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UNIT 72 Direct and Indirect Speech: Imperatives

Grammar Explanations
1. Direct speech states the exact words a speaker used. In writing, use
quotation marks.
Indirect speech reports what a speaker said without using the exact words.
There are no quotation marks.
Examples
Come early and bring your insurance card, said the doctor.
The doctor told her to come early and bring her insurance card.
!. The reporting "erb #such as say or tell$ is usually in the simple past tense %or
both direct and indirect speech.
Be careful &se say when the listener is not mentioned. Do not use tell.
Examples
Direct 'peech(((Drink warm milk, he said.
Indirect 'peech((()e told her to drink warm milk.
)e said to call him in the morning.
*+T )e told to call him in the morning.
,. Direct speech imperati"es use the base %orm o% the "erb. Indirect speech
imperati"es use the in%initi"e to report-
a. instructions
b. commands
c. requests
d. in"itations
Examples
Direct 'peech(((Come early, he said.
Indirect 'peech((()e said to come early.
Direct 'peech(((.ait.
Indirect 'peech((()e told me to wait.
Direct 'peech(((Could you please arri"e by /-001
Indirect 'peech((('he asked him to arri"e by /-00.
Direct 'peech(((Could you 2oin us %or lunch1
Indirect 'peech((('he in"ited me to 2oin them %or lunch.
3. &se a negati"e in%initi"e #not4in%initi"e$ to report negati"e imperati"es.
Examples
Direct 'peech(((Don5t go.
Indirect 'peech((()e told her not to go.
6. In indirect speech, make changes to keep the speaker5s original meaning.
a. Change pronouns and possessi"es.
b. Change time phrases.
c. Change this and here.
Examples
)e said to 7nn, Tell me your problem.
)e told 7nn to tell him her problem.
Call me tomorrow.
'he said to call her the next day.
'ign this %orm here.
'he told him to sign that %orm there.
INDENTI!"# 8ead this article about sleep disorders. Circle all the reporting
"erbs. &nderline once all the direct imperati"es. &nderline twice all the
indirect imperati"es.
Tossin$ and Turnin$ %& 'onnie Sun$
Can5t sleep1 9ou5re not alone. :illions o% people are up tossing and
turning instead o% getting their ;;;;5s. Dr. 8ay Thorpe, Director o% the 'leep
Disorders Clinic, says, Don5t think that loss o% sleep is 2ust a minor
incon"enience. During and inter"iew he told me to think about what can
happen i% people dri"e when they5re tired. <"ery year up to !00000 car
accidents are caused by drowsy dri"ers. Then he asked me to think about a
recent industrial disaster. Chances are that it was caused at least in part by
sleep depri"ation.
=eing an insomniac mysel%, I asked Dr. Thorpe %or some suggestions. )e
told me to stop drinking co%%ee. )e said to ha"e a warm glass o% milk instead.
7 lot o% old(%ashioned remedies work. )a"e a high(carbohydrate snack like a
banana be%ore you go to bed, he said. =ut he ad"ises patients not to eat a
hea"y meal be%ore turning in %or the night. .hat about exercise1 8egular
exercise helps, but don5t exercise too close to bedtime, he suggested. >inally,
he told me not to despair. Don5t worry about not sleeping. It5s the worst
thing to do, he said I don5t know. 7%ter thinking about those industrial
accidents, I doubt I5ll be able to sleep at all?
'())SE# Connie 'ung "isited Dr. Thorpe5s sleep clinic. Complete her notes
with the correct words in parentheses.
@ast week I "isited the sleep clinic. Dr. Thorpe called and asked me 1.
#arri"eAto arri"e$ at /-,0 !. #tonightAthat night$. )e ,. #saidAtold$ me to bring 3.
#myAyour$ nightshirt and toothbrush. I arri"ed on schedule. The technician,
Buan <strada, in"ited me 6. #watchAto watch$ TC in the lounge. )e D.
#saidAtold$ to relax E. #hereAthere$ while they got my room ready. 7n hour
later, Buan come back and got me ready to sleep. )e attached electrodes to my
body and hooked me up to a machine. Could you please /. #explainAto
explain$1 I asked. The machine records brain acti"ity. Buan instructed me F.
#don5tAnot to$ lea"e the bed until 10. #tomorrowAthe next$ morning. To my
surprise, I %ell asleep right away. In the morning, Dr. Thorpe told me that
except %or some leg mo"ements during the night, I ha"e healthy sleep patterns.
)e ad"ised me 11. #getAto get$ some more exercise.
*E+*ITE# 8ead the ad"ice that TC news commentator Bohn 'tossel ga"e
"iewers about the common and "ery dangerous problem o% %eeling sleepy
when dri"ing. 8ewrite his ad"ice in indirect speech.
1. Gull o"er and take a brie% nap.
!. Don5t take a long nap.
,. 'ing to yoursel"es.
3. Turn your radio to an annoying station.

6. Don5t drink co%%ee.
D. +pen your window.
E. @et cold air in.
/. =e care%ul when you stop your car.

F. Don5t stop on a deserted roadside.

10. Don5t drink and dri"e.
EDIT# 8ead this student5s 2ournal entry. >ind and correct %ourteen mistakes in
the use o% indirect imperati"es. The %irst mistake is already corrected.
8emember to check punctuation?
In writing class today, Buan read one o% his stories. It was wonder%ul.
7%ter class, the teacher in"ited me to read a story in class next week.
)owe"er, I asked her no to call on me next week because I5m ha"ing trouble
getting ideas. 'he said me not to worry, and she said to wait %or two weeks.
Then I talked to Buan, and I asked hem tell me the source %or your ideas. )e
said that they came %rom his dreams, and he told me keep a dream 2ournal %or
ideas. )e in"ited me to read some o% his 2ournal. It was "ery interesting, so I
asked him to gi"e me some tips on remembering dreams. )e said getting a
good night5s sleep because the longer dreams come a%ter a long period o% sleep.
)e also tell me to keep my 2ournal by the bed and to write as soon as I wake
up. )e said to no mo"e %rom the sleeping position. )e also told me to don5t
think about the day at %irst. #I% you think about your day, you might %orget
your dreams.$ :ost important(((e"ery night he tells himsel% that to remember
his dreams tomorrow morning.