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Marketing Research MKT 232

Dr. Jim Cox
Guidelines: The written reort should include the !ollowing. "#se the headings and
se$uence listed.%

Title &age
'hould indicate the su()ect* date the reort is reared+ !or whom reared+ and (, whom
Ta(le o! Contents
- listing o! contents o! the reort and age num(ers.
.. /xecuti0e 'ummar,
1rie!l, summari2e the ma)or oints o! ,our stud, "!our to six ages maximum%.
This is not an a(stract o! the whole reort in which e0er,thing is restated in condensed
!orm+ neither is it a simle restatement o! the su()ect+ nor a (rie! statement o! the
signi!icant results and conclusions. An executive summary gives the high points of the
entire "body of the report. A good summary contains the necessary background
information, as well as the important results and conclusions/recommendations. - roerl,
written summar, sa0es the time o! (us, executi0es without their ha0ing to sacri!ice
understanding. - good test o! a summar, is sel!3su!!icienc,. Can it stand on its own or does
it collase without the !ull reort4 This section should (e written last.
... .ntroduction
This section is the revised roblem !efinition" section of the #esearch roposal. The
introduction ro0ides (ackground in!ormation the reader needs to areciate the discussion
in the (od, o! the reort. Mention should (e made o! ,our sonsor and the management
ro(lem that the, are con!ronted with. .t should gi0e the (ackground o! the ro(lem "!or
examle+ how and when it came into existence%+ the imortance o! the ro(lem+ the 0arious
dimensions o! the ro(lem+ and whether an, re0ious research was done which is ertinent
to the seci!ic ro)ect (eing reorted. #n!amiliar terms or terms that are used in a seci!ic
wa, in the reort should (e de!ined here. -n, histor, that would (e ertinent to the
ro(lem should (e mentioned "!or examle+ histor, o! (usiness+ industr,+ etc.%.
.... 'tatement o! Research 5()ecti0es
1egin the research reort with a statement o! ,our o()ecti0es and research h,otheses.
These should (e stated as clearl, as ossi(le. .! ossi(le list them one3(,3one. .ndicate
which are rimar, o()ecti0es and which are secondar,.
.6. Research Methodolog,
Discuss ,our samling and !ield rocedures and an, other ertinent methodological
in!ormation. .nclude discussion o! ,our secondar, data search here. Remem(er to de!ine
terms that ma, (e un!amiliar to the reader. 7ollowing are some o! the $uestions+ which
should (e answered here:
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"8% 9hat t,e"s% o! research design(s) was "were% used4 "exlorator,+ descriti0e+ or
causal% 9h, was "were% this "these% t,e"s% o! design used4
"2% 9hat data collection methods were used4 "&rimar,+ secondar,* sur0e,+ o(ser0ation%
9h, were these methods aroriate !or this ro)ect4
"3% 9hat data collection devices were used4 "Telehone+ mail+ ersonal inter0iewing%
9h, were these de0ices aroriate !or this ro)ect4
":% ;ow was the population de!ined4 9hat were the geograhical+ age+ sex+ or other
"<% 9hat sampling units were emlo,ed4 9ere the, (usiness organi2ations or (usiness
executi0es4 9ere the, dwelling units+ households+ or indi0iduals within a household4
9ere the, students or non3students4
"=% 9as a ro(a(ilit, or non ro(a(ilit,3sampling plan emlo,ed4 $hy4
;ow was the samle actuall, selected4 %ive details.
;ow large a samle was selected4
9h, was this si2e samle chosen4 %ive details.
">% ;ow was a list of sampling units generated4 9h, was this method used4
"?% 9ere an, difficulties exerienced in contacting designated samle elements4 ;ow were
these di!!iculties o0ercome and was (ias introduced in the rocess4 ;ow was the
!ieldwork done4
"@% 9as an, pre-testing o! the $uestionnaire done4
V. Research 7inding
%ive a demographic description of your sample and if possible, compare with the
population. .ntroduce and reort the results o! ,our anal,sis o! the data "including !indings
!rom secondar, data sources%. Categori2e ,our !indings under the su(headings o! ,our
research o()ecti0es andAor h,otheses. &ro0ide an interretation !or the results o! whate0er
anal,sis ,ou do. 5mit an, in!ormation that is interesting (ut irrele0ant in terms o! the
seci!ic research o()ecti0es andAor h,otheses. Ta(les and grahs should (e used li(erall,
when resenting the results. 9hile the ta(les in the aendix are comlex+ detailed+ and
al, to a num(er o! ro(lems+ the ta(les in this section should (e simle summaries o! this
in!ormation+ directed to the seci!ic research o()ecti0e andAor h,otheses (eing discussed.
ut all your graphs in this section. !o not put them in the appendix or other sections.

6.. 'ummar, and Conclusions
Make some !inal conclusions a(out the results o! ,our anal,sis. &nly findings presented in
the previous section should be referred to here. Do not introduce new !indings. -ll !indings
should (e in the re0ious section. Relate ,our conclusionsA!indings to the
o()ecti0esAresearch $uestions ,ou listed at the (eginning o! the reort. - ste3(,3ste
de0eloment o! the conclusions should (e gi0en. There should (e a conclusion !or each
stud, o()ecti0e or ro(lem. The conclusion should (e stated in greater detail than in the
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executi0e summar,. -s art o! this+ you should indicate whether your hypotheses were
accurate 'or not(. Readers should (e a(le to read the o()ecti0e+ turn to the conclusion
section+ and !ind seci!ic conclusions relati0e to each o()ecti0e. .! the stud, does not
ro0ide e0idence su!!icient to draw a conclusion a(out a ro(lem+ this should (e exlicitl,
)ote* +arketing recommendations are not included in this section. This is onl, a summar,
o! the anal,ses o! ,our ma)or research $uestions.
6... Marketing Recommendations
This includes recommendations as to what action+ i! an,+ the !irm should take. .t can also (e
used to suggest !uture areas o! research. .t should (e clearl, demonstrated how each
recommendation !ollows !rom the in!ormation resented earlier in the reort.
Recommendations should (e gi0en !or each o()ecti0e "and h,othesis%. "Recommendations
are normall, not included unless re$uested (, the client. The main urose o! a research
reort is to ro0ide the manager with needed in!ormation in a usa(le !orm not to make
recommendations as to what actions should (e taken (ased on that in!ormation.%.
6.... Methodological Bimitations
Discuss the limitations o! the data in terms o! ,our o()ecti0es "!or examle+ indicate an,
crucial 0aria(les ,ou !ound were missing !rom the data%. -lso+ ossi(l, suggest some
modi!ications !or the stud, and $uestionnaire+ which ,ou would recommend !or a !uture
stud,. 'ources o! non3samling error and the susected direction o! their (iases might (e
discussed. Readers should also (e in!ormed seci!icall, as to how !ar the results can (e
generali2ed. Research design limitations could (e discussed. 7or examle+ i! the stud, is an
exlorator, one designed to !ind new h,otheses+ readers should (e warned not to conclude
that the results are an accurate measure o! the henomenon studied. .! articular $uestions
in a sur0e, seem to ha0e con!used resondents+ the readers should (e warned to use
articular care in interreting the results o! these $uestions. .! man, not3at3homes or
re!usals were encountered in the !ieldwork and su(stitutions were made+ readers should (e
cautioned as to the e!!ect this could ha0e on the results. .n general+ include an,thing+ which
might $uali!, ,our !indings+ conclusions+ andAor recommendations. .n descri(ing an,
limitations o! the stud,+ how much the limitations might a!!ect the results and in what
direction should also (e indicated.
.C. -endix
The urose o! the aendix is to ro0ide a lace !or those reort items which do not !it in
the research reort roer (ecause the, are either too detailed or are too seciali2ed. 7or
examle+ the aendix ma, contain a detailed statement o! the samle design+ the !ormulas
used to determine the samling error+ detailed statistical ta(les+ and the 0arious research
!orms used+ such as the $uestionnaire. Dothing should (e relegated to the aendix i! its
a(sence !rom the reort roer will make it di!!icult !or the readers to understand the
results. .! certain data are discussed in an, detail+ the ta(les containing such data should (e
included in the re3 ort at that oint. .n man, cases the main ideas can (e resented
grahicall, in the !indings section. .n this case the ta(les on which the char are (ased
should (e included in the aendix. 7ollowing is a !urther list o! things+ which can (e
included in the aendix "although it is not limited to these%:
"8% .nclude !re$uencies and cross ta(s. Cross ta(s should include cases er cell+ ercentages
o! interest to ,ou+ the row andAor column totals+ the Chi3 s$uare 0alue and its associated
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le0el o! signi!icance+ and an, aroriate association measures "!or examle+ &hi
Coe!!icient+ CramerEs 6%.
"2% .nclude general in!ormation !rom secondar, in!ormation: ta(les+ re!erences or annotated
(i(liograh,+ ad0ertisements+ etc.
"3% Mas used to draw the samle as well as a detailed exlanation o! the samle design
used. -n exlanation o! how samle si2e was determined.
":% Detailed calculations o! h,othesis testing or con!idence le0el determinations.
"<% Coding sheet used in coding the data.
"=% 'ummar, o! all results on a (lank $uestionnaire.
">% 1lank $uestionnaire used in the stud,.
General 'uggestions:
"8% #se su(headings and headings where aroriate to imro0e the communication o!
,our !indings. #nderline to emhasi2e.
"2% Communication is 0er, imortant in research. -ccordingl,+ the e0aluation o! ,our
reort will (e (ased+ in art+ on the accurac, and clarit, with which ,our !indings are
resented. Remem(er who ,our audience is. Make the main (od, o! the reort
understanda(le to a (usiness erson "the aendix should include the more technical
details%. Remem(er to de!ine research terms.
"3% #se ta(les+ grahs+ and charts i! the, will summari2e and clari!, results. &resent some
grahs in ,our !indings to demonstrate ,our skill and understanding with this !orm o!
communication. &ut all ,our grahs in the !indings section "not in the aendix+ etc.%.
":% Do not show comlete cross ta(s in main (od, o! reort "these go in the aendix%.
.nstead reort the main ercentages o! interest.
"<% Do not include all secondar, in!ormation in main (od, o! reort (ut re!erence the
material located in the aendix i! necessar,.
"=% Ba(elling the aendix !or each t,e o! in!ormation makes it easier to re!erence "!or
examle+ -endix - 3 articles+ -endix 1 3 ma+ -endix ; F cross3ta(s%
">% Make the reort look ro!essional: use onl, one t,e o! aer* use onl, one rinter+ use
good (inder+ and (e neat.
"?% Correct all t,ograhical errors. #se correct grammar. 'ometimes a good reort is
discredited (ecause o! these errors e0en though the reort is methodologicall, sound.
"@% Re!er to aendix when necessar, gi0ing age num(er.
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