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8/11/2014

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Anxiety, Arousal
& Stress

Definition of terms
Anxiety
Arousal
Stress

Unpleasant
Emotion

Anxiety

Pattern of
responses

Stress

Physiological
state

Anxiety

An unpleasant emotion which is characterized


by vague but persistent feelings of
apprehension and dread (Cashmore, 2002)

Arousal

Persons physiological state and ranges on a


continuum from deep sleep at one end to panic
at the other

Arousal

Stress

Nonspecific response of the body to any


demand made of it

Anxiety

Theories of Anxiety

There is little threat to survival. The threat


is more likely to your self-concept, or
how you perceive yourself

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TRAIT ANXIETY
Relatively enduring disposition
STATE ANXIETY
Negative emotion of apprehensiveness
and tension experienced in
threatening situations

The tension felt by anxious people is


accompanied by a heightened state
of physiological arousal that is
mediated by the autonomic nervous
system.

Theory of Competitive
Anxiety

Theory of Competitive
Anxiety

Occurs prior to a competitive situation,


also called the
PRECOMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY

Theory of Competitive
Anxiety
Antecedents that lead to increase in anxiety in
anticipation of an achievement situation:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Fear of performance failure


Fear of negative social evaluation
Fear of physical harm
Situation ambiguity
Disruption of well-learned routine

Jones Control Model


of Competition Anxiety

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STRESSOR
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

CONTROL?

YES

NO

i.e. Positive expectancies of


ability to cope and goal
attainment

i.e. Negative expectancies of


ability to cope and goal
attainment

SYMPTOMS INTERPRETED
AS

SYMPTOMS INTERPRETED
AS

FACILITATIVE

DEBILITATIVE

Martens Multidimensional
Anxiety Theory
Based on the notion that anxiety is
composed of a cognitive anxiety
component and a somatic anxiety
component

Martens Multidimensional
Anxiety Theory

Characterized by negative expectations


about performance, self-evaluation
and evaluation by others

Martens
Multidimensional Anxiety
Theory

Martens Multidimensional
Anxiety Theory
COGNITIVE ANXIETY
Mental component caused by such things as
fear of negative social evaluation, fear of
failure and loss of self-esteem

Martens Multidimensional
Anxiety Theory
SOMATIC ANXIETY
Relates of the perceptions of our bodily
state, such as the interpretation of
increased heart rate, respiration, and
muscular tension

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Fazey and Hardys


Catastrophe Theory

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Fazey and Hardys


Catastrophe Theory

Performance

Physiological
arousal

When cognitive anxiety is high, and


arousal is rising, the theory predicts a
sudden and catastrophic, as opposed
to smooth, decline in performance

Cognitive
anxiety

Fazey and Hardys


Catastrophe Theory

Catastrophic drop

Hardy suggested that self-confident


athletes are more likely to avoid the
catastrophic effects of competition
anxiety for longer periods of time

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Arousal

Theories of Arousal

A neutral physiological phenomenon


that is associated with increases in
heart rate, blood pressure, respiration,
metabolism and other indicators of
activation
Cox, 2007

Intensity of behavior on a continuum


from sleep to extensive excitement

Hulls Drive Theory

Anshel, 2003

Hulls Drive Theory


Performance is dependent on two
factors: drive and habit strength
DRIVE: nonspecific action of all behavior
HABIT STRENGTH: dominance of correct and incorrect
responses in motor performances

Hulls Drive Theory


Predicts that at any given skill level,
performance depends on arousal in a
simple linear way
The greater the arousal the better the
performance.

P=DxH

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Hulls Drive Theory


Yerkes-Dodson
Inverted-U Hypothesis

Yerkes-Dodson
Inverted-U Hypothesis

Yerkes-Dodson
Inverted-U Hypothesis

As arousal increases, so too does


performance, but only up to an
optimum point, after which increases
in arousal result in reduced levels of
performance

Hanins Individual Zone of


Optimal Functioning Theory
Hanins Individual Zone of
Optimal Functioning
Theory

Moderate level of state anxiety results in


best performance
The level optimal state anxiety best for
one athlete may be very different from
that optimal for the next athlete

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Hanins Individual Zone of


Optimal Functioning Theory

Stress

Stress
A particular relationship between the
person and the environment that is
appraised by the person as taxing or
exceeding his or her resources and
endangering his or her well-being

A state in which some demand is placed


on an individual who is required to
cope with the demands of the
situation.

Lazarus & Folkman, 1984

Selyes Stress Model


Selyes Stress Model

When aroused, the body is under stress


regardless of whether the cause is
something negative like anger or
positive like joy

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Selyes Stress Model


EUSTRESS
good stress
DISTRESS
bad stress

Selyes Stress Model


Physical Symptoms
Headaches or backaches
Muscle tension and stiffness
Diarrhea or constipation
Dizziness
Insomnia
Chest pain
Rapid heartbeat
Weight gain or loss
Skin breakouts

Behavioral Symptoms
Loss of sex drive
Eating more or less
Sleeping too much or too little
Isolating yourself from others
Procrastination, neglecting responsibilities
Use of alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs
Nervous habits (e.g. nail biting, pacing)
Teeth grinding or jaw clenching
Overreacting to unexpected problems
Picking fights or arguments with others

Selyes Stress Model


Cognitive Symptoms
Memory problems
Indecisiveness
Inability to concentrate
Trouble thinking clearly
Poor judgment
Seeing only the negative
Anxious or racing thoughts

Emotional Symptoms
Constant worrying
Loss of objectivity
Fearful anticipation
Moodiness
Agitation, Restlessness
Short temper, Irritability, Impatience
Inability to relax
Feeling tense and on edge
Feeling overwhelmed
Sense of loneliness and isolation
Depression or general unhappiness

Selyes Stress Model


1. Avoid unnecessary stress
2. Alter the situation
3. Adapt to the stressor
4. Accept the things that you cant change
5. Make time for fun and relaxation
6. Adopt a healthy lifestyle