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College of Engineering and Computer Science

Mechanical Engineering Department


Mechanical Engineering 370
Thermodynamics
Fall 2010 Course Number: 14319
Instructor: Larry Caretto
Unit Nine Homework Solutions, November 9, 2010
1. Oxygen gas is compressed in a piston-cylinder device from an initial state
of 0.8 m
3
/kg and 25
o
C to a nal state of 0.1 m
3
/kg and 28!
o
C. "etermine t#e
entropy c#ange of t#e oxygen for t#is process$ ass%me constant specic
#eats.
Assume that oxygen behaves as an !eal gas so that "e can use the e#uaton $or the entro%y
change o$ an !eal gas "th tem%erature an! s%ec$c volumes as the n!e%en!ent varables as
sho"n belo"&

+ =

1
2
1
2
1 2
1
2
1 2
ln ln , ln
2
1
v
v
R
T
T
c s s const c if
v
v
R
T
dT
c s s
v v
T
T
v
In ths case' (1 ) 2*
o
C ) 29+&1* ,' (2 ) 2+-
o
C ) *.0&1* ,' v1 ) 0&+ m
3
/0g an! v2 ) 0&1 m
3
/0g& For
oxygen' 1 ) 0&2*9+ 02/0g, $rom (able A31 on %age 910 an! cv ) 0&.+. 02/0g, at the mean
tem%erature o$ 429&1*

,' $rom (able A324b5 on %age 912& 6ubsttutng these numbers nto the
e#uaton $or constant heat ca%acty gves the !esre! result&

=
kg m
kg m
K kg
kJ
K
K
K kg
kJ
v
v
R
T
T
c s s
v
/ 8 . 0
/ 1 . 0
ln
2598 . 0
15 . 298
15 . 560
ln
686 . 0
ln ln
3
3
1
2
1
2
1 2
s2 s1 = -0.107 !"#!g$
2. & 1.5 m
3
ins%lated rigid tank contains 2.! kg of car'on dioxide at 100 k(a.
)o* paddle-*#eel *ork is done on t#e system %ntil t#e press%re in t#e
tank rises to 150 k(a. "etermine t#e entropy c#ange of t#e car'on dioxide
d%ring t#is process in k+/,. &ss%me constant specic #eats.
I$ "e assume that carbon !ox!e behaves as an !eal gas' "e can use the same e#uaton that
"e use! n the %revous %roblem to $n! the change n s%ec$c entro%y&

+ =

1
2
1
2
1 2
1
2
1 2
ln ln , ln
2
1
v
v
R
T
T
c s s const c if
v
v
R
T
dT
c s s
v v
T
T
v
7ere the volume s constant' so the 1ln4v2/v15 term s 8ero& 9e !o not have the tem%eratures' but
"e can $n! these n terms o$ other !ata usng the !eal gas la"& For carbon !ox!e' 1 ) 0&1++9
02/0g, $rom (able A31 on %age 910 :sng ths value $or 1' an! the gven values $or the other
!ata' gves the $ollo"ng values $or the tem%erature' $rom the !eal gas la"&
2acaran!a 4;ngneerng5 3*19 <al Co!e =hone: +1+&.--&.44+
;3mal: lcaretto>csun&e!u +34+ Fax: +1+&.--&-0.2
K
kJ
m kPa
K kg
kJ
kg
m kPa
mR
V P
T 10 . 294
1 1889 . 0
) 7 . 2 (
) 5 . 1 )( 100 (
3
3
1
1
=

= =
K
kJ
m kPa
K kg
kJ
kg
m kPa
mR
V P
T 15 . 441
1 1889 . 0
) 7 . 2 (
) 5 . 1 )( 150 (
3
3
2
2
=

= =
9e can nter%olate n (able A324b5 on %age 9.2 to $n! cv ) 0&-21. 02/0g, at the mean
tem%erature o$ 3.-&-*

,& 9e thus com%ute the s%ec$c entro%y change as $ollo"s&
( )
K kg
kJ
R
K
K
K kg
kJ
v
v
R
T
T
c s s
v

= +

=
2925 . 0
1 ln
10 . 294
15 . 441
ln
7215 . 0
ln ln
1
2
1
2
1 2
9e can no" com%ute the entro%y change n the !esre! unts o$ 02/,&
( ) ( )

= =
K kg
kJ
kg s s m S
2925 . 0
7 . 2
1 2
= 0.7%&& !"#$
Could we have used the equation for entropy change in terms of the pressure ratio
since we are given the initial and fnal pressures? The answer is yes, of course!
However we would then have to calculate an additional term in ln(P!P"#$ That
calculation is shown %elow where we compute cp & cv ' ( & 0&-21* 02/0g, ? 0&1++9
02/0g, ) 0&9104 02/0g,&
K kg
kJ
kPa
kPa
K kg
kJ
K
K
K kg
kJ
P
P
R
T
T
c s s
p

=
2925 . 0
100
150
ln
1889 . 0
10 . 294
15 . 441
ln
9104 . 0
ln ln
1
2
1
2
1 2
)s e*pected, the results are the same$
3. & piston-cylinder device contains 1.2 kg of nitrogen gas at 120 k(a and
2!
o
C. -#e gas is no* compressed slo*ly in a polytropic process d%ring
*#ic# (.
1.3
/ constant. -#e process ends *#en t#e vol%me is red%ced 'y
one-#alf. "etermine t#e entropy c#ange of nitrogen d%ring t#e process.
For =@
n
) constant' the en! states are relate! as $ollo"s: =1@1
n
) =2@2
n
) constant& 9e can
combne ths e#uaton "th the !eal gas e#uaton' =@ ) m1( to obtan the $ollo"ng result&
n n
n n n n
V
mRT
V
mRT
V
V
mRT
V P V
V
mRT
V P

= = = =
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
2 2 1
1
1
1 1
9e can cancel the common $actor o$ m1 on both s!es o$ the last e#uaton& 9hen "e !o ths' "e
see that the $nal tem%erature s relate! to the ntal tem%erature by the e#uaton (2 ) (14@1/@25
n31
&
In ths %roblem' (1 ) 2-
o
C ) 300&1* ,' @2/@1 ) A' an! n ) 1&3& (hs gves the $nal tem%erature as
4300&1* ,5425
1&331
) 3.9&* ,& I$ "e assume a constant heat ca%acty "e can use the value o$ cv at
the average tem%erature o$ 334&+ , ) 0&-43- 02/0g, $rom (able A324b5 on %age 912B the value o$
1 $or ntrogen' $rom (able A31 on %age 910 s 0&29.+ 02/0g,& :sng the $ormula $or !eal gas
entro%y change as a $uncton o$ tem%erature an! volume rato "th the !ata gven here gves the
s%ec$c entro%y change&
2acaran!a 4;ngneerng5 3*19 <al Co!e =hone: +1+&.--&.44+
;3mal: lcaretto>csun&e!u +34+ Fax: +1+&.--&-0.2
( )
K kg
kJ
K kg
kJ
K
K
K kg
kJ
v
v
R
T
T
c s s
v

=
0514 . 0
5 . 0 ln
2988 . 0
15 . 300
5 . 369
ln
7437 . 0
ln ln
1
2
1
2
1 2
9e no" $n! the total entro%y change
( ) ( )

= =
K kg
kJ
kg s s m S
0514 . 0
2 . 1
1 2
= 0.017 !"#$
0. & mass of 15 l'm of #eli%m %ndergoes a process from an initial state of 50
ft
3
/l'm and 80
o
1 to a nal state of 10 ft
3
/l'm and 200
o
1. "etermine t#e
entropy c#ange of t#e #eli%m d%ring t#is process2 ass%ming 3a4 t#e process
is reversi'le and 3'4 t#e process is irreversi'le.
6nce entro%y s %ro%erty an! "e are as0e! to com%ute the change n entro%y bet"een t"o gven
states' the ans"ers to %arts 4a5 an! 4b5 "ll be the same& For the same change n state the
change n entro%y s the same&
For helum' the gas constant 1 ) 0&49.1 Ctu/lbm1 $rom (able A31; on %age 934& 6nce helum s
a monatomc gas' ts heat ca%acty s constant over a "!e tem%erature range& 7ere "e "ll use
the value o$ cv ) 0&-*3 Ctu/lbm1 $rom (able A32;4a5 on %age 9.1& 9e $n! the entro%y change o$
an !eal gas' "th constant heat ca%actes' usng volume an! tem%erature as n!e%en!ent
varables as $ollo"s&
R lb
Btu
lb
ft
lb
ft
R lb
Btu
R
R
R lb
Btu
v
v
R
T
T
c s s
m
m
m
m m
v

=
6474 . 0
50
10
ln
4961 . 0
67 . 539
67 . 659
ln
753 . 0
ln ln
3
3
1
2
1
2
1 2
<ult%lyng ths by the mass gves the total entro%y change&
( ) ( )

= =
R lb
Btu
b s s m S
m
m
8092 . 0
15
1 2
= -&.71 !"#$
5 &ir is compressed in a piston cylinder device from 100 k(a and 1!
o
C to 800
k(a in a reversi'le adia'atic process. "etermine t#e nal temperat%re and
t#e *ork done d%ring t#is process ass%ming 3a4 constant specic #eats and
3'4 varia'le specic #eats for air
Cecause a reversble a!abatc %rocess s sentro%c' "e can $n! the $nal state $rom the
e#uatons $or an sentro%c %rocess n an !eal gas& I$ the s%ec$c heats are constant' the $nal
tem%erature n an !eal3gas sentro%c %rocess s $oun! $rom the e#uaton (2 ) (14=2/=15
40315/0
& For
ar' "th an ntal tem%erature o$ 1-
o
C ) 290&1* ,' "e can use the value o$ 0 ) 1&400 at 300 ,
$rom (able A324a5 on %age 911& (hs gves
( )
4 . 1
1 4 . 1 1
1
2
1 2
100
800
15 . 290

=
kPa
kPa
K
P
P
T T
k
k
= '2'.'$
2acaran!a 4;ngneerng5 3*19 <al Co!e =hone: +1+&.--&.44+
;3mal: lcaretto>csun&e!u +34+ Fax: +1+&.--&-0.2
For an close! system' the $rst la" gves 9 ) D E : ) D E m4u2 E u15& For an a!abatc %rocess
D ) 0 an! $or an !eal gas "th constant heat ca%actes' u ) cv( so that the "or0 s gven by
the $ollo"ng e#uaton: 9 ) m4u1 E u25 ) mcv4(1 E (25& At an average tem%erature o$ 40-&9 ,' "e
$n! that cv ) 0&-2- 02/0g, $rom (able A324b5 on %age 912& (hs gves the $ollo"ng result $or the
"or0&
( ) ( ) K K
K kg
kJ
T T c
m
W
w
v
5 . 525 15 . 290
727 . 0
2 1

= = =
= -171.1 !"#!g
For varable heat ca%acty "e use the $ollo"ng e#uaton $or an sentro%c %rocess n an !eal gas:
=2/=1 ) =r4(25/=r4(15 "here =r4(5 s $oun! $rom the ar tables& From (able A31- on %age 9*+ "e
$n! that =r4(1 ) 290&1* ,5 ) 1&2334 so that =r4(25 ) =r4(15 =2/=1 ) 41&233454+00 0=a5 / 4100 0=a5 )
9&+.-0& 9e nee! to $n! the value o$ ( $or "hch =r4(5 ) 9&+.-0B "e $n! ths by nter%olatng n
the ar tables bet"een =r4*20 ,5 ) 9&.+4 an! =r4*30 ,5 ) 10&3-&
( ) 684 . 9 867 . 9
684 . 9 37 . 10
520 530
520
2

+ =
K K
K T = '22.7$
A smlar nter%olaton gves us the nternal energy at ths $nal tem%erature&
( )
kg
kJ
kg
kJ
kg
kJ
kg
kJ
u 36 . 376 684 . 9 867 . 9
684 . 9 37 . 10
36 . 374 84 . 381
36 . 374
2
=

+ =
Also' by nter%olaton "e $n! that u1 ) u4290&1* ,5 ) 20-&02& (hus "e $n! the s%ec$c "or0' " )
9/m $rom the $ollo"ng e#uaton&
" ) u1 E u2 ) 20-&02 02/0g E 3-.&3. 02/0g ) 1&.( !"#!g&
5. )elium gas is compressed from &0 !*a and (0
o
C to +'0 !*a in a re,ersi-le adia-atic
process. Determine the final temperature and the .or! done/ assuming the process ta!es
place 0a1 in a piston c2linder de,ice and 0-1 in a stead2-flo. compressor.
6nce helum s a monatomc gas' ts heat ca%acty s constant over a "!e tem%erature range&
7ere "e "ll use the values o$ c% ) *&192. 02/0g,' cv ) 3&11*. 02/0g,' an! 0 ) 1&..- $rom (able
A324a5 on %age 911 For reversble' a!abatc com%resson the entro%y s constant an! the $nal
tem%erature can be $oun! $rom the $ollo"ng e#uaton $or !eal gases "th constant heat ca%acty
n an sentro%c %rocess: (2 ) (14=2/=15
40315/0
&
( ) K
kPa
kPa
K
P
P
T T
k
k
1 . 577
90
450
15 . 303
667 . 1
1 667 . 1 1
1
2
1 2
=

=

I$ ths %rocess ta0es %lace n a close! system the $rst la"' "th D ) 0' gves 9 ) E: ) m4u1 E
u25' so " ) 9/m ) u1 E u2 ) cv4(1 E (25 $or an !eal gas "th constant heat ca%actes&
( ) ( ) K K
K kg
kJ
T T c
m
W
w
v
1 . 577 15 . 303
1156 . 3
2 1

= = =
= -%'(.+ !"#!g
For an a!abatc stea!y3$lo" system "th one nlet an! one outlet an! neglgble changes n
0netc an! %otental energes' the "or0 4%er unt mass5 s gven by the $ollo"ng e#uaton: " ) hn
E hout& For an !eal gas "th constant heat ca%actes' hn E hout ) c%4(n E (out5& In ths case "e $n!
the "or0 as $ollo"s:
2acaran!a 4;ngneerng5 3*19 <al Co!e =hone: +1+&.--&.44+
;3mal: lcaretto>csun&e!u +34+ Fax: +1+&.--&-0.2
( ) ( ) K K
K kg
kJ
T T c
m
W
w
out in p
1 . 577 15 . 303
1926 . 5

= = =

= -1/+22.( !"#!g
2acaran!a 4;ngneerng5 3*19 <al Co!e =hone: +1+&.--&.44+
;3mal: lcaretto>csun&e!u +34+ Fax: +1+&.--&-0.2