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V

ELECTROMAGNETICS

Hung-Yu David Yang


Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering,
University of Illinois at Chicago,
Chicago, Illinois, USA

Electromagnetics is fundamental in electrical and electronic Coulomb's law and Gauss's law is introduced. Electric energy
engineering. Electromagnetic theory based on Maxwell's equa- and force based on the field and potential are described.
tions establishes the basic principle of electrical and electronic Boundary value problem based on the Poisson's equation and
circuits over the entire frequency spectrum from dc to optics. Laplace's equation for electric potential is formulated and
It is the basis of Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws for low- canonical examples are given.
frequency circuits and Shell's law of reflection in optics. For Waves propagating in a homogeneous isotropic region are
low-frequency applications, the physics of electricity and mag- usually in the form of plane-waves. Chapter 3 describes the
netism are uncoupled. Coulomb's law for electric field and basic properties of plane waves for both lossless and lossy
potential and Ampere's law for magnetic field govern the media. These basic properties include the nature of the electric
physical principles. Infrared and optical applications are usu- and magnetic fields, the properties of the wave number vector,
ally described in the content of photonics or optics as separate and the power flow of the plane wave. Special attention is given
subjects. This section emphasizes the engineering applications to the specific case of a homogenous (uniform) plane wave,
of electromagnetic field theory that relate directly to the i.e., one having real direction angles because this case is most
coupling of space and time-dependent vector electric and often met in practice. Properties such as wavelength, phase and
magnetic fields, and, therefore, most of the subjects focus on group velocity, penetration depth, and polarization are dis-
microwave and millimeter-wave regimes. The eleven chapters cussed for these plane waves.
in this section cover a broad area of applied electromagnetics, Chapter 4 describes the theory of transmission lines. Trans-
including fundamental electromagnetic field theory, guided mission equations for voltage and current are derived based on
waves, antennas and radiation, microwave components, lumped-element circuit models. The propagation characteris-
numerical methods, and radar and inverse scattering. tics of both lossless and lossy lines are discussed with the latter
Chapter 1 discusses the basic theory of magnetostatics. emphasized on low-loss cases and cases lacking distortion.
Magnetic field and energy due to a direct current is defined Useful parameters of a terminated transmission line, including
based on Amp~re's law and the Biot-Savart law. Macroscopic impedance, reflection coefficient, voltage, and current, at vari-
properties of magnetic material are described. In addition, ous locations on the line are discussed in detail. The basic
domains and hysteresis are introduced. Inductance relating operation of the Smith chart to relate the reflection coefficient
the magnetic flux to the current is defined. The concept of a to the input impedance at the transmission line is explained
magnetic circuit, which finds important applications in power and examples are given.
transformers, is also introduced. Distributing electromagnetic power from one point to
Chapter 2 is devoted to the fundamental theory of electro- another in a prescribed way usually requires transmission
statics. The concept of electric field and potential based on lines or waveguides. Chapter 5 discusses the properties of a
478 Hung-Yu David Yang

class of guided wave structures. The emphasis is on non-TEM methods are discussed in Chapter 8. Chapter 8 also describes
structures where the guided waves are dispersive. The mode a frequency-domain integral-equation based approach known
characteristics of rectangular metallic waveguides, circular me- as the method of moments. This method is particularly useful
tallic waveguides, microstrip lines, slot lines, coplanar wave- when the Green's function (the kernel) can be found analyti-
guides, and the circular dielectric waveguides are summarized. cally. This section also discusses the recent progress of using
In wireless communication systems, it is necessary to send a fast algorithm to deal with large electromagnetic systems.
signals in the form of electromagnetic waves through air, such Chapter 9 describes a time-domain differential equation-based
as in radio or television broadcasting, or via point-to-point approach known as the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)
microwave links. An antenna is a device for transmission or method. This method is particularly useful for complicate
reception of electromagnetic signals. Chapter 6 describes the noncanonical or nonlinear structures with impulsive sources.
basic theory of antennas and their arrays. This chapter presents The volume of the structure usually dictates computer time
the fundamental properties of electromagnetic waves emanat- and memory required. Perfect absorbing boundary facilitates
ing from any antenna as well as the antenna parameters, fast computation with minimum required memory.
including polarization, radiation patterns, beam width, side An early application of electromagnetics is on radio detec-
lobe level, efficiency, gain, bandwidth, input impedance, direc- tion and ranging known as radar, which is an interdisciplinary
tivity, and receiving cross section. Chapter 6 discusses the subject involving communications, signal processing, and
radiation/reception properties of selected antenna structures, propagation. Chapter 10 discusses the principle of both pulsed
including a dipole, a monopole, a wire-loop, a slot, and a and CW radar systems and radar parameters. Specialized
microstrip. The theory of antenna arrays made of a number radars for various applications are also addressed, including
of individual antenna elements at different locations is also MTI radar, Doppler radar, tracking radar, high cross-range
discussed. resolution radar, and synthetic aperture radar. An inverse
Active and passive components are essential building scattering problem is to reconstruct or recover physical or
blocks of microwave circuits and systems that have become geometric properties of an object from measured electromag-
increasingly important due to the booming of next-generation netic fields. The basic principles of inverse scattering are also
wireless communications. Chapter 7 describes the basic char- discussed in this chapter. The approach based on an integral
acteristics of a class of microwave passive components, includ- equation formulation in conjunction with an iterative scheme
ing tuning stubs, lumped elements, impedance transformers to solve the inverse scattering is also discussed.
and matching network, couplers, power dividers/combiners, Trends in compact communication systems to involve the
resonators, and filters. Scattering parameters are usually used to integration of antenna (including matching network) and
characterize the frequency-dependent components. Examples active circuits (such amplifiers) together as one component.
are given mostly for rectangular metallic waveguides and Chapter 11 discusses the basic principles of active integrated
microstrip circuits. Active microwave components will also circuit antennas. The basic operation of microwave transistors
be discussed in this chapter. (both BJT and FET) is discussed. Active circuits of amplifiers,
The engineering applications of electromagnetic fields oscillators, and detectors/mixers are described. Active antennas
and waves usually require accurate solutions of Maxwell's using microstrip patches or printed slots are also described.
equations subject to proper boundary conditions. Due to the The section 5 editor would like to thank all the authors and
increasing capability of computers, many of the complicated reviewers for their volunteer effort and cooperation to make
electromagnetic problems are now becoming solvable. Numer- this chapter possible. It is our hope that this chapter will be
ical computation has become an indispensable subject in valuable to electrical and electronic engineers who are inter-
electromagnetics. The two most widely applied numerical ested in the subject of electromagnetics.
1
Magnetostatics

Keith W. Whites 1.1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 479


Department of Electrical and 1.2 Direct Current ..................................................................................... 479
Computer Engineering, 1.2.1 Current and Current Density • 1 . 2 . 2 0 h m ' s Law • 1.2.3 Resistance • 1.2.4 Power and
South Dakota School of Mines
Joule's Law • 1.2.5 Conservation of Charge and Kirchhoff's Current Law
and Technology, Rapid City,
South Dakota, USA 1.3 Governing Equations of Magnetostatics ................................................... 482
1.3.1 Postulates of Magnetostatics • 1.3.2 Biot-Savart Law and Vector Magnetic Potential A •
1.3.3 Boundary Conditions for B, H, and ]
1.4 Magnetic Force and Torque ................................................................... 485
1.4.1 Ampbre's Force Law • 1.4.2 Lorentz Force Equation • 1.4.3 Torque and Magnetic
Dipole Moment
1.5 Magnetic Materials ............................................................................... 487
1.5.1 Magnetization Vector and Permeability • 1.5.2 Magnetic Materials • 1.5.3 Domains and
Hysteresis • 1.5.4 Permanent Magnets
1.6 Inductance .......................................................................................... 491
1.6.1 Magnetic Flux and Flux Linkage • 1.6.2 Definition of Inductance
1.7 Stored Energy ..................................................................................... 494
1.7.1 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field • 1.7.2 Energy Stored in an Inductor
1.8 Magnetic Circuits ................................................................................ 495
References .......................................................................................... 497

1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1.2 Direct Current

Magnetostatics involves the computation of magnetic forces 1.2.1 Current and Current Density
and fields produced by direct (i.e., time-stationary) currents
Current is the flow of charge. By convention, the direction of
and from materials with permanent magnetization (magnets).
this flow is with the movement of positive charge. The amount
Only magnetic forces and fields that do not change with time
of charge ~Q flowing through (i.e., perpendicular) to a surface
are magnetostatic.
in time 8t is defined as ~Q = ISt, where I is the current. In the
There are many applications of magnetostatics and even
limit of infinitesimally small time increments, the current
a few industries that are almost wholly based upon it.
I through the surface can be defined as:
The magnetic recording and electric power industries both
apply principles from magnetostatics. Other applications
include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Inan and Inan,
I =~[A], (1.1)
1999), magnetic brush applicators in electrophotography (laser
printers) (Schein, 1992), and aurora in the earth's atmosphere
(Paul et al., 1998), to name a few. where the units are coulombs per second [C/s] or amperes [A].

Copyright© 2005by AcademicPress. 479


Allrightsof reproductionin any form reserved.
480 K e i t h W. W h i t e s

Magnetostatics is a field theory and, consequently, the quan- l = a E [A/m2], (1.8)


tities of interest are usually distributed throughout space. As
such, the v o l u m e c u r r e n t density, ] ( x , y, z) is often employed. through the electrical c o n d u c t i v i t y o" of the material. The
In terms o f the charge carriers, the current density is given by units o f a are siemens per meter IS/m]. The conductivities
for various materials are listed in Table 1.1. It is apparent that
] = Nqv[A/m2], (1.2) a varies enormously for different materials. The materials near
the top of the table are called conductors, whereas those near
where N is the n u m b e r o f charge carriers per unit volume (i.e., the b o t t o m are called insulators.
the n u m b e r density), q is the charge, and v is the average (or The electrical conductivity o" o f metals varies with tempera-
drift) velocity. In addition, a current density through an open ture. As a simple estimate of this variation, the conductivity
surface S is related to the current as: can be assumed to change linearly with temperature (Halliday
et al., 2002):

I = l l . ds[A]. (1.3)
1 1 c~
$ - ( T - To). (1.9)
O" ¢70 ¢70

A surface c u r r e n t d e n s i t y , / , [ A / m ] , is an approximation for 1 In this linear equation, a0 is the conductivity at temperature


in a very thin layer. To, c~ is the temperature coefficient o f the conductor (see Table
1.1), and a is the conductivity at temperature T. For metals
Example 1.1 with a positive c~, the conductivity decreases with increasing T
One end of a copper wire (diameter = 2 mm) is attached to (or resistivity _= 1 / a increases with increasing T).
one end of an a l u m i n u m wire (diameter = 4 mm). A direct
current I = 10 mA is passing through the wires. To determine Example 1.2
the current density in each wire, equation 1.3 is applied From Table 1.1, the conductivity of copper at 20°C is
assuming the current density is uniformly distributed over o"0 = 5.8 X 107. We can use equation 1.9 to determine the
the cross-section: temperature at which the conductivity is half that at 20°C.
Solving for T in equation 1.9 using To = 20°C, a = 0-o/2, and
I 0.01A = 0.00393/°C gives the following:
]cu - - Areac~ -- ~(0.002)2m 2 -- 795"8A/m2" (1.4)
I 0.01A 1
Jal -- Areaa~ -- g(0.004)Zm 2 -- 198"9A/m2' (1.5) T = To + - = 274.5°C. (1.10)

The much smaller current density in A1 is due solely to the


larger diameter and not because of the material type.
TABLE 1.1 Electrical Conductivity a and Temperature Coefficient
The drift speed of the conduction electrons in each wire can
(Near 20°C) for Selected Materials at dc.
be determined using equation 1.2 and by knowing that there
are approximately 8.49 x 1028 conduction charges/m 3 in Cu Material ¢(S/m) (20°C) ~x(per degree Celsius)
and 6.02 x 1028 conduction charges/m 3 in A1 (Halliday et al.,
Silver1 6.29 X 1 0 7 0.0038
2002). Therefore, the following two equations result: Copper (annealed)1 5.8001 × 1 0 7 0.00393
Gold1 4.10 x 107 0.0034
_ Jcu 795.8 A/m 2 Aluminum1 3.541 x 107 0.0039
Vcu Ncu~e-- (8.49 x 1028/m3)(1.6022 x 10 19C) = 5.850 X 10 8m/s Tungsten 1.90 × 1 0 7 0.0045
Iron (99.98% pure) 1 1.0 X 1 0 7 0.005
(1.6) Tin1 8.70 X 1 0 6 0.0042
]AI 198.9A/m2 Constantan I 2.0 × 106 0.00001
VAI = Ncu~e -- (6.02 x 1028/m3)(1.6022 x 10-19C) = 2.062 x 10-8m/s. Nichrome1 1.0 x 106 0.0004
Carbon (graphite) 7.1 × 104 -0.0005
(1.7) Seawater 4 --
Silicon (pure) 4 x 10 4 -0.07
Distilled water ~ 10 -4 --
Glass ~ 10 lO_ 10-14 __
1.2.20hm's Law Polystyrene > 10 14 __
Hard rubber ~ 10 15 __
At each point in an ohmic material, such as in a conductor, the Quartz (fused) ~ 10 -16 --
volume current density I and electric field E are related by
O h m ' s law: 1Weast (1984).
1 Magnetostatics 481

1.2.3 Resistance 274.5°C. At 20°C, using equation 1.12 and a from Table 1.1,
you get:
The ratio of the potential difference along a conductor to the
current through the conductor is called the resistance R with 1
units of ohms (f~). Referring to an arbitrary conductor as in R= = 5.224mfL (1.14)
5.8001 x 107 S/m(~ • 0.0010252 m 2)
Figure 1.1, this ratio of voltage to current can be expressed as:
As mentioned previously, the conductivity of copper decreases
v f .al rE.a1 with increasing temperature. At T = 274.5°C, ¢ = 2.9001x
c c
R - - I -- I J" d~s - I a E . d~s [a]. (1.11) 107 S/m from equation 1.9. Hence, the following results
5 S
1
R= = 10.45mfl. (1.15)
To conform to the convention that R > 0 for passive conduc- 2.9001 x 107 S / m ( g . 0.0010252m 2)
tors, the path of integration c is from the surfaces of higher to
lower potential through the conductor, and ds is in the direc- This resistance is twice that at 20°C as expected, because the
tion of current, as shown in Figure 1.1. If the conductor in this conductivity has decreased by half.
Figure is homogeneous with a cross-sectional area A, then
from equation 1.11: 1.2.4 Power and Joule's Law
Ohm's law in equation 1.8 relates the conduction current ] to
1 V L
R -- aA"1~(L) = aA [ ~ ] " (1.12) the electric field E at every point in conductive material.
Because of collisions between the charge carriers (electrons)
comprising the current with the lattice of atoms forming the
Equation 1.12 can be used to compute R for any straight, conductive material, there will be a loss of electrical energy.
homogeneous conductor with a uniform cross-sectional area The power P delivered to electrical charges in a volume v is
A at zero frequency. Conversely, if the conductor is inhomo- given by Joule's law:
geneous or has a nonuniform cross section, R must be com-
puted using equation 1.11.
The resistance R and capacitance C of two perfect conduc- P = J E. l d v [ W ] , (1.16)
tors (or, simply, two constant potential surfaces) at zero fre- v

quency are related as (Cheng, 1981):


where P has units of joules per second [J/s] or watts [W]. This
power is dissipated as heat in the conductive material through
RC = -r7, t~.,J) an irreversible process since P is unchanged when the direction
of E in equation 1.16 is reversed with ] given in equation 1.8.
where e (permittivity) and a are the material parameters of the Considering a conductor with a uniform cross section and
otherwise homogeneous space between the perfect conductors. a length L, if both E and J are directed along the conductor's
length at all points, then from equation 1.16:
Example 1.3
Suppose you wish to determine the resistance of a 1-m length P=J'EdlIJds
of 12-gauge copper wire at 20°C and at a temperature of L s (1.17)
=vi[w].

L This familiar expression for power in electrical circuits can be


I,
O', E .."'"
.......J li ,I
,I expressed in two alternative forms using Ohm's law for resis-
tors (in equation 1.11) as:
. / ;' A
i (os i - V 2
""~ ',, s i '~-t" / P -- -- I2R[W]. (1.18)
--,......~ ~ ~ ".., ) R

This power is dissipated in the resistor and transferred to its


surroundings through joule heating.
+l'l'-
v
Example 1.4
FIGURE 1.1 Conventions Used in the Computation of Resistance If a 75-W incandescent light bulb is connected to a 120-V
Using Equation 1.11 electrical outlet, equation 1.18 can be used to compute the
482 Keith W. Whites

resistance of the light bulb provided Vand ! are root-mean- Z/j = 0, (1.24)
square values. In this case: J

R- V ~ s -- 1202 _ _ 19a, (1.19) which is the circuit form of KCL.


P 75
Example 1.5
which is the resistance when the light bulb is turned on. If the Conductors are intrinsically charge neutral even if a current
cost of electricity is 5 ¢(kW.h), it would cost $2.70 exists in the conductor. If an excess charge is somehow intro-
(= 75 x 24 × 30 x 0.05/1000) to light this bulb continuously duced into the conductor, it will redistribute itself until the
for 1 month. The resistance in equation 1.19 will likely be very electric field due to the excess charge is zero. For example,
different than when the light bulb is off and cold. From suppose an excess charge is introduced into an isolated con-
equation 1.9 using equation 1.12: ductor. Beginning with equation 1.21, substituting equation
1.8, and using Gauss's law V • (eE) = p, we can determine that
R - R0 = ~Ro(T - To)[~] (1.20)
the free volume charge p must satisfy the equation (Cheng,
1989):
Assuming the tungsten filament is approximately 3000°C when
lit and using a = 0.0045/° C from Table 1.1, then using this Op a
last equation gives R0 ~ 13 1) for the resistance of a room- O~-+ 7 p = 0, (1.25)
temperature 75-W light bulb. This agrees closely with a meas-
with solution
ured value of 13.1 ~ even though using a at such a large
temperature was not justified. p = po e-t# [C/m31, (1.26)
where
1.2.5 Conservation of Charge and Kirchhoff's
Current Law z =- [s]. (1.27)
O"
A basic postulate of physics is that electrical charge can neither
be created nor destroyed. This fact is manifested in electro- In these results, P0 is the charge density distribution at an
magnetics through the continuity equation: initial time and r is the relaxation time constant. For all
practical purposes, the charge is redistributed in a time equal
Op to 5z. This time is very brief for metals and much longer for
V .1 = -~-~. (1.21)
good dielectrics. At these two extremes, copper has a relaxation
time z ~ 1.5 x 10 -19 S, while for fused quartz, r ~ 4 days.
This equation relates the net outward flux of J per unit volume
to the time rate of change of the volume electric charge
density p at every point. When there is no time variation 1.3 Governing Equations of
(which is the situation for magnetostatics), the conservation Magnetostatics
of charge equation 1.21 becomes:
1.3.1 Postulates of Magnetostatics
V . I = 0. (1.22)
The natural phenomenon of magnetostatics is governed by a
Physically, this equation tells us that the net outward flux of ] short and succinct set of equations. The circulation of the
per unit volume at every point must vanish. In other words, magnetic field intensity H [A/m] is governed by Ampbre's
law"
the electric current density ] acts like an incompressible fluid.
Applying the divergence theorem (Paul et al., 1998) to
V x H = ] (point form). (1.28)
equation 1.22 gives the integral form of the static continuity
equation as: ~ H . dl = Ine t (integral form). (1.29)

~
5
l. d s = O. (1.23)
The
c

Ine t is the net current passing through the open surface


bounded by the closed contour c (Cheng, 1989). Furthermore,
This result is Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) expressed in the net outward flux of the magnetic flux density B [Wb/m 2
integral form. Using equation 1.23 at a junction of N conduct- or T] is governed by Gauss's law for magnetic fields:
ing wires in a nonconducting space (such as air), the currents
/j in all wires satisfy: V . B = 0 (point form). (1.30)
1 Magnetostatics 483

~
5
B. ds = 0 (integral form). (1.31)
I~ [ l(r') x R
B(r) = ~ j - -~3
rI
dr' [T]. (1.45)

The B and H vector fields are related through the constitutive The vector R = r - r' points from the source point to the
equation: observation point. For a surface current density ],, the Biot-
Savart law reads:
B=~H[T], (1.32)

where # is the permeability [H/m] of the material.


B(r) = I~
~j
fls(r')~3 × R ds' [T], (1.46)
All magnetostatic fields must satisfy the equations 1.28 {
through 1.31. Very few magnetostatic problems, however,
have simple and analytical solutions for the vector fields B whereas for a filamentary current I (pointing in the direction
and H. Table 1.2 contains a representative list of problems of dl' at r'), the Biot-Savart law is written as:
that do have simple analytical solutions. These problems all
contain much symmetry, which is the key to arriving at these bt ~ I ( r ' ) d l ' × R
simple solutions. B(r) = 4 ~ J R3 [T]. (1.47)
cI
Example 1.6
In rare instances, the integral forms of Amp6re's law equation The B field can also be computed from the magnetic vector
1.29 and Gauss's law equation 1.31 can be used to solve for H potential A as:
and B. This occurs when the problem contains sufficient sym-
metry so that H and B can be factored out of the integrals in B=g7x A [T] (1.48)
these two equations (Paul et al., 1998). As an example consider
the toroid shown in Table 1.2. Assuming that the wire (carry- where for a volume current density J at source coordinates r':
ing current /) is "tightly wound" on the toroid, then using
Ampere's law around a circular contour inside the toroid gives:
A(r) = 4~ I ](r~ff) dv' [ W b / m ]. (1.49)

~c
H . dl = NI, (1.42) v'

Expressions for A produced by ]s and Iare similar to equations


1.46 and 1.47, respectively (Paul et al., 1998). In rare instances,
because the current pierces the open surface (bounded by
contour c) N times. By symmetry and using a cylindrical computation of A first and then B is simpler than computing B
directly using the Biot-Savart law.
coordinate system with dl = (#rd(~, in this case, gives:

2"rrr H¢ = 741, (1.43) Example 1.7


#NI A direct current/exists in the circular loop shown in Table 1.2.
B4~ = ~ IT]. (1.44) You can use the Biot-Savart law (equation 1.47) to find a
simple analytical solution for B along the z-axis. (This is not
Equation 1.44 is the solution given in Table 1.2. Outside the true for observation points off the z-axis. Instead, numerical
toroid, Inet = 0, and consequently Be = 0. integration of (equation 1.47) would be required) (Whites,
1998, Example 4.10). For this geometry, referring to
equation 1.47 and the circular loop figure in Table 1.2,
1.3.2 B i o t - S a v a r t L a w a n d V e c t o r M a g n e t i c dl' = (o'ad(J and R = r r' = ~:z Fa. Consequently, from
- -

Potential A equation 1.47:


Amp&e's law (equations 1.28 and 1.29) and Gauss's law (equa- 2x 2~r
tions 1.30 and 1.31) are the rules that all magnetostatic fields
must obey. Except in very limited situations, as discussed in the ~(a ~ z2)3~/7 4~r(a2~ Z2)3/2 J (~"az + za 2) d~b !

[2f 2;1
o o
previous section, these laws cannot be used to directly com-
pute B or H. Instead, if a given current density I is prescribed _ #I
at source coordinates r', the B field can be directly computed 4,rr(a2 + z2)3/2 ~az cos4'd4' + ~,az sin~o'd4' + ~a 2 d~' .
0
at any observation coordinate r using the Biot-Savart law
(Paul et al., 1998): (1.50)
484 Keitk W. Whites

TABLE1.2 Examplesof Problemswith SimpleAnalyticalSolutionsfor B [T]


Name Geometry Solution

Infinitesheet1 x~ y B = ±~.~y<>0 (1.33)

''al Finite:
L --k ..... B = ~/~4~/r( cos o{2 -- cos 51) (1.34)
Straightwire2 ~ i'~ ' Y Infinite:
(1.35)
-L

Circularloop (alongz axis) 3 B = z^ ~~;~ (x --- y = O) (1.36)


Y
x I
Z

Magneticdipole1 0 ~ r B ~ (i'2cos0 + 0 sin0) (1.37)


m=2m I :Y
Z
,t
~ ~ Ntums
Longsolenoid(L >> a) 1 L k/z/ B .~ ~ # ( ~ ) I inside (1.38)

Toroid' # ~ B= {~Nr r inside (1.39)


h ~ y 0 outside

x~ r - ~ . Nturns

Coaxialcable1 B= 4~~/~ rw < r < r~ (1.40)


Z 0 r>rs

p
Nturns
B= ~.PN2Ia2{ [a2 q- (z + k2)2]-3/2
"~~i each
q_ [a2 q_ ( z , ~)2] 3/2} (1.41)
Helmholtzcoils(alongz axis)4
(alongz axis)

1Paulet al. (1998). 2Inanand Inan (1999). 3Cheng(1989). 4Whites(1998),Sec4.3, Prob.4.3.4.


1 Magnetostatics 485

Therefore, 1.4 Magnetic Force and Torque


#Ia 2
B(z) = ~ [T], (1.51) 1.4.1 A m p 6 r e ' s Force Law
2(a 2 + Z2)3/2
One of the most fundamental principles in magnetostatics is
which is the result of equation 1.36 listed in Table 1.2. that a current immersed in a magnetic field experiences a force.
This magnetic force behaves very differently than the electro-
1.3.3 B o u n d a r y C o n d i t i o n s for B, H, and ] static force. Considering two closed loops of current shown in
Figure 1.2, the total net magnetic force on the current in loop
The vector field quantities B and H behave in a prescribed 1 due to the current in loop 2 is given by Amp6re's force law
manner at the interface between two different magnetic mate-
(Paul et al., 1998):
rials. The component of B perpendicular to the interface (in
the direction of the unit vector n) is continuous across the
F12 = ~ # I l I 2 ~ dll x(dl2xR12)R~
2 [N]. (1.59)
interface. That is:
cl c2
h. (B2 - B1) = 0, (1.52)

or equivalently, This force law can also be expressed in the slightly different
form:
Bn2 = Bnl. (1.53)
The B1 (or B2) is B at the interface but just inside material
F12-
,uI, I2 ~R12(d~3.dl2)
4"rr J J R12
[N]. (1.60)
1 (or 2) and h is a unit vector pointing from region 1 toward
Cl C2
region 2.
Conversely, the tangential components of H are discontinu-
By interchanging indices 1 and 2 in equation 1.60, it is easy to
ous across a boundary that has a surface current density Js as:
see that:
h × (Hi - H1) = ]s. (1.54)
F21 = -F12, (1.61)
In scalar form, using the right-handed coordinate system
{n, t, u}, the tangential components of H(Ht2, and Hti) are as required by Newton's third law (Whites, 1998).
discontinuous across the material interface by an amount Substituting equation 1.47 into equation 1.59, the net force
equal to Is,,, which is the component of ]s perpendicular to on loop 1 can be expressed as:
Ht2 and Htl. That is:
Hi2 -- Ht~ = Is,,. (1.55) F12 = ~Ildll x B2(r~) [N]. (1.62)
Cl
A surface current density Is exists at an interface only in
certain situations such as an impressed source layer, on the It is very clear from this result that a current immersed in a
surface of superconductors, and, for time-varying fields, on magnetic field experiences a force. Specifically, the magnetic
the surface of perfect electrical conductors (a ---+oo) (Paul etal.,
field is produced by the current in loop 2, and the force F12 in
1998). When Is does not exist at the interface, then from
equation 1.62 is that experienced by the current in loop 1.
equation 1.55:

Ht2 = Htl, (1.56) Example 1.8


Using equation 1.62 it can be shown that the net magnetic
so that the tangential components of H are continuous across force on any closed loop of current immersed in a uniform B
the interface.
At the interface between two materials with conductivities
al and o'2, the components o f ] that are normal (i.e., perpen-
dicular) to the interface are continuous across the interface:

]~2 = J,1, (1.57) Loop 1~] ~ Loop


2
d~l H12
while the tangential components are discontinuous according
to the relationship:

Jt2 ]tl FIGURE 1.2 Differential Current Elements 11dll and I2dl2 Located
-- = --. (1.58)
O"2 O" in Two Current Loops
486 K e i t h W. W h i t e s

Because of this second fact, a magnetic force can only


change the direction of a moving charge and not its speed.
This can be easily understood by considering the differential
work d W performed by the magnetic field when the particle is
C~~~ X displaced a small distance d l = v d t in time d t (Ulaby, 2001):

d W = Fro" d l = ( F m . v ) d t = 0, (1.66)
B = ,~B o

since from equation 1.65, F m • v = O.


FIGURE 1.3 Closed Loop of Current I Immersed in a Uniform B
Field
Example 1.9
The Lorentz force equation can be applied to charged particle
field is zero (Ulaby, 2001). When B is uniform, then from motion through solids and gases. An example of the former is
equation 1.62: the Hall effect in a conductor as illustrated in Figure 1.4. In
steady-state, the force of equation 1.65 on an electron qe
passing through this material is zero such that:
(1.63)
E = -v x B = -j'vBo [V/m]. (1.67)
=0
The difference in potentials at the y = w and y = 0 faces of the
This result is true regardless of the shape of the current loop so material is as follows:
long as the B field is uniform. As an example, the net magnetic w
force on the loop in Figure 1.3 can be computed using equa-
VI4 = - I E r d y = vwBo [V], (1.68)
tion 1.62 as:
0

because of the charge accumulation on these two faces. This


F = I~dl x B = I (3¢dx) x (3¢Bo) + adqb) x (3¢Bo
VH is called the Hall voltage.
c 0
7~
From the sign of V,, the polarity of the charge can be
determined; from the magnitude of V,, the number density
= I J ( - 3¢sin q~+ j, cos q~)ad(a x (dcBo) = - £IaBo sin ~b]0 = 0, of charge carriers can be computed. A Hall device can also be
0 used to measure conductivities of materials and to measure
(1.64) magnetic field strengths (Inan and Inan, 1999; Halliday, 1992).
Imagine that a copper foil of thickness d = 100~m with
which is zero, as expected in light of equation 1.63. current I = 20 A is placed in magnetic field with B0 = 0.5 T.
Substituting equation 1.2 in equation 1.68 and rearranging
1.4.2 Lorentz Force Equation gives the following:

Moving charges in a magnetic field also experience a magnetic //30


force, similar to current in the previous section. The total force VH-
dNe
experienced by a charge q moving with velocity v is given by (20A)(0.5 T)
= 7.35/zV.
the celebrated Lorentz force equation: (100x 10 6 m)(8.49x 1028 m-3)(1.6022 × 10 19 C)
(1.69)
F= q ( E ÷ v x B ) [N], (1.65)

which is the sum of an electric force ( F e = qE) and a magnetic


Y
force (Fro = q v x B).
There are two important distinctions concerning the behav-
B=/Bo÷ / ++++++++++++
ior of the electric and magnetic forces in the Lorentz force
equation. First, it is apparent from equation 1.65 that the
electric force F e acts on both moving and stationary charges,
whereas the magnetic force Fm acts only on moving charges.
Second, energy is transferred from the electric field to the
charged particle, whereas no energy is transferred from the FIGURE 1.4 Hall Effect and a Conducting Material Placed in a
magnetic field to a moving (or stationary) charged particle. Uniform B Field
1 Magnetostatics 487

1.4.3 Torque and Magnetic Dipole Moment microscopic magnetic dipole moments m. These magnetic
dipole moments can be used to develop a phenomenological
In example 1.8, it was mentioned that the net magnetic force
model for the classical effects and many quantum mechanical
on a closed loop of current in a uniform B field is zero.
aspects of magnetization (Paul et al., 1998; Plonus, 1978).
However, this closed loop of current does experience a torque
The macroscopic effects of magnetization are described by a
and will rotate if it is free to do so. The torque T exerted on
magnetization vector field M as a vector sum of mi in a small
any planar loop of current immersed in a uniform B field is
volume Av':
given as (Cheng, 1989):
N
T = m x B [N-m], (1.70) ~, mi
M = lim i=1 (1.74)
Av'~0~ Av [A/m],
where the magnetic dipole moment m of a planar current
loop of area A is as follows:
where N moments are assumed contained in Avq By defi-
nition, the magnetic field intensity H is then given as:
m = nm = hIA [A-m2]. (1.71)
B
The unit normal vector h is determined using the right-hand H = - - - M [A/m]. (1.75)
rule. That is, with the fingers pointing in the direction of the /.to
current, the thumb points in the direction of n. The magnetic
The permeability of free space, ~0, is identically equal to
dipole moment m of any planar loop can be computed using
4w x 10 7 [H/m].
equation 1.71. (Note, however, that the B field from equation
From experimentation, it has been found that for many
1.37 produced by m is valid only at distances "far" from the
materials, M and H are simply related as:
loop [White, 1998, Example 4.10].)
M = Zm H [A/m]. (1.76)
Example 1.10
The object shown in Figure 1.3 is an example of a planar In this expression, Zm is the magnetic susceptibility of the
current loop in a uniform B field that experiences a torque. material and is a dimensionless quantity. The values of Zm are
The magnetic dipole moment of this loop can be found using typically found through experimental measurement.
equation 1.71: Substituting equation 1.76 into 1.75 and rearranging gives
the following equations:
m= ~a 2 [A-m2], (1.72)
2 B=P0(1 + Zm)H [T] (1.77)
and the torque can be determined from equation 1.70 as: or

B = ~ H [T], (1.78)
T---- (z~'rra 2) × (~¢Bo) = j ~ Bo"rra2 [N-m]. (1.73)
where
/'/ = # 0 # r = ]A0(1 q- Xm) [H/m] (1.79)
The directions of T and the loop rotation--if it were free to
move--are both indicated in Figure 1.3. The direction of is the permeability and #r is the relative permeability of the
rotation is determined from T using the right-hand rule: material. For free space, #r = 1. Equation 1.78 is the consti-
With the thumb in the direction of T, the fingers give the tutive relationship for magnetic fields.
sense of rotation. The loop will not experience a torque when
the unit normal vector h is pointing in the direction of B. Example 1.11
A magnetic sphere of radius a and permeability # is placed in a
uniform incident field Hinc = ~H0. It can be shown that the
1.5 Magnetic Materials secondary field inside and outside the sphere is the following
(Plonus, 1978; Ramo et al., 1999):
1.5.1 Magnetization Vector and Permeability
When magnetic material is placed in an incident (or external)
magnetic field, a secondary magnetic field is produced by
H sec°ndary =
{ ~-~-~0.(
--~-o lio
p - p o r d a3
) r < a
[A/m].
uGSG0~0 V ~'2 cos 0 + 0sin 0 r>a
the material. Similar to a dielectric material, the magnetic
material is said to have become polarized by the alignment of (1.80)
488 Keith W. Whites

z TABLE 1.3 Relative Permeability Ix of Selected Materials


at Zero Frequencyand at Room Temperature1
Material #r
H
Diamagnetic (~r ~ 1)
Water 0.99999
Copper 0.99999
Silver 0.99998

/ 0
Gold 0.99996
Bismuth 0.99983
Paramagnetic (P'r "~ 1)
Air 1.000004
Magnesium 1.000012
Aluminum 1.000021
Titanium 1.00018
FeO2 1.0014
Ferromagnetic (~ . . . . . )
Cobalt 250
FIGURE 1.5 Magnetic Sphere of Permeability Ix Immersed in a Nickel 600
Uniform H Field. The field lines become strictly vertical when the Mild steel 2,000
sphere is removed. Iron 5,000
Mumetal 100,000
Supermalloy 1,000,000

The total H at any point is the sum H = H inc q- H sec°ndary. 1Paul et al. (1998).
A plot of the H field lines is shown in Figure 1.5. The magnetic
sphere causes H to be disturbed from its original uniform
nature. Inside the sphere, however, H is uniform and pointed total B in such a material sample. This effect is directly
along the same axis as the incident field, though its amplitude analogous to the polarization effects in ordinary dielec-
is now less than H0 (and the amplitude of B is greater than/30) trics.
when # > #0- This disturbance in H is due to the secondary H • Paramagnetic materials have a small positive )~,~ so that
produced by the induced magnetization M of the sphere. Using #r > 1 as shown in Table 1.3. Paramagnetism is a quan-
equation 1.76: tum mechanical effect largely due to the spin magnetic
moment of the electron. While these permanent magnetic
( Z 3Zm#° H 0 ~- Z 3(~t-/~°) Hd
moments are usually randomly oriented (so that M = 0),
M = ~ ~ o r < a [A/m], (1.81) they become partially aligned in an applied B. In this
0 r>a
latter state, the magnetization M is aligned with the
applied B, thus increasing the total B in the sample
which is zero outside the sphere because there is nothing to
(and, consequently, decreasing H).
magnetize in free space.
• Ferromagnetic materials also have a positive Zm, but the
resulting #r is usually much greater than 1. There is a
1.5.2 Magnetic Materials much stronger quantum mechanical interaction between
neighboring spin moments than with paramagnetic
There are five major classifications for magnetic materials as
materials that can also lead to magnetization M without
briefly discussed in this subsection (Inan and Inan, 1999; Paul
an applied B. Ferromagnetism is strongly temperature
et al., 1998; Halliday et al., 1992). Diamagnetic materials have
dependent. Only the elements iron, nickel, and cobalt
Zm < 1, and the remaining four types all have Zm > 1. Because
are ferromagnetic at room temperature. Above the
of this, diamagnetic materials are repelled by a strong magnet,
Curie temperature To a ferromagnetic material becomes
whereas specimens of the other four categories are attracted to
paramagnetic, and the magnetic susceptibility decreases
a strong magnet.
with increasing temperature. The Tc of the room tem-
• Diamagnetic materials have a small negative Zm so that perature ferromagnetic materials are 770°C for iron,
#r < 1 as shown in Table 1.3. M1 materials are diamagnetic 354°C for nickel, and 1115°C for cobalt.
to some extent although this behavior may be superceded • Antiferromagnetic materials are quite similar to ferro-
by a more dominant effect, such as ferromagnetism. Dia- magnetic materials in that there is a strong quantum
magnetism is a classical (versus quantum mechanical) mechanical interaction between neighboring atomic mol-
effect produced by moving charges. The induced magnet- ecules. However, this strong interaction causes an anti-
ization M is opposed to the applied B, thus reducing the parallel alignment of magnetic moments yielding a zero
1 Magnetostatics 489

magnetization M. The elements chromium and manga-


nese are examples of antiferromagnetic materials. This
B[T]
ff B s (Saturation)
effect is highly temperature dependent. Below the Nfel
temperature TN, the magnetic susceptibility increases (Remanen
with increasing temperature but decreases for tempera-
ture greater than TN (Kittel, 1996).
• Ferrimagnetic materials possess characteristics between
those of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic materials.
There is an incomplete antiparallel alignment of magnetic (Coercivity)S/ .~~ '
H [A/m]

moments as in the antiferromagnetic materials, and, con-


sequently, there is a net magnetization M, though typi-
cally less than ferromagnetic materials. Ferrites are a
special class of ferrimagnetic material that have a low
Hysteresis
conductivity at high frequencies. These ceramic-like ma-
FIGURE 1.6 Magnetization Curves for a Typical Ferromagnetic
terials are extremely useful in high-frequency applications
Material. The initial magnetization curve is indicated by the dashed
due to their small conduction losses. Examples include
line, while the hysteresis curve is indicated by the solid line.
MnZn with/~ . . . . . ~ 2000 and NiZn with #r, max ~ 100.

The m a x i m u m B that the material attains for any H is called


1.5.3 D o m a i n s a n d Hysteresis
the saturated B, Bs in Figure 1.6, corresponding to total align-
The origin of the extremely large permeabilities of ferromag- ment of domains. When H is then reduced from this point to
netic materials is the existence of magnetized domains in these zero, B reduces to Br, which is the remanent B field or rema-
materials (Plonus, 1978; Kittel, 1996). A magnetized domain nance. The negative (or antiparallel) H required to further
is a microscopic region (on the order of 0.1 to 1 m m 3) where reduce B to zero is Hc, the coercivity. Materials with a large
the magnetization is uniform and saturated. Between adjacent Hc (called hard ferromagnetic materials) expend more energy
domains are domain walls. Without an external field (at point per complete transversal of the hysteresis curve and conse-
O in Figure 1.6), these domains are randomly orientated so quently find applications as permanent magnets (see the next
that the net magnetization of the material is zero. In the section). Conversely, materials with small ~ (called soft ferro-
presence of external magnetic rid&, these domains align and magnetic materials) expend much less energy per hysteresis-
produce an enormous secondary B in the same direction as the curve cycle and find uses in transformers, relays, and generators.
applied field, thus giving a possibly enormous permeability. The properties of a few selected soft ferromagnetic materials
If the applied fields become strong enough, the domains are listed in Table 1.4, including tx along the initial magnetiza-
rotate and the material leaves the initial linear region of oper- tion curve in Figure 1.6 and the m a x i m u m Ix found anywhere
ation and enters the nonlinear and multivalued region indi- along the hysteresis curve.
cated by the hysteresis curve in Figure 1.6. The ratio B/H at
any point on the curves is the permeability #. Around point O,
1.5.4 P e r m a n e n t M a g n e t s
the slope is nearly constant, whereas on the hysteresis curve it
is not; this indicates that the ferromagnetic material has Permanent magnets are materials that possess a magnetization
become nonlinear. M in the absence of an applied magnetic field. These magnets

TABLE 1.4 Properties of Selected Soft Ferromagnetic Materials 1


Material
(% by weight; remainder is Fe) Initial Pr Max/# Bs [T]2 B~ IT]2 Hc [A/m]3
Commercial iron (0.2 impurities) 250 9,000 2.15 0.77 ~ 80
Purified iron (0.05 impurities) 10,000 200,000 2.15 -- 4
Silicon-iron (4 Si) 1,500 7,000 1.95 0.5 20
Silicon-iron (3 Si) 7,500 55,000 2 0.95 8
Mumetal (5 Cu, 2 Cr, 77 Ni) 20,000 100,000 0.65 0.23 4
78 Permalloy (78.5 Ni) 8,000 100,000 1.08 0.6 4
Supermalloy (79Ni, 5Mo) 100,000 1,000,000 0.79 0.5 0.16

1plonus (1978).
2Multiply by 10,000 for cgs unit of gauss [G].
3Multiply by 47 x 10 3 for cgs unit of oersted JOe].
490 Keith W. Whites

B [T] Example 1.12


The geometry shown in Figure 1.8 is an excellent canonical
problem to illustrate the salient features of permanent magnet
circuits. Assume a small cross-section and ignore all leakage
flux. The first topic is to show the steps necessary to determine
-H(A/m) • Hc O (ell)max BH (Jim3) B in this problem, which is the same in the gap and the magnet
because of the boundary condition shown in equation 1.52. To
Demagnetization-- ] -~ Energyproduct do this, two equations will be solved simultaneously. The first
equation is the hysteresis curve for the permanent magnet,
FIGURE 1.7 Demagnetization and Energy Product Curves for a which is shown in Figure 1.9.
Permanent Magnet
The second equation comes from an application of
Ampbre's law of equation 1.29 around the permanent magnet
can be constructed from ferromagnetic or other materials that circuit in Figure 1.8:
are nonlinear with magnetization curves containing hysteresis,
as shown in Figure 1.6. If the material has been properly ~ H . dl = 741. (1.82)
magnetized, then a remanent B field Br exists in the material
¢
even when H = 0. Consequently, this material acts as a per-
manent magnet.
Assuming no "flux leakage" from the permanent magnet or
In many applications of permanent magnets--such as in
"flux fringing" in the air gap (see Section 1.8), then:
electrical motors, generators, and relays--the permanent
magnet is part of a magnetic circuit containing an air gap. In
Hmlm + Hglg = NI, (1.83)
these situations, as derived in example, 1.12, the permanent
magnet generally operates in the second (or fourth) quadrant
where Hm and Hg are the magnetic fields in the magnet and air
of the hysteresis curve (Bozorth, 1978). This second-quadrant
gap, respectively. In the air gap, Hg = B/p, o. Substituting this
portion of the hysteresis curve is called the demagnetization
into equation 1.82 and rearranging gives:
curve and is illustrated in Figure 1.7.
One quality measure of a permanent magnet is the "size" of
NI
this demagnetization curve. A large Br and/4~ in Figure 1.7
ensures that the intrinsic magnetization of the magnet is large
and remains "permanent" even for large H. Another selection
B=-#o
l•gHm+#o~-g [T]. (1.84)

criterion used for permanent magnets is based on the energy This straight-line equation 1.84 is also drawn in Figure 1.9.
product BH. This quantity is appropriately named since The intersections of this "load line" (Bozorth, 1978, Ch. 9)
energy density is proportional to this product (see subsection with the hysteresis curve give the two possible solutions
1.7.2), which is also plotted in Figure 1.7 by multiplying B and for B in the permanent-magnet circuit of Figure 1.8. The actual
H at each point along the demagnetization curve. The max- operating point depends on the previous time history because
imum energy product(BH)ma~ is yet another measure of the this is a nonlinear circuit. Nevertheless, note from this example
quality of a permanent magnet since H in the air gap produced that the second quadrant of the hysteresis curve (which is
by the permanent magnet shown in Figure 1.8 is maximum symmetrical with the fourth) is the important quadrant. This
(with I = 0) when the energy product is maximum. This illustrates why the second quadrant is used as a measure of
maximum energy product (BH)max for a selected number of comparison for magnets, as shown in Figure 1.7.
steels, alloys, and other materials is listed in Table 1.5 together The second topic considered in this example is the relation-
with the r e m a n a n c e Br and coercivity Hc. ship between Hg in the air gap and the maximum energy
product (BHm)max of the permanent magnet in Figure 1.8.
With 1 = 0 in equation 1.82, then:
Hm~oermanent Magnet
/ Hg = - ~gg H m [A/m]. (1.85)

Multiplying this result by Hg and using the constitutive rela-


tionship B = polls yields (Bozorth, 1978, Ch. 9):

FIGURE 1.8 Ring of Permanent Magnet Material and Air Gap i_12 _ lm B H m (1.86)
Excited by a Coil of Wire with N Turns and Current I Ig Po
1 Magnetostatics 491

TABLE 1.5 Properties of Selected Permanent Magnet Materials 1

Material Br [T]2 Hc [A/m]3 (BH)max[J/m3] 4

Barium ferrite (Ferroxdure) 0.2 120,000 8,000


Iron powder (100% Fe) 0.57 61,000 12,800
Steel (% by weight; remainder is Fe):
Carbon steel (0.9 C, 1 Mn) 1 4,000 1,600
Chromium steel (1 C, 0.5 Mn, 3.5 Cr) 0.95 5,200 2,200
Tungsten steel (0.7 C, 0.5 Mn, 0.5 Cr, 6 W) 0.95 5,900 2,600
Cobalt steel (0.7 C, 0.35 Mn, 2.5 Cr, 8.25 W, 17 Co) 0.95 13,500 5,200
Alnico (% by weight; remainder is Fe):
I (12 AI, 20 Ni, 5 Co) 0.71 33,800 10,700
II (10 A1, 17 Ni, 12.5 Co, 6 Cu) 0.72 43,400 13,100
III (12 A1, 25 Ni) 0.68 36,600 10,700
IV (12 A1, 28 Ni, 5 Co) 0.55 55,700 10,300
V (8 A1, 14 Ni, 24 Co, 3 Cu) 1.25 47,700 39,800
VI (8 AI, 15 Ni, 24 Co, 3 Cu, 1.25 Ti) 1.03 59,700 29,000
VIII (7 A1, 15 Ni, 35 Co, 4 Cu, 5 Ti) 1.04 126,000 44,000
Samarium Cobalt, SmCO (rare earth):
18 0.86 573,000 140,000
22 0.985 696,000 180,000
26 H 1.06 736,000 210,000
27 H 1.1 820,000 220,000
32 H ~ 1.16 756,000 250,000
Neodymium Iron Boron, NdFeB (rare earth):
27 1.085 768,000 210,000
30 H 1.12 851,000 240,000
35 1.23 899,000 280,000
39 H 1.28 979,000 320,000
45 1.355 935,000 350,000
48 1.41 1,030,000 380,000

lPlonus ( 1978); Pollock ( 1993); Magnet Sales + Manufacturing (1995).


2Multiply by 10,000 for cgs unit of gauss [G].
3Multiply by 4w x 10-3 for cgs unit of oersted [Oe].
4Multiply by 4"rr x 10 5 for cgs unit of mega-gauss-oersted [MG-Oe].

B [T] 1.6 Inductance


1.6.1 Magnetic Flux and Flux Linkage
Loadli~? Magnetic flux a n d flux linkage are two qualities of a spatially

N~l\.x,.J [A/m]
,, Hm
distributed magnetic field that are closely related to inductance.
The flux of the B field, ~bm, t h r o u g h a loop is the integral of the
c o m p o n e n t of B n o r m a l to the loop over the loop cross-
section. Mathematically, the m a g n e t i c flux t h r o u g h loop i
HysteresiHsC/ p r o d u c e d by c u r r e n t in loop j is defined as (Paul et al., 1998):
curve ~
= [Bj-dsi [Wb]. (1.87)
5i
FIGURE 1.9 Solution for B in the Permanent-Magnet Circuit of
Figure 1.8 In the case that i = 1 a n d j = 2, for example, t h e n @m,12 is
the magnetic flux t h r o u g h loop 1 p r o d u c e d b y the c u r r e n t in
loop 2. Alternatively, magnetic flux can also be c o m p u t e d as
That is, the square of the m a g n e t i c field in the air gap is
(Paul et al., 1998):
directly p r o p o r t i o n a l to the m a x i m u m energy p r o d u c t of the
magnet. In other words, choosing a m a g n e t with a larger
m a x i m u m energy p r o d u c t will p r o d u c e a larger magnetic Cm,;j ~ a j . dli [Wb], (1.88)
6i
field in the air gap s h o w n in Figure 1.8.
492 Keith W. Whites

where Aj is the magnetic vector potential of current loop j.


Inductors are commonly constructed by wrapping many a21 = S2~//rn,21 -- pN2NIllhln(!)2~ [Wb]. (1.93)
turns of wire around a core. This is an efficient method of
increasing the inductance since for the same amount of cur-
rent, the flux through (or "linking") the open surface bounded 1.6.2 D e f i n i t i o n o f I n d u c t a n c e
by the contour is approximately proportional to the number An inductor is a device that can store energy in a magnetic
of wire turns. Accordingly, for loop i with Ni identical and field. Coils, solenoids, and toroids are all examples of induc-
"tightly wound" turns, the flux linkage is defined as:
tors. For an ideal two-terminal inductor with inductance L, the
Aij = NitP m, ij[Wb ] . (1.89) voltage-current relationship is:

This flux linkage represents the total magnetic flux that passes VL(t) = L [V]. (1.94)
through (or is "linked" by) the open surface bounded by the
multiturn contour. For practical inductors, however, nonideal effects may alter
this voltage-current relationship through an additional series
Example 1.13 resistance and possible lead capacitance and inductance (Paul,
The toroid in Figure 1.10 will be used to illustrate the compu- 1992, Ch. 6).
tation of magnetic flux and flux linkage. Assume that p is so Assuming an ideal inductor, the computation of inductance
large that all of the magnetic field is trapped in the toroid. In becomes a strictly magnetostatic problem.
other words, ignore all "flux leakage." With a current I1 in coil Considering one or more loops of current in space, it can be
1, applying Amp~re's law of equation 1.29 along a closed shown that the magnetic flux through a loop is proportional to
contour in the toroid yields: the current that produces the magnetic flux (Paul et al., 1998).
(This behavior is evident in equation 1.91 for the toroid.) The
Nx Ix constant of proportionality is called inductance with units of
B,b,1 = U-~7-r [T]. (1.90)
henry (H). Specifically, inductance is defined in terms of the
flux linkage and current as:
Using the definition in equation 1.87, the magnetic flux
through coil 1 due to 11 (the "self flux") is as follows: flux linkage through ith coil due to current in jth coil
L;j = [H]
current in jth coil
h/2 b (1.95)
~m, ll = jB1 dsl = I I *" #N~II"*
~
#Nl2"rrll h ln (\a,/
b~ [Wb],
or
sl -h/2 a
(1.91) Lij - Aij _ Ni~m,O [H], (1.96)

which is also equal to t~m,21 (the "mutual flux") since the cross
sections of the two coils are identical. assuming from equation 1.89 that all Ni turns of the inductor
The flux linkage through coil 1 is from equations 1.89 and are identical. The Neumann formula (Cheng, 1989):
1.91:

Lij = ~ j j ~ - - / ) [HI (1.97)


AH : g@m, I l h In (b'~
11 -- # g (2~ \ a J [Wb], (1.92) ci cj

whereas the flux linkage through coil 2 is as written here: is a useful alternative form to equation 1.96, especially for
filamentary currents.
If i = j, Lii ( = L) is called a self-inductance, whereas if i ¢ j,
Z Lij is called a mutual inductance. A list of self-inductances
for a few selected geometries is shown in Table 1.6. Inductance
/t0 . a ~ . . ~
will not depend on current if the inductor is constructed from
linear materials. Conversely, if ferromagnetic materials are used
to fabricate the inductor, the inductance may be dependent on
N2 t u r n s T ~ ' ~ N1 turns
/1 current since, as discussed previously, ferromagnetic materials
can behave nonlinearly.
FIGURE 1.10 Two Wire Coils Wrapped Around a Toroid with Other than for very simple and ideal geometries, neither
Large # equations 1.96 and 1.97 can be analytically evaluated to give
1 Magnetostatics 493

TABLE 1.6 Self-Inductancesfor a Selected Set of Geometries


Name Geometry Inductance [H]

( ~ L :#N2hln(b'~ (1.98)
T°r°idt ~ 2~ \aJ
h ..~..~ ,,y

x ~ V x " N turns
z

~ ~
T Ntums #N2~a2
Solenoid (radius = a) h L/ h >> a]3: L ~ - - h (1.99)
lOflN2,a2
h ~- 0.4a (Wheeler formula)3: L ~ - - (1.100)
10h + 9a
2a

Coaxial cablel(h >) r,) L ~ -~.ln(f~'~ +~9.h (1.1Ol)

Two-wireline2 T0 "~
)~2rw L,,~#hln(d) (1.102)
O n krw/
J" o )

1paul et al. (1998). 2Plonus(1978). 3Ramoet al. (1994).

simple formulas for inductance. This is only possible for in- A21 t~N2Nlhln(b" ~ (1.1o4)
ductors with high degrees of symmetry, such as the toroid or L21- I ~ - 2w kay [H].
infinitely long coaxial cable shown in Table 1.6. Mternatively,
numerical integration can be used instead to evaluate equa- In both cases, the inductance is proportional to the square of
tions 1.96 and 1.97; the latter is particularly suited for coil-type the number of wire turns. This behavior is common to all coil-
inductors (Whites, 1998, Example 4.15). type inductors.
The self-inductance for coil 2 and the mutual inductance L12
Example 1.14 can also be computed using equation 1.96. A current 12 is
The self- and mutual inductances of the wire coils on the assumed to exist in coil 2 for the purposes of these inductance
toroid in Example 1.13 can be computed using equation 1.96 calculations. Since the inductance of inductors formed from
together with the flux linkages in equations 1.92 and 1.93. For linear materials does not depend on the current in the wire,
coil 1, the self-inductance is the following: assuming this current 12 is only a construction step. From
equation 1.96:
An _#N21hln(b_~ [H], (1.103)
Ln- 11 2¢r \aJ A22 _ #N2hln(_b'~ [H], (1.105)
L 2 2 - 12 2"rr \a/
which is the first entry in Table 1.6, while the mutual induc-
tance is the following: and the mutual inductance is
494 Keith W. Whites

A12 #N~NZhln(b"] (1.106)


r~
L12- I2 -- 2n k, aJ [H].

Comparing equations 104 and 106, it is apparent that


L12 = L2> This is a general result. In particular, by interchang-
ing indices i and j in equation 1.97 it can be shown that:
FIGURE 1.11 Coaxial Cable with a Nonmagnetic Center Con-
Lq=Lji i¢j (1.107) ductor. All current I in the center conductor is assumed to return
on the outer conductor.

1.7 Stored Energy and

1.7.1 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field I


Hour = ~b~wr rw < r < rs [A/m]. (1.112)
As described by Amp&e's force law discussed in Section 1.4.1,
a magnetic force exists between loops of constant current. From equations 1.108 and 1.78:
Were the loops flee to move, they would migrate toward or
away from each other depending on their orientations. The z0+l 2n rs
work done to keep the current loops stationary is stored as
energy in the magnetic field around the loops (Halliday et al.,
Win=~ J l~lHI2dv=~J J Jt~H~rdrdOdz
coax zo 0 0
2002). Energy is also stored in the magnetic field of a single (1.113)
current loop as well as other situations where a magnetic
field exists.
Magnetic energy Wm can be computed by integrating the
dot product of B and H through space as (Cheng, 1989):
=IZ P~o H~,inrdr+D H~,outrdr [J]"
0 rw
i }
Substituting He inside and outside the center conductor from
Wm= ~ B. Hdv []]. (1.108) equations 1.111 and 1.112, respectively, and integrating gives
all space

Any change to this stored magnetic energy occurs when the


magnetic field changes with time according to Faraday's law.
W~ : i2[ 1v~ +#4 0 ffln(rs'~]\rwjl[J]' (1.114)

Once B and H have reached a steady-state, equation 1.108 for the 1-m section of coax.
provides a method to compute the time-stationary stored
magnetic energy.
A magnetic energy density Wm can be defined at every point 1.7.2 Energy Stored in an Inductor
r in space from the integrand of equation 1.108 as: Inductors are the primary circuit elements for storage of mag-
1 netic energy. Ideally, they are the only circuit elements with this
win(r) : ~ B ( r ) . H ( r ) [j/m3]. (1.109) property. The magnetic energy Wm stored by an inductor with
current I is as follows:
The total stored magnetic energy can be computed by integrat-
ing Wm throughout space as:
W m = ~ZI 2 [J]. (1.115)
Win= [ wm(r)dv [J]. (1.110)
,3 In this expression, L is the self-inductance of the inductor as
all space
discussed in Subsection 1.6.2.
With coupled inductors--such as when two or more coils
Example 1.15 are wrapped around a common high permeability core--the
We will compute the magnetic energy stored in a 1-m section energy expression becomes more complicated. In the case of
of a long coaxial cable shown in Figure 1.11. Using Amp6re's two coupled inductors with currents I1 and I2 in coils 1 and 2,
law, the magnetic field inside and outside the center conductor respectively, the energy stored in the magnetic field is (Paul
are, respectively, (Whites, 1998, Example 4.2): et al., 1998):
Ir 1 2 +L1211/2 [J],
Hin = ~bZ--5- r < rw [A/m] (1.111) Wm= LHI ( +~L22I~ (1.116)
L~r;
1 Magnetostatics 495

w h e r e Lll and L22 are the self-inductances of coils 1 and 2, mation used to solve for magnetic fields and magnetic fluxes
respectively, and L12( = L21 ) is the mutual inductance between (Cheng, 1989; Paul et al., 1998; Planus, 1978). Applications for
the two coils. As expected, the first two terms in equation 1.116 this method include the design of electrical generators, motors,
represent the magnetic energies stored in coils 1 and 2, respec- transformers, and actuators. Magnetic circuit analysis is quite
tively, while the last term is the energy stored in the mutual similar to electrical circuit analysis. Quantities that serve
inductances of the two-coil system. One potential subtlety is analogous purposes in both types of circuit analyses are listed
that these self-inductances in equation 1.116 are those com- side by side in Table 1.7.
puted for a coil with the other one present but having a current Magnetic circuit analysis is illustrated with the specific
equal to zero (Paul et aL, 1998). example of the toroid shown in Figure 1.12(A). There are two
primary assumptions made in magnetic circuit analysis (Paul
Example 1.16 et al., 1998). First, it is assumed that the permeability of the
The energy stored in a 1-m section of the long coaxial cable in structure is very large (# >> #0). Second, since # >> #0, it is
Figure 1.11 was computed to be equation 1.114 in example further assumed that all of the magnetic field lines flow along
1.15. This magnetic energy calculation will be repeated here but the magnetic core and do not deviate outside of the structure;
using the inductance expression of equation 1.115. The induc- that is, it is assumed there is no flux leakage out of the toroid in
tance for a 1-m section of coaxial cable is given from the third Figure 1.12(A). Applying Amp~re's law of equation 1.29 gives:
entry in Table 1.6 as:

L= #in(r') #o
~ H. dl = NI, (1.119)
(1.117) C
2~r 77w + ~ [H].
such that inside a linear magnetic core:
Using this inductance in equation 1.115 with a current I in the
coaxial cable gives: ~NI
B + = ~ - ~ - [T]. (1.120)

Wm =
1 [# ln(r'~
2 [2-rr krw/ + ~
#0112 [J]'
(1.118) Another common assumption in magnetic circuit analysis -
though not required - is that the cross-sectional dimensions
which is identical to equation 1.114 as expected.
In some situations, applying this procedure in reverse can
If/m
be a convenient method for computing inductance. That is, the
stored magnetic energy is computed first, and from this,
the inductance is determined using equation 1.115.

1.8 Magnetic Circuits


(A) Physical Geometry (B) Equivalent Magnetic Circuit
Magnetic circuit analysis is a technique that can be applied
to certain magnetic field problems to greatly simplify the F I G U R E 1.12 Toroid with High Permeability Core of Circular
solution. In short, this technique is a lumped-element approxi-. Cross-Sectional Area A

TABLE 1.7 Analogous Quantities in Electrical and Magnetic Circuit Analysis I

Electrical circuits Magnetic circuits

Conductivity [S/m] Permeability [H/m] //


EMF [V] V MMF [A] g~
Current [A] I Magnetic flux [Wb]
Resistance [1)] R = ±aA Reluctance [H 1]
Ohm's law V = IR Vm = t)mR
KVL (around a loop) Y~ Vi = ~ RjIi Vm,i = ~ RjOm,j
i j i J
KCL (at a junction) ~ Ij = 0 E ~bmj = 0
J J

1paul et al., (1998); Cheng (1989).


496 Keith W. Whites

are small with respect to the length (the "large aspect ratio" ent magnetic flux paths, as appropriate, then computing the
assumption). In these situations, B will be approximately uni- reluctances of the paths using equation 1.125. The last two
form over the cross section. Assuming that is the case here, entries in Table 1.7 list the laws used to solve magnetic circuit
then from equation 1.120: problems. In particular, the sum of mmfs around a closed loop
is equal to the sum of"reluctance drops" (KVL analogy), while
B4 ~ p N I = B [T]. (1.121) the sum of magnetic fluxes into a junction equals zero (KCL
2wa analogy) (Cheng, 1989; Paul et al., 1998)
Consequently, the magnetic flux @m in a core with cross-
Example 1.17
sectional area A will be approximately
The geometry shown in Figure 1.13(A) is used to illustrate the
pANI solution of magnetic field problems using magnetic circuit
I~m ,'~ B A -- [Wb], (1.122) analysis. The structure is assumed to have a square cross
2"rra
section of area 10 6 m 2, a core with #r = 1,000, and dimen-
and the flux will have this value all around the toroid. sions 11 = 1 cm,/3 = 3 cm, and 14 = 2 cm.
The equivalent magnetic circuit for the toroid in Fig. One distinguishing characteristic of this structure is the air
1.12(A) is developed by expressing equation 1.122 as the gap at the bottom of the center section shown in Figure
ratio of two quantities: 1.13(A). If the length of the air gap is small with respect to
the cross-sectional dimensions, we can ignore flux fringing (or
NI Vm "spreading out" of the B field lines) in the air gap (Plonus,
[Wb]. (1.123)
~Jm- (2rraX~ - - R 1978). Consequently, this gap can be simply modeled as an-
k PA/I
other reluctance as indicated by Rg in the equivalent magnetic
circuit of Figure 1.13(B).
In the numerator,
The goal here will be to solve for the magnetic flux density
in the air gap. Using equation 1.125 the four reluctances in
Vm=NI [A]. (1.124) Figure 1.13(B) can be calculated as:

Equation 1.124 shows what is called the magnetomotive force


(MMF) that serves an analogous function in this circuit as a R] - 211 + 14 _ 31.83 x 106 [H-l]. (1.126)
1000PoA
voltage source (EMF) in an electrical circuit. In the denomi-
nator of equation 1.123: R 2 = 14 - lg - 0.001/2 = 15.44 × 1 0 6 [H-l]. (1.127)
1000#oA
1
R =-- [H-l]. (1.125) R3 - 213 + 14 _ 63.66 × 106 [H-l].
pA (1.128)
1000PoA
Equation 1.125 shows the reluctance of the core (with mean lg _ 79.58 × 106 [H-l]. (1.129)
length 1), which is analogous to resistance as shown in Table R g - P° A
1.7. The equivalent magnetic circuit for the toroid is shown in
Figure 1.12(B). The magnetic flux through the source coil, I~m,1 , c a n be calcu-
Other magnetic field problems can be solved using this lated as the source mmf divided by the total reluctance seen by
magnetic circuit analysis by dividing the geometry into differ- the source as:

I1 , 6
Iffm, 1 ~1

10 mA
2000 II /2
turns II
~m,1 0.1 mm
~' I/fm, 3
1 mm
(A) PhysicalGeometry (B) Equivalent Magnetic Circuit

FIGURE 1.13 MagneticCircuit Geometry with a Small Air Gap


1 Magnetostatics 497

i)m, 1 --. V m -- NI
Kittel, C. (1996). Introduction to solid state physics. (7th ed.). New
Rtotal R1 + (R2 + Rg)IIR3 = 0.286 x 10-6[¥Vb]. York: John Wiley & Sons.
Magnet Sales & Manufacturing. (1995). Catalog 7, High-performance
(1.130) permanent magnets.
Paul, C.R., Whites, W., and Nasar, S.A. (1998). Introduction to electro-
Using "flux division" (which is analogous to current division magnetic fields. (3d ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
in electrical circuits), the magnetic flux through the air gap is Paul, C.R. (1992). Introduction to electromagnetic compatibility. New
then: York: John Wiley & Sons.
Plonus, M.A. (1978). Applied electromagnetics. New York: McGraw-
Hill.
R3 Ore.1 = 0.115 × 10-6[Wb]. (1.131) Pollock, D.D. (1993). Physical properties of materials for engineers.
@m,2 = ~P~3-[- ~PL2-[- ~ g (2d ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Ramo, S., Whinnery, ].R., and Van Duzer, T. (1994). Fields and waves
in communication electronics, (3d ed.). New York: John Wiley &
Sons.
References Schein, L.B. (1992). Electrophotography and development physics.
Bozorth, R.M. (1978). Ferromagnetism. New York: IEEE Press. (2d ed.). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Cheng, D.K. (1989). Field and wave electromagnetics. (2d ed.). Ulaby, ET. (2001). Fundamentals of applied electromagnetics. Upper
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Inan, U.S., and Inan, A.S. (1999). Engineering electromagnetics. Menlo Weast, R.C. (Ed.). (1984). CRC handbook of chemistry and physics.
Park, CA: Addison Wesley. (65th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Halliday, D., Resnick, R., and Krane, K.S. (2002). Physics. (5th ed.). Whites, K.W. (1998). Visual electromagneticsfor mathcad. New York:
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