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K n o wl e d g e Wo r t h S h a r i n g

Petrel TIPS&TRICKS from SCM



Petrel is a mark of Schlumberger
4801 Woodway Drive, Suite 150W Houston, TX 77056 www.scminc.com info@scminc.com
2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

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Building and Using Petrophysical Attributes

Mappers and modelers who have used Petrel for sometime may be unaware of this simple yet
extremely useful tool for calculating zone average attribute values. Its use allows rapid QC of
calculated log data and the calculation of field wide volumes. Use these methods in the early
stages of your modeling projects to ensure the framework and the data are ready to move into
geocellular modeling.
This TIPS&TRICKS explains how to create Zone Attributes from continuous (e.g. average value
for porosity) and discrete (e.g. average N:G from facies) logs and how to address some of the
stumbling blocks, such as:
Errors resulting from missing tops.
Naming issues (and how to avoid them) resulting from attributes entered directly from a
tops file.
Displaying attributes.

Well data attributes are part of the Well Tops file. These attributes can represent a value at a point
such as the top pick, in which case it is a top attribute. Attributes can also represent a value
between two tops, usually an average, in which case it is a zone attribute. Zone attributes are
commonly used in mapping projects. A typical mapping workflow using Zone attributes might be:
1. Import or create well logs and tops.
2. Create zone-average attributes for porosity.
3. Build porosity grids for each zone.
4. Generate displays of each grid, posting the associated data.
5. Use porosity grid in volume calculations.
Here, we will concentrate on Steps 2 and 3.
Petrel is a mark of Schlumberger
4801 Woodway Drive, Suite 150W Houston, TX 77056 www.scminc.com info@scminc.com
2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

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Figure: A generalized mapping workflow that uses the Zone attribute tool (see step 2 below) to
create the grid data.



Creating Zone Average Attributes
Multiple attributes can be stored with objects like tops, zones, grids and points, the same way
objects are stored in Petrel under folders. In this example we will concentrate on Zone Attributes
stored in a Well Tops object.




1 2 4
5
3
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2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

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All the above properties with the exception of the last two (Zone Porosity and Zone NtoG) are
predefined for each well top. Some values are routinely defined all the time and some are empty
until data is available to calculate them or values are entered manually. TWT Auto, TVT, and TST
are all automatic attributes calculated according to the time/depth relationship and the dip of the
stratigraphy in the well. Automatic attributes are dynamically updated whenever the well tops are
adjusted.
This example illustrates how to create the two user-defined zone attributes in the above list. Once
created, a Zone Attribute becomes a stored value with the zones in a Well Tops file. It can be
interpolated from Logs or Surfaces or it can be entered manually. Attributes must be assigned
one of six types; Continuous, Discrete, Boolean, String, Date or Derived. Here we will focus on
only Continuous and Discrete attributes.

What Zone Attributes should be calculated?
While many attributes may be calculated for the zones, the following are the most common.
Remember, these attributes are for the zones between the horizons and not for the horizons
themselves.







Continuous Attributes
Continuous attributes are attributes which may have decimal values such as porosity and
permeability. To create a continuous attribute, follow these steps:






Average Net Attribute (i.e.: Phi, Perm, Sw)
Attribute Thickness (i.e.: Phi*H)
Dominant Facies (Lithofacies)
Facies Thickness (Net Thickness)
Net-to-Gross Ratio (NTG)
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2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

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1. Right-Click on the Attribute Folder and select Insert new attribute.









2. Specify the type of attribute (Continuous in this case).




3. The Attribute dialog is displayed. Choose the desired template.
















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4801 Woodway Drive, Suite 150W Houston, TX 77056 www.scminc.com info@scminc.com
2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

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4. Go to the Attribute Operations tab:
a. Check the button To the zones at level
b. Specify which level to calculate
c. Select the log to be used for calculation
d. Choose the correct Average method
e. Consider any other parameters
f. Click Run to calculate the attributes





The Attribute(s) are added to the bottom of the list







Take care in selecting the averaging method for creating a continuous attribute using a continuous
log. Available methods are:
a. Arithmetic Typically used for attributes such as porosity, saturation and net/gross
because these are additive variables. The arithmetic mean is only correct for horizontal
permeability that is constant within each layer.
b. Harmonic Gives the effective vertical permeability if the reservoir is layered with
constant permeability in each layer. The harmonic mean works well with log normal
distributions. Used for permeability because it is sensitive to lower values. Only
positive values may be used with this method.
c. Geometric Normally a good estimate for permeability if it has no spatial correlation
and is log normally distributed. The geometric mean is sensitive to lower values, which
will have a greater influence on results. Only positive values may be used with this
method.
d. RMS (Root Mean Square) Will provide a bias towards high values.
e. Minimum Will sample the minimum value of the well log for each layer.
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2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

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f. Maximum Will sample the maximum value of the well log for each layer.
g. Integrate Will integrate (sum) the log between the two well tops.

The methods available for creating a continuous attribute using a discrete log are:
a. Most of Will select the discrete value which is most represented in the log.
b. Median Will sort the input values and select the center value. For example; if there are
5 input values, these are sorted by magnitude and then entry number 3 in the sequence
is selected.
c. Minimum Will sample the minimum value of the well log for each layer.
d. Maximum Will sample the maximum value of the well log for each layer.
e. Arithmetic Typically used for attributes such as porosity, saturation and net/gross
because these are additive variables. The arithmetic mean is only correct for horizontal
permeability that is constant within each layer.
f. Fraction Calculate the fraction of a particular log that belongs to a specific facies
between the two well tops according to the chosen depth scale (i.e. 0.285 means 28.5
percent of the log is the specific facies).
o Must also pick the facies of interest
g. Percentage Calculate the percentage of a particular log that belongs to a specific
facies between the two well tops according to the chosen depth scale (i.e. 28.5 means
28.5 percent of the log is the specific facies).
o Must also pick the facies of interest
h. Thickness Calculate the thickness of a particular facies on a log located between two
tops in a well according to the chosen depth scale.
o Must also pick the facies of interest







Petrel is a mark of Schlumberger
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2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

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Common Continuous Attributes and Parameters

Attribute Example Template Log Method Facies
Net
Porosity
Porosity Porosity Arithmetic N/A
Attribute
Thickness
Phi*H Thickness Depth Integrate N/A
Facies
Thickness
Net Thickness
Net-
NonNet
Thickness Net
Net-to-
Gross
Ratio
Att thick /
total thick
Net-to-
Gross
Net-
NonNet
Fraction Net
Net-to-
Gross
Percent
Att thick /
total thick
Net-to-
Gross
Net-
NonNet
Percentage Net

Discrete Attributes
Discrete attributes are integer attributes where the values fall into groups, such as facies (sand,
shale, etc.) or net (net or non-net). To create a discrete attribute, follow these steps:

1. Right-Click on the Attributes in the Well Tops Folder and select Insert new attribute.









2. Specify the type of attribute (Discrete in this case).


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4801 Woodway Drive, Suite 150W Houston, TX 77056 www.scminc.com info@scminc.com
2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

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3. The Attribute dialog is displayed. Choose the desired template.








4. Go to the Attribute Operations tab:
g. Check the button To the zones at level
h. Specify which level to calculate
i. Select the log to be used for calculation
j. Choose the correct Average method
k. Consider any other parameters
l. Click Run to calculate the attributes



Petrel is a mark of Schlumberger
4801 Woodway Drive, Suite 150W Houston, TX 77056 www.scminc.com info@scminc.com
2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

9

5. The Attribute is added to the bottom of the list








The methods available for creating a discrete attribute from a discrete log are:
a. Most of Will select the discrete value which is most represented in the log.
b. Median Will sort the input values and select the center value, e.g. if there are 7
input values, these are sorted by magnitude and then entry number 4 in the
sequence is selected.
c. Minimum Will sample the minimum value of the well log for each layer.
d. Maximum Will sample the maximum value of the well log for each layer.
e. Arithmetic Typically used for attributes such as porosity, saturation and net/gross
because these are additive variables. The arithmetic mean is only correct for
horizontal permeability that is constant within each layer.
Common Discrete Attributes and Parameters
Attribute Example Template Log Method Facies
Dominant
Facies
Lithologies Facies Most of N/A
Facies
Thickness
Sand
Thickness
Lithologies Facies Thickness Sand
Facies
Ratio
Shale
Ratio
Lithologies Facies Fraction Shale



Petrel is a mark of Schlumberger
4801 Woodway Drive, Suite 150W Houston, TX 77056 www.scminc.com info@scminc.com
2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

10

Incorrect Results Caused by Missing Well Tops
Tops should exist in all wells for all horizons that are in the Well Tops file to be used for making
zone attributes. This is because:
A Zone Average can only be calculated if a top and base of zone exist
If you dont pick a top, but build a grid, then you are letting Petrel pick the top (the position
where the grid passes through the well).

Picked top

No top, grid
projection


Methods such as Thickness find the difference between picks in a well; if the pick is missing, it
gets the wrong top or base for the zone. Therefore, all picks must exist for every well.
To make a Well Tops file with top picks for all horizons:
Insert a new Well Tops file and highlight it (make it bold)







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4801 Woodway Drive, Suite 150W Houston, TX 77056 www.scminc.com info@scminc.com
2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

11



Double click on the Wells folder and go to the Report tab
a. Press the 3D Grid icon
b. Check Iconize points as
c. Press button in front of Horizon in active Well Tops
d. Press the Run button





A spreadsheet report will appear showing all calculations and the well tops file will now have the
Stratigraphy folder filled with horizons and zones.


QC the results by comparing the statistics to the original picks (or put them on a Well Section).
Often, interpolated tops may not match the original tops perfectly, but it should be close. If its not
close, the 3D grid probably wasnt made correctly.
Petrel is a mark of Schlumberger
4801 Woodway Drive, Suite 150W Houston, TX 77056 www.scminc.com info@scminc.com
2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

12

Naming Issue When Using Attributes Directly From a Tops File
Petrel does not assign unique names to grids when they are built directly from the zones in the
Well Tops file. All zones are named according to the attribute used in the Make/Edit Surfaces
process. Renaming for clarity requires manual editing.






Workaround for Naming Issue
When extracting zone data from the Well Tops file as points, the points are automatically given
unique names. These names are used to automatically create grids with similar unique names.








Steps for extracting the Zone data are:
1. In the Attributes folder of the Well Tops file, highlight the name of the attribute to extract
(make it bold)
2. In the Stratigraphy folder, right-click on the zone (NOT the horizon) and select Convert the
active attribute to points






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4801 Woodway Drive, Suite 150W Houston, TX 77056 www.scminc.com info@scminc.com
2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

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3. Repeat for each zone (Results are put at the bottom of the Input tab)
4. Create a new zone-average folder and move the attribute data into it in stratigraphic order
(shallowest to deepest)





Build Zone Attribute grids by:
Double-click on Make/Edit Surfaces
and clear all parameters
Highlight the first point file in the
zone-average folder and insert as
the Main input: by using the blue
arrow
Check the box Run for all Main input
in the same folder (this builds grids
for all files in the folder)

In the Geometry tab, specify X-Y limits and increments from another grid, a file or by
entering the values.
In the Algorithms tab, select the Method (usually
Convergent Interpolation or sometimes,
Sequential Gaussian Simulation)
o Define the output range limits (often +and
a percent of the minimum and
maximum values)

In the Post-Processing tab, define the clipping limits (often truncated at valid limits of the
data type i.e. minimum=0 and
maximum=1, for porosity)





Petrel is a mark of Schlumberger
4801 Woodway Drive, Suite 150W Houston, TX 77056 www.scminc.com info@scminc.com
2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

14

Click Apply to build all grids

Dont forget QC.
Petrel is a mark of Schlumberger
4801 Woodway Drive, Suite 150W Houston, TX 77056 www.scminc.com info@scminc.com
2011 SCM E&P Solutions, Inc.

15

Displaying an Attribute
There are two controls for object/attribute display:
What is displayed
Position of display (the purple attribute)



To display an object and a selected attribute
Check the box in front of the object containing the
attributes
The radio button defines which attribute is displayed
The purple attribute defines the position where the
attribute is displayed. In this case, since Z is purple, the
Porosity attribute is displayed at the Z level.


To change the vertical position of the object, use Z-values of a different attribute to position the
object
Right-click on the attribute
Select Use as visual vertical position
The attribute name turns Purple and defines the objects
position