/ble",
"fum/ble", "rub/ble" "mum/ble."

5. Divide off any compound words, prefixes, suffixes and
roots which have vowel sounds.
Split off the parts of compound words like "sports/car" and
"house/boat". Divide off prefixes such at "un/happy", "pre/paid",
or "re/write". Also divide off suffixes as in the words "farm/er",
"teach/er", "hope/less" and "care/ful". In the word "stop/ping",
the suffix is actually "-ping" because this word follows the rule
that when you add "-ing" to a word with one syllable, you double
the last consonant and add the "-ing".
Accent Rules

When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is
always a little louder than the others. The syllable with the louder
stress is the accented syllable. It may seem that the placement
of accents in words is often random or accidental, but these are
some rules that usually work.

1. Accents are often on the first syllable. Examples: ba'/sic,
pro'/gram.

2. In words that have suffixes or prefixes, the accent is usually
on the main root word. Examples: box'/es, un/tie'.

3. If de-, re-, ex-, in-,po-, pro-, or a- is the first syllable in a
word, it is usually not accented. Examples: de/lay', ex/plore'.

4. Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often
indicates an accented last syllable. Examples: com/plain',
con/ceal'.

5. When there are two like consonant letters within a word, the
syllable before the double consonants is usually accented.
Examples: be/gin'/ner, let'/ter.

6. The accent is usually on the syllable before the suffixes -ion,
ity, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ial, or -ious, and on the second syllable before
the suffix -ate. Examples: af/fec/ta'/tion, dif/fer/en'/ti/ate.

7. In words of three or more syllables, one of the first two
syllables is usually accented. Examples: ac'/ci/dent, de/ter'/mine.

Back
Glossary
accent the syllable receiving the primary stress in a word
breve a coding mark used to indicate a vowel's short sound
cedilla a coding mark on the letter c to indicate its soft sound
code to mark a word with symbols (such as a breve, macron,
etc.) to give information about how to pronounce the
word
combination two letters that come together to make an unexpected
sound
derivative a root word with something added to it (e.g., a suffix or
prefix)
digraph two letters that come together to make one sound
diphthong two vowel sounds that come together so quickly that they
are considered one syllable
final the last sound or letter(s) in a word
final silent e an e in the final position of an English root word, usually
silent
final, stable
syllable
a nonphonetic syllable that occurs in the final position
frequently enough to be considered stable
floss rule a spelling rule stating that the letters f, l,and s are
doubled after a short vowel in a one-syllable root word
initial the first sound or letter(s) in a word
k-back a vertical line on the back of a c that represents the |k|
sound
macron a coding mark used to indicate a vowel's long sound
medial the middle sound(s) or letter(s) in a word
possessive s an apostrophe s added to a word to show ownership
quadrigraph four letters that come together to make one sound
regular for
reading
the sound that a letter or group of letters makes at least
85% of the time
regular for
spelling
the spelling that occurs for a particular sound at least
85% of the time
root word a word with no prefix or suffix added
schwa a code mark placed over a vowel to indicate the short u
sound
sight word a word of which all or part does not follow phonetic rules
sneaky e the e that makes the vowel say its long sound
suffix a letter or group of letters added to a root word that
changes the meaning or usage of the word
syllable a word or part of a word that contains only one vowel
sound and is made by one impulse of the voice
syllable
division
the breaking of a word into separate syllables to make
decoding (pronunciation) easier
trigraph three letters that come together to make one sound
voiced sound a sound that requires use of the vocal cords; a vibration
is felt
voice line a horizontal line through the middle of a letter,
representing a voiced sound
vowel rules rules that determine a vowel's sound in a given situation
in a syllable:
1. a vowel followed by a consonant is short;
2. a vowel that is open and accented is long;
3. vowel-consonant-e, where the silent e makes the vowel
long
Back
about
after
again
all
always
am
an
and
call
came
can
carry
clean
cold
come
could
funny
gave
get
give
go
going
goes
good
just
keep
kind
know
laugh
let
light
like
only
open
or
our
out
over
own
pick
small
so
soon
some
start
stop
take
tell
use
very
walk
want
warm
was
wash
we
any
are
around
as
ask
at
ate
away
be
because
been
before
best
better
big
black
blue
both
bring
brown
but
buy
by
out
did
do
does
done
don't
down
draw
drink
eat
eight
every
fall
far
fast
find
first
five
fix
for
found
four
got
green
grow
has
had
have
he
help
her
here
him
his
hold
hot
how
hurt
I
if
in
into
is
it
little
live
long
look
make
made
many
may
me
much
must
my
myself
never
new
no
not
now
of
off
old
on
play
please
pretty
pull
put
ran
read
red
ride
right
round
run
said
saw
say
see
seven
shall
she
show
sing
sit
ten
thank
that
the
their
them
then
there
these
they
think
this
those
three
to
today
together
too
try
two
under
up
well
went
what
when
which
white
who
why
will
wish
with
work
would
write
yellow
yes
you
your
from
full
its
jump
once
one
six
sleep
upon
us


Spelling Lists


List 1 List 2 List 3 List 4
on
no
not
top
pop
I
in
it
pin
tip
a
an
at
tap
lot
nap
tan
zip
lap
pit
as
is
so
its
sit
and
did
last
stop
land
he
be
if
got
his
has
hot
ran
hand
fast
said*
the*
List 5 List 6 List 7 List 8
ask
big
can
cat
drop
lost
ants
go
hi
am
get
him
ten
best
see
red
that
this
back
sing
bring
sat
dog
glad
cost
milk
sock
street
snip
flag
stand
of*
to*
help
pick
black
you*
what*
think
green
three
are*
from*
thank
needed
resting
color*
friend*
List 9 List 10 List 11 List 12
up
but
set
man
them
need
block
stomp
going
upset
come*
there*
we
with
long
must
like
brisk
clock
sleep
sanding
insect
does*
been*
she
too
keep
same
more
we"ll
shack
went
tablet
brushing
their*
goes*
us
six
yes
good
jump
five
name
drink
stacked
napkin
some*
was*
List 13 List 14 List 15 List 16
me
run
thing
take
she's
looking
little
title
will
she'll
one*
two*
my
tell
her
soon
shall
stringy
made
feelings
packed
number
want*
don't*
day
fly
trusted
weekly
campfire
blooming
under
myself
inside
problem
thought*
where*
far
much
play
gave
upon
after
handy
dribble
spell
shapeless
says*
should*
List 17 List 18 List 19 List 20
way
try
such
part
grow
open
away
started
off
boy
hiding
turtle
by
say
for
even
glass
stuff
former
show
letter
barnyard
sure*
they*
passing
table
invite
crispy
she'll
wisely
give*
people*
disturb
survive
acorn
Friday
slbow
hurt
many*
any*
point
nation
portion
sliding
September
carnation
only*
answer*
List 21 List 22 List 23 List 24
how
round
dishes
blue
argue
diver
enjoy
overpay
afternoon
vacation
early*
learn*
old
find
taking
fault
saw
plastic
now
shouted
joining
starvation
word*
four*
pages
hold
kind
draw
about
over
yellow
foundation
mention
fantastic
today*
once*
before
seven
large
write
know
hopped
hoped
trading
chipped
playground
again*
country*
List 25

taping
tapping
meter
study
sounded
catch
edge
reporting
caution
boxes
change*
often*

* Words with asterisks are sight words and must be memorized!



Spoken English
Persuading
PERSUADING
PATTERNS
1. Please let me.
2. Wont you let me.
3. Why dont you?
4. Just this once, please.
5. Are you sure you cant/wont
6. I think youd do well to
7. But the most sensible thing to do would be to .
8. Are you sure that you wont reconsider ..?
9. Have you considered everything?
10. Are you sure you have taken everything into account?
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Between friends
A: Usha. What are you doing this afternoon? How about a movie?
B: Which one?
A: Theres a good English movie at Chanakya.
B: You know I dont like English movies.
A: Oh, come on. Ill sure youll enjoy this one.
B: I dont enjoy English movies. I cant follow the conversation fully.
A: So what? Were not Englishmen. Most of us are not able to follow the conversation fully. But there are so
many other things you can enjoy.
B: Thats true.
A: Then why dont you come?
B: All right. Ill be at Chanakya at 2.30. Is that OK?
A: Fine. See you at 2.30.
B: See you.
At a college
L: Good morning sir. May I come in?
P: Good morning, Mr. Sullan. Do come in and take your seat.
L: Thank you. Sir. Im thinking of leaving the college.
P: But why? Arent you happy here?
L: Of course, I am. Its really a pleasure working here.
P: Then whats the matter now?
L: Ive been selected as an officer in the Reserve Bank.
P: And you want to accept that?
L: I am thinking of accepting it. As you know, sir, a bank officer gets much more than a lecturer.
P: I know that. In terms of salary, it is an attractive job for you. But is money the only consideration? Do you
think youll be happy working in a bank? Youre a M.A. in English Literature, youve a flair for writing and
the students like your classes.
L: Well, what you say is true. Still .
P: I dont want to stand in your way. But do you think you have considered everything? With your talents, do
you think youll enjoy working on debits, credits and balance sheets? I think youll do well to reconsider your
decision. On your part, we are very happy with your work. Well be sorry if you decide to leave.
L: All right, sir. Ill think about it once again.

COMPLIMENTING/ CONGRATULATING
PATTERNS
1. What a nice / smart/wonderful/beautiful..!
2. That is/was a nice/smart
3. You look really smart/gorgeous/great/wonderful.
4. It was nice/great to hear that.
5. Congratulations!
6. Well done! How nice!/Fantastic!/ Terrific!
7. Id like to congratulate you on ..
8. Allow me to offer my (warmest/heartiest) congratulations.
9. May I say how elegant/enchanting you look?
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Between friends
A : Hi, Suman. That is a nice dress. You look wonderful in that.
B : Thanks, Lalit. I like this, too. My aunt brought this from Bombay.
A : Is that so? I must say you aunt knows what suits you best.
B : Naturally. She is a fashion desighner.
A : No wonder then that it suits so well. You wont have any idea how much this cost?
B : No. Lalit. How could I ask her?
At home
F : How was your day at school, Vivek?
S : It was a wonderful day, Daddy. Its a day Id like to remember.
F : Oh, is it? What makes the day so important, my son?
S : I have been made the chairman of the School Literary Society.
F : That is great! Congratulations!
S : Thank you, Daddy.
F : But how did you become the chairman of the society? Did the Principal nominate you?
S : No Daddy. There was a competition. A very stiff one. There were fourteen candidates. There was an
elocution competition and I stood first.
F : Thats really nice. You stood first in the examination and now you have won the chairmanship of the
literary Society. Im proud of you, my son.
S : Thank you, Daddy.
At the office
A : May I come is, sir?
B : Please do come is, Ms Shalu.
A : The consolidated statement of the tenders is ready, sir.
B : Is it? Fantastic! That was real fast work, Ms. Shalu.
A : Thank you. Sir, .
B : Yes, Ms. Shalu.
A : If I may so, your speech last evening was really inspiring.
B : Were you present there?
A :Yes, sir. And I really enjoyed listening to you.
B : Thank you, Ms. Shalu.
A : Thank you, sir.

Expressing SYMPATHY
PATTERNS
1. Im sorry.
2. Im so sorry to learn that..
3. Im awfully/dreadfully sorry.
4. Its terrible.
5. Its really upsetting.
6. I know how you feel.
7. You have my/our deepest sympathy.
8. Please accept my/our condolences.
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Between friends
A : Hello, Nitin. How are you? You look depressed. Has anything gone wrong?
B : Yes, Balu, I have and a terrible misfortune.
A : What happened?
B : I had deposited all money I had in a private banking company. Now the company has been liquidated.
A : How terrible! Isnt there any way you can get back your money?
B : Im trying. But Im not very hopeful.
A : You must be terribly upset. But please dont lose hope.
At the School
A : Good morning, teacher.
B : Good morning, Mrs.Sindhu. Anil has been absent for the last two days. Is he unwell?
A : He has had an accident.
B : Oh, no! I hope its nothing serious.
A : It is bad. He was hit by a scooter while crossing the road. His right leg is fractured.
B : How unfortunate! Is he in a hospital?
A : No, hes at home. But he has to remain in bed for a month. So I came to give his leave application.
B : You must be really upset about it. Please dont worry about the classes. Anil is a very bright boy. He can
easily make up for the classes he misses. Hell be all right very soon. Please give him my love.
A : Ill do that. Thank you, teacher.
Between friends
A : Hello, Rahim. How have you done your exams?
B : I thought I had done well.
A : Has something gone wrong?
B : This morning I came to know that I have got only a second class. I was expecting a first class.
B : Hard luck. But dont lose heart. You can make up next year.
A : I hope so
COMPLAINING
PATTERNS
1. Im sorry to bring this up, but .
2. Im sorry to say/to have to say this, but
3. Ive got a bit of a problem here, you see
4. Im afraid Ive got a complaint to make ..
5. I wish you would/wouldnt ..
6. Would you please not..?
7. Im not quite sure how to put this, but
8. I wish to complain in the strongest terms about.
9. Im not at all satisfied with..
10. I really must object to..
11. I take strong exception to .
At a hotel/restaurant
C : Excuse me, Im sorry to bring this up, but no one seems to attend to able No. 14.
M : Im sorry. Ill send someone at once. Please be seated.
C : Thank you.
At the office
O. : Im sorry to have to say this, but you seem to make too many spelling mistakes in all the
letters.
T. : Im really sorry, sr. I shall be more careful.
O : You ought to be.
At a departmental store
A : Good evening. Ive a bit of a problem here. You see this electric iron I bought a month ago doesnt work
now.
B : Let me have a look at it.
A : Certainly. Here you are.
B : Please sit down. Ill have it examined by our electrician in a few minutes.
APOLOGISING
PATTERNS
A: Apologizing
1. Im sorry.
2. Im sorry, that was (entirely) my fault.
3. Excuse me/Pardon me (for.)
4. I feel bad about.
5. Please accept my apologies for.
6. I cant tell you how sorry I am (for)
7. Please allow me to offer my apologies.
B: Accepting an apology
1. Thats (quite) alright / OK.
2. Not at all.
3. Please dont worry.
4. It doesnt matter at all.
5. Please dont feel bad about it.
6. Thats really not necessary.
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
Among neighbors
X :Mr. Rajini, I feel bad about what happened this morning. I ought not to have spoken so. Im extremely
sorry.
Z : Theres no need to apologies at all. I could quite understand your feelings.
(At a corner, A accidentally bumps into B.)
B : Oops!
A : Im so sorry. I hope youre not hurt.
B : No, its alright.
Between neighbours
A : Good morning.
B : Good morning.
A : I heard that my son misbehaved with you last evening. Im ashamed of what he did. I came to apologies to
you.
B : Theres no need for an apology. Its true that he used some bad words. But I didnt take it seriously. Lets
forget about it.
A : Ill certainly warn him.
B : Please dont be very harsh with him. Im sure hell realize his mistake.
MAKING SUGGESTIONS
PATTERNS
1. May I suggest .?
2. You may/might like to ..?
3. Have you considered/thought of ..?
4. Would you care to .?
5. Why dont we/you ..?
6. Why not ?
7. How about .?
8. What about ..?
9. Lets / Let me ..
10. Shall we ..?
11. Ill tell you what. Well ..
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
At the office
X : The All-India Conference begins in Delhi on Monday next. We have to send someone as our
representative.
Z : Lets ask Sunil to attend it.
X : Ah, no. Sunil is away in Bangalore and wont be back before next Wednesday.
Y : How about Dsouza?
X : Well, hed have been the right person. But you know its unreasonable to ask him to go to Delhi when his
father is in critical condition.
Y : Oh, Im sorry. I didnt know that.
O : Why not Mrs. Sindhu?
X : Yes, she can, if she is willing to.
Z : What about George? He seems to be relatively free these days.
X : All right. Lets ask both George and Sindhu.
At home
A : Usha wants to go to here aunt in Chennai-Tamil Nadu in during holidays. Why dont we let her go?
B : But how does she go? She cant make it all alone, can she?
A : You know Mrs.Shakeela and family are going to Kodambakkam. How about sending Usha with them?
B : She already has five children to manage. Itll be cruel to ask her to take care of one more.
A : Could we let her go alone? After all its only an overnight journey.
B : No, I cant agree with that.
C : Ill tell you what. Let me fly to Chennai. Kamal come to the airport and take me home.
A : Thats a good idea.
B : The idea is good. Do we have enough money?
A : Oh come on. Lets make use of the bonus you got a week ago.
B : Well, if you all agree
WARNING SOMEONE
PATTERNS
1. Be careful.
2. Mind your
3. Watch out.
4. Look out.
5. Youd better not.
6. I think youre making a mistake.
7. You must be mad/crazy/out of your mind.
8. I dont think thats very wise/advisable.
9. I wouldnt do that if I were you.
10. It doesnt sound like a good idea to me.
11. On no account should we..
12. I warn you .
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
While driving a car
A : Look out. Theres a tree across the road.
B : Oh! We had it. I almost drove over it. Luckily there are people already working on it. Let me see.
A : Watch out. The electric wire has snapped. Youd better not go anywhere near it.
B : Dont worry. Im not going that far.
A : its drizzling. Be careful you dont get wet. You might catch a cold.
B : Oh, its a light drizzle.
Between friends
A : Mind your purse. There are a lot of pickpockets in the city.
B : Oh, none can reach my pocket.
A : Youd better not carry large sums on you.
B : I know this city very well.
A : I should be careful, if I were you.
At the office
K : Mr. Prakash, who typed this letter?
P : I did it, sir.
K : There are many mistakes in this letter.
P : Im sorry. I typed it in a hurry. I shall be more careful.
K : You ought tStarting conversation with a stranger
PATTERNS
1. Excuse me, ..?
2. Excuse my asking, but .?
3. Sorry to trouble you, but.?
4. I hope you dont mind my asking, but .
5. Terribly hot/windy/cold, isnt it?
6. Hi! Great party/music, isnt it?
7. Forgive me for asking, but .?
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
In an auditorium
A : Its very hot in here, isnt it?
B : True. Its like a summer afternoon.
A : Is it alright if I sit here?
B : Perfectly. Help yourself.
A : Thank you. By the way, Im Gobal Naidu.
B : Im Beem Boi. Nice to meet you. What do you do, Mr. Gobal Naidu?
A : Im an officer in the State Bank of India.
B : Oh, I see. Which branch?
A ; Im at the head office. How about you, Mr. Boi?
B : I teach at the Govt. Arts College.
A : Oh, do you? Thats nice. Whats your subject?
B : I teach Mathematics.
On the road
A : Excuse me, could you tell me where the bus station is?
B : Sorry, Im a stranger here.
A : Thats all right. ( to another person): Just a moment please. I wanted to go to the bus station.
B : There are two bus stations here, one for the city buses and another for the long-distance busses. Where do
you want to go?
A : The one for the long-distances busses.
B : Im afraid it is about five kilometers from here. From that bus stop over there you can take bus No.6A. It
will take you to the bus station.
A : Thank you very much.
B : Welcome.
In a bus
K : Excuse me for asking, but are you related to Reshma ?
L : Yes. Im her cousin. Do you know Reshma?
K : Very well. We were classmates. I think we met once at Reshmas house.
L : Did we? Er.. Youre the boy who used to play the piano?
K : Exactly. My Name is Rakesh.
L : Im Bossh. What are you doing now, Mr. Rakesh.
K : Im with Loyola Computers. How about you?
L : Im regional manager of Saritha Pharmaceuticals.
K : Are you? My brothers Suja is alos Saritha Pharma. Hes at Kodambakkam now.
L : Oh, youre Sujas brother? Hes a very good friend of mine.
o be. Mind your spelling more than anything

Ending a conversation
PATTERNS
Ending a conversation
1. Im afraid I must go now.
2. I hope you dont mind my leaving.
3. I must really be going.
4. Im sorry, but I have a meeting at three oclock.
5. Im sorry, but I am expecting an important
visitor now.
6. Excuse me. I have to catch a train.
7. Its been very nice talking to you, but I must
leave now.
8. Goodbye /bye / Bye-bye
9. See you later/tomorrow/next week.
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
In a college
Student: Good morning, sir. May I come in?
Professor: Good morning. Do come in. Sit down.
Student: Sir. We have to prepare a project report as part of our course. If you could give me some guidelines
on how to do it
Professor: Whats your area of research?
Student: The role of mass media in English Language teaching.
Professor: Ah, the role of mass media, is it? Now, let me see Why dont you make a study of how the
English educational programmes broadcast by AIR are being used by the schools?
Student: Ill do that.
Professor: Select one particular series of programmes. Study them well. Prepare a questionnaire with the
help of your supervisor. Then you can go to some schools and ask the children who listen to the programmes
to answer the questionnaire.
Student: How many schools should I approach, sir?
Professor: About half a dozen, I should think.
Student: Okay, sir. There was something else I wanted to discuss with you.
Professor: Can we do that later? I have a class at 3.
Student: Yes, sir. Thank you very much for the help.
Professor: its all right.
At the enquiry counters in a railway station
A : Hi, Vijaya. Nice to see you. Been away or something?
B : Yes, I had been to my grandmothers for two weeks.
A : It mustve been lovely. How did you like you stay there?
B : It was enjoyable. Oh, my God. Its 1.45. The banks close at two, dont they? I must really hurry. See your
later.
A : See you.
Between friends
A : That was good adventure you had.
B : Those moments were terrible. I dont know how we lived through them. But now that I am back home I
can think about it and laugh.
C : Well. I suppose it is nice to have things to remember.
B : It also shows how helpful the people there are. We were total strangers and still they trusted us and came
forward to help us.
A : Exactly. Jim, I really enjoyed talking to you and sharing your experience. But now I must leave. I have to
catch the 8.30 local.
C : Cant you stay a little longer? Theres another train at 9.15.
A : Im sorry, but I have to catch this one.
B : Well, if you insist. Thank you for the company. Good night.
C : Good night, Sunil.
A : Good night.
Asking for Information
Asking for information
PATTERNS
A. Asking for information
1. Can you tell me , please?
2. Could you tell me , please?
3. Do you know .?
4. Do you happen to know ?
5. Can you help me ?
6. Id like to know .
7. I wonder if you someone could tell me ..
8. I should be interested to know
9. I hope you dont mind my asking, but ,,,,,
10. Any clue ..?
11. Any idea..?
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
At the Office
Officer: Good morning, Mr. Rao.
Clerk: Good morning, sir.
Officer: Can you tell me where the purchase records are kept?
Clerk: They are with the Superintendent, sir.
Officer: Oh, I see. Do you know what action has been taken on the proposal to buy a typewriter?
Clerk: The order getting typed, sir.
Officer: We are moving rather slowly, arent we?
Clerk: In a way, yes. I hope you dont mind my asking, but have you read the Unions report on the working
of the office?
Officer: I havent yet been able to read it fully, but I think there are some useful suggestions in it.
At the enquiry counters in a railway station
A : Excuse me. Could you tell me what time the Tamil Nadu Express arrives?
B : The scheduled time is 6.30. But Im afraid its late by one hour today.
A : So the train will arrive at 7.30 in the evening?
B : Yes. But please check around seven.
A : Okay, Ill do that. I also wanted to know the second class fare from here to Madras.
B : Just a minute, please. Yes, it is one hundred and twelve rupees.
A : Thank you.
Between friends
Magesh: Hi, Sutha, How are you?
SuthaK: Hi! Im fine. And you?
Magesh: So so.
SuthaK: What are you doing this evening? How about a movie?
Magesh: Which one?
SuthaK: The Platoon is showing at Royal.
Magesh: Fine. Lets go. Any idea what time the picture begins?
SuthaK: I think its at 6.30. Shall we meet there at six?
Magesh: All right, see you at six.
SuthaK: See you.
Asking for someones opinion
PATTERNS
A. Asking for someones opinion
1. What do you think/feel about
2. Whats your opinion/reaction?
3. How do you see..?
4. How would you react to .?
5. What would you say to ..?
B. Giving your opinion
1. I think/feel/believe ..
2. It seems to me.
3. From my point view ..
4. The way I see it .
5. Dont you think
6. If you ask me,
7. Its my considered opinion that
C. Saying you have no opinion
1. I really dont have any opinion about..
2. I dont know what to say ..
3. Ive no strong feelings about
4. Ive nothing to say in particular.
5. I dont know.
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
At a meeting
A : As you know, gentlemen, the management has agreed to most of the major demands put forward by the
unions. Still they have decided to go on a strike form the 24
th
of this month. Could I have your opinion or
reaction to this move by the unions?
B : In my opinion, the management must not yield to any further demands at present. It has been made clear
that the remaining demands will be considered sympathetically after a few months. So I dont see any
justification for a strike at all.
C : To my mind, the major point of difference appears to be the issue of overtime wages. Hence Id say that
we should reconsider the issue if we are keen on averting the strike.
A : How would you react that, Mr.D?
D : It seems to me that there is much substance in what Mr.C says. Its from our point of view that we have
agreed to most of the major demands. As Mr. C rightly put it, the question of overtime wages is the most
important issue for them. To be frank about it, I am more inclined support Cs view than anyone elses.
A : Have you got any comments on that, Mr. E?
E : Ive nothing to say in particular. But Id also endorse the view that we should reconsider the overtime
wage issue and resolve the deadlock.
A : Well, if most of you feel so, lets have further discussion on that.
Among friends
A : What do you say to the proposal to go on hiking expedition next Sunday?
B : I think its an excellent idea.
A : But dont you think the season is not right for hiking? Cant we wait till the monsoon is over? I believe it
is rather risky going up hills during the season.
B : But then dont you also agree that there is an element of risk in any adventure?
C : Of course. As far as Im concerned, Ill be glad to join. I was only expressing my view
Asking if someone is sure
PATTERNS
A. Asking if someone is sure about something
1. Are you (quite) sure (about) ?
2. Are you certain (about) ?
3. Are you sure? / Definitely? / Really?
4. Is there any doubt about..?
5. Perhaps I misunderstand, but are quite sure.?
B. Saying you are sure
1. Im sure/certain.
2. Ive no doubt (about)
3. Im a hundred per cent certain.
4. I dont think there can be any doubt about
5. There is no/very little doubt in my mind..
6. There cant be any doubt.
C. Saying you are not sure
1. Sorry, Im not sure
2. I cant decide.
3. Im in two minds (about) .
4. I cant say for certain.
5. One cant say with any certainty.
6. Theres still an element of doubt.
7. Theres surely some doubt about
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
During a police enquiry
A : Who do you think would have stolen the ornaments?
B : I just dont find any clue to this mystery.
A : How about your maid servant?
B : I dont think shed ever do that.
A : Are you quite sure about it?
B : Whenever she was in need of money she used to ask us. Moreover, she has no children nor any relatives. I
dont see any possibility of her doing it. I dont think there can be any doubt about it.
A : What about your gardener?
B : Oh, you can be sure about his integrity. Hes been with me for the past twenty years. Hes more than a
member of the family and its quite certain that hed never attempt anything of this kind.
A : Are you quite sure that he wouldnt take anything even f he finds valuable lying here and there in the
house?
B : Definitely not. There were several occasions when my wife had forgotten her gold chain and ear rings in
the bathroom. On most occasions it was he who noticed them and brought them to us.
Between friends
A : Did you hear this? Were in for another hike in petrol prices?
B : Really?
A : This is not a confirmed report, of course. But, you know, this is how it always begins-with an unconfirmed
report and up comes the Government announcement in two days.
B : Do you mean to say that a hike is certain?
A : I cant say for certain, but it looks quite likely
Asking someone to say something again
PATTERNS
A. Asking someone to say something again
1. Pardon?
2. Im sorry I didnt catch/hear .
3. Im sorry, what was that word/his name, etc.?
4. Would/Could you repeat what you said/that name/the last
word, etc, please?
5. Im sorry, would you/mind repeating., please?
6. I beg your pardon?
B. Saying something again
1. I said .
2. I was just saying/remarking ..
3. What I said was .
4. I was just/merely expressing the view.
5. I was pointing out the fact that
6. I was just wondering/enquiring
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
In a crowded bus
A : Excuse me, you are standing on my foot.
B : Im sorry, what did you say?
A : I said you are standing on my foot.
B : (takes off his foot) Oh, Im terribly sorry. I didnt realize it, you see.
A : Its all right. Thank you.
At the departmental store
A : Good evening. Can I help you?
B : Evening. Ive a complaint to make. You see, I bought this electric iron just a month ago, but
A : Sorry? When did you say you bought it?
B : A month ago and its not working now. Id like to have it repaired or replaced.
A : Where did you buy it from?
B : At Rosy Electricals.
A : Could you repeat that name, please?
B : ROSY ELECTRICALS
A : Im afraid theyre not our authorized dealers. Anyway, do you have the guarantee card for this?
B : Sorry? What card did you say?
A : The guarantee card wherein youre given a guarantee by the company to repair any manufacturing defect
noticed within a period of six months.
B : I dont think I ever got one.
A : Im afraid in that case we cant repair it free of charge. However, if you agree to pay for it, we can ask our
electrician to do the repair.
B : Well, if thats the only choice for me, I think Ill pay the necessary charges.
A : All right. You can leave it with us and collect it tomorrow at the same time.
B : Thank you.
A : Youre welcome
Asking someone to say something again
Asking someone to say something again
PATTERNS
A. Asking someone to say something again
1. Pardon?
2. Im sorry I didnt catch/hear .
3. Im sorry, what was that word/his name, etc.?
4. Would/Could you repeat what you said/that name/the last
word, etc, please?
5. Im sorry, would you/mind repeating., please?
6. I beg your pardon?
B. Saying something again
1. I said .
2. I was just saying/remarking ..
3. What I said was .
4. I was just/merely expressing the view.
5. I was pointing out the fact that
6. I was just wondering/enquiring
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
In a crowded bus
A : Excuse me, you are standing on my foot.
B : Im sorry, what did you say?
A : I said you are standing on my foot.
B : (takes off his foot) Oh, Im terribly sorry. I didnt realize it, you see.
A : Its all right. Thank you.
At the departmental store
A : Good evening. Can I help you?
B : Evening. Ive a complaint to make. You see, I bought this electric iron just a month ago, but
A : Sorry? When did you say you bought it?
B : A month ago and its not working now. Id like to have it repaired or replaced.
A : Where did you buy it from?
B : At Rosy Electricals.
A : Could you repeat that name, please?
B : ROSY ELECTRICALS
A : Im afraid theyre not our authorized dealers. Anyway, do you have the guarantee card for this?
B : Sorry? What card did you say?
A : The guarantee card wherein youre given a guarantee by the company to repair any manufacturing defect
noticed within a period of six months.
B : I dont think I ever got one.
A : Im afraid in that case we cant repair it free of charge. However, if you agree to pay for it, we can ask our
electrician to do the repair.
B : Well, if thats the only choice for me, I think Ill pay the necessary charges.
A : All right. You can leave it with us and collect it tomorrow at the same time.
B : Thank you.
A : Youre welcome
Checking that you have Understand
Checking that you have Understood
PATTERNS
A. Checking that you have understood
1. Does that / Do you mean.?
2. If I understand right,
3. So, I am right in saying..?
4. Im sorry if Im being stupid, but Im not sure I
understand.
5. Are you trying to say that .?
6. The implication seems to be
7. If Ive got it right/ If Ive followed you, then
B. Checking that someone has understood you
1. Do you see what I mean?
2. I hope thats clear?
3. Thats clear, isnt it?
4. Do you understand .?
5. Do you see? / Right? / O.K.? / Yeah?/ Get it? / Got it?
6. Know what Im getting/hinting/driving at?
7. If theres anything you havent understood, please say so.
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
At the Office
A : Did you read this report about your department in todays newspaper?
B : Yes, I did. Thats only the tip of the iceberg.
A : Are you trying to say that all that is written is true and there is more of it?
B : Exactly. It is a known fact that you can get any work done by the department if you approach the right
person. You know what I mean?
A : In other words, one has to shed a few hundreds in order to get the work done. Is that what you are hinting
at?
B : If not in cash, you make it in kind. You make a complaint and meet the right person and do whats
needed. They attend to your complaint the same day while someone who had made a complaint ten days ago
or a month ago still waits for his turn. Does that make things clear to you?
A : I dont think I ever knew about these things. I just cant believe it.
At the Store
A : Can you tell me how to use this camera?
B : This is a totally automatic camera.
A : Do you mean to say that I dont have to do anything but click it?
B : Exactly. All you have to do is to aim and shoot. Before you do this load the camera with a cartridge of
film. At the bottom of the camera you find a slide. Push it to the side where the arrow points to O.K.? This is
where you put the cartridge. Hold the cartridge with these two heads pointing away from you and insert in
this slot. Now the camera is loaded. Do you follow me?
A : Yes.
B : Now slide the lid backward and the camera is ready for use. Wind the film till No.1 appears in the screen
behind the camera. Then aim and shoot. After every shot the lens gets locked.
A : That means the same film wont get exposed twice, right?
B : Thats right. Push the release button before you shoot next. If you need a flash light just press this and the
flash gets released. That clear now, isnt it?
A : I think so.
Asking whether someone knows or not
Asking whether someone knows
PATTERNS
A. Asking whether someone knows
1. Excuse me. Do you know .?
2. Can you help me? Do you happen to know anything about
.?
3. Do you realize .?
4. Did you hear about .?
5. Are you aware about ., dont you?
6. Could you give me any information about ..?
7. I wonder if you could let me know
B. Saying you know
1. I know. Thank you.
2. Yes, Ramu/Leela/ someone told me about it.
3. I heard so. But thanks for the call.
4. I am quite aware of
5. I have it on good authority that.
C. Saying you do not know
1. Im sorry, I dont know about ..
2. Im sorry, I cant help you there.
3. Sorry, Ive no idea ..
4. I wish I knew
5. Im afraid I dont have much information about ..
6. I have to admit. I dont know much about..
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
Between friends
A :Hi, Ravi. You look tired. Are you all right?
B : Im quite all right. Only overworked. I had a real hectic day in the office.
A : Oh, I see. How about some coffee? Thatll refresh you.
B : Thats good idea. Lets go.
A : Did you hear about the latest political developments?
B : No, I didnt hear anything. What happened?
A : Two ministers have resigned from the State Cabinet. Rumours say some more will be out soon.
B : Who are the ones whove resigned?
A : The Home Minister and the Education Minister.
B : But the Education Minister was supposed to be close to the Chief Minister. Did they leave on their own or
were they asked quit?
A : Its not clear yet. The radio news was brief. It just said that two ministers have resigned. There were some
rumours about differences between the Home Minister and the C.M. Do you know anything about that?
B : Well, not the exact details. But I had heard that the C.M. was unhappy about some postings in the Police
Department.
At a travel Agency
Customer: Can you help me? Do you know whether there is a train to Trivandrum today?
Official: Im afraid there is no direct train to Trivandrum from here. Youll have to go to Chennai or
Bangalore and then take a train from there.
Customer: But I dont have that much time. I want to reach Trivandrum fast. Is there any flight?
Official: Let me see. Today is Thursday. Yes, theres a direct flight to Trivandrum, at 2.30 this afternoon.
Customer: Oh, I see. That is good news. Could you arrange a ticket for me, please? Itll be a great help.
Official: Let me try. Itll take at least fifteen minutes.
Customer: Ill wait. But do you happen to know how much the airfare to Trivandrum is?
Official: Its about twelve hundred rupees.
Customer: Thank you. Now Ill wait. Please try for the ticket.
Asking whether someone knows or not
Asking whether someone knows
PATTERNS
A. Asking whether someone knows
1. Excuse me. Do you know .?
2. Can you help me? Do you happen to know anything about
.?
3. Do you realize .?
4. Did you hear about .?
5. Are you aware about ., dont you?
6. Could you give me any information about ..?
7. I wonder if you could let me know
B. Saying you know
1. I know. Thank you.
2. Yes, Ramu/Leela/ someone told me about it.
3. I heard so. But thanks for the call.
4. I am quite aware of
5. I have it on good authority that.
C. Saying you do not know
1. Im sorry, I dont know about ..
2. Im sorry, I cant help you there.
3. Sorry, Ive no idea ..
4. I wish I knew
5. Im afraid I dont have much information about ..
6. I have to admit. I dont know much about..
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
Between friends
A :Hi, Ravi. You look tired. Are you all right?
B : Im quite all right. Only overworked. I had a real hectic day in the office.
A : Oh, I see. How about some coffee? Thatll refresh you.
B : Thats good idea. Lets go.
A : Did you hear about the latest political developments?
B : No, I didnt hear anything. What happened?
A : Two ministers have resigned from the State Cabinet. Rumours say some more will be out soon.
B : Who are the ones whove resigned?
A : The Home Minister and the Education Minister.
B : But the Education Minister was supposed to be close to the Chief Minister. Did they leave on their own or
were they asked quit?
A : Its not clear yet. The radio news was brief. It just said that two ministers have resigned. There were some
rumours about differences between the Home Minister and the C.M. Do you know anything about that?
B : Well, not the exact details. But I had heard that the C.M. was unhappy about some postings in the Police
Department.
At a travel Agency
Customer: Can you help me? Do you know whether there is a train to Trivandrum today?
Official: Im afraid there is no direct train to Trivandrum from here. Youll have to go to Chennai or
Bangalore and then take a train from there.
Customer: But I dont have that much time. I want to reach Trivandrum fast. Is there any flight?
Official: Let me see. Today is Thursday. Yes, theres a direct flight to Trivandrum, at 2.30 this afternoon.
Customer: Oh, I see. That is good news. Could you arrange a ticket for me, please? Itll be a great help.
Official: Let me try. Itll take at least fifteen minutes.
Customer: Ill wait. But do you happen to know how much the airfare to Trivandrum is?
Official: Its about twelve hundred rupees.
Customer: Thank you. Now Ill wait. Please try for the ticket.
Possibility - Simple Sentences
Asking about Possibility
PATTERNS
A. Asking about possibility
1. Is it going to .?
2. Do you think it is possible / probable / likely / unlikely
3. Could/ can he be ?
4. Can you/we rule out/exclude the possibility of ..?
B. Expressing possibility
1. I think its going to
2. Its quite possible / probable / likely ..
3. Theres a good chance/every possibility
4. I/We cant rule out/exclude the possibility
5. In all probability/ likelihood .
6. I wont be surprised if ..
C. Expressing impossibility
1. I dont think .
2. Its quite impossible / improbable/unlikely .
3. I dont think/suppose ..
4. Im afraid theres very little likelihood of ..
5. Its very doubtful..
6. I think we can rule out the possibility of ..
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
On the park
A : Whats happening? Getting dark so soon?
B : No, its cloudy.
C : Oh! Is it going to rain?
B : It is quite likely.
A : I dont think so. Its only partly cloudly. Perhaps it may not rain at all.
B : Theres a good chance of at least a drizzle, if not a heavy rain.
At the hospital
A : Im afraid theres been too long a delay in bringing him. The patient is in a critical condition.
B : Do you think it is possible to operate upon him?
A : Quite impossible in this condition. In all probability we might be able to do it at the earliest after a week.
B : Isnt it more probable that his condition will improve with all those antibiotics?
A : Well, it is possible.
Between friends
A : Where is my watch?
B : It ought to be in bedroom.
A : But it isnt there. I dont remember where I left it.
B : Could you have left it in your office?
A : Impossible. I remember I had it on my own wrist while I was in the club.
B : Did you remove it while playing tennis?
A : Oh yes; I remember to have given it to one of the boys in the club.
B : Do you think you are going to get it back?
A : I bet. I will.
B : Good luck to you.
Asking about Preference
Asking about Preference
PATTERNS
A. Asking about preference
1. Do you prefer or .?
2. Would you like/rather have/prefer ..?
3. Which would you prefer, .. or ?
4. We can . Or What do you say?
5. The choice is yours, . Or .
6. Which appeals more, or ..
B. Saying what you prefer
1. Id prefer . (if possible)
2. My choice/preference would always be .
3. If you dont mind, Id
4. If its all the same to you
5. If its up to me, Id ..
6. Perhaps itd be better if
7. . Appeals to me more than .
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
At the hotel reception
Reception: Good morning. Can I help you?
Customer: Id like to book a double room.
Reception: Would you like a room with shower or one with bath?
Customer: Id refer one with shower.
Receptionist: Would you prefer a room with a view or a quiet one?
Customer: Id prefer a quiet room if possible.
Receptionist: Of course, you can have one.
At the travel agents
T.Agent: Good morning. Can I help you?
Traveler: Id like to book a round trip Delhi-Bangkok-Delhi.
T.Agent: Yes, sir. When are you planning to travel?
Traveler: In June.
T.Agent: How do you want to travel?
Traveler: Id like to travel at the cheapest rate. Its in the name of Mr.Oberai.
T.Agent: Do you have any preference for seating?
Traveler: Id prefer an aisle seat at the back of the plane.
T.Agent: We have a morning flight leaving at 8.30 and a night flight at 10. which do you prefer?
Traveler: My choice ould always be the night flight.
Travel agent: Thats fine. Well arrange the tickets.
Over Telephone
Receiver: Good morning. Parklane Hotel.
Caller: Good morning. Id like to book a table for 8.00 this evening.
Receiver: yes, of course. For how may people?
Caller: For two.
Receiver: Do you have any preference in seating?
Caller: Yes, Id prefer a table in a quiet corner in a non-smoking section.
Receiver: Yes, of course, sir. In what name?
Caller: The names Robert.
Asking if someone is able to do something
PATTERNS
A. Asking if someone is able to do something
1. Can you ..?
2. Do you know how to ?
3. Is he any good at .?
4. Do you feel capable of.?
5. Would you say you were capable of ..?
6. Do you have the ability/qualification/experience necessary
.?
B. Saying you are able to do something
1. I can / I know / I know how to.
2. I know something about
3. Its not too difficult to
4. Sure/Yes. No problem.
5. Im pretty good at
6. I feel able to
C. Saying you are not able to do something
1. No, I dont know how to
2. Im not sure I can/know how to..
3. Ive no idea how to .
4. I dont think I can manage
5. Im afraid I cant cope with .
PRACTICE / DIALOGUE
At the Club
Solai: I dont know what happened to my T.V. set. Last night when we were watching the movie, the picture
suddenly went off.
Raja: Its possible that the fuse has burnt out.
Solai: Well. I dont know anything about T.V. sets. Here comes Kumana. Lets ask him. Hes an electrical
engineer. Hello Kumana, how are you?
Kumana: Oh, fine. Thank you. Why are you both looking at the T.V. set.
Solai: The picture suddenly went off while we were watching the movies last night. Do you think you can set it
right?
Kumana: I dont think I know much about T.V sets and their components. I think you better call in the
service engineer.
Solai: Strangely my radio too went silent yesterday. I dont know whats wrong. Do you know how to repair
radios?
Kumana: well, I might be able to. I know something about radio repairing.
Solai: Then why dont you have a look at it?
Over telephone
Vijay: Hello, is that the Golden Motor Works?
Ajith: Yes. What can I do for you, sir?
Vijay: Well, my car has developed some starting trouble. Could you send your mechanic? I am in 116, Bank
Street, Kodambakkam.
Ajith: Im sorry, our mechanic just left to attend to another complaint. Im afraid hell be back only after an
hour. I can send one of our trainees if the problem isnt anything very serious.
Vijay: Do you think he is good at repairing motor cars?
Ajith: I think hell be able to help you if it isnt anything serious. Anyway let him have a look at it first. He
can ask for more help necessary.
Vijay: Thats fine. Do you think he knows anything about electric motors?
Ajith: I dont think he has the faintest idea of repairing electric motors. Hes an automobile mechanic.
Vijay: Oh, thats all right.
Asking if someone agrees
PATTERNS
A. Asking if someone agrees
1. O.K.?/Right? / Yeah?
2. Is that all right with you / O.K with you?
3. Do you agree?
4. Dont you think/feel ..?
5. Would you agree that/ with ?
6. I wonder if youd agree with .?
B. Agreeing
1. Youre right.
2. Yes, I agree.
3. Thats quite right/true.
4. Oh, exactly/definitely/absolutely/totally/quite, etc.
5. I think so too.
6. I dont think anyone could/would disagree with .
C. Disagreeing
1. Never! / Not at all / Oh surely not.
2. You dont mean it.
3. Thats not true.
4. Not really.
5. I disagree (Im afraid)
6. I see things rather differently myself.
7. Personally, I tend to agree with .
PRACTICE DIALOGUE
Teacher & Students
Teacher: Well Children, weve decided to hold your summer camp at Kodaikanal. Is that O.K. with you?
Students: Thats lovely.
Teacher: As usual, the camp will be for three weeks. Those who would like to take part in this camp must
give me their names by tomorrow evening O.K.?
Students: But, sir, we need time to write to our parents and get permission.
Teacher: In that case, youll give me your willingness latest by the 10
th
of next month. Is that all right with
you all?
Students: Quite all right, sir.
Between friends
Ravananeswaran: So well meet at the Regal Cinema at 5.30. O.K.?
Raman: But isnt it too early? The show begins only at 6.30.
Anjaneyer: Thats right, but we might have to stand in the queue to get tickets. So its better to meet at 5.30.
Ravaneswarn: All right.
Raman: Okay. Can one of you pick me up from my house?
Anjaneyar: A lives somewhere near your house. Yeah?
Ravaneswaran: Well, not very near but not far.
Anjaneyar: So why dont you bring him along?
Raman: Youre right.
Ravaneswaran: Okay. I shall meet you at your place at 5.20 O.K?
Raman: Fine.
Asking if you are Obliged to do something-Dialogue Sample
Asking if you are Obliged to do something
PATTERNS
A. Asking if you are obliged to do something
1. Do I (really) have/need to.?
2. Need I / must I ..?
3. Have I got to .?
4. Is it necessary to ..?
5. I suppose I have got to .?
6. Are we obliged to / required to .?
7. Are we under any obligation to ?
B. Saying someone is obliged to do something
1. I think you have to .
2. Im afraid youll have to .
3. Youll be required to .
4. Theyll make you
5. Youre expected/supposed to ..
C. Saying someone is not obliged to do something
1. You dont have to
2. I dont think youll have to .
3. Theres no need to ..
4. Youre under no obligation to ..
5. No one can force you to .
PRACTICE DIALOGUE
I. At the Office
A: Sir, the Manager expects you to send your application through
the Assistant Manager.
B: Do I really have to? We both are of the same rank. I dont think
anybody can force me to route my application through the
Assistant Manager.
C: Theyll make you do it, sir. Our previous Accounts Officer used
to do so.
II. At the Bank
Bank Clerk: Im afraid we cant accept this cheque. There are too
many changes and corrections. Could you write out another
cheque, please?
Customer: Do I really need to? I have initialed all the corrections.
Bank Clerk: Its true, but it appears rather shabby. Im afraid
youll have to write out another cheque.
Customer: Well, if you insist.
III. At the railway station
Police officer: Would you mind opening these boxes?
Traveller: Well, they contain apples and mangoes. Is it necessary to
open them.
Police Officer: Do you have the cash receipts for having bought
these?
Traveller: Is one expected to carry the cash receipts of things
bought here and produce them on demand?
Police Officer: Youre under no obligation to do so. But Im afraid
youll have to open these boxes. Were acting under orders.
ing-Dialogue Sample
Asking if you are Obliged to do something
PATTERNS
A. Asking if you are obliged to do something
1. Do I (really) have/need to.?
2. Need I / must I ..?
3. Have I got to .?
4. Is it necessary to ..?
5. I suppose I have got to .?
6. Are we obliged to / required to .?
7. Are we under any obligation to ?
B. Saying someone is obliged to do something
1. I think you have to .
2. Im afraid youll have to .
3. Youll be required to .
4. Theyll make you
5. Youre expected/supposed to ..
C. Saying someone is not obliged to do something
1. You dont have to
2. I dont think youll have to .
3. Theres no need to ..
4. Youre under no obligation to ..
5. No one can force you to .
PRACTICE DIALOGUE
I. At the Office
A: Sir, the Manager expects you to send your application through
the Assistant Manager.
B: Do I really have to? We both are of the same rank. I dont think
anybody can force me to route my application through the
Assistant Manager.
C: Theyll make you do it, sir. Our previous Accounts Officer used
to do so.
II. At the Bank
Bank Clerk: Im afraid we cant accept this cheque. There are too
many changes and corrections. Could you write out another
cheque, please?
Customer: Do I really need to? I have initialed all the corrections.
Bank Clerk: Its true, but it appears rather shabby. Im afraid
youll have to write out another cheque.
Customer: Well, if you insist.
III. At the railway station
Police officer: Would you mind opening these boxes?
Traveller: Well, they contain apples and mangoes. Is it necessary to
open them.
Police Officer: Do you have the cash receipts for having bought
these?
Traveller: Is one expected to carry the cash receipts of things
bought here and produce them on demand?
Police Officer: Youre under no obligation to do so. But Im afraid
youll have to open these boxes. Were acting under orders.
Describing Something-Dialogue
I. Describing an Experience
A. Hello, Ajit. Congratulations! I learn that
youve got a job with the ITDC.
B. Yes. Thank you, Paul. What I like about it is that
Ive been posted to Kovalam.
A. Kovalam? Thats in Kerala, isnt it? Have you
ever been there before?
B. Of course. Lots of times. You know I had studied
at Trivandrum for a year. Then we used to go to
kovalam for swimming almost every week.
A. Is Kovalam near Trivandrum?
C. Very near. Just about eight kilometers or so.
D. Tell me about the place.
E. Its a beautiful place with rocks jutting out into
the sea. The sea is shallow and calm for quite some
distance. So we can swim safely. But once I had a
real frightening experience.
F. What happened?
G. I had gone there with a friend. But I swam into
the sea alone. In fact, I went far out into the sea. I
stopped only when I was breathless. Then I
stopped and looked around. I could not see where
the land was.
H. But why? Oh, yes, since you swim without your
glasses, youll be shortsighted.
I. Exactly. I was exhausted and worried. I floated on
the water for quite some time. I thought I was
going to be lost in the sea.
J. That mustve been frightening.
K. Really.
L. Then what happened?
M. Then I noticed some movement on one side. I
swam in that direction and soon saw land.
N. You couldve looked at the sun to know the
direction.
O. No, it was cloudy day.
P. Where was your friend all this while?
Q. Hed just started worrying about me when I swam
back.
II. Describing a person
Job: john, Im worried about this Bombay trip. Ive never been
there before.
John: So what? There is a first time for everything.
Job: I know, but Im going there alone.
John: Dont worry, man. Ive written to Bobby. Hell meet you at
the station.
Job: How does he dress?
John: Well, trousers and full-sleeved shirt. He wears glasses and
always chooses odd-shaped frames for his glasses.
Job: Is he fair or dark?
John: Well, rather fair, I should say. Ive also given him a
description of yours. It shouldnt be difficult for you to meet each
other. By the way, dont shave off your beard. Bobbyll be looking
for a bearded person.
Job: I wont. At least not until I meet Bobby
Unnecessary Use of PREPOSITIONS
Part II
There is a wide tendency among the users of English in India to add
prepositions after verbs where their use is considered erroneous or at least
unnecessary. In the sentences below, the highlighted prepositions are
unnecessary. Try to avoid them in your speech and writing.
Do you think we can find out another typist so soon?
He joined in our office as on ordinary clerk.
He is respected by everyone because he always keeps up
his promises.
This television set lacks of clarity of picture.
She is still looking up for help.
They are waiting for an opportunity to make him as the
chief co-ordinator of the project.
Could you mark out the books you need?
She married with her cousin.
Weve ordered for a more sophisticated machine.
Im afraid he might lose his job because of his tendency
to pick up quarrels with anyone.
They have pinned down all their hopes on their leader.
We cannot but pity on him.
He seems to be not inclined to pursue for his studies.
The police reached to the site of the accident.
We regret for the delay in sending the parcel to you.
Theyve requested for immediate medical attention.
I have to return back the same day.
He resembles to his father.
He has succeeded in solving out the problem.
He is very tall and stout. You can easily spot him out in
any crowd.
In her address she stressed on the importance of hard
work.
The new doctor was transferred out in two months.
He visited to all the units to ascertain the truth.
They terminated in the contract just three months after
signing it.
He entered into the building with caution.
Rajini has been appointed as manager here.
Unnecessary Use of PREPOSITIONS
Part I
There is a wide tendency among the users of English in India to add prepositions after
verbs where their use is considered erroneous or at least unnecessary. In the sentences
below, the highlighted prepositions are unnecessary. Try to avoid them in your speech and
writing.
The management admires for our watchmans bravery.
The gatekeeper admitted him in.
We hope you would answer to our request soon.
He approached to me for help.
The manager asked to the typist why she was late.
The union leaders attacked on the chairmans views.
The inspector was awarded with a cash prize for his
alertness.
The company could not bear up the burden of heavy
taxes.
Computers have greatly benefited to the communication
network in the country.
The management refused to bow down to the workers
demands.
We propose to build up a small power plant for
ourselves.
Whenever I see the model of our factory what comes up
to my mind is the face of the man who started it.
The technical cell comprises of three smaller units.
The bank has conceived about the customers welfare.
This part of the machine contains of a micro computer.
The two salesmen find it difficult to cope up with the
work during peak hours.
The worker criticized on the management.
They demanded for higher rate of bonus.
He described about the unpleasant experiences he had
in the jail.
There is proposal from the chairman to discontinue
with the practice of giving subsidized meals.
Many customers were discussing about the problem.
The stock exchange value of our companys share is
falling down.
We should fill up the posts soon.
OMISSION OF PREPOSITIONS
Another tendency observed among the users of English is to omit prepositions
in places were they are necessary. The following sample sentences are used in
speech or writing by many Indians. They should be spoken with the
preposition, as given in brackets.
That is a suggestion we fully agree. (agree with)
The old woman alighted the bus slowly. (alighted from)
He came and asked the calculator. (asked for)
He appealed his employer for mercy. (appealed to)
Finally they arrived a decision. (arrived at)
They have assured us help. (assured us of)
She now attends her work regularly. (attends to)
I have a good doctor attending me now. (attending on
upon)
Youll have bear his bad temper. (bear with)
Riots have broken again. (broken out)
Would you care some tea? (care for)
Could you convey him this sad news? (convey to)
We propose to dispose our old car. (dispose of)
They deal export garments. (deal in)
Please explain me this idea. (explain to)
I am still hunting the book. (hunting for)
He introduced me his parents. (introduced to)
Why doesnt he join the conversation? (join in)
Dont keep asking foolish questions. (keep on)
Did you pay the lunch? (pay for)
You have not replied us. (replied to)
We are looking for a hard working clerk. Can you think
anyone? (think of)
He is a sincere hardworking boy. He does not wish any
reward even. (wish for)
USE OF WRONG PREPOSITIONS
The following sentences are examples of the use of wrong prepositions.
Correct usage is given in brackets. Replace the preposition highlighted with
the one given in the brackets against each sentences.
The doctor was accompanied with the nurse. (by)
The cashier is accused for misappropriation. (of)
I am accustomed with the varieties of Indian English.
(to)
She seems to be afraid from her boss. (of)
My remarks were not aimed against you. (at)
My supervisor is angry against me. (with)
We are anxious with the safety of the parcel. (for/about)
The management arrived to a decision. (at)
She seems to be bad in spelling. (at)
The annual conference begins from 7 August. (on)
The car bumped against a tree. (into)
I have great confidence about my secretary. (in)
After several rounds of questioning he confessed about
the crime. (to)
The customers cell deals about the problems of the
customers. (with)
He doesnt want to be dependent of his parents for his
studies. (on)
The baby is dressed with golden yellow. (in)
How good are you in typing? (at)
He insisted to pay for the dinner. (on paying)
She is married with her cousin. (to)
Many manufacturers participated on the exhibition. (in)
They tried to prevent him to meeting his boss. (from)
They couldnt find the reason of the explosion. (for)
In the absence of the President the Vice President
presided in the meeting. (at/over)
I cant understand Hindi. Could you translate this to
English? (into)
Why dont you write the letter with ink? (in)
USE OF ARTICLES
The sentences below are commonly heard in speech and sometimes found even
in writing. In each case, an article should precede the italicized word. Read
the sentences correctly with the article given in the bracket against each.
Hes got headache. (a headache)
We can save at least thousand rupees. (a thousand)
The company is planning to buy car. (a car)
He is chartered accountant. (a chartered accountant)
I worked as medical representative for eight months. (a
medical representative)
Green lizard is a rare species of reptile found in India.
(the green lizard)
Science of medicine has found laser beam highly useful.
( the science of medicine, the laser beam)
What magnificent statue! (a magnificent)
He is planning a visit to Middle East. ( the Middle East)
Im not technician, Im only clerk. (a technician, a
clerk)
If you dont have enough in your stock could you give
me at least half carton? (a half carton)
He plays guitar so well. (the guitar)
Eggs are sold by dozen. (the dozen)
Ive never seen such cute little one. (a cute)
Can I have seven rupee ticket please? (a seven rupee)
UNNECESSARY USE OF ARTICLES
In the following sentences, the italicized articles are not necessary. Avoid them
in your speech.
We are interested in buying a computers.
Can I buy a small scissors?
You need a luck to succeed in business.
Delhi has a terrible weather in summer.
We have a heavy luggage to carry.
They have an information about his arrival in New
York.
Though he is old he has a good health.
The company seems to have made a good progress
during the first six months of the year.
He has a good knowledge about computers.
The computers have brought revolutionary changes in
the field of industry.
When you watch the television, you should keep
yourself at least 6 feet away from it.
I think the baby has got the measles.
The Bangalore is a city of gardens.
The Sri Lanka and the India have finally reached an
agreement.
The Dal Lake in Kashmir was frozen during last winter.
The fire has caused a severe damage to the building.
We are now using a new machinery.
I met her only duriUSE OF WORNG TENSES
In the following sentences, the verbs are in the wrong sentence. They should
be replaced by the form of the verbs given in brackets against each sentence.
I am hearing the Government is going to increase the
excise duty on colour T.V. (hear)
I am liking the new arrangement. (like)
We are paying bonus in October every year. (pay)
The new color T.V. is looking beautiful. (looks)
The Managing Director is meeting the customers on the
15
th
of every month. (meets)
I am forgetting his name. (forget)
This packet is containing a dozen oranges. (contains)
I am thinking it will not have the desired result. (think)
They are depositing money since 1947. (have been
depositing)
The patient is unconscious since Friday. (has been)
We are receiving complaints about the poor service
offered by the customers cell ever since it was
established. (have been receiving)
Its over a year since I have met him. (met)
He was standing like a statue when the dog barked at
him. (stood)
He was phoning me several times to know the result of
the interview. (phoned)
The bank will introduce a new savings account scheme
next month. (is going to introduce)
Ask him to report to me when he will arrive. (arrives)
We will send you the money when you will send us the
advance receipt. (send)
ng the last week.
Use of Wrong Form of Words
In the following sentences the word(s) given in the brackets should replace the words
highlighted in each sentence.
He admitted to steal the ornaments. (to stealing)
Cant you avoid to meet him? (meeting)
Have you considered to work a few extra hours every
day? (working)
We can delay to release the grant. (releasing)
He denied to tell me the name of the suspect. (telling)
I dislike to use harsh words at anyone. (using)
She enjoys to meet people. (meeting)
I feel like to resign the job. (resigning)
Hes given up to canvass any more business.
(canvassing)
They went on to play all night. (playing)
I have the pleasure to introduce our guest of honour
today. (of introducing)
Im afraid we cant help to declare a lay off. (declaring)
Though he has little money, he imagines to buy a car.
(buying)
They chose to walk instead to wait. (of waiting)
The client insisted to meet the manager. (on meeting)
Would you mind to wait for a while? (waiting)
They suggested to postpone the meeting. (postponing)
We look forward to see you soon. (seeing)
I cannot go on do the same thing. (doing)
He drove very fastly. (fast)
They refused flat to give any discount. (flatly)
I dont think we can pay you so high. (highly)
Your job will require you to travel wide. (widely)
Use of Wrong Words in Spoken English
Use of Wrong Words
One of the common mistakes committed by the users of English
in India is the use of inappropriate words in sentences. This, as
you can see in the examples below, results from a confusion
between words which are close to each other in meaning but are
not always inter-changeable. In the following sentences the
underlined words need to be replaced by the words in brackets.
I tried to persuade him, but he refuses to hear me.(listen to)
Did they like the travel? (journey)
Youre already dark. Im afraid black clothes may not fit you well.
(suit)
Were waiting for more orders very soon. (expecting)
They denied to accept the compensation offered to them.
(refused)
The dealer has accepted to give me a new one. (agreed)
In case I forget to return this, please remember me.(remind)
The workers threat to go on a strike did not have any affect on
the management. (effect)
The misfortune did not effect him much. (affect)
The baby kept weeping all along the ceremony. (through)
A wide agreement has been reached at the meeting. (broad)
Do you intend to put all the money in the swiss bank? (keep)
You dont seem to care for your own machines. (take care of)
Could you tell me the last score? (latest)
I was annoyed when I received the news of my cousins death.
(disturbed)
Ayurvedic medicines seem to be very efficient for the treatment
of jaundice. (effective)
We will ever remember you. (always)
We have been waiting long for your reply. (for a long time)
No one of the parcels reached us in time. (none)
Admissions are opened to our institute. (open)
He is quiet efficient at work. (quite)
Common Error Sentences in Spoken English
Wrong Order of Words
In the sentences marked yellow color below, some
word/phrase occurs in the wrong position. The correct
sentence is given as gray color.
We sent a week ago, the first consignment.
We sent the first consignment a week ago.
SavitaBhabhi daily comes late.
SavitaBhabhi comes late daily.
We pay dividend biannually to our shareholders.
We pay dividend to our shareholders biannually.
Im afraid hes done rather clumsily the work.
Im afraid hes done the work rather clumsily.
He has nicely polished the wood.
He has polished the wood nicely.
We rushed at once to the spot.
We rushed to the spot at once.
Could you come on Sunday to the club?
Could you come to the club on Sunday?
They have changed the venue of the conference in the city to
the town hall.
They have changed the venue of the conference to the town
hall in the city.
The machine needs oiling only.
The machine only needs oiling.
We must inform all the winners by post also.
We must also inform all the winners by post.
We havent sent the checklist probably.
We probably havent sent the checklist.
Certainly he couldnt have escaped.
He couldnt certainly have escaped.
We are alarmed by your long silence particularly.
We are particularly alarmed by your long silence.
Learn Spoken English Online E-Blog
Learn Spoken English in Online is for use by those who have studied English, but
find it difficult to converse fluently in the Language. So far your study of English
was confined to vocabulary and grammar. You know a good number of words in
English. You know most of the rules of grammar. You can write English sentences
correctly. But you cannot speak well. If that is your problem this Learn English
page will help you. Learning vocabulary and grammar alone will not enable you to
speak well in English. For that, you will have to acquire only through practice.
Learn English aims at providing this practice.
In the teaching of English in our schools and colleges, emphasis is laid on reading
and writing at the expense of listening and speaking. We very often find educated
men and women, who can write reasonably correct English, fumbling for words
when they attempt to talk to someone in English. They tend to use wrong or
inappropriate expressions, or speak written English for example, how do we ask
the time? We hear people asking 'what is time?' (Instead of 'what is the time?').
Worse still, we often see people, unable to find suitable expressions twisting their
neighbour's arm and looking at his watch. To take another example, if you have
not properly heard what someone else was saying? How will you ask him to repeat
it? Often people ask 'what?' which is a rude and impolite expression. The right
thing to say would be: 'I'm sorry I didn't hear that properly ', or ' Could you say
that again, please?' At the other extreme are people saying, ' with regard to the
problem raised by you at the meeting of the managing comittee yesterday
Sometimes, even people who can use good expressions displease others by using
the inappropriate expression. We can't use the same expression to talk to our
friend and to our official superior. When we meet a friend we may say, Hi! Or
Hello, but we greet our boss by saying ' good morning, sir' or some similar
expression. It is essential that we learn and use the expressions appropriate to
each situation. Learn Spoken English does not deal with points of grammar or
composition. The different chapters deal with different functions of the language
like 'Introducing / Complaining , 'making suggestions' and so on. Closely related
functions are given in the same chapter. Thus 'Inviting someone' also includes
'Accepting an invitation ' and 'Declining an invitation'.

At the beginning of each chapter, a variety of expressions suitable for the function
are given. These expressions are arranged in such a way that the informal and less
polite expressions are arranged in such a way that the informal and less polite
expressions come at the beginning and the more formal and more polite ones
come later. These are followed by practice dialogues which will give the reader an
idea of how to use the expressions in different contexts. The only way to learn
spoken English is to speak English. The practice dialogs given in this page are
meant to be spoken and not just read. Join with one or two of your friends and
speak the dialogs, each person taking one role. Even then, it will not be enough if
you look at your lines in the page and read them aloud. Read the line silently and
then look up from the page. Speak the line looking at your friend. You may refer
back to the page as often as necessary, but the dialogs should be spoken after
your eyes have made contact with your friends. Speaking involves a lot more than
producting the sounds of words. Your expressions, your gestures and your tone
convey a lot of meaning that mere words connot convey.

At the end of the day we have listed a number of common errors in the use of
English together with the correct forms. The guided speaking and listening
practice contained in Learn Spoken English more correctly and more fluently.
Best of Luck
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Online easy Spoken english free E-book
SOME USEFUL EXPRESSIONS
I. Encouraging
1. Thats good/fine/allright/lovely.
2. Youre doing fine/very well.
3. Lovely!/Great!/Terrific!
4. I wish I could do as well.
5. Come on!/Go on!/Keep at it!
II. Expressing pleasure.
1. Thats great/wonderful/marvelous.
2. Im really delighted.
3. Its real good news.
4. I cant say how pleased news!
5. Great! / Terrific! / Wonderful! / Splendid! / Smashing! / Fantastic! / Super!
III. Expressing displeasure
1. What a nuisance!
2. That isnt good enough.
3. Im really annoyed.
4. It really makes me mad.
5. Im extremely displeased/irritated/unhappy/angry
IV. Reminding
1. Dont forget about
2. Id like to remind you about .
3. I hope youll remember to .., wont you?
4. May I remind you about.?
5. I hope you dont mind my reminding you about ..
V. Telling someone to do something
1. Look at this!
2. Will you/would you .., please?
3. I must ask you to ., please?
4. Would you mind .., please?
5. Would you be so kind as to ?
VI. Refusing to do something
1. Im sorry. I cant/ I wont be able to .
2. Im sorry. Its not possible.
3. Unfortunately,
4. Im afraid its not possible.
5. Im sorry to say that it may not be possible ..
VII. Saying something in another way
1. In other words,
2. To put it in another way .
3. What I mean is ..
4. I was just saying/remarking/asking/wondering
5. I was merely pointing out .
VIII. Giving yourself time to think
1. Just let me think about this/that for a moment
2. Well, you see/you know .
3. Well, how shall I put it?
4. Now, what was that word/phrase/expression?
5. Just a moment,
IX. Changing the subject
1. Oh, by the way,
2. Incidentally, .
3. Oh, I nearly forgot to tell you ..
4. Just to change the subject for a moment,.
5. Now, on an entirely different subject , ..
X. Avoiding giving an opinion
1. Its difficult to say
2. Cant say, really.
3. Well, I dont know, really.
4. Well, it all depends.
5. Im afraid I cant comment on that now.
0 comments
Greeting
Greeting
PATTERNS
1. Hi, Raj. How are you?
2. Hello, Tom. Nice to see you again.
3. Good to see you again.
4. How/very nice to see you again.
5. Good morning/afternoon/evening.
6. How is life?
7. Whats new?
8. I trust youre keeping well.
9. I hope all goes well with you.
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Between friends
Raj: Hi, Das.
Das: Hello, Raj. Havent seen you for ages. How are you?
Raj: Fine. And you?
Das: Getting on well. How is little Mohn? We really miss him.
Raj: He is O.K. Busy with his studies and NCC activities. Hes been selected for the Republic Day parade this year.
Das: Rally? Thats wonderful. By the way, have you heard about Ramesh?
Raj: No. What about him?
Das: Hes getting married soon to a colleague of his.
Raj: Thats good news. So ramesh will soon settle down to a domestic life.
Das: Sorry, Raj. Its time for my bus. I must hurry.
Raj: Ill ring you up some time.
Das: Please do. And give our love to Mohan.
Raj: I will. Bye.
Das: Bye.
On the Telephone
Shela: Good morning. Shela here.
Poonam: Hi, Shela! How are you?
Shela: Hello, poonam. Im alright. How are things with you? How is your new school?
Poonam: Its good. I enjoy teaching there. Its quite different from the one where I was teaching last
year. This one has proper classrooms, laboratories and good library.
Shela: So at last youve found a place where youd like to work. How many schools did you change
since you started working?
Poonam: Quite a few, I think. Shela, I hear that your friend Rajiu is planning to sell her car. Is it true?
Shela: Yes, she told me so. Why, are you interested?
Poonam: Well, we were thinking of buying one. If the price is within our reach, that is.
Shela: Ill talk to Rajiu and then call you back. Is that all right?
Poonam: Perfectly. Thanks, Shela. Bye- Bye.
Shela : Bye.
0 comments
Introducing oneself
INTRODUCING
PATTERNS
Introducing oneself
1. Good morning. I am
2. Excuse me. My name is Eng-lisha
Introducing others
1. This is Mr/Ms ..
2. Do you know .?
3. Have you met ..?
4. Please meet mr/Ms..
5. Please meet my friend/brother/sister/colleague
6. Let me introduce
7. May I introduce ..?
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Girl talking to her brothers teacher
A : Good morning, sir.
B : Good morning.
A : I am your student Ravis sister.
B : Oh, I see. What brings you here?
A : Ravi is not well. Ive brought his leave letter.
B : Whats happened to Ravi?
A : Hes running temperature. The doctor has asked him to take rest for a couple of days.
B : Please tell him not to worry about the classes. I hope he gets well soon.
A : Thank you, sir. Good bye.
B : Goodbye.
Boy in his fathers office
A : Excuse me. I am looking for Mr. Sharma.
B : I am Sharma. What can I do for you?
A : Im Anil, son of Mr. Raghivir Pande.
B : Oh, youre Raghuvirs son? Please sit down. What can I do for you?
A : My father is not coming to office today. Hes asked me to give his leave application to you.
B : I hope hes not unwell.
A : No, sir. He has someone urgent domestic work to attend to.
B : All right, Ill send in the leave letter.
A : Thank you, sir. Goodbye.
B : Goodbye, Anil.
Company Representative in an office
A : Good morning, sir. May I come in?
B : Good morning. Please come in.
A : I am from Scientific Products India Ltd. Could I take a couple of minutes of your time?
B : This is rather a busy morning. But if you can finish your business quickly..
A : Ill be as brief as possible.
1 comments
Inviting someone
INVITING SOMEONE
PATTERNS
Inviting someone
1. Would you like to ..?
2. Id like you to
3. How/What about ..?
4. Why dont you .?
5. Like to ?
6. Care for ?
7. Perhaps youd care to
8. We should be very pleased/delighted if you could .
Accepting an invitation
1. Thank you. Id like to very much.
2. Thatd be nice.
3. Yes, please.
4. That sounds a nice idea.
5. With pleasure. / O.K. / Alright.
6. Wed very much like to ..
7. What a splendid idea! Thank you.
8. Thatd give us the greatest pleasure.
9. Thats really most kind of you.
Declining an invitation
1. Thank you very much, but .
2. Thank you for asking me, but
3. Im terribly sorry. I dont think I can.
4. I wish I would, but
5. Im afraid Ive already promised to
6. Sorry, I cant. / No, thank you.
7. Unfortunately, . However, thank you.
8. What a pity. I shant be ..
9. I regret that I shall not be able to accept ..
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Between friends
A : A few of us are planning to go to the Ajanta caves. Why dont you join us?
B : Thank you. Id like to very much.
X : My younger son Ajay will be 12 on this Saturday. Id like you to join us with your family at our residence at 6
in the evening.
Z : Id love to, but Im afraid I cant. You know my fathers left eye is to be operated upon on Saturday. I shall try
to send my son yathra to your place. Anyway, thanks .
R : Were going on a trekking expedition this Sunday. How about joining us?
P : That sounds a nice idea.
R : How about you, Q?
Q : Thank you very much for asking me, but I have an important appointment with my lawyer on Sunday.
R : How about you, T?
T ; With pleasure.
A : Ive two tickets for the charity show of The New Delhi Times for tomorrow. Would you like to join me?
B : At what time?
A : Six oclock.
B : I wish I could, but we have a party at Regal till seven. One of our senior Executive is retiring. Thanks a lot for
asking me.
I : We thought wed spend the evening at the Hilton How about a game of tennis and later a drink?
J : I wont say no. Ill be with you in a minute.
0 comments
Making Requests
MAKING REQUESTS
PATTERNS
1. Can/could you .., please?
2. Would you mind ., please?
3. Do you think you could .., please?
4. Id be (very) grateful if you could .
5. I wonder whether you could..
6. Please do me a favour by
7. Do you think it would be possible ..?
8. Would you be so kind as to ?
9. I am sorry to trouble you, but ..
10. I hope you dont mind my asking, but ..
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
At the Post office/ Railway booking office
A : Excuse me. Could you give me your pen for a moment, please?
B : Im really sorry. It doesnt write well.
A : Thats all right.
A : (to another person) Could I have you pen for a moment, please?
C : Certainly. Here you are.
A : Thank you.
Talking to a friend on the telephone
A : Good afternoon. May I speak to Mr. Balasubramaniam, please?
B : May I know who is calling, please?
A : Krishna kumar from Kodaikanal.
B : Please hold on for a moment, sir. Ill see if Mr. Balasubramaniam is available . Please speak on, sir. Mr.
Balasubramaniam is on the line.
A : hello, Balu, How are you?
B : Hi, Krishna. Im fine. How are you?
A : Fine, thank you. Balu, I need you help. Do you think you could lend me some money?
B : How much?
A : Two thousand rupees.
B : Oh, certainly. Can you send someone to collect the money?
A : Ill come myself. Ill be there in half an hour. Thank you, Balu.
B : Most welcome. See you then.
At the office
D : Good morning, Mr. Murali.
O : Good morning, sir.
D : Mr. Murali, we are planning to hold our next Board meeting sometime during the last week of this month.
Can you prepare and present to Board a detailed project report on our proposed handtools plant?
O : Certainly, sir. Ill be really glad to do that.
D : Thank you. Please get on with the work. You may consult me whenever you want to.
O : Thank you sir. If you dont mind, may I know the date of the meeting?
D : Most probably it will be the 27
th
.
O : The 27
th
? I am sorry to say this, sir, but would it be possible to postpone it by a day or so? There is an
important religious function at my house on the 27
th
.
D : I see. Let me consult the Chairman. Ill tell you in a day or two.
O : Thank you, sir.
0 comments
Offering help
OFFERING HELP
PATTERNS
Offering help
1. May I help you?
2. May I be assistance?
3. If there is anything i/we can do, please do let me/us know.
4. Do you think I/we can help you?
5. What can I do for you?
6. Is there anything I can do?
7. Ill do it for you?
8. How about..?
Accepting an offer of help
1. You are most kind.
2. Thats most/extremely good/kind/thoughtful of you.
3. Thats very kind of you.
4. If its no trouble for you.
5. If you dont mind.
6. Oh, yes. please.
7. Just what I needed.
Declining an offer of help
1. Thank you very much for your offer, but ..
2. No, please dont bother.
3. No, I can manage. Thank you.
4. No, dont worry (about .)
5. Im very grateful to you for your offer
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
At the Reception
R : Good morning sir. Can I help you?
C : Morning. Can I see the manager?
R : Im sorry, hes in a conference at the moment.
C : Oh, well, never mind.
R : Would you like me to make an appointment for you tomorrow?
C : Oh, yes please. For 10 a.m.
R : Just a minute Im sorry he has another meeting at 10. Will 3 in the afternoon be all right for you?
C : No, thank you. Ill meet him at his residence tonight. Its something urgent.
R : Would you like me to tell him anything?
C : Thanks. You could tell him that Mr.Bhatia was here.
R : Ill tell him.
C : Thank you.
At the travel agency
T : Good afternoon, madam. What can I do for you?
B : Could you give me some details about your package tours?
T : Certainly. Would you like to see our brochures? Here they are. (hands her the brochures)
B : Thank you. (After going through the brochures) Well, this 12-day European tour seems to be an interesting
one.
T : We could book your tickets if you like.
B : Oh yes. But not for me alone. I want three tickets to be booked.
T : Sure, we can do it. Please fill in these forms.
B : Thank you. (Returns the forms after some time)
T : Would you like us to send the tickets to you by post or would you like to collect them personally?
B : Can I take them on Friday next?
T : Sure, well keep them ready for you.
B : Thank you.
T : Its our pleasure, mam.
Between passengers in a train
A : Its very cold tonight.
B : Indeed. Shall I shut the window?
A : Thatd be nice. ( B Shuts the window)
B : Why dont you wear a sweater?
A : Oh, I forgot to bring mine. I didnt really expect it to be so cold.
B : I can give you one if you dont mind. I have one more in my suitcase.
A : That is very kind of you. ( B gives his sweater)
B : How about a hot cup of tea?
A : No, thank you.
0 comments
Seeking permission
SEEKING PERMISSION
PATTERNS
Seeking Permission
1. Could I .., please?
2. Can I .., please?
3. Is it alright if .?
4. Do (would) you mind if ?
5. Would it be possible to .?
6. Have you any objection to my ..ing?
7. I wonder if I could
Giving Permission
1. Yes, of course.
2. Certainly./ Go ahead.
3. By all means.
4. You can / may if you want/like
5. You have my permission.
6. I cant see any objections.
Refusing Permission
1. Sorry, its not possible.
2. Im afraid it is not possible.
3. Im sorry, I cannot let you..
4. Im sorry, I dont have the authority to let you .
5. No. you may not.
6. Youre not allowed to..
7. Im refusing.
8. Permission will not be granted.
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
On the train
A: Excuse me. Would you mind my opening that window?
B: Not at all. Please go ahead.
A: Thank you. Its very hot here.
B: True. Can I take some water from your pitcher?
A: Certainly. Can I have that magazine for a while?
B: Im sorry, I havent finished reading it. Ill give it to you as soon as Ive finished.
A: Thank you.
Between friends
A : Hi, Ashok! Mind my keeping this here?
B : Not at all.
A : Ill come back around eleven. Alright?
B : Fine. I may not be here then. But sunil will be.
A : Fine. Shall I keep it in that corner?
B : Oh, yes. Its safer there.
At the meeting
A : Excuse me. If you dont mind, Id like to make a suggestion.
B : Please go ahead.
A : It woud be a good idea if we considered the latest developments in the field while examining the project
proposal.
B : The latest developments? Could you give more details?
A : There were recent reports about a new method for the manufacture of one of the items we plan to produce.
If I have the permission of the chair, Id like to read out a brief report.
B : Please proceed. Were all tnterested.
0 comments
Advice
Asking for Advice
PATTERNS
A. Asking for Advice
1. Do you think I should ..?
2. What would you advise (me to do)?
3. What would your advice be?
4. What would you do if you were me in my position?
5. I would appreciate your advice.
6. Could I ask for your advice on/about ?
7. I was wondering/ Id like to know what your reaction(s) would be?
B. Advising someone to do something
1. I think you should .
2. If I were you, Id
3. Why dont you ?
4. It may not be a bad idea ..
5. The way I see it, you should
6. My advice would be to .
7. Id recommend .
C. Advising someone not to do something
1. I dont think you should/ought to .
2. If I were you, I wouldnt
3. Youd better not .
4. Take my advice and .
5. Its upto you, but I wouldnt .
6. The way I see it you shouldnt
7. I wouldnt recommend
8. If I were in your position, I wouldnt ..
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Between friends
C: I wan really shocked to hear about the whole thing.
A: We still dont know how and when the thief entered the store. There seems to be no clue to anything.
B. Well, lets think of our next step on this.
A: Thats what is worrying me. Do you think we should inform the police about the theft? Or is it all right if we
hire a private detective agency to go into this?
C: I think we should inform the police in any case. We may hire a private detective agency if you think thatll
really help us in recovering the stolen goods.
B: I too think its not a bad idea to hire a detective agency. Well have to spend a few additional chips, but thatll
certainly bring results.
At the shop
A: Good morning, sir. Can I help you?
B: I would like to buy a refrigerator.
A: Please come and have a look at them. We have a variety of them in different sizes and colours.
B: (looks at them) Well, I want to buy one of 165 litres. Which will you recommend?
A: Well, it depends. A velkin fridge which has a built-in voltage stabilizer will cost you nearly Rs.4000/- whereas
an Ascolt refrigerator which has a built-in voltage stabilizer and a separate door for the freezer will cost you
nearly Rs.5000/- If youre looking for a cheaper one, you may go on in for Wally which costs just Rs.3,200/- Of
course, if you ask me. Ill recommend the Velkin.
B: Alright. I think Ill go by your recommendation.
0 comments
Expressing Gratitude
Expressing Gratitude
PATTERNS
A.Expressing Gratitude
1. Thanks.
2. Thanks a lot.
3. Thank you very much.
4. Im really grateful to you for
5. Im really obliged to you for
6. I should like to express my gratitude/appreciation for
B. Responding to thanks
1. Not at all.
2. It was a pleasure.
3. Please dont mention it.
4. Thats alright.
5. Glad to be of some help.
6. Delighted I was able to help.
7. Youre (most) welcome.
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
At the booking counter
C: Two tickets to Agra, please.
O: First class or second class?
C: Second class. How much is the fare?
O: Forty six rupees.
C: (Gives a Rs. 50 note)
O: Here are your tickets.
C: Thank you. What time does the train leave?
O: At 11.20
C: Thank you. (Moves away)
O: Excuse me. Just a movement, please.
C: Yes, what is it?
O: Heres the balance. You didnt take it.
C: Oh, I forgot. So nice of you. Thank you so much.
O: Not at all.
Between neighbors
A: Good morning. May I come in?
B: Please come in.
A: Im Varadarajan, your next-door neighbour. Im an officer in the State Bank of India.
B: Very glad to meet you. Im Balachandran. Please sit down.
A: Last night my wife told me that new tenants have moved in here. So I thought Id look you up in the morning.
B: So kind of you. Im not a tenant though. I bought this house.
A: Really? Thats wonderful. Im so glad we are getting good neighbours. Is there anything I can do for you?
B: Yes. Could you tell me where I can buy milk in the morning?
A: Please dont worry about that. Ill send my milkman here. Is there anything else?
B: Not immediately. Thank you so much for the help.
A: It is my pleasure. Please do no hesitate to tell us if you need anything.
B: Sure. So kind of you.
A: Not at all. See you later.
B: See you.
0 comments
Remembering
ASKING ABOUT REMEMBERING
PATTERNS
A. Asking whether someone remembers
1. Remember?
2. Do you remember .?
3. You remember .., dont you?
4. I was wondering if u remember .
5. Do you by any chance remember ..?
B. Saying you remember
1. Yes, I remember
2. Of course, I remember ..
3. I remember quite clearly
4. Ill never forget
5. As far as I can remember .
6. If my memory serves me right, ..
7. If Im not mistaken,
C. Saying you do not remember
1. Im afraid Ive forgotten
2. Im afraid Ive completely forgotten .
3. I dont remember
4. Its slipped my mind.
5. I must admit that I dont remember
6. .. escapes me for the moment.
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Between friends
A: Hello, Vinu. Where are you off to? With suitcase and all?
B: Im going to Chennai for a week.
A: Chennai! But yesterday you didnt say anything about going to Chennai.
B: The trip was decided only last night. Remember the time we were together in Chennai?
A: Of course, I remember. How can I forger the nice evenings we spent on Marina beach?
B: It was really an enjoyable trip. You havent forgotten that small adventure we had near the museum, have
you?
A: Ill never forget that.
B: Now I must be going.
A: Have a nice time.
B: Thank you. Bye.
A: Bye.
At the Doctors
P: Good evening, doctor.
D: Good evening. Please come in.
P: I wonder whether you remember me. I had come here a couple of weeks back.
D: Im afraid I dont remember exactly.
P: I was sent by your cousin, Mr. Manohar.
D: Oh, yes. someone had told you that you had cataract in one eye. And I had asked you to use some eye-drops
and come back after a fortnight. Right?
P: yes, doctor. So now you remember everything. Thank you.
D: You see, a doctor remembers diseases more than persons. Have you been using that eye-drop?
P: Yes. doctor. Regularly for the past fifteen days.
D: Good. Now let me examine your eyes.

SOME USEFUL EXPRESSIONS
I. Encouraging
1. Thats good/fine/allright/lovely.
2. Youre doing fine/very well.
3. Lovely!/Great!/Terrific!
4. I wish I could do as well.
5. Come on!/Go on!/Keep at it!
II. Expressing pleasure.
1. Thats great/wonderful/marvelous.
2. Im really delighted.
3. Its real good news.
4. I cant say how pleased news!
5. Great! / Terrific! / Wonderful! / Splendid! / Smashing! / Fantastic! / Super!
III. Expressing displeasure
1. What a nuisance!
2. That isnt good enough.
3. Im really annoyed.
4. It really makes me mad.
5. Im extremely displeased/irritated/unhappy/angry
IV. Reminding
1. Dont forget about
2. Id like to remind you about .
3. I hope youll remember to .., wont you?
4. May I remind you about.?
5. I hope you dont mind my reminding you about ..
V. Telling someone to do something
1. Look at this!
2. Will you/would you .., please?
3. I must ask you to ., please?
4. Would you mind .., please?
5. Would you be so kind as to ?
VI. Refusing to do something
1. Im sorry. I cant/ I wont be able to .
2. Im sorry. Its not possible.
3. Unfortunately,
4. Im afraid its not possible.
5. Im sorry to say that it may not be possible ..
VII. Saying something in another way
1. In other words,
2. To put it in another way .
3. What I mean is ..
4. I was just saying/remarking/asking/wondering
5. I was merely pointing out .
VIII. Giving yourself time to think
1. Just let me think about this/that for a moment
2. Well, you see/you know .
3. Well, how shall I put it?
4. Now, what was that word/phrase/expression?
5. Just a moment,
IX. Changing the subject
1. Oh, by the way,
2. Incidentally, .
3. Oh, I nearly forgot to tell you ..
4. Just to change the subject for a moment,.
5. Now, on an entirely different subject , ..
X. Avoiding giving an opinion
1. Its difficult to say
2. Cant say, really.
3. Well, I dont know, really.
4. Well, it all depends.
5. Im afraid I cant comment on that now.
Greeting
Greeting
PATTERNS
1. Hi, Raj. How are you?
2. Hello, Tom. Nice to see you again.
3. Good to see you again.
4. How/very nice to see you again.
5. Good morning/afternoon/evening.
6. How is life?
7. Whats new?
8. I trust youre keeping well.
9. I hope all goes well with you.
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Between friends
Raj: Hi, Das.
Das: Hello, Raj. Havent seen you for ages. How are you?
Raj: Fine. And you?
Das: Getting on well. How is little Mohn? We really miss him.
Raj: He is O.K. Busy with his studies and NCC activities. Hes been selected for the Republic Day parade this year.
Das: Rally? Thats wonderful. By the way, have you heard about Ramesh?
Raj: No. What about him?
Das: Hes getting married soon to a colleague of his.
Raj: Thats good news. So ramesh will soon settle down to a domestic life.
Das: Sorry, Raj. Its time for my bus. I must hurry.
Raj: Ill ring you up some time.
Das: Please do. And give our love to Mohan.
Raj: I will. Bye.
Das: Bye.
On the Telephone
Shela: Good morning. Shela here.
Poonam: Hi, Shela! How are you?
Shela: Hello, poonam. Im alright. How are things with you? How is your new school?
Poonam: Its good. I enjoy teaching there. Its quite different from the one where I was teaching last
year. This one has proper classrooms, laboratories and good library.
Shela: So at last youve found a place where youd like to work. How many schools did you change
since you started working?
Poonam: Quite a few, I think. Shela, I hear that your friend Rajiu is planning to sell her car. Is it true?
Shela: Yes, she told me so. Why, are you interested?
Poonam: Well, we were thinking of buying one. If the price is within our reach, that is.
Shela: Ill talk to Rajiu and then call you back. Is that all right?
Poonam: Perfectly. Thanks, Shela. Bye- Bye.
Shela : Bye.
Introducing oneself
INTRODUCING
PATTERNS
Introducing oneself
1. Good morning. I am
2. Excuse me. My name is Eng-lisha
Introducing others
1. This is Mr/Ms ..
2. Do you know .?
3. Have you met ..?
4. Please meet mr/Ms..
5. Please meet my friend/brother/sister/colleague
6. Let me introduce
7. May I introduce ..?
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Girl talking to her brothers teacher
A : Good morning, sir.
B : Good morning.
A : I am your student Ravis sister.
B : Oh, I see. What brings you here?
A : Ravi is not well. Ive brought his leave letter.
B : Whats happened to Ravi?
A : Hes running temperature. The doctor has asked him to take rest for a couple of days.
B : Please tell him not to worry about the classes. I hope he gets well soon.
A : Thank you, sir. Good bye.
B : Goodbye.
Boy in his fathers office
A : Excuse me. I am looking for Mr. Sharma.
B : I am Sharma. What can I do for you?
A : Im Anil, son of Mr. Raghivir Pande.
B : Oh, youre Raghuvirs son? Please sit down. What can I do for you?
A : My father is not coming to office today. Hes asked me to give his leave application to you.
B : I hope hes not unwell.
A : No, sir. He has someone urgent domestic work to attend to.
B : All right, Ill send in the leave letter.
A : Thank you, sir. Goodbye.
B : Goodbye, Anil.
Company Representative in an office
A : Good morning, sir. May I come in?
B : Good morning. Please come in.
A : I am from Scientific Products India Ltd. Could I take a couple of minutes of your time?
B : This is rather a busy morning. But if you can finish your business quickly..
A : Ill be as brief as possible.
INVITING SOMEONE
PATTERNS
Inviting someone
1. Would you like to ..?
2. Id like you to
3. How/What about ..?
4. Why dont you .?
5. Like to ?
6. Care for ?
7. Perhaps youd care to
8. We should be very pleased/delighted if you could .
Accepting an invitation
1. Thank you. Id like to very much.
2. Thatd be nice.
3. Yes, please.
4. That sounds a nice idea.
5. With pleasure. / O.K. / Alright.
6. Wed very much like to ..
7. What a splendid idea! Thank you.
8. Thatd give us the greatest pleasure.
9. Thats really most kind of you.
Declining an invitation
1. Thank you very much, but .
2. Thank you for asking me, but
3. Im terribly sorry. I dont think I can.
4. I wish I would, but
5. Im afraid Ive already promised to
6. Sorry, I cant. / No, thank you.
7. Unfortunately, . However, thank you.
8. What a pity. I shant be ..
9. I regret that I shall not be able to accept ..
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Between friends
A : A few of us are planning to go to the Ajanta caves. Why dont you join us?
B : Thank you. Id like to very much.
X : My younger son Ajay will be 12 on this Saturday. Id like you to join us with your family at our residence
at 6 in the evening.
Z : Id love to, but Im afraid I cant. You know my fathers left eye is to be operated upon on Saturday. I
shall try to send my son yathra to your place. Anyway, thanks .
R : Were going on a trekking expedition this Sunday. How about joining us?
P : That sounds a nice idea.
R : How about you, Q?
Q : Thank you very much for asking me, but I have an important appointment with my lawyer on Sunday.
R : How about you, T?
T ; With pleasure.
A : Ive two tickets for the charity show of The New Delhi Times for tomorrow. Would you like to join me?
B : At what time?
A : Six oclock.
B : I wish I could, but we have a party at Regal till seven. One of our senior Executive is retiring. Thanks a lot
for asking me.
I : We thought wed spend the evening at the Hilton How about a game of tennis and later a drink?
J : I wont say no. Ill be with you in a minute.
Making Requests
MAKING REQUESTS
PATTERNS
1. Can/could you .., please?
2. Would you mind ., please?
3. Do you think you could .., please?
4. Id be (very) grateful if you could .
5. I wonder whether you could..
6. Please do me a favour by
7. Do you think it would be possible ..?
8. Would you be so kind as to ?
9. I am sorry to trouble you, but ..
10. I hope you dont mind my asking, but ..
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
At the Post office/ Railway booking office
A : Excuse me. Could you give me your pen for a moment, please?
B : Im really sorry. It doesnt write well.
A : Thats all right.
A : (to another person) Could I have you pen for a moment, please?
C : Certainly. Here you are.
A : Thank you.
Talking to a friend on the telephone
A : Good afternoon. May I speak to Mr. Balasubramaniam, please?
B : May I know who is calling, please?
A : Krishna kumar from Kodaikanal.
B : Please hold on for a moment, sir. Ill see if Mr. Balasubramaniam is available . Please speak on, sir. Mr.
Balasubramaniam is on the line.
A : hello, Balu, How are you?
B : Hi, Krishna. Im fine. How are you?
A : Fine, thank you. Balu, I need you help. Do you think you could lend me some money?
B : How much?
A : Two thousand rupees.
B : Oh, certainly. Can you send someone to collect the money?
A : Ill come myself. Ill be there in half an hour. Thank you, Balu.
B : Most welcome. See you then.
At the office
D : Good morning, Mr. Murali.
O : Good morning, sir.
D : Mr. Murali, we are planning to hold our next Board meeting sometime during the last week of this month.
Can you prepare and present to Board a detailed project report on our proposed handtools plant?
O : Certainly, sir. Ill be really glad to do that.
D : Thank you. Please get on with the work. You may consult me whenever you want to.
O : Thank you sir. If you dont mind, may I know the date of the meeting?
D : Most probably it will be the 27
th
.
O : The 27
th
? I am sorry to say this, sir, but would it be possible to postpone it by a day or so? There is an
important religious function at my house on the 27
th
.
D : I see. Let me consult the Chairman. Ill tell you in a day or two.
O : Thank you, sir.
Offering help
OFFERING HELP
PATTERNS
Offering help
1. May I help you?
2. May I be assistance?
3. If there is anything i/we can do, please do let me/us know.
4. Do you think I/we can help you?
5. What can I do for you?
6. Is there anything I can do?
7. Ill do it for you?
8. How about..?
Accepting an offer of help
1. You are most kind.
2. Thats most/extremely good/kind/thoughtful of you.
3. Thats very kind of you.
4. If its no trouble for you.
5. If you dont mind.
6. Oh, yes. please.
7. Just what I needed.
Declining an offer of help
1. Thank you very much for your offer, but ..
2. No, please dont bother.
3. No, I can manage. Thank you.
4. No, dont worry (about .)
5. Im very grateful to you for your offer
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
At the Reception
R : Good morning sir. Can I help you?
C : Morning. Can I see the manager?
R : Im sorry, hes in a conference at the moment.
C : Oh, well, never mind.
R : Would you like me to make an appointment for you tomorrow?
C : Oh, yes please. For 10 a.m.
R : Just a minute Im sorry he has another meeting at 10. Will 3 in the afternoon be all right for you?
C : No, thank you. Ill meet him at his residence tonight. Its something urgent.
R : Would you like me to tell him anything?
C : Thanks. You could tell him that Mr.Bhatia was here.
R : Ill tell him.
C : Thank you.
At the travel agency
T : Good afternoon, madam. What can I do for you?
B : Could you give me some details about your package tours?
T : Certainly. Would you like to see our brochures? Here they are. (hands her the brochures)
B : Thank you. (After going through the brochures) Well, this 12-day European tour seems to be an interesting
one.
T : We could book your tickets if you like.
B : Oh yes. But not for me alone. I want three tickets to be booked.
T : Sure, we can do it. Please fill in these forms.
B : Thank you. (Returns the forms after some time)
T : Would you like us to send the tickets to you by post or would you like to collect them personally?
B : Can I take them on Friday next?
T : Sure, well keep them ready for you.
B : Thank you.
T : Its our pleasure, mam.
Between passengers in a train
A : Its very cold tonight.
B : Indeed. Shall I shut the window?
A : Thatd be nice. ( B Shuts the window)
B : Why dont you wear a sweater?
A : Oh, I forgot to bring mine. I didnt really expect it to be so cold.
B : I can give you one if you dont mind. I have one more in my suitcase.
A : That is very kind of you. ( B gives his sweater)
B : How about a hot cup of tea?
A : No, thank you.
Seeking permission
SEEKING PERMISSION
PATTERNS
Seeking Permission
1. Could I .., please?
2. Can I .., please?
3. Is it alright if .?
4. Do (would) you mind if ?
5. Would it be possible to .?
6. Have you any objection to my ..ing?
7. I wonder if I could
Giving Permission
1. Yes, of course.
2. Certainly./ Go ahead.
3. By all means.
4. You can / may if you want/like
5. You have my permission.
6. I cant see any objections.
Refusing Permission
1. Sorry, its not possible.
2. Im afraid it is not possible.
3. Im sorry, I cannot let you..
4. Im sorry, I dont have the authority to let you .
5. No. you may not.
6. Youre not allowed to..
7. Im refusing.
8. Permission will not be granted.
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
On the train
A: Excuse me. Would you mind my opening that window?
B: Not at all. Please go ahead.
A: Thank you. Its very hot here.
B: True. Can I take some water from your pitcher?
A: Certainly. Can I have that magazine for a while?
B: Im sorry, I havent finished reading it. Ill give it to you as soon as Ive finished.
A: Thank you.
Between friends
A : Hi, Ashok! Mind my keeping this here?
B : Not at all.
A : Ill come back around eleven. Alright?
B : Fine. I may not be here then. But sunil will be.
A : Fine. Shall I keep it in that corner?
B : Oh, yes. Its safer there.
At the meeting
A : Excuse me. If you dont mind, Id like to make a suggestion.
B : Please go ahead.
A : It woud be a good idea if we considered the latest developments in the field while examining the project
proposal.
B : The latest developments? Could you give more details?
A : There were recent reports about a new method for the manufacture of one of the items we plan to produce.
If I have the permission of the chair, Id like to read out a brief report.
B : Please pAdvice
Asking for Advice
PATTERNS
A. Asking for Advice
1. Do you think I should ..?
2. What would you advise (me to do)?
3. What would your advice be?
4. What would you do if you were me in my position?
5. I would appreciate your advice.
6. Could I ask for your advice on/about ?
7. I was wondering/ Id like to know what your reaction(s) would be?
B. Advising someone to do something
1. I think you should .
2. If I were you, Id
3. Why dont you ?
4. It may not be a bad idea ..
5. The way I see it, you should
6. My advice would be to .
7. Id recommend .
C. Advising someone not to do something
1. I dont think you should/ought to .
2. If I were you, I wouldnt
3. Youd better not .
4. Take my advice and .
5. Its upto you, but I wouldnt .
6. The way I see it you shouldnt
7. I wouldnt recommend
8. If I were in your position, I wouldnt ..
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Between friends
C: I wan really shocked to hear about the whole thing.
A: We still dont know how and when the thief entered the store. There seems to be no clue to anything.
B. Well, lets think of our next step on this.
A: Thats what is worrying me. Do you think we should inform the police about the theft? Or is it all right if we
hire a private detective agency to go into this?
C: I think we should inform the police in any case. We may hire a private detective agency if you think thatll
really help us in recovering the stolen goods.
B: I too think its not a bad idea to hire a detective agency. Well have to spend a few additional chips, but thatll
certainly bring results.
At the shop
A: Good morning, sir. Can I help you?
B: I would like to buy a refrigerator.
A: Please come and have a look at them. We have a variety of them in different sizes and colours.
B: (looks at them) Well, I want to buy one of 165 litres. Which will you recommend?
A: Well, it depends. A velkin fridge which has a built-in voltage stabilizer will cost you nearly Rs.4000/- whereas
an Ascolt refrigerator which has a built-in voltage stabilizer and a separate door for the freezer will cost you
nearly Rs.5000/- If youre looking for a cheaper one, you may go on in for Wally which costs just Rs.3,200/- Of
course, if you ask me. Ill recommend the Velkin.
B: Alright. I think Ill go by your recommendation.
roceed. Were all tnterested.


Expressing Gratitude
Expressing Gratitude
PATTERNS
A.Expressing Gratitude
1. Thanks.
2. Thanks a lot.
3. Thank you very much.
4. Im really grateful to you for
5. Im really obliged to you for
6. I should like to express my gratitude/appreciation for
B. Responding to thanks
1. Not at all.
2. It was a pleasure.
3. Please dont mention it.
4. Thats alright.
5. Glad to be of some help.
6. Delighted I was able to help.
7. Youre (most) welcome.
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
At the booking counter
C: Two tickets to Agra, please.
O: First class or second class?
C: Second class. How much is the fare?
O: Forty six rupees.
C: (Gives a Rs. 50 note)
O: Here are your tickets.
C: Thank you. What time does the train leave?
O: At 11.20
C: Thank you. (Moves away)
O: Excuse me. Just a movement, please.
C: Yes, what is it?
O: Heres the balance. You didnt take it.
C: Oh, I forgot. So nice of you. Thank you so much.
O: Not at all.
Between neighbors
A: Good morning. May I come in?
B: Please come in.
A: Im Varadarajan, your next-door neighbour. Im an officer in the State Bank of India.
B: Very glad to meet you. Im Balachandran. Please sit down.
A: Last night my wife told me that new tenants have moved in here. So I thought Id look you up in the morning.
B: So kind of you. Im not a tenant though. I bought this house.
A: Really? Thats wonderful. Im so glad we are getting good neighbours. Is there anything I can do for you?
B: Yes. Could you tell me where I can buy milk in the morning?
A: Please dont worry about that. Ill send my milkman here. Is there anything else?
B: Not immediately. Thank you so much for the help.
A: It is my pleasure. Please do no hesitate to tell us if you need anything.
B: Sure. So kind of you.
A: Not at all. See you later.
B: See you.
Remembering
ASKING ABOUT REMEMBERING
PATTERNS
A. Asking whether someone remembers
1. Remember?
2. Do you remember .?
3. You remember .., dont you?
4. I was wondering if u remember .
5. Do you by any chance remember ..?
B. Saying you remember
1. Yes, I remember
2. Of course, I remember ..
3. I remember quite clearly
4. Ill never forget
5. As far as I can remember .
6. If my memory serves me right, ..
7. If Im not mistaken,
C. Saying you do not remember
1. Im afraid Ive forgotten
2. Im afraid Ive completely forgotten .
3. I dont remember
4. Its slipped my mind.
5. I must admit that I dont remember
6. .. escapes me for the moment.
PRACTICE/ DIALOGUE
Between friends
A: Hello, Vinu. Where are you off to? With suitcase and all?
B: Im going to Chennai for a week.
A: Chennai! But yesterday you didnt say anything about going to Chennai.
B: The trip was decided only last night. Remember the time we were together in Chennai?
A: Of course, I remember. How can I forger the nice evenings we spent on Marina beach?
B: It was really an enjoyable trip. You havent forgotten that small adventure we had near the museum, have
you?
A: Ill never forget that.
B: Now I must be going.
A: Have a nice time.
B: Thank you. Bye.
A: Bye.
At the Doctors
P: Good evening, doctor.
D: Good evening. Please come in.
P: I wonder whether you remember me. I had come here a couple of weeks back.
D: Im afraid I dont remember exactly.
P: I was sent by your cousin, Mr. Manohar.
D: Oh, yes. someone had told you that you had cataract in one eye. And I had asked you to use some eye-drops
and come back after a fortnight. Right?
P: yes, doctor. So now you remember everything. Thank you.
D: You see, a doctor remembers diseases more than persons. Have you been using that eye-drop?
P: Yes. doctor. Regularly for the past fifteen days.
D: Good. Now let me examine your eyes.



A : Excuse me. Have we met before?

B : Well... Your face looks familiar. but i can't place you immediately. Do you live near here?

A : I live at T.Nagar. I run a online publishing firm there.

B : Now I remember. You're Mr. Amir, aren't you? I'm Usman Ali. I teach English at Nazareth High School.

A : Oh. Yes, Mr. Ali, I used to supply books to your school. Sorry I did not recognise you at first.

B : That's only natural. We haven't met for four or five years at least. How are you, Mr. Amir? how is
your Online Business?

A : The firm is progressing well. Recently we opened two branches at Madras(chennai) and Bangalore.


B : Nice to know that. I want to know more about it. I'll come to your office some time. But now I must
hurry. It's almost time for my train.

A : It was nice meeting you. See you again. Bye.

B : Bye.
sh | Greeting at a railway station
Greeting with an acquaintance - Spoken English Dialogue
A : Ratan, I hope you know Mr. Sethi from the Ministry of Industries.

B : Oh, yes. We met last year at Delhi. Nice to see you again, Mr. Sethi. How are you?

C : Fine. How are things with you?

B : O.K. What brings you to this part of the country?

C : I came on official work. I had the evening free. So I thought I'd call on old friends.

B : That's so kind of you. Mr. Sethi, now that you are here, could I seek your help for something?

C : Please tell me.

B : My application for an industrial licence has been pending with the Ministry for some time. Could you
find out what the hitch is?

C : I'll do that as soon as I get back to Delhi.

B : How long are you here?

C : Another two or three days.

B : And you're staying at the guest house?

C : Yes, Room No.17.

B : I'll meet you there and give the details. When can I meet you?

C : How about tomorrow evening? About 7.30?

B : Very good. I'll see you then. Thank you so much, Mr.Sethi.

C : Not at all. See you tomorrow.
EASY SPEAKING ENGLISH DIALOGUE INTRODUCING BETWEEN
DOCTOR & SALES REPRESENTATIVE

Speak English Dialog Introducing oneself :

Medical Representative at a hospital
Sudha : Good morning, doctor. I'm Sudha from India Pharmaceutical Company.

Doctor : Good morning. I'm very busy today. Cam we meet some other day?

Sudha : Certainly, doctor. Will it be all right if I come tomorrow morning?

Doctor : Can you make it tomorrow evening?

Sidha : Sure, doctor. Could I come around five in the evening?

Doctor : Five is okay with me.

Sudha : Thank you, doctor. Goodbye.

Doctor : Goodbye.
Fox and Crane Photo


THE DINNER PARTY
(English Little Story)
Once there lived a fox and a crane in a forest. One day the cunning fox invited
the crane for a dinner. The crane accepted the invitation and went to the foxs
place at sunset.
The fox had prepared Soup for dinner. When the crane sat down to eat, the fox
brought two bowls of hot soup. The fox started to enjoy the soup.
But the crane could not drink the soup from the bowl with its long beak. If waited
for the fox to finish the dinner and bid goodbye. It had to get back home hungry.
After a few days, the crane invited the fox for a dinner. The fox agreed and went
to the cranes house well in time. The crane gave him a warm welcome. It served
the soup in a Jar with a long and narrow neck.
The crane enjoyed the soup using his long beak. The foxs mouth couldnt
reach the soup through the narrow neck of the jar. It tried hard, but could not
drink the soup. Then the crane brought a bowl of soup and said to the fox, When
I came to your house for dinner, you served me soup in a bowl, which I could not
drink. I wanted to teach you a lesson. That is why I first served soup in a jar.
Please drink the soup now and go home happily.
The fox realized his mistake and drank the soup. From then on both
became good friends.

6 comments
Speaking English / Spoken English guide

SPEAKING ENGLISH GUIDE
Speaking English is one of the art for non mother tongue people. If you Learning
Speaking English or Spoken English please practice with family, friends and Co-worker.
Practice is the very good idea for easy pearming.
Here, we given one dialogues for easy learning about our home.
Sania : What is your house like?
Saina : My house is flat. Its fairly big. I consists of five rooms, two bed rooms,
a kitchen and one drawing room and my study. Of course, we have two
bathrooms as well.
Sania : Where is it situated?
Saina : Its in a town.
Sania : What are the walls made of?
Saina : They are made of concrete blocks.
Sania : Have you a garden?
Saina : Yes, we have. Its a big one. We have got some rare plants and herbs.
Speaking English

Speaking English is a most challenging word to success for non English
mother tongue people. But English is a very Easy and simply
understanding language. Here we are updating simple daily life usage
dialogue for quick and fast to learn speaking English.
The below dialogues are very useful to learning spoken English.

To learn speaking English with simple dialogues.

Watching T.V.
Mohan : Whats an T.V. to night?

Selvam : Let me see. At six theres the News, then a detective story

Mohan : Good. Switch on the set (T.V). Well watch that. Anything interesting later on?

Selvam : Yes, an hours variety show from seven to eight.

Mohan : Thats fine. The Television screens rather dark, isnt it? Can you adjust it?

Selvam : Is that all right? Shall I turn up the volume?

Mohan : Thats much better. No, turn the volume down a bit, its too loud as it is.

Selvam : Right. Now lets pull up the chairs and make ourselves comfortable.

Visit Regular. Read more. Learn English and fight with world
challengers.
Spoken English Exercises
Answer these Below Questions and Learn Easy Spoken English:

Learning Spoken English with Our Simple Profile Question &
Answer Exercises


Im / My name is : ..............................................
Im : ...................................................years old.
My date of birth is : ...........................................
I go to school. Its name is : ................................
My favourite teacher is : ....................................
My favourite lecturer is : ....................................
I like : ...............................................................
I love : ..............................................................
My favourite hobby is : ......................................
My favourite book is : .......................................
My favourite actor is : .......................................
My favourite actress is : ....................................
My favourite colour is : .....................................
My favourite shade is : ......................................
My favourite flower is : .....................................
My favourite fruit is : ........................................
My favourite subject is : ...................................
My favourite person is : ...................................
My favourite sweet is : .....................................
My favourite bird is : ......................................
My favourite animal is : ..................................
My favourite vehicle is : ..................................
My favourite dish is : ......................................
I enjoy watching : ...........................................
I enjoy playing : ..............................................
I like to learn : .................................................
I dont like to learn : .......................................
I like to visit : .................................................
I dont like to visit : ........................................
Im afraid of : ................................................
Im not afraid of : ..........................................
I like to read : ................................................
I dont like to read : .......................................
I like the sound of : ........................................
I like to meet : ...............................................
I want to become : ........................................
I dont want to become : ...............................
I want to buy / get : .......................................
I dont want to buy / get : ..............................
I would like to help : ......................................
I dont want to help : .....................................
I enjoy eating : ..............................................
I dont like to eat : .........................................
This is my father. His name is : .......................
This is my mother. Her name is: .....................
This is my brother. His name is: .....................
This is my sister. Her name is: ........................
This is my uncle. His name is: .........................
This is my aunt. Her name is: ..........................
This is my grandfather. His name is: ...............
This is my grandmother. Her name is: .............
This is my nephew. His name is: .....................
This is my niece. Her name is: ........................
This is my friend. His name is: ........................
This is my friend. Her name is: .......................
This is my classmate. His name is: ..................
This is my classmate. Her name is: .................
This is my cousin. He is: ................................
To answer the above question exercise on below comments box ..

0 comments
SImple Spoken English Dialogue pattern Pics

Learn Spoken English With Simple First Level pattern Questions Answer.
0 comments
SPOKEN ENGLISH - Simple Dialogue
SPOKEN ENGLISH

sample of a dialog built and written by The Game
Design Studio
The context of the dialog
Four burglars have successfully robbed a wealthy antiques collector. They decide to flee into the
wilderness and keep a low profile for some time. The dialog unfolds in a car as the gang speeds off into
the southwestern American desert, in the middle of the night.
The characters
Hunter (leader) : Head of the gang; tall, care-free, a gambler.
Sparky : Small, nervous, greedy and mean.
Vijay : The intellectual of the group.
Kat : The young woman.
The dialog
Sparky (laughing) : The look on that guys puss!
Hunter (amused) : Who you talkin about?
Sparky (laughing) : That guy we just ripped off! Im thinkin about the look on his face when he sees his
big collection of Navajo jewelry is gone!
Hunter : I know somebody else whos gonna bust a vein in his head! ...his insurance guy!
...General laughter.
Kat (showing off a ring on her finger and taking a snobby tone) : Madams jewelry aint too bad either!
Hunter : No wonder she has the nicest jewelry, with a husband thats got the most valuable collection in
Albuquerque.
Sparky (jokingly) : Had the most valuable collection!
...General laughter.
Sparky : Hey, Vijaywhats your problem!?
Vijay (scowling) : You shouldnt have taken that Navajo statuette, Sparky.
Sparky : Youre makin a face cause of that crummy statuette?!
Vijay (scowling) : That one, we shouldnt have taken.
Sparky : And why not? It looks cool!
Vijay : Maybe, but somethings not right. We shouldnt have stolen it.
Hunter : Relax, Vijay, its only a piece of stone!
Vijay (his anger beginning to build) : A piece of stone that wasnt mixed in with the others. If the guy hid it
that well, its because he had his reasons. Dont you think?
Sparky : Whaddaya mean by that?
Vijay (his anger coming back) : Well, why do you think he put two circles of salt around it?
Sparky (mockingly) : Oh-ho, hes gonna do the Exorcist for us now!!!
Vijay (angry) : In any case, we shouldnt have taken it. It wasnt part of the plan.
Vijays firmness imposes a few seconds of silence.
Hunter : People can do whatever they want in their own homes. The important thing is that we can steal
from them!
Sparky is the only who laughs.
Kat : So wherere we goin?
Hunter (glad to change the subject) : Dont worry, a place where no one can bug us.
Vijay : Are you saying that for my benefit?
Kat (calmly) : Geez, Vij, dont take everything so personally. (pause) So where is this place?
Hunter (taking an exaggeratedly mysterious tone) : Its a... ghost-town!
Sparky (brandishing his weapon) : Ghosts or no ghosts, we got what we need to be goddamn left
alone...(looking at his watch) Hey, my watch stopped working.
Kat (looking at her own watch) : Mine stopped too!
Vijay (anxious) : Shit, me too!
A heavy silence hangs over the group. Fear begins to creep into everyones spirit.
Hunter (annoyed) : Where were going, we wont need them. Time doesnt count in Hell.
Role-Play on Shop

Sales Person : Hello, This is the Oxford University Press, Chennai Branch office. Can I help
you?

Tamil Women : Yes. Could you please tell me if you have a primary school dictionary.

Sales Person : Yes, we do. We have the Oxford Student Learner's Dictionary.

Tamil Women : Can you tell me how much it costs, please?

Sales Person : Ninety-five rupees.

Tamil women : Thank you. I'll come tomorrow at about 10 a.m and buy it.

Sales Person : You're welcome.
70 ways to improve your English
1. Start your own English language blog. Even for people who don't have to write in
English, writing can be a great way of properly learning the kind of vocabulary you need to
describe your own life and interests, and of thinking about how to stop making grammar
mistakes. The problem most people have is that they don't know what to write about. One
traditional way to make sure you write every day in English is to write an English diary (journal),
and a more up to date way of doing this is to write a blog. Popular topics include your language
learning experience, your experience studying abroad, your local area, your language, or
translations of your local news into English.
2. Write a news diary. Another daily writing task that can work for people who would be
bored by writing about their own routines in a diary is to write about the news that you read and
listen to everyday. If you include your predictions for how you think the story will develop (e.g.
"I think Hillary will become president"), this can give you a good reason to read old entries
another time, at which time you can also correct and mistakes you have made and generally
improve what you have written.
3. Sign up for a regular English tip. Some websites offer a weekly or even daily short
English lesson sent to your email account. If your mobile phone has an e-mail address, it is also
possible to have the tips sent to your phone to read on the way to work or school. Please note,
however, that such services are not usually graded very well to the levels of different students,
and they should be used as a little added extra or revision in your English studies rather than as a
replacement for something you or your teacher have chosen more carefully as what you need to
learn.
4. Listen to MP3s. Although buying music on the internet is becoming more popular in many
countries, not so many people know that you can download speech radio such as audio books (an
actor reading out a novel) and speech radio. Not only is this better practice for your English than
listening to English music, from sources like Scientific American, BBC and Australia's ABC
Radio it is also free.
5. Listen to English music. Even listening to music while doing something else can help a
little for things like getting used to the natural rhythm and tone of English speech, although the
more time and attention you give to a song the more you will learn from listening to it again in
the future.
6. Read the lyrics to a song. Although just listening to a song in English can be a good way
of really learning the words of the chorus in an easily memorable way, if you want to really get
something out of listening to English music you will need to take some time to read the lyrics of
the song with a dictionary. If the lyrics are not given in the CD booklet, you may be able to find
them on the internet, but please note that some lyrics sites deliberately put a few errors into their
lyrics for copyright reasons. Once you have read and understood the lyrics, if you then listen and
read at the same time, this can be a good way of understanding how sounds change in fast,
natural, informal speech.
7. Sing karaoke in English. The next stage after understanding and memorising a song is
obviously to sing it. Although some words have their pronunciation changed completely to fit in
with a song, most of the words have the same sounds and stressed syllables as in normal speech.
Remembering which words rhyme at the end of each line can also be a good way of starting to
learn English pronunciation.
8. Write a film, music, hotel or book review. Another motivating and easy way to make
yourself write in English is to write a review for a site such as Amazon or Internet Movie
Database. Many non-native speakers write reviews on sites like this, and if you have some
special understanding of the book, music or film due to your first language or knowing the artist
personally, that would be very interesting for the English speakers who read and write reviews
on the site.
9. Only search in English. Switching your search engine to the English language version of
msn, yahoo, Google etc. can not only be a good way of practising fast reading for specific
information in English, but could also give you a wider choice of sites to choose from and give
you an idea of what foreigners are writing about your country and area.
10. Read a book you've already read or seen the movie of in your own language. Although
most language learners under Advanced level would probably learn more from reading a graded
reader or something from the internet than they would from reading an original book written for
English speakers, for some people reading something like Harry Potter in the original can be a
great motivator to improve their English. To make this easier for you and make sure that it
motivates you rather than just making your tired, try reading a book that you already know the
story of. This not only makes it easier to understand and guess vocabulary, but you are also more
likely to remember the language in it. If you have not read the book before, reading a plot
summary from the internet can also help in the same way.
11. Read a translation into English. Another way of making sure books are easier to
understand is to choose a book that was originally translated into English, preferably from your
own language. Even if you haven't read the book in your own language, you will find the English
is written in a slightly simplified way that is more similar to how your own language is written
than a book originally written in English would be.
12. Skip the first ten pages. If you have given up with a book in English or are reading it very
slowly, try skimming through the first ten pages or skipping them completely. The start of most
books tend to be mainly description and are therefore full of difficult vocabulary and don't have a
clear story line yet to help you understand what is happening and to motivate you to turn the next
page. If the book is still too difficult even after the introductionary part is finished, it is probably
time to give that book up for now and try it again after you have read some easier things.
13. Read a book with lots of dialogue. Opening up books before you buy one and flicking
through them to find one with lots of direct dialogue in it has several advantages. If there is less
text on the page due to all the speech marks etc, this can make it easier to read and easier to write
translations on. Dialogue is also much easier to understand than descriptive parts of a book, and
is much more like the language you will want to learn in order to be able to speak English.
14. Read English language comics. Even more than books with lots of dialogue, comics can be
easy to understand and full of idiomatic language as it is actually spoken. There can be
difficulties with slang, difficult to understand jokes and/ or dialogue written how people speak
rather than with normal spellings, so try to choose which comic carefully. Usually, serious or
adventure comics are easier to understand than funny ones.
15. Read English language entertainment guides. Nowadays most big cities in the world have
an English language magazine and/ or online guide to the movies, plays, exhibitions that are on
in the city that week. Reading this in English is not only good value, but it could also guide you
to places that English speakers are interested in and where you might hear some English spoken
around you.
16. Read English language magazines. Like books, if you can read two versions of the same
magazine (Newsweek in your language and in English, for example), that could make
understanding it much easier.
17. Take a one week intensive course. Although you cannot expect to come out of a very short
course speaking much better English than when you started it, if you continue studying a little
over the following weeks and months, the knowledge you gained then will gradually come out
and mean that your level of speaking, listening etc. are better than they would have been if you
hadn't taken that course. This positive effect can still be true up to a year later.
18. Follow your intensive course up with an extensive course. The more time you can spend
studying English the better, but studying periodic intensive courses with a few hours of study a
week in between is probably better value for money than any other system as it gives your brain
time to subconsciously learn and start using the new language you have learnt before you
introduce the next new "chunk" of language.
19. Supplement your group class with a one to one class. Another good way to combine two
different kinds of classes is to study both in a group class and one to one. Having a one to one
teacher, even if just a couple of times a month, will mean that you can be taught exactly the
language that you need, that you will have more time to speak, and that you can have as much
error correction as you like.
20. Supplement your one to one class with a group class. The benefits of having a group class
are often less clear to students, but they include the fact that you will learn to deal with several
people speaking at once, have a chance to practice skills such as interrupting people, and will
hear a range of different viewpoints and topics.
21. Teach your children or friends some English. Recent research has shown that elder
children tend to be a couple of IQ points above their younger siblings, and the most likely reason
is that explaining things to their little brothers and sisters gives them an intellectual boost. In the
same way, teaching someone lower level than you the English you already know is a great way
of permanently fixing that knowledge in your own brain.
22. Ask your company to start English lessons. Even if you don't need to speak English at
work, English lessons can be a fun and reasonably priced way for your company to spend their
training budget in a popular way.
23. Have English radio on in the background while you are doing your housework. Even if
you are not listening carefully, it will help you get a feel for natural English rhythm and
intonation.
24. Play English language learning games on your Nintendo DS. Although such games can
have quite random language and are unlikely to improve your ability to speak English on their
own, the next time you hear or read the same language elsewhere it will be really fixed in your
brain by the fact you have played a game with it in already. It is also a nice way of taking a break
from your other English studies while also doing some English. To make sure it really is a break
and to avoid wasting time learning language from the game that is not much used in daily life,
don't bother writing down any new language you see in the game, but just try to learn it from
playing the game again.
25. Say or think what you are doing in English as you do your daily tasks. As you are doing
your chores, try creating sentences describing what you are doing, e.g. I am unscrewing the
ketchup bottle cap'. This gets you used to thinking in English without translating, and can be a
good way of seeing what simple vocabulary that is around you everyday you don't know. yet
26. Watch English language films with English subtitles. For people who can't understand a
film without subtitles but find themselves not listening at all when reading subtitles in their own
language, this should be the way of watching a film that you should aim for. If it is too difficult
to watch the whole film this way, try watching the (usually important) first 10 or 15 minutes of
the film with subtitles in your own language, switch to English subtitles after that, and only
switch back to subtitles in your own language if you get totally lost following the story of the
film.
27. Watch films in your language with English subtitles. If you are finding English films with
English subtitles too difficult or you can't find English films with English subtitles in your local
video shop, this is a good second best option. Looking for local films with English subtitles can
also sometimes be a good sign of quality, as it means the producers of the film are expecting it to
be popular internationally as well.
28. Watch English films with subtitles in your language. Again, this is not as good practice as
English language films with English subtitles, but is more relaxing, can be easier to find suitable
DVDs for, and is also possible with VHS.
29. Watch the same film or TV episode over and over again. This can not only save you
money on DVDs, but will mean that you can really learn the language without having to study it.
Some comedies can also get funnier the more you watch them, especially if you watch them with
no subtitles and so understand a little more each time you watch it.
30. Be realistic about your level. One thing that holds many language learners back is actually
trying too hard and tackling something that their brain is not ready for yet. Checking your level
with a level check test on the internet, by taking an English language test (FCE, CAE, IELTS,
TOEIC, TOEFL etc.), or by taking a free trial level check and/ or lesson in a language school
will help you find out what your level is and so choose suitable self-study materials.
31. Be realistic about your reading level. Most researchers agree that people learn most when
reading something they understand almost all of. If there are one or two words per page that you
have never seen before, that is about the right level. If there are three or more on every page, you
should switch to something easier and come back later.
32. Read graded readers (= easy readers). These are books that are especially written for
language learners like you, e.g. Penguin Readers. Although it can be difficult to find something
as interesting as things written in newspapers or on the internet, in terms of learning the language
only people who need to read for their work or an exam usually gain more from reading things
written for graded readers. Graded readers of classic books like Charles Dickens also have the
benefit of giving you a lot of knowledge about the literature, and culture more generally, of
English speaking countries in a short time.
33. Read the whole thing with no help. Although using a dictionary has been shown to help
with both short term and long term learning of vocabulary, the fact that using it slows reading
down can stop some people reading in English at all. Reading a whole book quickly through just
for pleasure from time to time will help you remember how fun reading in another language can
be.
34. Read and learn everything. At the opposite extreme, it can be hard work but very
satisfying to get to the end of a book knowing that you have learnt every word in it. See other
tips on this page to make sure it is a book that is easy enough to do this with and to ensure that
the vocabulary you learn is useful.
35. Watching English children's films or TV programmes. Although some of the vocabulary
you can learn from things made for children can be a bit strange (lots of animal names and
maybe animal noises, including baby names for things), the fact that not only the language but
the structure of the story is simplified can make it an easy and motivating thing to watch. Like
good language learning materials, the same language is also often repeated to make it
memorable, and the use of catchy songs etc. can increase this positive effect on your memory.
36. Read English children's books. This is very similar to watching English children's movies,
but with the added advantage of there being more illustrations than adult books, which both helps
you to understand the story and makes the page brighter and more motivating to read.
37. Keep a list of language to learn, e.g. a vocab list. Even if you don't often find time to go
though your vocab list and it keeps on building up, just the act of choosing which words you
need to learn and writing them down on a special list can help you learn them.
38. Go through your vocab list several times every day. If ticking off words on a vocabulary
list on the train to work is inconvenient or embarrassing for you, you can keep your list of words
to learn as an entry in your electronic dictionary, as a mobile phone to do list or as a text file in
your MP3 player (e.g. iPod). Although the time spent transferring the information between
different formats like these may seem wasted, in fact any time you spend using the vocabulary
like this will help you learn it.
39. Convert your vocab list to English only. One way to stop yourself translating and therefore
increase your speed of comprehension and production is to learn all your vocabulary without the
use of your own first language. Ways you can write a vocab list in only English include with
synonyms (words with the same meaning, e.g. "tall" and "high"); with opposites ("high" and
"low"); with pronunciation factors such as number of syllables (the number of beats, e.g. three
for "de- ci- sion") and the word stress (the syllable that is pronounced louder and longer, e.g. the
second syllable in "baNAna"); and gapped sentences (e.g. "I am not _________________ in
science fiction" for the word "interested").
40. Cross out and delete. Crossing out or deleting words, sentences or whole pages that you
have learnt can be a great motivator, and save your list of things to learn becoming too big to
handle.
41. Throw everything away and start again. One of the things that can put most people off
learning is a stack of half finished books or a huge list vocabulary waiting to be learnt. Simply
getting rid of all that and starting again with something new from zero can be a great motivator
and get your studies underway again.
42. Label things in your house or office with post-its. The easiest vocabulary to learn is the
vocabulary of things you see and use everyday. If you can write the names of things around you
on slips of paper and stick them on the real thing, this is a great way of learning useful
vocabulary. If you can leave them there over the following days and weeks, this is a very easy
way of revising the vocabulary until it is properly learnt.
43. Label a drawing. For people who can't put labels on real things, the next best option is to
take a photo of a real place in your life like your office, print it out, and then draw lines to all of
the things you can see in the picture and label them in English with the help of a dictionary. You
can do the same thing with places you pass through everyday like the station. Because you will
see the same thing again and again, it should be easy to really learn the words for those things.
44. Keep a diary in English. This is a popular method of making sure you use English
everyday for people who don't often speak English and can't think of things to write about. The
fact that you are writing about real things that have happened to you means that any words you
look up in the dictionary will be vocabulary that is useful for you and easy to learn.
45. Online chat. The closest thing to speaking for people who don't have the chance to speak
English is online chat, as you have to think and respond quickly, and the language is short and
informal just like speech.
46. Listen to the radio news in English. You can make this easier by reading the news in
English first, or even just by reading or listening to the news in your own language.
47. Read an English language newspaper. Freebie newspapers like "Metro" in London are
usually the easiest to understand, followed by mid-brow titles like "The Daily Express" or "The
Daily Mail" in English. Popular newspapers like "The Sun" are more difficult because of the
idiomatic, slangy use of language and the number of jokes in the headlines and articles.
48. Write fiction in English, e.g. short stories. For people who find writing a diary about
things that happen to them everyday boring, the best thing is to let your imagination go and write
about whatever comes into your head. The advantage of this is that if you can't think of how to
say something in English, you can just change the story to something that is easier to explain.
Perhaps the easiest way to start writing fiction in English is with a diary, changing any details
you like to make it more interesting and adding more and more fantasy as the weeks go on.
49. English language exercise videos. This is quite similar to how babies learn, by listening,
watching and copying. It is also good for your health!
50. Learn a famous speech or poem in English by heart. Although you may never hear or get
the chance to say exactly that line, having one memorable example of an English grammatical
form in your head can make it much easier to learn other examples of the same grammar as you
hear them. It is also something you can practice over and over without being as boring as
grammatical drills.
51. Get tipsy (= a little drunk) before speaking English. This can not only improve your
fluency while you are drinking, but can also improve your confidence in future days and weeks
by showing you that you can communicate what you want to say.
52. Use a dictionary while you are watching a movie. Films often have the same words many
times, so if you look up important words the first or second time you hear them, you should have
learnt them by the end of the film. It is easier to use a dictionary if you watch with English
subtitles.
53. Learn and use the phonemic script. Although there are many sounds in English, there are
even more spellings. By learning the phonemic script and writing vocabulary down with it, you
can both add another stage to your vocabulary learning that should help you learn it more
thoroughly, and improve your pronunciation. It can also make things easier for you by stopping
you trying to pronounce different spellings of the same pronunciation different ways.
54. Learn some spelling rules. Many people think that English spelling is random, but in fact
most words follow some kind of rule, e.g. the "magic E" that changes the pronunciation of "mad"
and "made".
55. Record your own voice. For people who don't have much or any correction of
pronunciation from a teacher, recording yourself and listening back makes it easier to hear
whether you are really making the English sounds that you are trying to or not.
56. Use computer pronunciation analysis. Although most programmes that claim to tell you
when you are pronouncing correctly or not don't actually do that, listening many times and
seeing how your voice changes as you try to match the sounds and waveform given by a
pronunciation CD ROM can be good practice and more motivating than just recording your own
voice.
57. Learn as many words as you can of one category, e.g. animal words. Learning similar
words together can both expand your overall vocabulary and make them easier to learn by
forming links between the words in your brain.
58. Take holidays abroad. This is not only a good opportunity to speak English in situations
where you really have to make yourself understood in order to live, but it is also a good
motivator to study English seriously in the weeks and months before your trip. If possible, also
try to use English even when you could use your own language, e.g. when you pick a guided tour
of a museum or historic place or when you book a flight on the internet, and try to avoid package
tours.
59. Draw pictures of the words you want to learn. Especially if you are artistic, this can be a
better way of learning vocabulary than writing translations or example sentences.
60. Find a foreign boyfriend or girlfriend. No tips on how to do this here, but everyone agrees
that getting or even just looking for a date in English can be a great motivator to improve your
language skills.
61. Arrange a conversation exchange. Swapping lessons and conversation with someone who
wants to learn your language can be a good alternative for those who aren't looking for romance,
or can sometimes lead onto dating for those who are!
62. Sign up for an English language exam. Even if you don't need to take an exam and don't
want to or can't take a special course to study for it, paying to take an exam like TOEFL, TOEIC,
IELTS or FCE can really motivate you take your English studies seriously.
63. Model your accent on one particular actor. e.g. try to speak like Robert De Niro.
Students who say they want to sound more like a native speaker have the problem that native
speakers don't sound all that much like each other. Choosing one model can make the task of
improving your pronunciation more clear, and is quite fun. Doing an impression of that person
also makes a good party trick.
64. Use an English-English dictionary. Trying to use a bilingual dictionary less and switching
to a monolingual one can help you to stop translating in you head when you are speaking or
listening, and other useful English vocabulary can come up while you are using the dictionary.
65. Occasionally talk to or e-mail your friends in English. Many people find this a bit false or
embarrassing, but if you think of it as a study club and set a particular time and/ or place, it is no
different from studying maths together.
66. Go to an English or Irish pub. As well as having a menu in English and being a good way
of finding out something about the culture of English speaking countries, you might also find
there are free English language listings magazines, English language sports on the TV and/ or
foreign people you can speak to.
67. Buy a speaking electronic dictionary. Although most electronic dictionaries are not as
good as paper ones for the amount of information they give you about each word, some of them
have the very useful function of saying the word with the correct pronunciation.
68. Learn your electronic dictionary vocabulary list. Most electronic dictionaries also have a
button which you can push to see the last 30 or more words you looked up. By deleting words
you decide are useless or you have already learnt from this list, you can use it as a "to do list" of
words to learn that you can look at several times a day in the train etc.
69. Switch operating system to English. Changing the operating language of your mobile
phone, video recorder etc. to English can be an easy way of making sure you use the language
everyday.
70. Set goals. Deciding how many hours you want to study, how many words you want to learn
or what score you want to get in a test are all good ways of making sure you do extra study.
MPROVE YOUR ENGLISH LEARNING SKILLS
Learning is a skill and it can be improved.
Your path to learning effectively is through knowing
yourself
your capacity to learn
processes you have successfully used in the past
your interest, and knowledge of what you wish to learn
Motivate yourself
If you are not motivated to learn English you will become frustrated and give up. Ask yourself
the following questions, and be honest:-
Why do you need to learn/improve English?
Where will you need to use English?
What skills do you need to learn/improve? (Reading/Writing/Listening/Speaking)
How soon do you need to see results?
How much time can you afford to devote to learning English.
How much money can you afford to devote to learning English.
Do you have a plan or learning strategy?
Set yourself achievable goals
You know how much time you can dedicate to learning English, but a short time each day will
produce better, longer-term results than a full day on the weekend and then nothing for two
weeks.
Joining a short intensive course could produce better results than joining a course that takes place
once a week for six months.
Here are some goals you could set yourself:-
Join an English course (and attend regularly).
Do your homework.
Read a book a month.
Learn a new word every day.
Visit an English speaking forum every day.
Read a news article on the net every day.
Do 10 minutes listening practice every day.
Watch an English film at least once a month.
Follow a soap, comedy or radio or TV drama.
A good way to meet your goals is to establish a system of rewards and punishments.
Decide on a reward you will give yourself for fulfilling your goals for a month.
A bottle of your favourite drink
A meal out / or a nice meal at home
A new outfit
A manicure or massage
Understanding how you learn best may also help you.
There are different ways to learn. Find out what kind of learner you are in order to better
understand how to learn more effectively..
The visual learner
Do you need to see your teacher during lessons in order to fully understand the content of a
lesson?
Do you prefer to sit at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people's
heads)?
Do you think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text
books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs?
During a lecture or classroom discussion, do you prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the
information?
!Learning Tip - you may benefit from taking part in traditional English lessons, but maybe
private lessons would be better.
The auditory learner
Do you learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to
what others have to say?
Do you interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch,
speed and other nuances?
Does written information have little meaning until you hear it?
!Learning Tip - you may benefit from listening to the radio or listening to text as you read it.
You could try reading text aloud and using a tape recorder to play it back to yourself.
The Tactile/Kinesthetic learner
Do you learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around
you?
Do you find it hard to sit still for long periods?
Do you become distracted easily?
!Learning Tip - you may benefit from taking an active part in role plays or drama activities.
Here's How:
1-Remember that learning a language is a gradual process - it does not happen overnight.
2-Define your learning objectives early: What do you want to learn and why?
3-Make learning a habit. Try to learn something every day. It is much better to study (or
read, or listen to English news, etc.) 10 minutes each day than to study for 2 hours once a
week.
4-Remember to make learning a habit! If you study each day for 10 minutes English will
be constantly in your head. If you study once a week, English will not be as present in
your mind.
5-Choose your materials well. You will need reading, grammar, writing, speaking and
listening materials
6-Vary your learning routine. It is best to do different things each day to help keep the
various relationships between each area active. In other words, don't just study grammar.
7-Find friends to study and speak with. Learning English together can be very
encouraging.
8-Choose listening and reading materials that relate to what you are interested in. Being
interested in the subject will make learning more enjoyable - thus more effective.
9-Relate grammar to practical usage. Grammar by itself does not help you USE the
language. You should practice what you are learning by employing it actively.
10-Move your mouth! Understanding something doesn't mean the muscles of your mouth
can produce the sounds. Practice speaking what you are learning aloud. It may seem
strange, but it is very effective.
11-Be patient with yourself. Remember learning is a process - speaking a language well
takes time. It is not a computer that is either on or off!
12-Communicate! There is nothing like communicating in English and being successful.
Grammar exercises are good - having your friend on the other side of the world
understand your email is fantastic!
13-Use the Internet. The Internet is the most exciting, unlimited English resource that
anyone could imagine and it is right at your finger tips.

Tips:
Remember that English learning is a Process Be patient with yourself. Practice, practice, practice