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International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management

Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014


[1]












ISBN: 978-989-95089-6-5
Edited by: Instituto Politcnico de Portalegre, Portugal
July 2014



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[2]

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE

President:
PhD. Anabela Sousa Oliveira, C3i/IPP (Technologies and Design Department), PORTUGAL.
(asoliveira@estgp.pt)

Vice- President:
PhD. Antonio Macas Garca , Extremadura University (Department of Mechanical
Engineering, Energy and Materials), SPAIN. (amacias@materiales.unex.es)

Coordinators:
- PhD. Eduardo Cuerda Correa, Extremadura University (Department of Organic and Inorganic
Chemistry), SPAIN. (emcc@unex.es)

- PhD. Joaqun R. Domnguez, Extremadura University (Department of Chemical Engineering
and Chemical Physics), SPAIN. (jrdoming@unex.es)

- PhD. Paulo Brito, C3i/IPP (Technologies and Design Department), PORTUGAL.
(pbrito@estgp.pt)

Vocals:
- PhD. Mrquez, M. C., Salamanca University (Department of Chemical and Textile
Engineering), SPAIN. (mcm@usal.es)
- PhD. Lus Silva, Polytechnic Institute of Porto (ISEP-School of Engineering), PORTUGAL,
(lms@isep.ipp.pt)

Technical Secretary
- Mnica Martins
E-mail: info@ewwm.net


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[3]
SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

-PhD. Beltrn de Heredia Alonso, J. (Extremadura University, Spain)
-PhD. Brito, P. (C3i/IPP, Portugal)
-PhD. Casquilho, M. (Lisbon Technical University, Portugal)
-PhD. Costa, M. (Lisbon Technical University, Portugal)
-PhD. Costa, C. (Salamanca University, Spain)
-PhD. Cuadros, P. (Extremadura University, Spain)
-PhD. Cuerda, E. (Extremadura University, Spain)
-PhD. Galn, J. (A Corua University, Spain)
-PhD. Domnguez, J. R. (Extremadura University, Spain)
-PhD. Gan, J. (Extremadura University, Spain)
-PhD. Jacob, S. (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil)
-PhD. Lpez, F. (Extremadura University, Spain)
-PhD. Macas, A. (Extremadura University, Spain)
-PhD. Marcos, F. (Madrid Polytechnic University, Spain)
-PhD. Mrquez, M. C. (Salamanca University, Spain)
-PhD. Mastral, A. (Institute of Carbochemistry, CSIC, Spain)
-PhD. Montejo, C. (Salamanca University, Spain)
-PhD. Moreira, J. (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil)
-PhD. Oliveira, A. (C3i/IPP, Portugal)
-PhD. Peres, Jos A. (Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro University, Portugal)
-PhD. Rodrigues, L. (C3i/IPP, Portugal)
-PhD. Romn, S. (Extremadura University, Spain)
-PhD. S, C. (ISEP/IPP, Portugal)
-PhD. Silva L. (ISEP/IPP, Portugal)
-PhD. Vieira Ferreira, L. F. (Lisbon Technical University, Portugal)

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[4]


ORGANIZERS































International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[5]
SPONSORS






























International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
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PARTNERS AND MEDIA PARTNERS



















International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[7]

Presentation


The Organizing Committee wishes to welcome all the participants of the International Congress
on Water, Waste and Energy, taking place in Porto from 16
th
to 18
th
July, 2014.

We hope that this congress is an opportunity for academics and scientists working in congress
related areas to share days of coexistence that allow the interchange of experiences in the different
thematic areas of the congress and, at the same time, create and fortify bonds of friendship and
work between different groups.

We would like to express our gratitude to the authors for submitting theirs works, to the Scientific
Committee and area coordinators for their dedication and professionalism on the revision all
submitted abstracts, to the members of the Organizing Committee for their work and availability,
to the C3i in Portalegre, to the University of Extremadura in Badajoz, to the University of
Salamanca and to the Polytechnic Institute of Porto for their total support as well as for the
confidence deposited in this event.

Welcome to the International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy. We wish you a happy
and fruitful stay in the beautiful city of Porto.

The Organizing Committee


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[8]
NDEX
A comparative study of structural and non-structural best management practices
confronting the pollution of water bodies because of highway runoff
D. Malamataris
(1)
, F. Kehagia
(2)
........................................................................................... 23
Radiological quality of water in the areas of old uranium mines
Fernando P. Carvalho
a
, Joo M. Oliveira, Margarida Malta ........................................... 24
Water self-sufficiency with separate treatment of household rainwater and
greywater
Joaquim Lloveras, Elisa Garca, Anna Garca, Mara Planas, Ariadna Rodrguez ....... 25
Pollutant loadings from highway stormwater runoff
D. Malamataris
(1)
, F. Kehagia
(2)
........................................................................................... 26
Adsorption of Cd(II) on hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite foam:
Determination of optimal conditions using factorial design methodology
Dany G. Kramer
1a,b,c
, Jos Heriberto de Oliveira
b
, Kesia K. S. Silva
b;
Joo B. S. Costa
e
;
Geraldo B. C. Jnior
d
Margarida J. Quina
a
, Licnio M. Gando-Ferreira
a
and Rasiah
Ladchumananandasivam
b
.................................................................................................... 27
The Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (pcbs) in River Thames Catchment
under the Scenarios of Climate Change
Qiong Lu
a
, , Monika Jrgens
b
, Andrew Johnson
c
, Paul Whitehead
d,*
.............................. 29
Special cause control charts for monitoring oxidability of drinking water
S. Elevli
(1)
, N. Uzgren
(2)
, D. Bingl
(3)
................................................................................... 30
Unsteady Pressure Field in a Cylinder Array Due to the Forced Vibration of a
Tube: Dynamic-mesh CFD and Experimental Study
Beatriz de Pedro Palomar
(1)
, Jorge L. Parrondo Gayo
(2)
, Jess M. Fernndez Oro
(3)
. . 31
Combined Processes for the Treatment of a Typical Hardwood Soaking Basin
Wastewater from Plywood Industry
D.Klauson(1), M.Viisimaa(1), E.Kattel(1), M.Trapido(1), A.Kivi (2), K.Klein (2),
S.Velling(2) and T.Tenno(2).................................................................................................. 33
Impact study of the addition of flusilazole to soils amended with different
percentages of peat
M.D. Urea-Amate,
(1)
, M.M. Socas-Viciana
(1)
, K. Ait Hami
(2)
, N. Debbagh
Boutarbouch
(1)
........................................................................................................................ 34
Influence of the working temperature in the adsorption of nitrate ions by mixed
oxides from hydrotalcite compounds
M.D. Urea-Amate
(1)
, M.M. Socas-Viciana
(1)
, J.L. Albarracn-Snchez
(1)
, N. Debbagh
Boutarbouch
(1)
....................................................................................................................... 35
Use of Red Mud as alternative iron source on the photo-Fenton process for a
textile dye degradation at a reactor and at the sunlight
Maria Lcia. P. Antunes
(1)
, L. Sottovia
(1)
........................................................................... 36
New dynamic system for removing paraquat from water
D. Ait-Sidhoum
(1)
, M.M. Socas-Viciana
(2)
, M.D. Urea-Amate
(2)
, N. Debbagh-
Boutarbouch
(2)
, A. Derdour
(1)
............................................................................................... 37
Controlled release systems of nitrogenous fertilizers based on hydrogels to prevent
water contamination
M.M. Socas-Viciana,
(1)
M.D. Urea-Amate
(1)
, M.M. Urbano-Juan
(1)
, N. Debbagh
Boutarbouch
(1)
, A. Belmonte Gallegos
(2)
.............................................................................. 38
Sustainable development of poultry slaughtering plants
Carlos Morales Polo
(1)
, Mara del Mar Cledera Castro
(2)
................................................. 39
Abatement of Hydrosoluble Pollutants in Turbid Suspensions by Photoactive
Transparent Coatings
Federico Persico
(1,2)
, Maurizio Sansotera
(1,2)
, Carlo Punta
(1)
, Walter Navarrini
(1,2)
........ 40

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[9]
Use of cellulosic residues to obtain adsorbents for water purification
Jess Beltran de Heredia
(1)
, Mario Fernndez-Pacheco, Elena Beltrn de Heredia ...... 42
Adsorbents from Eichhornia crassipes for water contaminant removal
Jess Beltran de Heredia
(1)
, Cristina Carmona, Elena Beltrn de Heredia .................... 43
Dynamic modelling of activated sludge process for leachate treatment
Javier Domnguez, Carlos Costa*, M Carmen Mrquez .................................................. 44
Evaluation of Water Management in Residential Buildings
S. Vilcekova
(1)
, E. Kridlova Burdova
(1)
............................................................................... 45
Elemental analysis of grey water samples by microwave plasma atomic emission
spectrometry
E. Baranyai
1
, A. Izbkin Szabolcsik
2
, A. Kecznn veges
2
, I. Bodnr
2
........................ 46
Limitations of brazilian law about drinking water
Victor Magalhes Duarte, MSc1 ................................................................................... 47
Correlations between organic content, microbial contamination and zeta potential
of greywater samples from the region of Northeastern Hungary
N. Boros
(1)
, A. Uveges
(1)
, A. Petranyi
(1)
, F. Peles
(2)
............................................................. 48
The strategy for water treatment on remediation and rehabilitation of uranium
and radium former mines of central region of portugal - achieved results and
future perspectives
S. Barbosa (1) ......................................................................................................................... 49
Using Technosols as a support to treatment of urban wastewater
D. Bolaos Guerrn
(1)
, F. Macas Vzquez
(1)
...................................................................... 50
Development of geochemical studies of waters and wastes with commercial
potential: the ING PAN experience
A. Porowski
(1)
, . Kruszewski
(1)
, M. Lewandowski
(1)
........................................................ 51
Quantity and Quality Assessment of Harvested Rainwater at University Campus
D. Kaposztasova
(1)
, M. Ahmidat

, Z. Vranayova, G. Markovic ......................................... 52
Removing of Cd(II) ions from model solutions by dried moss biomassvesicularia
dubyana under conditions of batch and continuous flow column systems
Anna uovsk, Zuzana Dreov, Miroslav Hornk, Martin Pipka, Jozef Augustn,
Juraj Lesn ..................................................................................................................... 53
Rhizofiltration of cd and zn by energy plants from wastewaters under conditions
of continuous flow systems
Zuzana Dreov, Anna uovsk, Miroslav Hornk, Martin Pipka, Juraj Lesn,
Jozef Augustn, Stanislav Hostin .......................................................................................... 54
Production of soil-cement bricks using water treatment residues
F. Arajo
(1)
, P. Scalize
(2)
, A. Albuquerque
(3)
, J. Lima
(4)
, F. Lima
(5)
................................ 55
Application of positron emission tomography in analysis of solute uptake and
accumulation in plant tissues
Denisa Partelov
1
, Juraj Lesn
1
, Miroslav Hornk
1
, Pavol Rajec
2
, Peter Kov
2
,
Stanislav Hostin
1
.................................................................................................................... 56
The adsorption of Benzothiazole by biochar: its adsorptive properties related to
the chemical and physical structure of biochar
M. Teresa Garca Ares1 ........................................................................................................ 57
BRA-007 B Cisterns Program, contributing to the policy of coexistence with the
Brazilian Semiarid
L.T. Assad
(1)
, C. Gualdani
(2)
................................................................................................ 58
Mandacaru Awards Innovative Projects and Practices for Access to Water and
Coexistence with Semiarid Regions
L.T Assad
(1)
, C. Gualdani
(2)
, M. Fontana
(3)
....................................................................... 59
Microbial community dynamics associated with the removal of veterinary
antibiotics in constructed wetlands microcosms

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[10]
Joana P. Fernandes
1,2
, C. Marisa R. Almeida
2
, Ana C. Pereira
1
, Iolanda Lourinha
1
,
Izabela Reis
2
, Pedro Carvalho
2
, M. Clara P. Basto
1,2
, Ana P. Mucha
2
......................... 60
Response of PAO to phosphorous overloads in an EBPR-SBR
A. Real
(1)
, A.M. Garca-Martnez
(1)
, J.R.Pidre
(1)
, M.D. Coello
(2)
, P.M. Pareja
(2)
, C.A.
Aragn
(1)
. ................................................................................................................................ 61
Development of porous alumina membranes for treatment of textile effluent
Kesia K.O.S. Silva
(1)
, Carlos A. Paskocimas
(2)
, Fernando R. Oliveira
(3)
, Jos H.O.
Nascimento
(4)
, Dany G.K.C. Silva
(5)
................................................................................... 62
Desorption of phenolic compounds on activated carbons
J. Madureira
(1)
, R. Melo
(1)
, S. Cabo Verde
(1)
, I. Matos
(2)
, J.P. Noronha
(2)
, I.M. Fonseca
(2)
, F.M.A. Margaa
(1)
............................................................................................................ 63
A Distributed Sensor Network Powered by Energy Harvesting Technologies for
Wastewater Process Monitoring
M. D. Serra, S. S. Guia, E. J. S. Teixeira, A. Albuquerque, A. Esprito Santo, ............... 64
J. C. Magrinho ....................................................................................................................... 64
Effects of ionizing radiation on agro-industrial wastewater
T. Silva
(1)
, R. Melo
(1)
, S. Cabo Verde
(1)
, F.M.A. Margaa
(1)
............................................... 65
Analysis of household generated greywater samples by ion chromatography
A. Izbekine Szabolcsik
(1)
, I. Bodnar ..................................................................................... 66
A Floating Treatment Wetland (FTW) system with increased amounts of biofilm
and enhanced hydraulic channeling
Laura Gallego and Leon Lassovsky ..................................................................................... 67
Architecture as an extensive antidesertification tool for dry landscapes
carolina gonzalez vives .......................................................................................................... 68
Determination of pollutant concentration in river profile
M. Zelekov
(1)
, V. Ondrejka Harbukov
(2)
, M. Rehnkov ...................................... 69
Reuse of effluent from dyeing process of polyamide fibers modified by Double
Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma
Fernando Ribeiro Oliveira
(1)
, Andrea Zille
(2)
and Antonio Pedro Souto
(2)
....................... 70
Tinctorial behaviour of curaua and banana fibers and dyeing wastewater
treatment by porous alumina membranes
Fernando R. Oliveira
(1)
, Felipe M. F. Galvo
(1)
, Ksia Karina O. S. Silva
(1)
, Jos
Heriberto O. Nascimento
(1)
and Antnio Pedro G.V. Souto
(2)
........................................... 71
Detailed treatment line for specific landfill leachate remediation and reuse based
on photo-Fenton and ozone (O3, O3/H2O2): toxicity and biodegradability
assessment
E. De-Torres-Socas
(1)
, C. Amor
(2)
, MS. Lucas
(2)
, JA. Peres
(2)
, I. Oller
(1)
, S. Malato
(1)
.... 72
Joan A. Cusid
(1)
, Lzaro V. Cremades
(2)
, Rafael Sitjar
(3)
.............................................. 73
The coastal change analysis of Kzlrmak Delta, Turkey
A. Sisman
(1)
, R. E.Yildirim
(1)
................................................................................................. 74
Characterization and bioremediation of meat industry wastewaters
Antnio Pirra
(1)
, Marco Lucas
(1)
, Pedro Carvalho
(2)
e Jos A. Peres
(1)
............................. 75
The Quality Investment of Underground Water in Turkey Using Principle
Component and Cluster Analysis
Y. Sisman
(1)
, , F. Geyikci
(2)
, U. Kirici
(1)
................................................................................. 76
Decolourisation of dyes by Electro-Fenton treatment using iron enriched
polyacrylamide as catalyst
Bocos
(1)
, M. Pazos, M.A. Sanromn ..................................................................................... 77
Application of algal biomass for biosorption of Cr (VI) and leather dyes:
optimization, kinetic and isotherm studies
Cobas
(1)
, O. Iglesias, M.A. Sanromn, M. Pazos ................................................................ 78

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[11]
The Development of Empirical Models to Predict Energy Utilization and
Efficiency in Wastewater Collection
D.M. Morgan Young, Ph.D, P.E.
(1)
....................................................................................... 79
Dissolved Oxygen modeling using Artificial Neural Networks
Silva. S. R e.
(1)
, Schimidt, F.
(2)
.............................................................................................. 80
Electro-Fenton treatment of winery wastewaters using iron alginate beads
Iglesias, M. Cobas
(1)
, M.A. Sanromn, M. Pazos ................................................................ 81
Catalytic wet air oxidation of caffeine in aqueous stream over metal catalyst
supported on hydrotalcites
J. Garca, G. Ovejero, A. Rodriguez, S. lvarez ................................................................. 82
Hydrogel-immobilized Pseudomonas stutzeri CECT 930 as bio-reactive medium for
permeable reactive barrier
L. Ferreira
(1)
, E. Rosales, M.A. Sanromn, M. Pazos ......................................................... 83
Biodegradation of pesticides by soil bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and
Bacillus halodurans ....................................................................................................... 84
Ferreira
(1)
, E. Rosales, M.A. Sanromn, M. Pazos ............................................................ 84
Effect of phosphorous on the methanogenic activity of wastewater treatment
microorganims
D. Mancipe, C. Costa, M.C. Mrquez
(1)
.............................................................................. 85
Influence of chemical and textural properties of the adsorbent on the adsorption of
caffeine present in a pharmaceutical wastewater
S. lvarez, J.L. Sotelo, G. Ovejero, A. Rodrguez, J. Garca............................................. 86
Rational use of water in dealership vehicles-case study
A.J.L. Marques, S. B. Silva, K. A.S. Cruvinel, M.A. Siqueira
(4)
E.M. Ferreira
(5)
......... 87
Water Distribution Management. The Contribution of the Equity of the Tariffs
A.S. Soares
1,2
, C.P. Oliveira
1,2
, F.J.P. Caetano
1,2
................................................................. 88
Application of acid-base treated vermiculite for sorption of textile dyestuffs
wastewaters
Wojciech Stawiski
(1)
, Snia Figueiredo
(1)
, Olga Freitas
(1)
, Agnieszka Wgrzyn
(2)
.......... 89
Immobilization of laccase on alumina or controlled pore glassuncoated
nanoparticles and decolorization of melanoidin from bakery effluents
Georgiou R.
1
, Tsiakiri E.P.
1
, Pantazaki A.A.
1*
................................................................... 90
Removal of antibiotics by green clay sorbents
A. V. Dordio*
1, 2
, Susana Miranda
1
, A. J. Palace Carvalho
1, 3
........................................ 91
Study of heavy metals elimination with calcium-loaded Sargassum muticum
biomass
L. Carro, M. Lpez-Garca, J. L. Barriada, R. Herrero, M.E. Sastre de Vicente ........... 92
Immobilization of industrial powdered red mud residues for arsenic elimination
M. Lpez-Garca, J.L. Barriada, R. Herrero, M. E. Sastre de Vicente ............................ 93
Synthesis of iron-fern composites for arsenic decontamination
M. Martnez-Cabanas, J.L. Barriada, R. Herrero. M.E. Sastre de Vicente ..................... 94
Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles immobilized on a silica gel for arsenic
decontamination
Martnez-Cabanas, M. Lpez-Garca, L. Carro, J.L. Barriada, ....................................... 95
Herrero, M.E. Sastre de Vicente .......................................................................................... 95
Water supply to Cartagena in the 19
th
century. Water intake of Fuente Vieja as an
example of water resouce in a semiarid region
F. J. Prez de la Cruz
(1)
, A. Trapote Jaume
(2)
.................................................................... 96
Advanced treatments with supercritical fluids for the regeneration of activated
carbon fibers saturated with phenol
F. Salvador Palacios, M.J. Snchez Montero, N. Martn Snchez, C. Izquierdo Misiego,
J. Pelaz Fernndez ................................................................................................................. 97

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[12]
Effect of treatment with supercritical fluids on the surface chemistry of activated
carbon fibers
M.J. Snchez Montero, N. Martn Snchez, C. Izquierdo Misiego, J. Pelaz Fernndez, F.
Salvador Palacios ................................................................................................................... 98
Plasma-assisted decomposition of atrazine traces in water
P. Vanraes
(1)
, A. Nikiforov
(1)
, E. Vyhnankova
(2)
, M. Subrt
(3)
, F. Krma
(2)
, M. Vvrov
(3)
, P. Surmont
(4)
, F. Lynen
(4)
, N. Daels
(5)(6)
, K. De Clerck
(5)
, S.W.H. Van Hulle
(6)
, J.
Vandamme
(7)
, J. Van Durme
(7)
, C. Leys
(1)
.......................................................................... 99
Comparison of various wastewater treatments for colour removal of reactive dye
baths
V. Lpez-Grimau, M. Vilaseca, C. Gutirrez-Bouzn ..................................................... 100
Evaluation of iron-modified diatomite as catalyst for catalytic ozonation of
wastewaters
W. Garca
(1)
, J.E. Duran
(1)
................................................................................................. 101
Photo-degradation of oxytetracycline as a way of remediation of aquaculture's
water
J. Leal
(1)
, E. B. H. Santos
(2)
, V. I. Esteves .......................................................................... 102
Shewhart-type Control Charts and Functional Data Analysis for Water Quality
Analysis based on a Global Indicator
C. Iglesias
(1)
, J. Sancho
(2)
, J.I. Pieiro
(1)
, J. Martnez
(2)
, J.J. Pastor
(2)
, J. Del Valle
(2)
, J.
Taboada
(1)
............................................................................................................................ 103
Negevs project
Pedro Villaras Lpez .......................................................................................................... 104
Zinc removal from aqueous solution by perlite and chitosan dispersed perlite
A.Elmas
(1)
, P. Demircivi
(2)
, G. Nasun-Saygili
(3)
................................................................ 105
Boron removal from aqueous solution by vermiculite in the presence of gallic acid
P. Demircivi
(1)
, G. Nasun-Saygili
(2)
.................................................................................... 106
Studies on Reduction of Water Consumption in the Production of Biodiesel
Angela M. Rocha
(1)
,

Fabio M. Fernandes
(2)
, Marcelo Santana Silva
(3)
, Ednildo A.
Torres
(4)
, Victor Magalhes Duarte
(5)
ngela Maria Ferreira Lima
(6)
, Manuel Jose
Saltarin
(7)
.............................................................................................................................. 107
Water desalination by capacitive deionization with porous structured carbon foam
electrodes
P.F. Rocha , L.M. Goncalves............................................................................................... 108
Aerobic biodegradability of winery effluents from the Vinho Verde region
(Portugal)
Antnio Pirra
(1)
e Antnio Oliveira
(2)
................................................................................. 109
Winery effluents treatment in Portugal: An uncomfortable overview
Antnio Pirra
(1)
e Antnio Oliveira
(2)
................................................................................. 110
Removal of Cr(III) from aqueous solutions by activated carbons prepared from
agricultural wastes. I.-Kinetics
A. Idriss-Bah
(1)
, M. Stitou
(2)
, E. M. Cuerda-Correa
(1)
, C. Fernndez-Gonzlez
(1)
, A.
Macas-Garca
(3)
, M. F. Alexandre-Franco
(1)
, V. Gmez Serrano
(1)
............................. 111
Removal of Cr(III) from aqueous solutions by activated carbons prepared from
agricultural wastes. II.-Equilibrium and themodynamics
A. Idriss-Bah
(1)
, M. Stitou
(2)
, E. M. Cuerda-Correa
(1)
, C. Fernndez-Gonzlez
(1)
, A.
Macas-Garca
(3)
, M. F. Alexandre-Franco
(1)
, V. Gmez Serrano
(1)
............................. 112
Motion System Design Activated Sludge Treatment Sludge Lixiviates
lvaro Chvez Porras
1
Felipe Pinzon
2
Angela Grijalba
3
................................................. 113
Application of water treatment sludge for producing concrete floor
F. Arajo
(1)
, P. Scalize
(2)
, A. Albuquerque
(3)
, J. Lima
(4)
, F. Lima
(5)
.............................. 115

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[13]
Program Operational Improvements and Physical Facilities of Water Treatment
Plants . Case Study: WTP Pirenpolis Gois
D. Paula
(1)
, E. Caixeta
(2)
, C. Oliveira
(3)
, P. Scalize
(4)
, A. Albuquerque
(5)
..................... 116
Characterization of effluent from jeans industry (indigo) in each stage of the textile
processing and possible treatments
Kesia K. O. S. Silva
(1)
, Luiz P. Brito
(2)
, Anaxmandro P. Silva
(3)
................................... 117
UV-tio2-H2O2 Process for Parabens Degradation: Optimizing the System
M.J. Muoz
(1)
, J.R. Domnguez
(1)
, P. Palo
(1)
T. Gonzlez
(1)
, J. Beltrn de Heredia
(1)
,
E.M. Cuerda-Correa
(2)
, J.A. Peres .................................................................................... 118
Optimization of the UV-H2O2 Oxidation of parabens
M.J. Muoz
(1)
, J.R. Domnguez
(1)
, P. Palo
(1)
T. Gonzlez
(1)
, J. Beltrn de Heredia
(1)
,
E.M. Cuerda-Correa
(2)
, J.A. Peres .................................................................................... 119
Acoustic Characteristics of a Hydraulic Pump and Noise Reduction due to Pump-
Circuit Interaction
Jens Keller, Eduardo Blanco, Ral Barrio, B. de Pedro Palomar, Jorge Parrondo ..... 120
Antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of passion fruit seed oil (Passiflora
setacea e Passiflora alata)
Paula, Regina Cssia Mattos de
(1)
; Pimentel, Caroline Guilherme
(1)
; Gomes, Antnio
(2)
,
Freitas, Suely Pereira
(1)
. ...................................................................................................... 122
Evaluation of the methylene blue adsorption by chemically activated waste animal
bones
U. Iriarte-Velasco
(1)
, I. Sierra
(1)
, E.A. Cepeda
(1)
, L. Zudaire
(1)
and J.L. Ayastuy
(2)
........ 123
Preparation of carbon-based adsorbents from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge with
CO2
I. Sierra
(1)
, U. Iriarte-Velasco
(1)
, E.A. Cepeda
(1)
, M. Gamero
(2)
and A.T. Aguayo
(2)
....... 124
Sewage sludge as a substrate for maize plants production
F. Soares dos Santos, L. Martins de Oliveira, C. E. Souza Teodoro, A. Portz, G. J.
Rodrigues .............................................................................................................................. 125
Changes in enzymatic and microbiological activities during adaptation of a
conventional activated sludge (CAS) to a CAS - OXIC settling anaerobic (OSA)
adapted process
Pablo Romero1, M.D. Coello1, J.M. Quiroga1, C.A. Aragn2 ....................................... 126
Direct identification of hazardous elements in ultra-fine and nanominerals from
coal fly ash obtained in the diesel co-firing
Marcel F. Braga
1
, Esdras P. S. Filho
1
, Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Gabriel S. Silva
1
, ............. 127
Luis F. O Silva
1
.................................................................................................................... 127
Sublimates and gaseous emissions from the Truman Shepherd Coal Fire, Floyd
County, Kentucky: a re-investigation following attempted mitigation of the fire
Marcel F. Braga
1
, Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Gabriela G. Lopes
1
, James C.Hower
2
, ............ 128
Luis F. O Silva
1
.................................................................................................................... 128
Ultrafine particles in sublimates from the Ruth Mullins Coal Fire, USA
Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Amanda N. Silva
1
, James C.Hower
2
, Marcos L. S. Oliveira
1
...... 129
Nano-mineralogical study of coal and fly ashes from coal-based captive power
plant (India)
Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Binoi Saikia; Gabriela G. Lopes
1
, Rivana B. Modesto
1
, Esdras P. S.
Filho
1
, Marcos L. S. Oliveira
1
............................................................................................. 130
Investigation of copper recovery from wastewater using steel cathode in
electrodeposition method
Aye Kuleyin, Hlya Erikli Uysal....................................................................................... 131
Mobility of Brazilian coal cleaning rejects by Fenton reaction: an accelerated
weathering procedure to evaluate potential environmental impacts

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[14]
Adriane P. Nordin
1
, Fabiane Marostega
1
, Andria G. De Mello
1
, Giovani A. Piva
1,
Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Luis F. O. Silva
1
............................................................................... 132
Mineralogical characterization of sediment. Rivers from Brazilian coal mining
acid drainage
Adriane P. Nordin
1
, Fabiane Marostega
1
, Gabriela G. Lopes
1
, Giovani A. Piva
1
,

Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Luis F. O. Silva
1
............................................................................... 133
Soil and cadmium relations in some Galician soils
Esdras P. S. Filho
1
, Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Jos J. O. Dias
1
, Giovani A. Piva
1
, Marcos L. S.
Oliveira
1
................................................................................................................................ 134
Multiwalled Carbon nanotubes in coal fire soot
Esdras Pereira de Souza Filho
1
, Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Gabriel S. Silva
1
, James C.Hower
2
,
Giovani A. Piva
1
, Marcos L. S. Oliveira
1
........................................................................... 135
Industrial Wastes: Red Mud and Kaolin Waste alternative use
Maria Lcia P. Antunes
(1)
, L. Sottovia
(1)
, E.C. Rangel
(1)
, N.C. Cruz
(1)
, J.A.S. Souza
(2)

F.T. Conceio
(3)
................................................................................................................... 136
Evaluation of physical properties and acoustic performance the agglomerates of
wood pellets with polyurethane residue
M. Zeni
(1)
, R. Rauber
(1)
, A. M. C. Grisa
(1)
, M. F. O. Nunes
(2)
.......................................... 137
The study of simulated soil degradation in the polyethylene films with pro-
degrading additive
A. M.C.Grisa , M. Zeni M. Savaris , RN Brandalise ...................................................... 138
Optimization of Cu(II) Biosorption Process by date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)
Seeds using Box-Behnken Design
S. etinta
(1)
, D. Bingl
(1)
, S. Elevli
(2)
, N. Uzgren
(3)
....................................................... 139
Chemical characterization and mineralogy of roasted pyrite ash of an abandoned
sulphuric acid production plant
Csar M. N. L. Cutruneo
1
, Jos J. O. Dias
1
, Colin R. Ward
2
, Xavier Querol
3
, Giovani A.
Piva
1
, Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Marcos L.S. Oliveira
1
........................................................... 140
Nickel and Vanadium speciation in comminuted coal and petroleum coke co-
combustion
Csar M. N. L. Cutruneo
1
, Jos J. O. Dias
1
, James C. Hower
2
, Giovani A. Piva
1,
Andria
G. De Mello
1
, Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Marcos L.S. Oliveira
1
.............................................. 141
Biodrying of agricultural wastes in greenhouses to be used as biomass
F.J. Colomer Mendoza
(1*)
, L. Herrera Prats
(1)
, J. Esteban Altabella
(1)
, J.V. Segarra
Murria
(2)
, V. Lucas Puchol
(2)
............................................................................................... 142
Biomethanization of refuse from composting plants
E. Cirstea
(2)
, A. Gallardo

Izquierdo
(1)
, F.J. Colomer Mendoza
(1*)
, N. Edo Alcn
(1)
........ 143
Evaluating the potential for using anaerobic digestate in hydroponic culture
H.M. West
(1)
, M. Othman
(1)
, M.L. Clarke
(2)
, S.J. Ramsden
(1)
....................................... 144
Environmental-friendly approaches for selective recovery of metals from spent
hydrodesulphurisation catalysts
Isabel S.S. Pinto, Helena M.V.M. Soares ........................................................................... 145
Tool to calculate leachate generation and 146management in landfills
J. Esteban Altabella, F. J. Colomer Mendoza, A. Gallardo Izquierdo, M. Carlos ........ 146
Evaluation of Waste Management in Residential Buildings
S. Vilcekova
(1)
, E. Kridlova Burdova
(1)
............................................................................. 147
Economical Evaluation of Municipal Waste Management System
B.Elevli
(1)
, T.Aydn
(2)
, S.Coruh
(3)
....................................................................................... 148
Economical Analysis of Organic Fertilizer Production from Poultry Waste
B.Elevli
(1)
, E.Uzgoren
(2)
, M.Ulucay
(3)
.............................................................................. 149
Is Arrocampo reservoir a thermal paradise for common carp?
E. Garca Ceballos, J. Martin, J.C. Escudero ................................................................. 150

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[15]
Influence of the N mineralization winery waste in two amended soils
I. Rodrguez-Salgado
1
, P. Prez-Rodrguez
1
, M. Daz-Ravia
2
, D. Fernndez-Calvio
3
,
J.C. Nvoa-Muoz
1
, M. Arias-Estvez
1
............................................................................. 151
Institutional Task Manager as a Tool for Environmental Management
Caroline Ferreira Bailon
(1)
, Paulo Roberto Rodrigues Bravo
(2)
, Edson Salviano da
Silva
(3)
.................................................................................................................................... 152
Short-term evolution of some chemical properties of a mineral waste from winery
industry
I. Rodrguez-Salgado
1
, P. Prez-Rodrguez
1
, L. Cutillas-Barreiro
1
, D. Fernndez-
Calvio
2
, M. Arias-Estvez
1
, J.C. Nvoa-Muoz
1
............................................................. 153
Preparation and characterization of foam glass of glass of fluorescent lamps using
alternative fonts by caco3 as foaming agent
I. Nunes
(1)
, V. Dos Santos
(1)
, R. N. Brandalise
(1)
.............................................................. 154
Influence of organic matter content in the mechanical properties of mortars
manufactured with Biomass Bottom Ashes
F. Agrela
(1)
, M.G. Beltrn
(1)
, M. Cabrera
(1)
, A. Barbudo
(1)
, J.R. Jimnez
(1)
................... 155
Physical and chemical characterization of Biomass Bottom Ashes to be applied in
civil constructions
F. Agrela
(1)*
, M. Cabrera
(1)
, M.G. Beltrn
(1)
, M.J. Rodrguez
(1)
, A.P. Galvn
(1)
........... 156
Alkaline hydrolisis for disinfection of organic waste
S. C. Pinho
1*
, M. F. Almeida
1


and O. C. Nunes
2
............................................................... 157
Study of a Physical Process for the Recovery of Gold and Copper from Printed
Circuit Boards
E. Ventura
(1, 2)
, A. Futuro
(2)
, J. Dias
(1,*)
............................................................................ 158
Decreasing Waste in BIM-based Industrial Projects Design and Execution
M. Isabel Jimnez Gmez, Moiss Blanco Caballero and Alberto Snchez Lite ........... 159
Comparative assessment of two urban sustainability systems: an application to
waste management in Cartagena (Spain)
A.I. Domenech
(1,2)
, P. Jimnez-Guerrero
(3)
, N. Ratola
(3)
................................................ 160
P. Jimnez-Guerrero, N. Ratola, J.P. Montvez ............................................................... 161
Levels and distribution of atmospheric persistent and emerging pollutants in the
southeast Iberian Peninsula
N. Ratola
(1,2)
, P. Jimnez-Guerrero
(1)
, S. Ramos
(2)
, J.A. Silva
(2)
, A. Alves
(2)
, J.P.
Montvez
(1)
........................................................................................................................... 162
Effect of amended mine tailings on the percentage seed germination of Noccaea
caerulescens
L.Benidire
(1)
, W. Aboudrar
(2)
, C. Sirguey
(3),
A. Boularbah
(4)
........................................... 163
Waste management characteristics on residential areas from bucharest and its
influence area
Gabriela Pavelescu
(1)
, Cristian I. Ioja
(2)
, Lidia Niculita
(3)
, Luminita Ghervase
(1)
, Dan
Savastru
(1)
............................................................................................................................ 164
Research of infiltration facility effectiveness for safe drainage of rainwater runoff
G. Markovi
(1)
, M. Zelekov
(2)
....................................................................................... 165
Effect of lignocellulosic biomass fermentation by-products (alcohols) on
pervaporation performance for the recovery of ethanol
E. Stange, O. Souza, N. Sellin, C. Marangoni ................................................................... 166
Aerobic biodegradation of the biofuel n-butanol and its relative effects on benzene
biodegradation in granitic soils
M. Rosas
(1,2)
, J. Cardoso
(1,2)
, M. M. Carvalho
(1,3)
, M. C. Vila
(1,2)
, M. T. Oliva-Teles
(3)
, A.
S. Danko
(1,2)
and A. Fiza
(1,2)
............................................................................................. 167
Environmental radioactivity in the Sabugal region and impact of past uranium
mining

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[16]
Fernando p. Carvalho
a
, joo m. Oliveira, margarida malta ............................................ 168
health care waste in the intensive care unit of the botucatu school of medicine
university hospital unesp emergency room
m.j.. Trevizani nitsche
(1)
, s.r.l.r. olbrich
(2)
, m.v.m.f.f.alves,
(3)
, p.a.araujo
(4)
,
d.d.matarazzo
(5)
, g.m.pessoa
(6)
, a.e.oliveira
(7)
. ................................................................... 169
healths service waste and selective collection - virtual publishing
m.j.. Trevizani nitsche
(1)
, s.r.l.r. olbrich
(2)
, m.v.m.f.f.alves,
(3)
, g.m.pessoa
(4)
, a.e.oliveira

(5)
. ........................................................................................................................................... 170
Open-loop recycling: use of fly ash and gypsum as construction and demolition
waste in cement manufacturing ................................................................................. 171
Use of alginate/chitosan polymeric membranes as an alternative for removal of
glyphosate herbicide from water
R. T. A. Carneiro
(1)
, T.B. Taketa
(2)
, M.A. de Morais
(2)
, C.M.G. da Silva
(3)
, M.M. Beppu
(2)
, L.F. Fraceto
(1)
................................................................................................................. 172
A diagnostic tool in water monitoring: rapid protocol with physical, chemical and
biological information
Frederico G. S. Beghelli
(1)
, Renata de Lima
(2)
, Vivian Lira
(1)
, Mnica Pscoli
(2)
,
Marcelo L.M. Pompo
(3)
, Viviane Moschini-Carlos
(1)
.................................................... 173
Speciation of zinc in plant tissues of giant reed (Arundo donax L.)
Barbora Michlekov Richveisov, Zuzana Dreov, Jozef Augustn, Miroslav Hornk,
Martin Pipka, Juraj Lesn ............................................................................................... 174
Phosphate removal from aqueus solution by electrocoagulation using iron and
stainless plate electrodes
nevzat beyazt, aye kuleyin ................................................................................................ 175
investigation of copper recovery from wastewater using steel cathode in
electrodeposition method
Aye Kuleyin, Hlya Erikli Uysal....................................................................................... 176
Determining the performance of vermicomposting process according to sewage
sludge characteristics and earthworm species
Hanine Suleiman
1
, Agnieszka Rorat
1,2
, Marcin Miczarek
2
, Anna Grobelak
2
, Barbara
Pytycz
3
, Magorzata Kacprzak
2
and Franck Vandenbulcke
1
......................................... 177
Final disposal of municipal solid waste: diagnostic management of the municipality
at Santo Antnio de Gois, GO, Brazil
E. De Melo Ferreira
(1)
, K. Alcione da Silva Cruvinel
(2)
, E. Costa
(3)
. .............................. 178
Mutual interactions between sewage sludge-amended soil and earthworms
comparison between Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei composting species
Agnieszka Rorat
1,2
, Hanine Suleiman
2
, Anna Grobelak
1
, Magorzata Kacprzak
1
, Franck
Vandenbulcke
2
and Barbara Pytycz
3
................................................................................ 179
A Physicochemical Optimization Studies for Particulate Suspension Pre-treatment
by Flocculation Prior to Dewatering
Benjamin A. Oyegbile
(1)
, Satyanarayana Narra
(1)
........................................................... 180
Use of eggshell and cementitious residues as sorption agents of zinc in a coarse-
textured soil
A. Karam
(1)
, M. Aider
(1)
, A. Kastyuchik
(1)
, A. Jaouich
(2)
............................................... 181
WEEE in Brazil: a retrospective 2002-2014
Wanda Maria Risso Gunther, Angela Cassia Rodrigues............................................... 182
Whey as a raw material to produce lactic acid and polilactide
P. Caballero
(1)
, B. Rodriguez-Morgado
(1,3)
, E. Remesal
(2)
, L. Martn
(3)
, J. Parrado
(1)
183
Betaine recovery from aqueous solutions by adsorption and flotation
N. Kotsiopoulou, N.K. Lazaridis ........................................................................................ 184
Melanoidins removal from simulated molasses effluents by coagulation-
flocculation

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[17]
T.I. Liakos, N.K. Lazaridis ................................................................................................. 185
Utilization of Oxygen Uptake Rate for predicting the biological treatment potential
of molasses wastewaters
G. Lionta
(1)
, K. Tzelepi
(1)
, Ch. Thoma
(1)
, A. Deligiannis
(1)
, C. Tsioptsias
(1)
, A. T.
Xatzopoulos
(2)
, G. Dimitreli,
(1)
,

P. Samaras
(1*)
................................................................. 186
Study of the anaerobic digestion treatment of baker's yeast effluents
M. Mischopoulou
(1),(2)
, P. Naidis
(2)
, P. Samaras
(1*)
.......................................................... 187
Study of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) during biological treatment of
molasses wastewater and co-treatment with activated carbon and visible light
D. C. Banti
(1*)
, M. Sofidou
(2)
, M. Lachani
(2)
, P. Samaras
(2)
, M. Mitrakas
(1)
................ 188
A novel valorisation process of sewage sludge. Enzyme production by Bacillus
licheniformis
B. Rodriguez-Morgado
1
, P. Caballero
1
, R. Jimenez
1
, Paloma Gallego
1
, M.A. Perez
1
,

M.
Tejada
2
, C. Aragn
3
, A. Garca-Martnez
3
, J.J. Salas
3
, J. Parrado
1
................................ 189
Characterization of biochar produced from different waste and invasive plants
R. Saiz-Rubio
(1)
, E. Dez
(1)
, J.R. Verde
(1)
, F. Macas-Garca
(1)
, F. Macas
(1)
.................... 190
Substrate interactions between 4-nitrophenol and 4-nitrotoluene during
biodegradation of their mixture
P. Karlova ............................................................................................................................. 191
Influence of Waste Addition on the Porosity of Clay-Based Ceramic Materials
R.J. Galn-Arboledas
(1)
, T. Cotes
(2)
, C. Martnez
(2)
, S. Bueno ....................................... 192
Material ....................................................................................................................... 192
Study of olive solid residue as an additive in bricks production
M.T. Cotes Palomino
(1)
, C. Martnez Garca
(2)
, D. Eliche Quesada
(3)
, F.J. Iglesias
Godino
(4)
, F.A. Corpas Iglesias
(5)
........................................................................................ 193
Innovative Teaching Techniques in Chemical Engineering: Development of
Laboratory Practices Videos in the Chemical Engineering Area
C. Martnez Garca, M.T. Palomino, J. Martnez Njera, A.M. Coves Martnez. ........ 194
Use of Land of Diatoms from Beer Industry for New Materials Manufacturing
C. Martnez Garca
(1)
, M.T. Cotes Palomino
(2)
, D. Eliche Quesada
(3)
, L. Prez
Villarejo
(4)
, S. Bueno Rodrguez
(5)
, R. Galn-Arboledas
(6)
............................................... 195
Study of the application of green/pruning wastes compost and vermicompost
extracts in tomato seedlings and analysis of their suppressive effect against fungi
pathogens
M.R. Morales Corts
(1)
, M.A. Gmez-Snchez, R. Prez-Snchez ................................... 196
Viability of using concrete residue to produce compacted soil blocks
F. X. R. F. Lima
(1)
, F. Arajo
(2)
.......................................................................................... 197
Olive mill wastewater treatment by Fenton's reagent and anaerobic biological
process
Carlos Amor
(1)
, Marco S. Lucas
(1)
, Antnio Pirra
(1)
, Juan Garcia
(2)
, Joaqun R.
Dominguez
(3)
, J. Beltrn de Heredia
(3)
, Jos A. Peres
(1)
................................................. 198
Biodecolorization of melanoidins from bakery effluents by the thermophilic
bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8
Tsiakiri E.P.
1
, Sombatzi E
1
., Lazaridis N.
2
, Pantazaki A.A.
1*
......................................... 199
Ammonia adsorption capacity for natural materials to be used in biofilters
R.F. Vieira, S.A. Figueiredo, O.M. Freitas, V.F. Domingues and C. Delerue-Matos .... 200
Investigation of olive mill wastewaters treatment by immobilized microalgae201
E. Martins
(1)
, D. Monteiro
(1)
and C. Fernandes
(1)*
.......................................................... 201
Dehydrated peel potato waste: potential as an ingredient for the food industry
M. S. Soares Jnior
(1)
, G. M. Bastos
(1)
, M. Caliari
(1)
, M. R. H. Campos
(2)
................... 202
Passion fruit waste: use in extruded breakfast cereal of broken rice
M. Caliari
(1)
, M. S. Soares Jnior
(1)
, P. A. Dos Santos
(2)
, L. F. Viana
(2)
....................... 203

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[18]
Obtention of biofertilizers/bioestimulants derived from tobacco wastes
M. Tejada
(1)
, Rodriguez-Morgado, B
(2)
, Bautista, J.D
(2)
, Parrado, J
(2)
. ......................... 204
Study of olive solid residue as an additive in bricks production
T. Cotes Palomino
(1)
, C. Martnez Garca
(1)
, D. Eliche Quesada
(1)
, F.J. Iglesias Godino
(1)
,
F.A. Corpas Iglesias
(1)
, M. Martn Lara
(2)
, M. Calero de Hoces
(2)
................................... 205
Analysis of the biosolids management treated with vermicomposting process for
soil remediation
A. Chvez
(1)
, A. Rodrguez, F. Pinzn ............................................................................... 206
Classification and physico-chemical analysis of mortar residue and soil for
manufacture of building materials
F. Lima
(1)
, F. Arajo
(2)
, P. Scalize
(3)
, A. Albuquerque
(4)
................................................ 207
Osmotic dehydration of jaboticaba (Myrciaria jabuticaba V. B.) Peel
L. G. C. Garcia
(1)
, C. Damiani
(2)
, F. Vendruscolo
(3)
, E. C. S. Vieira
(4)
, T. L. L. Silva
(5)
, F.
A. Silva
(6)
............................................................................................................................... 208
Valuation of oil extraction residue from moringa olefera seeds
B. Amante
(1)
, V. Lpez
(1)
, A. Aguilera, T. Smith
(2)
......................................................... 209
Resource recovery from anaerobic digestate: struvite crystallisation versus
ammonia stripping
D. Hidalgo
(1)
, F. Corona
(1)
, J. Del lamo
(1)
, A. Aguado
(1)
................................................. 211
Comparison of different treatment scenarios for mixtures of organic waste streams
in a centralised plant
D. Hidalgo
(1)
, J.M. Martn-Marroqun
(1)
........................................................................... 212
Cereal waste in Alava: Is it worth considering for energy production?
M.A. Ortuzar-Iragorri
(1)
, A. Aizpurua
(2)
, A. Castelln
(2)
.................................................. 213
SEMA: multi-objective & multi-criterion renewable energy planning model
F. Marcos Martn, L. Garca Benedicto, L. C. Domnguez Dafauce, E. Falcn Roque. 214
Domestic oven heated by a concentrating solar collector
Joaquim Lloveras ................................................................................................................ 215
Degradation of vinasse in Microbial Fuel Cell
G. Clemente Silva

, R. Jos Marassi, N. Tiele Vieira, C. E. Souza Teodoro

, F. Soares dos
Santos .................................................................................................................................... 216
Thermal pollution by almaraz nuclear plant (arrocampo); is it environmentally
harmful and detrimental for flora and fauna populations?
escudero-salvador, p.r., fernndez-lofaso, r., martn-gallardo, j. Y escudero j.c........... 217
Development of a simulator for an intermediate water depth wave energy
converter
P. Beiro
(1)
, C. Mala
(2)
...................................................................................................... 218
Numerical modelling and structural analysis of buoy geometries for a wave energy
converter
P.Beiro
(1)
, R. Felismina
(2)
, C. Mala
(2)
............................................................................ 219
Agronomic performance of five rapeseed varieties grown for biodiesel in the
northeast of Portugal
M. ngelo Rodrigues
(1)
, Margarida Arrobas
(1)
, Arlindo Almeida
(1)
............................. 220
Spanish energy reform impact on the economic aspect of sustainable treatment of
wasted nuclear fuel221
B. Yolanda Moratilla
(1)
, Juan Alcaraz, Carlos Torresano, Connor Skibeness .............. 221
Landfill gas electric motor degradation: identifying causes
D. Silva
(1)
, R. Barbosa, V. Ferreira, R. Neto, R. Paiva, A. Teixeira ............................... 222
Zn-Br flow batteries vs other types of energy storage systems
F. Marcos Martn
(1)
, L. Ruiz B
(2)
, M. Colera
(2)
, J. Chacn
(2)
L. C. Domnguez Dafauce
(1)
,
E. Falcn Roque
(1)
, M.I. Izquierdo Osado
(1)
...................................................................... 223

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[19]
Impacts of political decisions on subsidy system of renewable energy production
and accomplishment of 2020 national renewable targets in Hungary
Balzs Kulcsr, Zsolt Radics, Kroly Teperics ................................................................. 224
Solar-thermal hybridization biomass in the west of the Iberian Peninsula
F. Marcos Martn, L. C. Domnguez Dafauce, M.I. Izquierdo Osado, C. Pascual
Castao, E. Falcn Roque ................................................................................................... 225
Model for the election of a forest energy crop in Spain
M.I. Izquierdo Osado
(1)
, F. Marcos Martn
(1)
, C. Pascual Castao
(1)
, E. Falcn Roque
(1)
,
L.C. Domnguez Defauce
(1)
.................................................................................................. 226
Research and Development of the Effective Integration of Renewable Energy
Sources at thetechnical University of Kosice
D. Kaposztasova
(1)
, F. Vranay

, Z. Vranayova .................................................................. 227
Opportunities and challenges for reducing the impacts of production chain and use
of drinking water in offshore platforms in Bacia de Campos, Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil228
Victor Magalhes Duarte, msc, Luciano M. Queiroz, phd, Asher Kiperstok, phd ....... 228
Towards a renewable energy system in the Iberian Peninsula
J.P. Montvez, S. Jerez, A. Sarsa, P. Jimnez-Guerrero, N. Ratola, J. Ruiz ................. 229
Poly (acrilonitrileco-butadiene-co-styrene) with hollow glass microspheres for use
in automotive industry
R. Onzi
(1)
, M. P. Cunha
(1)
, L.B. Gonella
(1)
, R. N. Brandalise
(1)*
.................................... 230
Description of a pilot plant for biogas valorization by means of PEMFC
M. Martn
(1)
, T.R. Serna
(2)
, N. Moya
(3)
............................................................................ 231
Models for heating and for cooling an old building using water from a borehole
M. R. Duque, J. Pascoal ...................................................................................................... 232
Efficient fuel consume and minimum emission of swirling burners
Teresa Parra, Ruben Perez, Victor Mendoza, Francisco Castro .................................... 233
Thermodynamic and Exergoeconomic Comparison of the Technologies for
Combined Production of Electricity and Desalted Water
Jos J. Santos
(1)
, Atilio B. Loureno
(2)
, Marco A. Nascimento
(3)
, Electo E. Lora
(3)
........ 234
Microbial Fuel Cells: Design and Energy Supply to Advanced Oxidation Processes
M.A. Fernndez de Dios, E. Bocos
(1)
, M. Pazos, M.A. Sanromn .................................. 235
Study of vertical axis wind turbines
T. Parra
(1)
, F. Gonzlez
(1)
, M. Esteban
(1)
, C. Uzarraga
(3)
,, A. Gallegos
(2)
, F. Castro
(1)
... 236
Economic bottlenecks in the production of Biodiesel in Brazil: A Critical Analysis
Marcelo Santana Silva, Francisco L. C. Teixeira, Ednildo A. Torres, Angela M. Rocha,
Fabio M. Fernandes, Paula M. Soares, Fabio Konishi
,
Victor M. Duarte ...................... 237
Analysis of the influence of various parameters on pelletization of sawmill residues
J. I. Arranz
(1)
, T. Miranda, I. Montero, F. J. Seplveda, D. Cancho, C. V. Rojas ........ 238
Evaluation of cobalt-modified tio2 substrates as photocatalysts for water-splitting
hydrogen production
D. Camacho
(1)
, L. Pineda
(2)
, J.E. Duran
(1)
........................................................................ 239
Integration of solar energy in the cork boiling process, using a solar pilot plant240
M.J. Trinidad-Lozano
(1)
, L. Gonzlez-Martnez
(2)
, F.J. Yuste-Crdoba
(1)
, T.M.
Santiago-Codosero
(1)
, R. Garca-Mateos
(1)
, M. Biencinto-Murga
(2)
.............................. 240
Understanding of European Sea Energy sector structure through R&D social
network analysis
J. Larruscain
(1)
, A. Rodrguez-Andara
(2)
, R. Ro-Belver
(3)
, E. Cilleruelo
(4)
.................... 241
Technical-economic evaluator of thermal biomass facilities
J. M. Cosme
(1)
, F. Lpez
(2)
, C. Segador
(1)
, D. Encinas
(1)
, L. Cuadros
(1)
............................ 242
Analysis of feasibility and energy production parameters in photovoltaic
applications for electric self consumption in public buildings

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[20]
D. Encinas
1
, F. Lpez, C. Segador, J. M. Cosme, L. Cuadros ......................................... 243
Analysis and extraction of bio-oil by biomass pyrolysis: an alternative fuel source
for jet engines and gas turbines
J. Gutirrez Bravo
(1)
, R. Surez Mejas
(2)
, C.A. Galn Gonzlez
(1)
, F.J. Gonzlez
Valenzuela
(1)
, J.F. Gonzlez Gonzlez
(1)
........................................................................... 244
Bioclimatic zoning for moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) In the Iberian Peninsula
to produce biofuels.
M. Godino
(1)
, C. Arias, M.I. Izquierdo
(1)
............................................................................ 245
Thermal cracking of tar form the gasification of dried sewage sludge
I. Ortiz
(1)
, M. Benito
(1)
, J.M. Snchez
(1)
, E. Ruiz
(1)
, G. Garraln
(2)
, J.M. Murillo
(1)
....... 246
Modelling a gas turbine chp plant
L. M. S. Silva, C. S. A. S, A. L. S. Machado .................................................................... 247
Osmotic dehydration of microalgae by pure and crude glycerol
T. Mazzuca Sobczuk
(1)
, M.J. Ibez Gonzlez
(1)
, E. Molina Grima
(1)
and Y. Chisti
(2)
249
Microalgae oil for biofuel production
Mazzuca Sobczuk
(1)
, M.J. Ibez Gonzlez
(1)
and M. Mazzuca
(2)
................................. 250
Alternative Energy: Contribution to the Sustainability of Rural Development in
Mega-diverse Countries. Case Study: Colombia (Montes de Maria and Valle de
Aburr)
Jimenez Castilla
(1)
, N. Huertas
(2)
....................................................................................... 251
Analysis of waste pelletizing from cork industries
I. Montero
(1)
, M.T. Miranda, F.J. Seplveda, J.I. Arranz, M.J. Trinidad, S. Nogales . 252
Biodiesel production by two-step transesterification of castor oil
J.M. Encinar
(1)
, N. Snchez
(1)
, G. Martnez
(1)
, J.F. Gonzlez
(2)
, A. Pardal
(3)
................ 253
Influence of the presence of co-solvent in the transesterification of rapeseed oil
J.M. Encinar
(1)
, A. Pardal
(2)
, J.F. Gonzlez
(3)
, N. Snchez
(1)
........................................... 254
Biogas valorisation from sewage treatment plants into hydrogen by catalytic dry
reforming: development of new sol-gel nicezr catalysts
M. Benito
(1)
, L. Rodrguez-Valenciano .............................................................................. 255
Comparison of evolved pollutants among different types of biomass during
pyrolysis
M.T. Miranda
(1)
, S. Nogales-Delgado
(1)
, I. Montero
(1)
, S. Romn
(2)
, J. I. Arranz
(1)
, F. J.
Seplveda
(1)
........................................................................................................................... 256
Assessment of biodegradation rates during co-digestion of dairy wastewaters in
batch reactors
R. Coura, A. Ferraz,

J. Alonso, A.C. Rodrigues ............................................................... 257
Geothermal power stations serving small population regions in Portugal and
Hungary: Lessons from two case studies
P. Pires, M. Barros, Paulo Costa, M. Vilarinho Oliveira ................................................. 258
Proposed Methodology For Selecting The Most Suitable For Topology
Implementation Of A Microred in population centers with Homes For non-
interconnected zones (ZNI) in Colombia
J. Forero Quintero
(1)
, C. Duran Santos
(2)
, G. Ordoez Plata .......................................... 259
Study of the feasibility of installation of a hybrid system for electric power
generation using solar pond and biodigester
V. Mesquita do Nascimento
(1)
, G. Da Silva Melo, M. Pereira Hurtado Sierra, N. Goulart
Custodio, R. Alexandre Fernades Sanches ........................................................................ 260
Energetic valorization study of agro-industrial residues
Paulo S. D. Brito and Rui Subtil ......................................................................................... 261
Food Security and Energy Security: the impact of biodiesel
Maria Amlia Dias
(1)
, Antonio Srgio Haddad Alves
(1)
, Joo Nildo de Souza Vianna
(1)
............................................................................................................................................... 262

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[21]
Application of Renewable Energy as Sustainable Energy Systems in Isolated
Industrial Buildings
J. Bernal Len
(1)
, C. Argudo Espinoza, A. Alejandra Argudo ........................................ 263
Design of an Autonomous System to Produce Electricity and Water Desalinated
with Clean Energy
J. Bernal Len
(1)
, S. Ovidio Prez Bez , C. Argudo Espinoza ...................................... 264
Modelling a compact chp plant for an indoor swimming pool
C. S. R. Rocha, L. M. S. Silva, C. S. A. S ......................................................................... 265
Portuguese Municipal Solid Wastes Management System
Sandra Teixeira
(1)
, Eliseu Monteiro
(2)
, Valter Silva
(1)
, Abel Rouboa
(1)
, Paulo Brito
(2)
.. 267
A CFD analyse of the hydrodynamic in a desalination membrane with zigzag
spacers
Paula Sousa
(1)
, Armando Soares
(1)
, Abel Rouboa
(1)
, Eliseu Monteiro
(2)
, Paulo Brito
(2)
268
Energetic valorization study of agro-industrial residues
Paulo S. D. Brito and Rui Subtil ......................................................................................... 269
Use of Activated Carbon (Byproduct from Biomass Gasification Plant) to remove
tars present on condensates resultant from the same process
A.S. Oliveira
1,2
, C.M. Cardoso
1
, C.G. Maia
1
, P. Brito
1
..................................................... 270
Remediation of Emergent Contaminants Sensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy
through Fenton reactant and tio2 photocatalysis
A.S. Oliveira
1,2
, Gonalo Ribeiro
1
, C.G. Maia
1
, C.M. Cardoso
1
...................................... 271
Remediation of Emergent Contaminants from Pharmaceutical Industry through
Advanced Oxidation Processes
A.S. Oliveira
1,2
, A. Heitor
1
, C.M. Cardoso
1
.............................. Erro! Marcador no definido.
Advanced oxidation processes using Fenton's reagent for degradation of Remazol
Blue, RGB
Luis Freire
(1*)
, Luis Meira
(1*)
, Ctia Maia
(1)
, Anabela S. Oliveira
(1,2,3)
.......................... 272
Degradation of Dyes Indigoides with Fenton reagent for effluent treatment in
Textile Industries
Luis Meira
(1)
, Luis Freire
(1)
, Ctia Maia
(1)
, Anabela Oliveira
(1,2)
................................... 273



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[22]

AREA 1
WATER

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[23]
A comparative study of structural and non-structural best
management practices confronting the pollution of water bodies
because of highway runoff

D. Malamataris
(1)
, F. Kehagia
(2)

(1)
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124, Thessaloniki, Greece
Email: dimitrios.malamataris@gmail.com, Tel: +30 2310995708, Fax: +30 2310995789

(2)
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124, Thessaloniki, Greece.

1. Introduction Pollutants commonly found in highway runoff are: (a) solid particles that come from the
transit area of rural roads, dust and debris from the traffic or maintenance operations, (b) heavy metals,
such as cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, iron, chromium and nickel, (c) hydrocarbons like gasoline and oil, (d)
salts and nitrates that appear in winter months due to the use of salt on rural roads and (e) hazardous
substances due to an accident [1,2]. In most European countries the pollution control of highway runoff is
a new area of research. Best management practices (BMPs) are designed for avoiding or mitigating the
negative impacts of various pollutants that can be carried by rainfall into the groundwater and surface
waters. BMPs are divided into structural and non-structural methods. Structural BMPs trap and detain
runoff until pollutants settle out whereas non-structural BMPs are designed to reduce initial concentrations
of pollutants. Structural practices include retention infiltration filtration - vegetative practices,
constructed wetlands and retention oil basins. Non-structural methods include the definition of land use in
adjacent areas, vegetative practices, the usage of fertilizers and pesticides and the control of litter and debris
[3].
The mail objective of the paper is an overall consideration of different types of applied remedies. Towards
this purpose each of the main BMPs is first described and categorized according to its applicability and
then a comparative study of all practices is carried out. Characteristics of each BMP such as lifetime, need
of maintenance, constructive cost, applicability and environmental impacts are presented. As for the
structural BMPs, effectiveness and criteria for their evaluation and implementation are examined.
Suitability of each non-structural method for each kind of pollutants is also examined.

2. Results and Discussion Concerning the structural BMPs, the infiltration wells and infiltration trenches
present a more efficient performance in the removal of all pollutants in comparison with the other methods.
However, their application includes a high risk of groundwater contamination. Furthermore, sand filters
have the minimal environmental impacts. As for the non-structural BMPs, none of non-structural methods
is able to deal with all kind of pollutants and a combination of several methods is demanded.

3. Conclusions The present study concludes to the following findings. Firstly, a right combination of
structural and non-structural practices is required in order to confront the pollution of water bodies due to
highway runoff. Also, the more intensive use of non-structural practices ensures the lower concentration of
pollutants. Finally, the type of implemented practices depends on the consideration of a holistic approach
of the interaction between the highway design and the surrounding landscape.


4. References
[1] TRB, NCHRP Report 565, (2006), Evaluation of best management practices for highway runoff control.
[2] Forman R., et al., (2003), Road Ecology. Science and Solutions, Island Press, Washington.
[3] Pennsylvania Department of Environment Protection, Stormwater Best Practices manual, (2005).
Comprehensive stormwater management: Structural BMPs.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[24]
Radiological quality of water in the areas of old uranium mines

Fernando P. Carvalho
a
, Joo M. Oliveira, Margarida Malta

Instituto Superior Tcnico/Laboratrio de Proteco e Segurana Radiolgica,
Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, km 139, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS, Portugal
a
Tel.: +351219946332; E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

1. Introduction About 60 deposits of radioactive ore were exploited in Portugal, mostly in the districts of
Viseu, Guarda and Coimbra. The extracted ore was transported and processed for chemical separation of
uranium or radium in a reduced number of sites where the milling tailings were accumulated, such as
Urgeiria (Nelas), Cunha Baixa and Quinta do Bispo (Mangualde), and Bica (Sabugal). Most are located
in the catchment areas of Rivers Mondego, Do, Zzere and Tvora. The IST/LPSR (former ITN), in the
fulfilment of duties and obligations under EURATOM Treaty, carries out monitoring of environmental
radioactivity in the areas of old uranium mines. Radioactivity levels determined in water bodies of this
region, including drinking water, irrigation wells and rivers are presented and discussed herein.

2. Experimental - Samples of water from rivers, irrigation wells and from public water supply systems
were collected in the villages and towns in the uranium mining regions. All samples were analyzed by
radiochemistry and the radionuclide measurements, such as those of uranium (
238
U,
235
U,
234
U), thorium
(
232
Th,
230Th
), radium (
226
Ra), radioactive lead (
210
Pb), and polonium (
210
Po) made by alpha spectrometry
[1].

3. Results and Discussion - The mining waste and especially the milling tailings from uranium ore
processing contain high radioactivity levels [2]. Acid mine drainage was in general found associated with
high radioactivity levels. For example, in the Bica mine the low water pH showed a clear relationship with
uranium dispersed in groundwater. The acidic surface mine drainage, today is discharged into watercourses
after treatment. In these watercourses, such as Ribeira da Pantanha tributary to River Mondego,
contaminated sediments do exist still but were mostly from past discharges.
In villages close to old uranium mines, water from irrigation wells often showed low pH resulting mainly
from the use of sulfuric acid for in-situ uranium leaching in underground mine. The waters of these wells,
for example in the fields of Cunha-Baixa, displayed high concentrations of dissolved sulfate and uranium
and are not suitable for human consumption and for livestock. Their use in irrigation has caused
radionuclide accumulation in agriculture products [3].
In these villages and towns, drinking water from the tap currently contained relatively low levels of
radionuclides (natural background) with no signs of radioactivity enhancement. Furthermore, this water for
human consumption systematically displayed radioactivity levels below the recommended limits of 1.0
Bq/L and 0.5 Bq/L of total beta and total alpha radioactivity, respectively.

4. Conclusions - Drainage from old uranium mines displayed low pH and high radioactivity and generally
require treatment. Radioactivity levels in streams and rivers receiving mine drainage showed in some areas
radioactive contamination. Currently treated mine drainage contributed to decrease radioactivity levels in
streams and rivers. Water from irrigation wells in some areas was contaminated by mine acid drainage,
such as at Cunha Baixa, and is not suitable for human consumption and for irrigation. Villages with ancient
uranium mines nearby currently have public networks supplying water originating in artificial lakes in
major rivers of the region, such as the lakes of Aguieira, Fagilde, and Cabriz dams. This water showed
compliance with the recommended limits of total alpha and total beta radioactivity and is suitable for human
consumption.

5. References
[1] Carvalho FP, Oliveira JM. Alpha emitters from uranium mining in the environment. J Radioanal Nucl
Chem 2007; 274: 167-174.
[2] Carvalho FP, Oliveira JM, Lopes I, Batista A. Radio nuclides from past uranium mining in rivers of
Portugal. J Environ Radioact 2007; 98: 298-314.
[3] Carvalho FP, Oliveira JM, Malta M. Analyses of radionuclides in soil, water and agriculture products
near the Urgeiria uranium mine in Portugal. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 2009; 281:479-484.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[25]
Water self-sufficiency with separate treatment of household rainwater
and greywater

Joaquim Lloveras, Elisa Garca, Anna Garca, Mara Planas, Ariadna Rodrguez


Dpt. of Engineering Projects, Eng. School of Barcelona, Tech. University of Catalonia (UPC)
+34 934016642. E-mail: j.lloveras@upc.edu


1. Introduction In the developed world, the water collection, treatment and distribution system is
commonly centralized in huge installations. For example, water is stored in big dams, transported to water
plants where it is physically and chemically treated and distributed to
consumers by a network of pipes. Once used, wastewater (greywater or
blackwater) is channelled to large treatment plants and is finally returned
to rivers or the sea. This process requires constant maintenance and has
a high energy consumption and environmental impact.
A decentralized water system with separate rainwater and greywater
treatment for a detached house is presented. The design project was
conducted by a student group [1] in an Engineering Project course.

2. Project development The house, located in central Catalonia [2] in
an area with L = 690 l/m2 rainfall per year (average = 284 l/day), has a
150 m2 roof provided with a rainwater collection system. If the factor
for the use of rainwater is fp1 = 0.85, an average of lp= (L/365) m2 fp1 = 240 liters of rainwater per day
is available. Some would be purified for drinking, cooking and the dishwasher, and some would simply be
filtered for showers, toilets and the washing machine.
Daily water consumption per person is considered to be 100 l/person/day, 65% of which becomes greywater
(Gr=65 l). If a factor of fp2 = 0.9 is estimated for losses in the process, about 60 l/person are available for
reuse. This water is treated for reuse in toilets, among other possible uses and even could be purified. The
difference between individual consumption, C=100 l, and reusable greywater, C-Gr fp2=40 l/person/day,
is the final consumption of water per person, i.e. Cf=60 l. If the available rainwater is lp=240 l/day, could
be N=lp/Cf. The system here described is self-sufficient for N=6 persons.

3. Discussion and Conclusions The decentralization of small-scale water collection and processing is
more sustainable than the current large-scale production paradigm because rainwater and recycled water
are used in the same place. This system, however, requires maintenance by end users.
The system is comprised by hydraulic circuits for rainwater, drinkable rainwater, hot filtered rainwater,
greywater, treated greywater, and the sewer. Consumers are required to save water and use efficient
appliances. Moreover, the installation takes up space, consumes energy and needs maintenance.
Logically, rain is of the utmost importance, so periods of drought can be particularly negative. In Catalonia,
rainfall figures range between 350-400 and 1200 l/m2 year [3] which, in the above case, would imply water
self-sufficiency for 3 to 12 people, respectively.
This decentralized system could rely on micro neighbour support networks or small shared rainwater tanks,
among others.
The project work was completed with the calculation of project costs. Specifically, a long payback period
was estimated.

4. References
[1] G2: Elisa Garca Blanch, Anna Garca Gispert, Mara Planas Gisbert, Ariadna Rodrguez Farr (2013).
Estalvi daigua mitjanant tractament daiges pluvials i grises (Water saving by rainwater and greywater
treatment). Final project of Engineering Project course. 2nd semester of 2012-13. Degree in Chemical
Engineering. Eng. School of Barcelona (ETSEIB). Technical University of Catalonia (UPC).
[2] Catalonia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalonia, accessed 01/13/2014.
[3] Clima de Catalunya, http://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clima_de_Catalunya accessed 01/13/2014.

Image 1. Rainwater and greywater system

Image 1. Rainwater and greywater system

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[26]
Pollutant loadings from highway stormwater runoff

D. Malamataris
(1)
, F. Kehagia
(2)

(1)
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124, Thessaloniki, Greece
Email: dimitrios.malamataris@gmail.com, Tel: +30 2310995708, Fax: +30 2310995789

(2)
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124, Thessaloniki, Greece.

1. Introduction Non-point sources pollution from stormwater runoff of highways are among the most
important reasons for the surface and ground waters degradation. The major water quality problems
associated with highways are the erosion runoff during construction and maintenance periods, the
stormwater runoff during the life of the highway, accidents involving hazardous materials, and associated
surface and groundwater contamination [1]. These sources of pollution include atmospheric deposition and
vehicles. The runoff may cause important impacts to the environment since it can transfer various pollutants
like heavy metals, suspended solids, nutrients, hydrocarbons, chlorides etc. These pollutants are washed off
the highway during rainfall events and they have an adverse effect on human beings as well as on flora and
fauna. Heavy metals present little groundwater contamination threat in case of surface infiltration systems
are used in comparison to pesticides which are much more mobile [2, 3].
Surface waters (streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes) are vulnerable due to the fact that they are exposed to
contaminants released into the air and to discharges from point and non-point sources [4]. However, they
are easily accessible for assessment techniques. On the other hand, contamination of ground waters occurs
gradually because contaminants percolate downward through the soil at slow rates, where the ground serves
as a filter. Contamination of ground waters is less visible than that of surface waters, and clean up is quite
difficult and expensive.
In the framework of the present paper, the phenomenon of water bodies pollution due to the highway
runoff is examined. The most critical pollutants included in the runoff of the interurban roads together with
the factors affecting their pollutant load are also presented.

2. Results and Discussion The parameters most frequently monitored are sediments and heavy metals
due to their adverse impacts in aquatic biota. In some case, where contaminants can also reach ground
waters rather quickly through sinkholes in Karst areas, ground waters are more sensitive to contamination
because runoff passes with little if any infiltration through the soil. Rainfall volume is the most critical
factor that associates with the quality of runoff because it affects all kind of pollutants. Other crucial factors
are the duration and intensity of the rainfall and also the traffic volume which was preceded during the
rainfall event.

3. Conclusions Highway runoff has higher concentrations of many pollutants in comparison to typical
urban stormwater. Monitoring pollutant sources in highways should be a crucial consideration during runoff
projects. Washoff during rain events, and fugitive dust losses due to traffic and wind turbulence,
significantly affect the role of different stormwater management practices. The knowledge of pollutant
concentrations is needed in order to design the most appropriate structural and non-structural best
management practices.


4. References
[1] Pitt R. (2001) Stormwater management for highway projects. Symposium on the pollution of water
sources from road run-off. Tel Aviv University, Israel.
[2] Mikkelsen, P.S., H. Madsen, H. Rosgjerg, and P. Harremos (1996a) Properties of extreme point rainfall
III: Identification of spatial inter-site correlation structure. Atmospheric Research.
[3] Mikkelsen, P.S., K. Arngjerg-Nielsen, and P. Harremos (1996b) Consequences for established design
practice from geographical variation of historical rainfall data. Proceedings of the 7th International
Conference on Urban Storm Drainage. Hannover, Germany.
[4] G, K. Young, S. Stein, P. Cole, T. Kammer, F. Graziano, and F. Bank, (1996) Evaluation and
Management of Highway Runoff Water Quality. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway
Administration, FHWA-PD-96-032, Washington, D.C.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[27]
Adsorption of Cd(II) on hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite foam:
Determination of optimal conditions using factorial design
methodology

Dany G. Kramer
1a,b,c
, Jos Heriberto de Oliveira
b
, Kesia K. S. Silva
b;
Joo B. S. Costa
e
;
Geraldo B. C. Jnior
d
Margarida J. Quina
a
, Licnio M. Gando-Ferreira
a1
and Rasiah
Ladchumananandasivam
b

(1)
FACISA Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte Santa Cruz RN Brazil.
dgkcs@yahoo.com.br. + 55 84 32912411

a
Centre of Chemical Processes Engineering and Forest Products (CIEQPF), Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Coimbra, Rua Slvio Lima, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal
b
Centro de Tecnologia, UFRN- Natal-RN-Brasil. Natal. Rio Grande do Norte Brasil


c
Faculdade de Cincias da Sade do Trari FACISA UFRN.
d
Department of Chemical Engineering - UFRN- Natal-RN-Brasil. Natal. Rio Grande do Norte Brasil
e
Department of Clinical Analysis UFRN-Brazil.

1. Introduction Heavy metals represent an environmental problem of contamination of water and soils,
and as major emission sources: mining, fertilizer industries, textile industries and mills of batteries[1-3].
The hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite produced for removal Cd (II) from aqueous solution [3].
Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the interaction of various factors on the cadmium adsorption from
aqueous solution by hydroxyapatite / polyurethane composite.

2. Experimental The experimental variables were pH of the solution (2.0 < A <6.0), initial concentrations
of cadmium in solution (50 < B <150 mg / L), adsorbent mass (0.02 < C < 0.04 g) and the time of process
(6 < D <24 h). The experimental factors were analyzed with Statistica software 10.0. The experimental
results and the statistical analysis show that the removal rate (Y%) is higher initial concentrations of
cadmium in lower and higher pH ranges.

3. Results and Discussion - Interactions were considered statistically significant pH (A) and the initial
concentration of cadmium in solution (B) Figure 01.


Figure 05: Results of Pareto Analysis: A All the Facators; B Factors A and B.

4. Conclusions Regarding the percentage of HAp in the foam, it was possible to observe that the best
performance for the composite PU / HAp with adsorption rate of 85%.

5. References
1. J. EDWARDS. W., C. PROZIALECK. Cadmium, diabetes and chronic kidney disease.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.Volume 238, Issue 3, 1 August 2009, Pages 289293




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[28]
2. I. MOBASHERPOUR, E. SALAHI, M. PAZOUKI. Removal of divalent cadmium cations by
means of synthetic nano crystallite hydroxyapatite. Desalination Volume 266, Issues 13, 31
January 2011, Pages 142148
3. L. M. POPESCU, C. F. RUSTI, R. M. PITICESCU, T. BURUIANA, T. VALERO AND S.
KINTZIOS. Synthesis and characterization of acid polyurethanehydroxyapatite composites for
biomedical applications. Journal of Composite Materials 2012.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[29]
Qiong Lu PHD
School of Geography and the Environment




The Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in River
Thames Catchment under the Scenarios of Climate Change

Qiong Lu
a
, , Monika Jrgens
b
, Andrew Johnson
c
, Paul Whitehead
d,*

1.
School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, OX1 3QY, Oxford, UK


2.
Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB, UK


3.
Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB, UK


4.
School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, OX1 3QY, Oxford, UK



Abstract:

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are among the initial 12 POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) under
Stockholm Convention. In response to their adverse impacts, PCBs have been eliminated and reduced in
production and use for more than 25 years in the UK, which controlled the concentration of PCBs in air
and surface water at relatively low levels. In River Thames Catchment, the concentrations of PCBs in water
are almost always detected to be lower than the level of EU EQS. However, the concentrations in fishes
were detected to be significantly high. And due to the property of hydrophobicity, PCBs are likely to
accumulate in the sediment which contains rich organic compounds. To better understand the current
distribution and their potential risk to ecosystem and human health, a level III fugacity model is applied to
selected PCB congeners in River Thames Catchment. The performance of the modelling is evaluated
against observed data collected from the Environment Agency WIMS database and a series of biological
analyse experiments carried out in University of Lancaster. The modelled concentrations of the selected
PCBs in fish and sediment are the highest in the catchment. But, the majority of the PCBs are estimated to
locate in the soil.

The fate of PCBs in catchment can also be related to different drivers. Climate change is one of the potential
drivers that can alter the fate of PCBs in catchment significantly. We used the fugacity level III model to
assess the influence of changes in temperature, wind speed, precipitation patterns, degradations rates, soil
properties and other factors that forecast in the two IPCC climate change scenarios on the fate PCBs in
River Thames Catchment. There is noticeable difference between the modelled behaviour of PCBs under
the two scenarios. Based on the modelling results, management and adaption strategies towards climate
change are provided and assessed to provide guidelines for decision making.

Key words:

PCBs
Fugacity
Model
River Thames
Climate Change
Fish Archive

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[30]
Special cause control charts
for monitoring oxidability of drinking water

S. Elevli
(1)
, N. Uzgren
(2)
, D. Bingl
(3)


(1)
Ondokuz Mayis University, Industrial Engineering Department, Samsun, Turkey
Tel: +90 362 312 19 19/1564 e-mail: sermin.elevli@omu.edu.tr

(2)
Dumlupnar University, Department of Business Administration, Kutahya, Turkey

(3
Kocaeli University, Chemistry Department, Kocaeli, Turkey


1. Introduction Oxidability, also referred to as permanganate index,
is mainly used to characterize the quality of drinking water. It is a
conventional measure of contamination of water with organic and
oxidable inorganic matters. Since oxidability is an important
parameter to evaluate the organic pollution for water sources, it is very
important to monitor the variations in this measure by using control
charts and to analyze this variability on the base of specifications. As
long as the chart does not signal the existence of an out-of-control
state, the process is thought to be operating in statistical control. The
basic assumption in standard applications of control charts is that observations obtained from the process
are independent and identically distributed. However, the independence assumption is often violated in
practice as autocorrelation amongst the observations becomes an inherent characteristic in the chemical
processes [1-4]. Since any wrong judgment about process stability causes waste of time and money due to
unnecessary interventions to process, it is important to investigate the independence assumption firstly and
then to use the suitable control chart type. If autocorrelation is recognized in data, appropriate time series
model can be used to model the correlative structure and then control charts can be applied to the
independent and identically distributed stream of the residuals. This kind of control charts are called as
Special Cause Control (SCC) Chart.

2. Results and Discussion Oxidability data of 4 months between the date of August 2013 and November
2013 have been obtained from the monthly reports of Samsun Metropolitan Municipality General
Directorate of Water and Sewage Administration. Since autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation plots
indicated a high degree of correlation for consecutive data points, SCC Chart which considers the impact
of autocorrelation was used for monitoring oxidability data (Image 1). SCC chart was based on
ARIMA(1,1,1) time series model.

3. Conclusion The results showed that SCC chart is more appropriate for
autocorrelated oxidability data since it provides a higher probability of coverage
than Individual Control (IC) chart (Image 2). According to SCC chart, there are
three points beyond control limits indicating out of control situation. Therefore,
sources of variability should be investigated and eliminated.

4. References

[1] A. Tasdemir, Physicochem. Probl. Miner. Process., 48(2), 2012, 495-512
[2] S. Elevli, N. Uzgoren, M. Savas, Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 68, 2009, 11-17
[3] E.M. Smeti, D. E. Koronakis, S. K. Golfinopoulos, Water Research, 41, 2007, 2679-2689
[4] E.M. Smeti, N. C. Thanasoulias, L. P. Kousouris, P. C. Tzoumerkas, Desalination, 213, 2007, 273-281
Image 2. SCC Chart

Image 1. Autocorrelation Plot


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[31]
Unsteady Pressure Field in a Cylinder Array Due to the Forced
Vibration of a Tube: Dynamic-mesh CFD and Experimental Study.
Beatriz de Pedro Palomar
(1)
, Jorge L. Parrondo Gayo
(2)
, Jess M. Fernndez Oro
(3)
.
E.P.I de Gijn, Departamento de Energa, rea de Mecnica de Fluidos.
(1)
pedrobeatriz@uniovi.es Tlf: 985182661,
(2)
parrondo@uniovi.es
(3)
jesusfo@uniovi.es

1. Introduction Bundles of cylinders subject to cross-flow can develop self-
excited vibrations when the cross-flow velocity exceeds a certain critical value. This
is a well-known problem in the case of the tubes in shell-and-tube heat exchangers.
This phenomenon, usually referred to as fluidelastic instability (FI), has been widely
investigated during decades, in order to define limit conditions that ensure the safe
(stable) operation of the systems involved. Most of the theoretical models proposed
in the technical literature suggest that the critical conditions for instability are very
much dependent on the transmission speed of the perturbations along the cross-flow
and in particular, on the delay for the flow to follow the oscillations of the tubes. In
the present paper, the experimental study of such propagation is one of the principal
objectives of this work. For that purpose, a home-made experimental facility has
been designed and constructed with the possibility of forced-vibrating tubes.
Additionally, CFD calculations in the same conditions (i.e., using dynamic mesh)
were developed by means of the commercial code Fluent (Fig I). As a secondary
objective, a good agreement between experimental measurements and simulation
results would justify the suitability of the proposed CFD model for the FI study.
2. Methodology and results - A specially designed test set-up consisting in a parallel
triangular tube array in which one of the tubes is mechanically forced to vibrate in the transversal direction
was built for this work (Fig II). For a number of relative positions acceleration and pressure waves signal
were simultaneously captured and analysed in the frequency domain. Fluctuation data was afterwards
correlated with the displacement for the
vibrating tube, for both amplitude and phase domains (Figs. III and IV).
CFD calculations for the same parallel triangular array were conducted by
means of the commercial code Fluent. The model includes one or more
vibrating cylinders either in streamwise or in the transverse direction, which
requires a dynamic grid that has to be redefined for each time step. Two
different modes were considered: forced vibration, in order to study pressure
waves propagation, and free vibration so as to determine the stability threshold
for different mass-damping parameters.
The results show that, given a cylinder array with known geometrical and
mechanical properties, the net damping of the system depends strongly on the
cross-flow velocity: initial perturbations can either fade off (net positive
damping) or grow up to limit cycle oscillations (net negative damping). For
the latter, vibration amplitude depends on the cross-flow velocity too. These
CFD results can also be used to establish stability conditions for each cylinder
array. In the last section of the paper, the critical limits predicted for several
mass damping values are compared to some of the stability maps proposed
from experimental data in the literature [1].
4. Conclusions The main conclusions derived from this study are:
1) The net damping of the fluid-structure system, calculated from the time history
predictions of the cylinder vibrations, was found to be linearly dependent on the cross-flow velocity.
Increasing the cross-flow velocity makes damping to reduce from positive
values down to zero and then to negative values.
5. Amplitude and phase of the pressure waves observed experimentally in
forced vibration were found to be potentially and linearly dependent on the vibration frequency,
respectively.
6. When contrasting the model predictions with the experimental data reported in the technical literature
[1] and also with measurements obtained in the laboratory tests, a satisfactory good agreement was found,
thus validating the adequacy of the methodology used.
4)The CFD model proposed do really predict the apparition of instability when the upstream velocity
overpass a certain critical value and, moreover, allow for the analysis of the behavior of the coupled system
in instability conditions, with reasonable computational costs.

Fig I: Velocity fields
of a normal triangular
Fig II: Test set-up.
Fig III: Amplitude of the pressure waves
in adjacent tubes.
Fig III: Amplitude of the pressure waves
in adjacent tubes.
Fig IV: Phase of the pressure waves in
adjacent tubes.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[32]
5. References
[1] M.P. Padoussis, S.J. Price, E. de Langre. Fluid Structure Interactions. Cross-flow-induced
instabilities. Ed. Cambridge University Press, 2011 Prentice-Hall, New York, 2011.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[33]
Combined Processes for the Treatment of a Typical Hardwood
Soaking Basin Wastewater from Plywood Industry

D.Klauson(1), M.Viisimaa(1), E.Kattel(1), M.Trapido(1), A.Kivi (2), K.Klein (2),
S.Velling(2) and T.Tenno(2)

(1)
Department of Chemical Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5,
19086 Tallinn, Estonia
+372 620 2851, deniss.klauson@ttu.ee
(2)
Department of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.

1. Introduction Plywood is widely used and manufactured: in 2011, it production was ca. 81 Mm
3

worldwide (market value around $ 19 billion) [1]. Production involves wood soaking to increase its plastic
properties for debarking and veneer cutting. This results in wastewater with elevated content of lignin and
extractives: efficient treatment before its discharge is needed. This can be accomplished by a multi-stage
process, consisting of chemical (incl. advanced oxidation processes, AOPs) and biological steps. The main
goal of this study was to compose, test and optimise such a process.

2. Experimental Fenton reagent treatment and ozonation were
chosen as principal AOPs. Coagulation was done with FeCl3.
Biological treatment was carried out by aerobic process. Chemical
parameters were analysed according to the standard procedures [2].
Zahn-Wellens test was used to access the biodegradability. Table 1
shows the initial properties of wood soaking basin water.

3. Results and
Discussion
Wastewater chemical
treatment resulted in
up to 74 % and 68 % of
COD and BOD7
removal. However,
initial biodegradability
coupled with no
noticeable nitrification
and oxygen
consumption
inhibition allow applying aerobic biological pre-treatment
with chemical post-treatment (BIO-CHEM): this resulted
in 96% and 97 % removal of COD and BOD7, making the treated wastewater ready for subsequent
discharge (Image 1). The BIO-CHEM-BIO setup is currently being investigated.

4. Conclusions In this research, wood soaking basin water from plywood industry was successfully
treated by a combination of chemical and biological processes. With degradation rates reaching 96-97 %,
the treated effluent can be discharged to natural water bodies, according to Estonian and European Union
legislation.

Acknowledgements - The authors express their gratitude to Environmental protection and technology
R&D programme (KESTA) project CHEMBIO (code 3.2.0802.11-0043) for the financial support of the
research.

5. References
[1] F.G. Fernndez, P. de Palacios, L.G. Esteban, A. Garcia-Iruela, B.G. Rodrigo and E. Menasalvas,
Composites B 43, (2012) p. 3528.
[2] APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater AWWA, WEF Washington,
DC, 2005.
Parameter Value Units
COD 5145213 mg/L
BOD7 2100320 mg/L
BOD7/COD 0.43
TOC 32402 mg/L
TN 4.91.3 mg/L
Conductivity 973 S/cm
pH 4.75
Total solids 254934 mg/L
Fixed solids 5166 mg/L
Total suspended
solids
912140 mg/L
F
-
62 mg/L
Cl
-
557 mg/L
PO4
-3
66 mg/L
SO4
2-
161 mg/L
Phenols 51.1 mg/L
D. magna acute
toxicity EC50
15 %
Lignin and tannins 56010 mg/L
Table I. Wood soaking water initial data

Image 1. Results of wood soaking water treatment



0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
C
/
C
0
COD
BOD

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[34]
Impact study of the addition of flusilazole to soils amended with
different percentages of peat

M.D. Urea-Amate,
(1)
, M.M. Socas-Viciana
(1)
, K. Ait Hami
(2)
, N. Debbagh
Boutarbouch
(1)

(1)
Department of Chemistry and Physics, Agroalimentary Campus of International
Excellence,ceiA3, University of Almeria, 04120 (Spain), P:+34 950015649, email:
damate@ual.es.

(2)
Laboratory of Materials Chemistry, University of Oran, B.P 1524 El-MNaouer, Oran,
Algeria.

1. Introduction
The Oran region, located at Norwest of Algeria, concentrates the major agricultural activities and as a
consequence, the scarce water resources are contaminated [1]. Furthermore, most of the farming soils in
this region show low organic matter (OM) contents, reason which justifies the high fertilizers consumption
and the addition of peat as an amendment. Taking into account that pesticide adsorption in soils is one of
the main factors which control the transformations of these compounds in the environment and the
effectiveness of their application, the present study addresses the effect of the use of a commercial peat as
organic amendment in the adsorption process of flusilazole in five soils from the region of Oran.

2. Results and Discussion
The Kf values obtained from the fit of experimental data to the Freundlich model (Table I) showed that for
all the soils studied, with the exception of E4 soil, flusilazole molecules had a higher affinity for the surface
of the soils as the percentage of peat used in the amendment increased. The important role of the OM was
also confirmed by the good correlation existing between the KOC values and the percentage of OM of the
soils [2,3]. The different behaviour of E4 soil could be justified if we take into account its lower clay
content. In the original soil, the organic matter could form clay-humic complexes which could facilitate the
interaction with the flusilazole molecules. The addition of exogenous OM disturbs this adsorption
mechanism, then decreasing the retention capacity of the E4 soil. This fact is confirmed by the lower values
of KOC obtained for the amended soils. The study of the adsorption-desorption process in the original and
amended soils indicated a high hysteresis degree in all cases, the Kfdesorption parameter being much higher
than Kfadsorption, thus confirming the irreversibility of the flusilazole adsorption process and therefore, its
low pollution potential.

Table I. Physico-chemical characterization of the soils and Kf, KOC and H parameters

3. Conclusions
The study of the adsorption-desorption process of flusilazole in the Algerian soils indicated that the organic
amendment improves, in general, the adsorption capacity of these soils, decreasing the possibility of
leaching and reducing the risks of groundwater contamination.
Acknowledgment: We thank the AECID funding awarded through the Integrated Action A1/035959/11.

4. References
[1] S. Maas, R. Scheifler, M. Benslama, N. Crini , E. Lucot, Z. Brahmia, S. Benyacoub and P. Giraudoux,
Environ. Pollut., 158(6), (2010) p. 2294.
[2] M.M Socas-Viciana, M. Fernndez-Prez, M. Villafranca-Snchez,E. Gonzlez Pradas,
J. Agric. Food Chem., 47,(1999) p. 1236.
[3] M.C. Fernndez, L. Cox, M.C. Hermosn, J. Cornejo, Pest Manag. Sci., 62(12), (2006) p. 1207
SOIL
% Peat 0% 3% 6% 18% 0% 3% 6% 18% 0% 3% 6% 18% 0% 3% 6% 18% 0% 3% 6% 18%
% TOM 3,03 3,43 4,54 6,38 1,99 2,59 3,10 3,81 1,60 2,44 3,15 5,03 3,81 4,96 5,52 5,41 1,55 2,17 2,79 3,92
% Clay 28,88 28,88 23,24 18,88 19,60 15,60 22,32 9,60 34,16 26,88 26,88 16,88 5,16 4,16 2,16 2,16 26,16 22,16 16,16 16,16
K
f ads
0,05 0,04 0,06 0,09 0,01 0,02 0,03 0,07 0,02 0,02 0,04 0,07 0,13 0,14 0,15 0,15 0,01 0,03 0,04 0,06
K
f des
0,15 0,26 0,21 0,38 0,18 0,20 0,29 0,48 0,04 0,15 0,32 0,45 0,33 0,44 0,50 0,58 0,12 0,16 0,27 0,51
K
oc *
10
2
13,98 15,61 15,24 23,10 11,20 13,78 17,28 30,48 14,00 17,41 21,30 31,53 66,24 47,26 43,73 51,65 17,28 20,57 21,60 39,30
H 0,20 0,15 0,21 0,21 0,12 0,15 0,16 0,16 0,63 0,23 0,23 0,11 0,43 0,31 0,24 0,25 0,24 0,33 0,17 0,05
E2 E1 E3 E4 E5

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[35]
Influence of the working temperature in the adsorption of nitrate ions
by mixed oxides from hydrotalcite compounds

M.D. Urea-Amate
(1)
, M.M. Socas-Viciana
(1)
, J.L. Albarracn-Snchez
(1)
, N. Debbagh
Boutarbouch
(1)


(1)
Department of Chemistry and Physics, Agroalimentary Campus of International
Excellence,ceiA3, University of Almeria, 04120 (Spain), Tfn:+34 950 015649, email:
damate@ual.es

1. Introduction- Layered double hydroxides also referred to as hydrotalcite like compounds (HDT), show
interesting anion-exchange properties which make them attractive for technological applications such as
anion adsorbents or, more recently, as components of controlled release formulations of agrochemicals due
to the so called memory effect [1,2]. Given the serious environmental problem resulting from the
accumulation of nitrates in water reservoirs due to excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers, and considering
the rehydration capacity of mixed oxides which allows them to incorporate anions in their structure, the
fundamental objective of this work is to study the influence of the working temperature in the removal of
nitrate ions by mixed oxides from layered double hydroxides of Mg /Al-CO3, with different molar ratios.

2. Experimental- Two HDT compounds with different molar ratios were prepared: Mg/Al of 2 and 4,
calcined to 650C and the two mixed oxides obtained (HDT2C, HDT4C) used to study the nitrate sorption
in aqueous medium by using batch experiments at 15 C, 25C and 35 C.

3. Results and Discussion- The sorption experimental data have been fitted to the Langmuir equation in
order to calculate the maximum sorption capacity (Xm). The results show that the Xm values for the HDTC4
sample were practically twice higher than those obtained for the HDTC2 sample (Table I).
This fact could be explained if we take into consideration that for the HDT2C sample, with a higher charge
density given its higher aluminum content, a greater electrostatic interaction would take place between the
sheets so, during the reconstruction process, the entry of nitrate ions is a disadvantaged process. On the
other hand, the endothermic nature of the adsorption process is revealed by the higher adsorption of nitrate
at the higher working temperature (35C), which is in agreement with the lower solubility of CO2 as
temperature increases, and then, existing a less competition with the NO3
-
ions.

4. Conclusions- The nitrate sorption experiments at 35C indicated the higher effectiveness of HDT4C
sample for removing nitrate from aqueous solution. Taking into account that this material is cheap and easy
to synthesize, and that its sorption capacity is high, this could be considered as a potential material for carry
out the purification of water contaminated with nitrate anions and thus contributing to an environmentally
sustainable development.

Acknowledgment: We thank the Junta de Andaluca funding awarded through the Project RNM 4901.

5. References
[1] M.M Socas-Viciana, M.D Urea-Amate, E. Gonzlez-Pradas, M.J. Garca-Corts, C.Lpez-Teruel,
Clay Clay Miner., 56(1), (2008) p. 2.
[2] M.D. Urea-Amate, N. Debbagh-Boutarbouch, M.M. Socas-Viciana, E. Gonzlez-Pradas. Appl. Clay
Sci., 52, (2011) p. 368.
Tabla I. Parameters of Langmuir equation for sorption of nitrate on the calcined samples.

Samples
15C 25C 35C
Xm
(mg g
-1
)
b (l mg
-1
) r
2
Xm
(mg g
-1
)
b (l mg
-1
) r
2

Xm
(mg g
-1
)
b (l mg
-1
) r
2

HDT2C 18.6 0.009 0.910 47.6 0.073 0.999 62.5 0.046 0.998
HDT4C 31.2 0.011 0.989 112.4 0.143 0.975 127 0.154 0.880




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[36]
Use of Red Mud as alternative iron source on the photo-Fenton process
for a textile dye degradation at a reactor and at the sunlight

Maria Lcia. P. Antunes
(1)
, L. Sottovia
(1)

(1)
Paulista State University UNESP, Av. Tres de Maro, 511, Sorocaba, So Paulo, Brazil.
Phone: 55 11 99510856 e-mail: malu@sorocaba.unesp.br

1. Introduction Dyes are pollutants that can bring serious problems for water resources, if not treated
before the discharge. The degradation of these compounds are difficulty due to their complex structure,
requiring advanced treatment to be removed. The advanced oxidative processes are alternatives, which have
been shown effective, especially the photo-Fenton process. Wastes with iron can be good sources for these
reactions, decreasing the use of iron salts [1] and giving utilization for these materials. This study
investigated the degradation of the dye Reactive Red 195 (RR195) by the photo-Fenton process using red
mud as supplier of iron, fluorescent lamps reactor and sunlight as UV source. Furthermore, this study also
investigated the oxidative process, H2O2/UV.

2. Experimental The natural red mud (NRM) was dried and a part was calcined (CRM) at 800C. NRM
and CRM were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Dispersive Microscopy and by
X Ray Diffraction. The dye RR195 was characterized by a UV-Vis spectrometer in the maximum
absorption value at 520nm, which was used to analyse the dye degradation. The preparation of the solutions
followed the base photo-Fenton reaction (Equation1) [2]:
Fe
2+
+ H2O2 Fe
3+
+ OH
-
+

OH (1)
Four kinds of reaction were studied: NRM/ H2O2/UV, CRM/ H2O2/UV, Fe/H2O2/UV (conventional photo-
Fenton) and H2O2/UV. The photo-Fenton reagents varied in two levels (20 mg/L and 40 mg/L of hydrogen
peroxide and respective stoichiometric amounts of iron) and a fixed concentration of the dye was used. For
the H2O2/UV process, the reagents also varied in two levels. The samples was placed in the reactor and
under the sunlight for three hours and analysed during that time. The dye degradation was analysed at the
UV-Vis spectrometer and by the Equation 2, the degradation rate was obtained, where Absi is initial
absorption and Absf is final absorption.
Degradation rate = ((Absi-Absf)/Absi)*100 (2)

3. Results and Discussion The final results of degradation (time at 180 minutes) are presented at Table
I.
Table I. Rate of dye degradation for each system.
Reaction Reactor Sunlight
Level 1 Level 2 Level 1 Level 2
NRM/ H2O2/UV 20,8% 14,8% 89% 79,3%
CRM/ H2O2/UV 30,2% 19,2% 93,8% 84,2%
Fe/H2O2/UV 99,6% 98,7% 99,2% 98,7%
H2O2/UV 6,4% 6,1% 87,1% 87,4%
As shown, the conventional photo-Fenton reaction had high degradation rate in both systems. Although
NRM and CRM hadnt high rate of degradation when in the reactor, it was diferent at the sunlight,
especially for CRM at the first level. There was a significant increase at the H2O2/UV reaction when under
the sunlight.

4. Conclusions Degradation rates obtained from sunlight was higher than for the reactor, therefore the
sunlight can be used instead the reactor, reducing the energy consumption. Although the calcined red mud
degraded 93,8% of the dye, the natural red mud had a high performance and as dvantage, requires no burn.
When under the sunlight, red mud and H2O2/UV are good alternatives for the conventional process, but when
at the reactor the conventional system still had a better performance.

5. References
[1] C. C. Amorim, Eng. Sanit. Ambient., Belo Horizonte, v. 14, n. 4, p.543-550, 2009
[2] I. Arslan & I. A. Balcioglu, Chemosphere, Istanbul, Turkey, v. 39, n. 15, p.2767-2783, 1999.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[37]
New dynamic system for removing paraquat from water

D. Ait-Sidhoum
(1)
, M.M. Socas-Viciana
(2)
, M.D. Urea-Amate
(2)
,
N. Debbagh-Boutarbouch
(2)
, A. Derdour
(1)


(1)
Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry,University of Oran, B.P 1524 El-MNaouer, Oran,
Algeria, Tfno:+213558014734, e-mail: asdjil@yahoo.fr

(2)
Department of Chemistry and Physics, Agroalimentary Campus of International
Excellence,ceiA3, University of Almeria, Almera (Spain)

1. Introduction
Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world [1]. The risk of contamination by paraquat
is enhanced by its high water solubility (620 g/L), having been detected in surface and drinking waters [2].
Thus, the necessity to reduce the concentration of paraquat in water is a worldwide challenge as far as water
pollution is concerned. Clay minerals are good adsorbents and have the advantage of being abundant and
inexpensive, which makes them useful for decontamination and remediation treatments. The objective of
this work is to present the results obtained from the study of the removal of paraquat from water by using
batch experiments and a dynamic system containing a clay suspension by using an Algerian bentonite.

2. Experimental
Sorption isotherms were determined by batch equilibration at 25C of the clay sample with pure water
solutions of paraquat. The dynamic sorption study was carried out using a column system designed by the
authors (Fig. 1). The system was constructed using two glass columns, with
tap and frit filter. At the top and bottom of both columns, glass wool was
placed to prevent the blockage of the column. Some glass marbles were used
at the bottom of the columns to facilitate a better contact between the paraquat
and clay solutions. The experiment was carried out as follows: a paraquat
aqueous solution and a clay dispersion were each passed through the bottom
of the first column at a fixed flow using a pump working with a steady flow.
The use of a second column allows the prolonging of the contact time between
the clay and the herbicide. The study was conducted using different flows (Q)
for both solutions (0.75, 1.5 and 3 mLmin1) and varying the concentration
of the clay dispersion used (0.8, 1.4, 2.1 and 3.5 gL1).

3. Results and Discussion
The maximum sorption capacity of the Algerian bentonite obtained by applying Langmuir equation was
100 mg g
-1
. The optimized conditions to obtain the total elimination of paraquat by using the dynamic
system, were as follows: for an initial concentration of paraquat of 150 mg L
-1
, the concentration of the
clay suspension was 3.5 g L
-1
, and a flow rate of 51 cm h
-1
. The amount of paraquat removed per gram of
clay in this continuous system was 43 mg g
-1
. Although this value is almost half of that calculated in the
batch experiments, however, the contact time is lower.

Acknowledgments: We thank the AECID funding awarded through the Integrated Action D/030166/10 and
also we thank ENOF Ltd. for the Maghnia bentonite samples.

4. Conclusions
An innovative decontamination continuous system has been designed. This system shows important
advantages such as the lower cost of the adsorbent, the use of a natural resource and the fact that the bed
load occurs continuously, so it would not be necessary to stop the depuration process.

5. References
[1] C.P. Nanseu-Njiki, G. Kenne Dedzo, E. Ngameni, J. Hazar. Mater. 179, (2010), p. 63.
[2] L. Zhou, H. Chen, X. Jiang, L. Fang, Y. Zhou, W. Yin, X. Ji, J. Colloid Interf.Sci., 332, (2009), p. 16.

Figure 1. Dynamic system for
decontamination

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[38]
Controlled release systems of nitrogenous fertilizers based on
hydrogels to prevent water contamination

M.M. Socas-Viciana,
(1)
M.D. Urea-Amate
(1)
, M.M. Urbano-Juan
(1)
, N. Debbagh
Boutarbouch
(1)
, A. Belmonte Gallegos
(2)

(1)
Department of Chemistry and Physics, Agroalimentary Campus of International
Excellence,ceiA3, University of Almeria, 04120 (Spain), P:+34 950 015962, email:
msocias@ual.es.
(2)
Experimental Station of Arid Zones, CSIC, University of Almeria

1. Introduction
Intensive horticulture, typical of Almeria county and so extended in all southeast of Spain, is especially
prone to suffer the most negative effects of the disproportionate application
of nitrogen fertilizers. Between these effects are, the increasing water
contamination by nitrate ions, and also the effects that nitrogen compounds
in soils have over the emissions of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere,
contributing in this way to the climatic change with the intensification of
greenhouse effect and the destruction of the ozone layer in the stratosphere
[1].
In order to contribute to a sustainable agriculture it is necessary to develop
new practices that allow to decrease the contamination of the environment
both water as air and soil.
The study of technology about fertilizers controlled release formulations is
one of the great objectives of applied research in the last years [2]. The use of hydrogels as a matrix for
the synthesis of controlled release formulations shows a series of advantages of great interest for subsequent
application to soil.
The hydrogels are crosslinked polymeric compounds (natural or synthetic) with a tri-dimensional network
which swelling a lot in contact with water producing elastics and soft materials. The use of these materials
will increase water retention capacity of soil, so allowing a save of water resources and improving the plants
growth as well as the biological activity and productivity of the soil. The use of polymers will also yield a
better structure and aeration of the soil, contributing in this way to the recuperation of semiarid zones as
those of southeast of Spain.

2. Experimental
In this study, nitric nitrogen controlled release formulations were synthesized by using hydrogels based on
acrylamide and itaconic acid. Persulphate ammonium was used as initiator and N,N`-ethylenebisacrylamide
was used as crosslinking agent. The objective of this work is to present the results obtained from the nitrate
release kinetics study carried out not only in water but also in a simulated soil solution, by varying different
parameters such as i) proportion of crosslinking agent / polymer, ii) volume of the hydrogel. On the other
hand, laboratory experiences will be designed for simulating field conditions.

3. Results and Conclusions
The results obtained in this work could be used to design new management strategies of agricultural
practices in order to face up to groundwater contamination, in compliance with the Law 45/2007 (13
th

December) about the sustainable use of fertilizers and the Spanish strategy against climatic change.

Acknowledgment: We thank the Junta de Andaluca funding awarded through the Project RNM 4901.

4. References
[1] A. Meijide, J.A. Dez, L. Snchez-Martn, S. Lpez-Fernndez, A. Vallejo, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ.
121(4) (2007) p. 383.
[2] M.D. Urea-Amate, N. Debbagh Boutarbouch, M. M. Socas-Viciana, E. Gonzlez-Pradas. Appl. Clay
Sci. 52(2011) p. 368.

Image 1. Controlled Release
Formulations based on hydrogel

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[39]
Sustainable development of poultry slaughtering plants

Carlos Morales Polo
(1)
, Mara del Mar Cledera Castro
(2)

(2)
Escuela Tcnica Superior de Ingeniera (ICAI).
Universidad Pontificia Comillas. Madrid. Spain.
+34915422800 mcledera@upcomillas.es

((1)
c.moralespolo@gmail.com
1. Introduction This study will attempt to find a solution for four major
environmental and energy problems in the poultry industry: (a) high water
consumption, (b) emissions from excessively contaminated wastewater, (c) intensive
consumption of electric and thermic energy. (d) Production of non-recoverable by-
products and organic waste. [1-2]
We have decided to design a WWTP (Waste Water Treatment Plant), which, in
addition to treating the water, creates an effluent that meets the water quality
standards in order to reuse it in all of the processes of the plant. As a result, a closed
water circuit that diminishes the consumption of water and the emission of
wastewater is created.
In order to address the issue of high-energy consumption and waste production, we
propose the construction of a biomethane production plant. Since most of the waste
is organic, we suggest that it be subjected to a process of anaerobic digestion (AD).
This will result in biogas production and its subsequent use as a primarily thermal
energy source in order to reduce external consumption.
Both the WWTP and the biomass power plant require an anaerobic digester. The
purpose of this study is to propose the establishment of a hybrid co-digestion system of waste-water and
waste that would allow water to be treated and, at the same time, producing biogas that will be used as an
energy source.

2. Experimental - All calculations have been based on experiments carried out in pilot plants and recognise
the numerous work of prestigious and experienced authors in this field [2-3].

3. Results and Discussion - The WWTP has been designed with the elements of the processes displayed
in Table I, which ensure the acceptable level of sanitary water. In order to give the WWTP dynamism, we
have decided to divide the preliminary treatment in two wastewater flows with
different levels of contamination. Thus, the size of the elements of the processes
and their energy needs would be reduced up to 30%.
The WWTP produces enough biogas to ensure its functioning and create a surplus
which may be harnessed. In addition, if we include the biogas emitted by the
methanisation of the wastes, energy needs could be drastically reduced.

4. Conclusions
We have designed a treatment system which enables maximum water recycling and consequently
minimizes external consumption.
We expect to raise awareness exercises and change the laws, as the re-use of recycled water in the
food industry is currently not permitted. However, we have shown parameters that ensure health
safety in a facility within the same plant can be obtained.
We have essentially recovered all of the waste by using it as a source of energy, as a result reducing
two key environmental aspects.
The co-digestion system is easy to implant. An aggressive tertiary treatment and the elements of the
cogeneration plant are the only modifications that need to be made to the WWTP, and, as these two
parts of the final process there is no need to make any further changes to the rest of the plant.

5. References
[1] Ministerio de medio ambiente, Gua de Mejoras Tcnicas Disponibles en Espaa del Sector Matadero
y de los Transformados de Pollo y Gallina. (2006).
[2] M. Seoanez Calvo, Manual de tratamiento reciclado, aprovechamiento y gestin de aguas residuales
de la industria agroalimentaria (2003)
[3] Metcalf & Eddy, Ingeniera de aguas residuales. Tratamiento vertido y reutilizacin, (1995).
Table I. WWTP processes
Water line Sludge line
Screening and grit
removal
Gravity
thickening
Degreasing
Homogenization Flotation
thickening Primary clarification
Nitrification-
denitrification
biological process
Anaerobic sludge
digestion
Secondary
clarification
Sludge
dewatering
Filtration
AC adsorption
Disinfection with Cl2



Table II. Biogas and power available
Biogas from WWTP 3150 m
3
/day
Biogas from waste
methanation
5001.87 m
3
/day
Available power 1773.78 kW




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[40]
Abatement of Hydrosoluble Pollutants in Turbid Suspensions by
Photoactive Transparent Coatings

Federico Persico
(1,2)
, Maurizio Sansotera
(1,2)
, Carlo Punta
(1)
, Walter Navarrini
(1,2)


(1)
Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica Giulio Natta, Politecnico di
Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131, Milano, Italy
(2)
Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali, Via
G. Giusti 9, 50121 Firenze, Italy
Tel: +39.02.2399.3035; email address: federico.persico@mail.polimi.it

1. Introduction The abatement of organic pollutants in liquid phase promoted by photoactive titanium
dioxide has been widely studied in the last decade [1]. Despite the high photodegradative rates guaranteed
by slurry TiO2, industrial use is strongly limited by the catalyst recovery cost. To overcome this obstacle
powder TiO2 was immobilized into a multilayer ionomeric-perfluorinated matrix and the degradative
activity of the so formed Photoactive Coating (PAC) was studied. The peculiar nature of the PAC allowed
the evaluation of the photocatalytic efficiency on both clear and turbid aqueous polluted solutions. In order
to obtain the correct interaction between the activated TiO2 and the polluted aqueous solutions the
polymeric matrix must be characterized by high chemical resistance, high transparency towards UV light,
good wettability and good permeability to oxygen and water vapor. Since perfluorinated polymers are
perfectly illustrated by the above properties we decided to employ these material for our experimental
studies [2,3].

2. Experimental - Perfluorinated multilayered coatings were applied directly on the UV source and
employed as substrate for immobilization of the photocatalyst. A double-layer of tetrafluoroethylene
TFE/perfluorodioxole copolymer acted as primer; a dispersion of TiO2 in an ionomeric solution of a
copolymer between TFE and perfluorosulphonylvinylether acted as outer photoactive layer. The strong
acidity of the ionomeric side chains conferred hydrophilicity to the whole polymer, allowing a good
interaction with the polluted aqueous solutions. Rhodamine B-base (RhB) and Crystal Violet (CV) were
used as organic hydrosoluble pollutant and their concentration in solution was monitored by UV-Vis
spectroscopy and HPLC-MS technique.

3. Results and Discussion - The PAC photoactivity was evaluated
for each organic pollutant and compared to the abatement
performances observed with dispersed TiO2. Photodegradation tests
revealed that the PAC allowed higher rates of pollutant
photoabatement than slurry titanium dioxide, even at low pollutant
concentration (Image 1). Further tests in presence of dispersed solids
proved the PAC to be effective even in turbid suspensions. Indeed,
TiO2 activation and pollutant diffusion took place at the opposite
sides of the coating. Moreover, any costly separation of the catalyst
from the purified water was avoided since the catalyst was
immobilized in the fluorinated polymeric matrix.


1.0


TiO2 slurry


0.9



0.8

PAC - Turbid
solution



0.7

PAC - Clear solution


0

0.6


C
/
C
0.5

0.4



0.3


0.2



0.1




0.0





0 20 40 60 80
Time (min)


I mage 1. Degradative efficiency of
PAC compared to the performances
guaranteed by slurry TiO2

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[41]

4. Conclusions - The Photoactive Coating guaranteed higher photocatalytic activity than dispersed titanium
dioxide. The PAC was proved to be effective in both clear and turbid solution conditions, as well as at low
pollutant concentration. Moreover, TiO2 was not deactivated by slime interposition between the UV source
and the coating. The catalyst immobilization prevented TiO2 separation and catalyst losses, allowing the
development of a simple and efficient continuous apparatus.

5. References
[1] M. Sansotera, et al., Appl. Catal., B, 148(1), (2014) p. 29.
[2], F. Persico, et al., Thin Solid Films, 545, (2013) p. 210.
[3] W. Navarrini, et al., Prog. Org. Coat., 74(4), (2012) p. 794.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[42]
Use of cellulosic residues to obtain adsorbents for water purification

Jess Beltran de Heredia
(1)
, Mario Fernndez-Pacheco, Elena Beltrn de Heredia

(1)
Chemical Engineering and Physical Chemistry Department. University of Extremadura.
06071 Badajoz (SPAIN)
jbelther@unex.es


1. Introduction Dyes are colorful organic compounds, which are released into environment through
industrial effluent water of many industries. Dyeing effluents constitute one of the most problematic
wastewaters not only for their high COD and BOD, but also for color. In recent years, more and more
investigations have focused on the biosorption of dyes by low-cost adsorbents derived from agricultural
byproducts. Cellulose is a remarkable pure organic polymer, consisting solely of units of anhydro glucose
held together in a giant straight chain molecule. Natural cellulose includes alcohols, aldehydes, ketones,
carboxylic, phenolic, and ether groups. These groups will boast its ability, to some extent, to bind cationic
dyes by donation of an electron pair from these groups to form complexes with the cationic dye in solution.
The main aim of this research is to study the possibility of obtaining materials, having adsorbent properties
from several cellulosic vegetal residues. The adsorption capacity depends not only on the porous structure
of the adsorbent, but also on its chemical composition and surface functional groups. Therefore, to improve
the performance of the obtained adsorbents, several raw materials were modified with citric acid which
introduces lots of functional carboxyl groups in the cellulosic structure.

2. Experimental Several vegetal residues (thistle, bulrush, fennel, retama, cornish mallow and water
hyacinth) were collected from wild field (surroundings to Badajoz, Spain), which was washed with water
to take out silt, sand, and insoluble impurities, and then dried for 12 h in a convection oven at a temperature
of 60 C. The dried biomass was milled with a mill, and smaller particles were obtained by a sieve of 0.25
mm diameter. A sample of 5 g of raw biomass was mixed with 100 mL of 1,0 mol/L of citric acid solution
in a beaker and stirred at 60 C for 2 h and then filtered and dried in a convection oven at 60 C for 12 h;
and later the temperature was increased up to 120 C for 3 h. After that, the product was washed with
distilled water until pH was neutral. Finally, it was dried in an oven at 60 C for 12 h. Batch adsorption tests
were carried out at room temperature and used to investigate the effects of various parameters on dye
adsorption by adsorbents. The studied dyes were Methylene Blue, Fuchsine, Malachite Green and Victoria
Blue R.

3. Results and Discussion Image 1 shows the results of the screening with all obtained adsorbents and
all studied dyes. It can be seen that all the adsorbents exhibit very high effectiveness in removing of the
four dyes studied. Of these dyes, Methylene Blue (97.5%) was the best dye removed, followed by Fuchsine
(96.5%) and Victoria Blue R (94.9%) . The dye Malachite
Green (87 %) had a slightly lower behaviour than the
other three dyes. Adsorption equilibrium experiments
was adjusted very acceptably to the Langmuir model,
determining the characteristp arameters of this model.
4. Conclusions The present study shows that the
biomass residues modified with citric acid can be used as
an effective and competitive adsorbent for the removal of
cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. The capacity of
raw material was greatly enhanced by pretreatment with
citric acid, and the maximum dye biosorption capacity
was found to be between 550 and 700 mg of dye/g of
biomass for all studied dyes.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[43]
Adsorbents from Eichhornia crassipes for water contaminant removal

Jess Beltran de Heredia
(1)
, Cristina Carmona, Elena Beltrn de Heredia

(1)
Chemical Engineering and Physical Chemistry Department. University of Extremadura.
06071 Badajoz (SPAIN)
jbelther@unex.es


1. Introduction Environmental pollution by heavy metal ions has increased during recent years as a result
of industrial growth. Plating plants, mining, metal finishing, batteries, welding, and alloys manufacturing
are important water pollution sources with metals such as chromium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, and
cadmium. Concentrations of these metals in water supplies exceeding the standards constitute a severe
health hazard. Its harmful effects in aquatic environments include heavy metal accumulation in living
species and their increase in the food chain. Biomass use in heavy metals removal and recovery is an
innovative technique. This technology is gaining important credibility due to good performance and low
cost. Several biomaterials have been investigated to find available and inexpensive adsorbents that could
be used in a wide scale as conventional sorbents. Residue generated from agricultural production can be an
attractive option for the biosorbent wastewater treatment. The residues low cost and abundance are an
advantage over conventional adsorbents. However, information about the toxic metals removal capacity of
lignocellulosic residues from wastewater is still limited. Eichhornia crassipes is considered the most
dangerous aquatic weed in the world for its ability to colonize large water bodies in a short time. This weed
is causing deterioration to some Spanish water masses (particularly in Guadiana river). Eichhornia
crassipes elimination prevents oxygen depletion in lagoons and allows sunlight to pass and therefore favors
algae and fish growth. Xanthogenated adsorbent was obtained from shoot biomass of Eichhornia crassipes
(and others biomass in order to compare) by treatment with NaOH and CS2.

2. Experimental E. crassipes weed was collected from Guadiana river (near to Mrida, Extremadura
community). Raw material was oven-dried at 60 C, and it was subjected to a grinding and sieving process
to obtain samples with particle diameters between 0.1 and 0.5 mm. Equilibrium isotherms were
determined using a 0.02 g biosorbent and different volumes of 25 ppm of heavy metals. The studied
metals were Cd
2+
, Co
2+
, Cu
2+
, Mn
2+
, Hg
2+
, Ni
2+
, Pb
2+
, and Zn
2+
.

3. Results and Discussion - Image 1
shows the experimental screening
performed with several adsorbents
(water hyacinth, pampas grass, and
fennel) and all heavy metals studied. It
can be seen that in general the water
hyacinth is the best of the three studied
adsorbent with an average removal of
50.8%. In relation with heavy metal
ions, as can be seen, Pb
2+
ion is best
removed with an average efficiency of
94.8%. Adsorption equilibrium
experiments was adjusted very
acceptably to the Langmuir model,
determining the characteristic
parameters of this model

100


water hyacinth


80
pampa grass


fennel



(
%
)

60


E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

40




20



0


Cd2+ Co2+ Cu2+ Mn2+ Hg2+ Ni2+ Pb2+ Zn2+

Image 1. Screening of adsorbents and heavy metals.

4. Conclusions - The xanthogenation of cellulosic materials for the preparation of products with adsorbent
properties, involves a technologically simple preparation with the use of inexpensive reagents, with very
low consumption thereof, very soft reaction conditions of temperature and pressure and with a quantitative
yield. Regarding the removal of various heavy metal ions, it has been observed that all adsorbents have a
similar efficacy for Pb
2+
, more than 98% removal.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[44]
Dynamic modelling of activated sludge process for leachate treatment
Javier Domnguez, Carlos Costa*, M Carmen Mrquez

Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Salamanca,
Plaza de los Cados 1-5, 37008 Salamanca, Spain.
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 923 294479; fax: +34 923 294574. E-mail address:
ccosta@usal.es
1.Introduction: Activated sludge models (ASMs)
have been formulated for describing dynamic
behaviour of outlet parameters in biological
wastewater treatment plants, because of fluctuation
of temperature, organic charge and flow [1]. During
the 2000s these models have been calibrated and
validated using biological wastewater treatment
systems [2]. In this work we propose the use of
dynamic simulation based on ASM1 for predicting
outlet COD value after biological treatment of
leachates from waste treatment centres (WTC).
2.Results and discussion: MATLAB platform is
used in the simulation with dynamic variables which
are fluctuating in time (Fig. 1) by the construction
of an iteration computer program for solving the
differential equation obtained from the mass balance
applied to the system. Results show a good dynamic
prediction for low and medium organic loaded
leachates (Fig. 2, leachates numbers 1 and 2) and for
high organic loaded leachate the outlet value of
COD is tempered (Fig. 2, leachate number 3). This
simulation can predict outlet COD value in
biological treatment plants, affected by fluctuation
of temperature, which modifies specific growth rate,
and variation of flow and influent organic load [3].
Application of the model at real scale can ascertains
what will be the outlet COD value when dynamic
variables are changing and what could be the
correction on dynamic variables to maintain the
outlet parameter in a desired value. Application of
dynamic simulation is more related to avoid extreme
situations out of range in which parameter values are
expected to be obtained.
3.References:
[1] M. Henze, C.P.L. Grady, W. Gujer, G.vR.
Marais and T. Matsuo, Water Res. 21 (5), (1987) pp.
505.
[2] K.V. Gernaey, M.C.M. van Loosdrecht, M.
Henze, M. Lind and S.B. Jorgensen, Environ.
Model. Software 19, (2004) pp. 763.
[3] M. Tamrat, C. Costa and M.C. Mrquez,
Biochem. Eng. J. 66, (2012) pp. 46.
Fig. 1. MATLAB platform in the simulation. Kinetic parameters
are fixed values and dynamic variables fluctuate in time.

Fig. 2. Simulation by the dynamic model of the output value of
organic matter (COD) for the leachates used in the study:
n 1: Ks = 1750 mg/L, max = 1.82 d
-1
, error = -0.54 %
n 2: Ks = 6500 mg/L, max = 0.49 d
-1
, error = 0.37 %
n 3: Ks = 23400 mg/L, max = 0.37 d
-1
, error = -0.67 %
0
1000
2000
3000
0 5 10 15 20
E
f
f
l
u
e
n
t

C
O
D

(
m
g

O
2
/
L
)
Time (d)
Leachate n 1
COD
Simulation
4000
6000
8000
10000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
E
f
f
l
u
e
n
t

C
O
D

(
m
g

O
2
/
L
)
Time (d)
Leachate n 2
10000
20000
30000
40000
0 10 20 30 40 E
f
f
l
u
e
n
t

C
O
D

(
m
g
O
2
/
L
)
Time (d)
Leachate n 3

Dynamic variables:
Inlet substrate
concentration (Ss,in)
Biomass concentration
(XBH)
Hydraulic residence
Kinetic parameters:
Growth yield (YH)
Half-saturation
coefficient (Ks)

SIMULATION (GRAPHICAL RESULTS)

MATLAB PLATFORM

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[45]
Evaluation of Water Management in Residential Buildings

S. Vilcekova
(1)
, E. Kridlova Burdova
(1)

(1)
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, Vysokoskolska 4, 042
00 Kosice, Slovakia
+421556024260, silvia.vilcekova@tuke.sk, +421556024125, eva.kridlova.burdova@tuke.sk

1. Introduction - The Slovak building environmental assessment system was processed. The fields and
indicators are proposed on the base of available experiences database analysis from environmental
performance of buildings. The field water management will be introduced in the paper. The goal of water
management is to preserve site watersheds and groundwater aquifers, conserve and reuse storm water,
maintain an appropriate level of water quality on the site and in the building, reduce drinking water
consumption and to reduce off-site treatment of wastewater. It is known that two of the greater problems of
the modern society are the water shortage and the degradation of the environment [1]. The increasing demand
for sustainable development will have a profound impact on all types of urban infrastructures. However, there
is a lack of knowledge of how sustainable development should be attained and how sustainability of various
technical systems should be assessed. A set of sustainability criteria covering health and hygiene, social and
cultural aspects, environmental aspects, economy and technical considerations are defined. To promote the
practical use of a set of sustainability criteria it must be concise and related to quantifiable indicators that are
easily measured [2]. The criteria of sustainability are included in building environmental assessment systems
used in different countries for evaluating the sustainable and environmental performance. The building
environmental assessment systems deal with site selection criteria, the efficient use of energy and water
resources during building operations, waste management during construction and operations, indoor
environmental quality, demands for transportation services, and the selection of environmentally preferable
materials.

2. Experimental - Significance weight of proposed fields and indicators was determined by mathematical
method. Consequent analysis of methods for criteria weights estimation was performed. Saatys method has
been used for determining the significance weights of indicators, sub-fields and fields of buildings
environmental assessment and seems to be the most appropriate of them.

3. Results and Discussion - The Slovak building environmental assessment system applicable in Slovak
conditions consists of 6 main fields and 52 relevant indicators. The basis of assessment development consists
of systems and methods used in many countries. The main fields are building site and project planning,
building constructions, indoor environment, energy performance, water management and waste management.
The weight significant of indicators/issues in used systems in field of water management follows the national
conditions and requirements. In this paper is presented indicators related to water management field in BEAS.
The weight of water management is 8,88%. This field consists of 4 indicators.

4. Conclusions - This paper summarizes the analysis of significance weights of water management indicators
for evaluation of residential buildings. It uses multi-criteria analysis to measure the quality of buildings in
Slovak Republic. The presented water management indicators and their evaluations are hereby proposed for
the phase of building operation. The significance weights of proposed ten indicators were determined by
Saatys method of multi-criteria analysis. The evaluation of proposed indicators which respect Slovak
standards, rules, studies and experiments were used. For the purpose of system verification, a statistically
significant set of buildings is required to be evaluated.

5. References
[1] Mariolakos, I. Water resources management in the framework of sustainable development, Desalination
213, (2007) p. 147151.
[2] Hellstroma, D., Jeppssonb, U., Karrmanc, E. A framework for systems analysis of sustainable urban water
management, Environmental Impact Assessment Review 20, (2000) p. 311321.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[46]
Elemental analysis of grey water samples by microwave plasma atomic
emission spectrometry

E. Baranyai
1
, A. Izbkin Szabolcsik
2
, A. Kecznn veges
2
, I. Bodnr
2


1
University of Debrecen, TTK, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Agilent
Atomic Spectroscopy Laboratory, 4032 Debrecen, Egyetem tr 1.
baranyai.edina@science.unideb.hu
2
University of Debrecen, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical and Environmental
Engineering, 4028 Debrecen, temet u. 2-4.

1. Introduction - Domestic wastewater treatment is one of the possible solutions to the increasing water
demand of urban areas. The segregation and recycling of grey water, representing more than 60% of liquid
waste flows, is a sustainable approach. After the proper treatment process, this low-polluted houshold steam
can be further used for irrigation and cleaning purposes. Since grey waters have trace and heavy metals in a
relatively high concentration [1], their exact quantitative determination is significant to establish the
appropriate treatment technology. However, grey water samples contain several types of organic
contaminants which results in a complex sample matrix. The main advantage of the microwave plasma
technology is the cost-effectiveness due to the uninterrupted supply of nitrogen gas without using expensive
gas cylinders. The temperature of the microwave plasma is higher than the temperature of the air/acetylene
flame, the dinamic range is wider and the background correction takes place simultaneously with the analysis.
2. Experimental - In current study MP-AES method was developed to determine the elemental concentration
of grey water samples from the sample pretreatment to the analysis. With our method the elemental
concentration of rain water samples from gutter and open surface, as well as grey water samples from wash
hand basins, showers and baths, washing machine and dishwasher were analysed. Drinking water samples
were collected for control. The origin of elements were investigated by principal component and discriminant
analysis of gained data.
3. Results and Discussion - The limit of detection values of the measuerd elements were determined. With
our method Ca can be determined in the range of 0.09-100 mg/L, K in the range of 0.02-25 mg/L, Mg in the
range of 0.03-25 mg/L, Na in the range of 0.02-25 mg/L, while Ag in the range of 0.001-0.5 mg/L, Al in the
range of 0.03-1 mg/L, Ba in the range of 0.0009-1 mg/L, Cd in the range of 0.04-0.5 mg/L, Cr in the range
of 0.004-0.5 mg/L, Cu in the range of 0.006-0.5 mg/L, Li in the range of 0.0007-0.5 mg/L, Mn in the range
of 0.003-0.5 mg/L, Ni in the range of 0.02-0.5 mg/L, Pb in the range of 0.03-0.5 mg/L and Sr in the range of
0.0006-1.0 mg/L. Grey water samples from washing machines contained Ba in a significantly higher
concentration, while in samples from dishwashers and hand wash basins a statistically higher level of Al was
found.
4. Conclusions Microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry is a cost-effective method for the
elemental analysis of grey water samples prior to treatment. The MP-AES software store the spectra of the
lines backgrounds, hence the spectral interferences can be investigated during and also after the measurement
which is advantageous when handling samples with complex organic matrix. We determined the possible
source of several elements in the greay water samples by multivariate statistical analysis.
5. References
[1] N.R. Kulabako, N.K.M. Ssonko, J. Kinobe: Greywater characteristics and reuse in tower gardens in peri-
urban areas experiences of Kawaala, Kampala, Uganda. Open Environ. Eng. J., 4 (2011), pp. 147154



The poster presentation was supported by the TMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0041 project. The project was subsidized by the
European Union and co-financed by the European Social Fund.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[47]
LIMITATIONS OF BRAZILIAN LAW ABOUT
DRINKING WATER

The legislation on drinking water in all countries of the world establishes acceptance criteria related to its
quality, to minimize health risks of those who use this types of water, especially for drinking and cooking. It
is really a Herculean task to establish these quality criteria with so many barriers to be faced. Therefore, to
say that water that meets all the parameters described in Brazilian legislation is good for drinking or cooking,
is very far from being safe under modern scientific criteria.
In Brazil, the quality parameters of drinking water are mostly copied from foreign institutions which their
evaluation criteria do not represent Brazilian reality. This enhances the technical limitations on the quality of
water drunk in Brazil. In addition, we can mention the increasing contamination of water sources, difficulties
in performing upgrades in treatment stations and replacement of distribution lines in precarious condition of
use; so, the quality of water supplied does not reach conditions similar to better practices already in use in
many countries. However this does not mean that these countries provide water ready for drinking directly
from the tap without further treatment, as some people imagine, suggest and even practice. In fact, if the water
that comes from the point of entry in our houses was good to drink would cost ten times more. And even then
it would not be 100 % guaranteed.
Due to the above aspects, the legislation concerning the drinking water, particularly that one which reaches
our homes through pipes, cannot easily be enhanced, since it would be impossible do it using the limited
funds available annually for this kind of investment.
Finally we can say that with so many contaminations in the water sources all over the world and due the
legislations limitations, it is very difficult to get good water quality without risk for our health, only fulfilling
drinking water standards.

References
VIGIL, M. Kenneth. Clear Water. Corvallis, OR. Oregon State University Press. 2003.
BRASIL. Portaria 2914 de 11 de dezembro de 2011 do Ministrio da Sade.
WHO (World Health Organization). Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Geneva: Sun Fung, 2004
WYZGA, Ronald E. et al. (Org.) Drinking Water and Health Selected Issues in Risk Assessment Risk
Assessment of Mixtures of Systemic Toxicants in Drinking Water National Academy Press. Washington,
D.C. 1989. V. 9 Cap. 3
THORNTON, Joe. Pandoras Poison Chlorine, Health and a New Environmental Strategy. MIT Press.
London, England 2000.
POVOA, Helion. A chave da longevidade. 7. ed.. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Objetiva, 2001.
BARZILAY, Joshua I; WEINBERG, Winkler G.; ELEY, J. William.The water we drink: Water quality and
its effects on health. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1999.
GELT, Joe. Consumers increasingly use bottled water, home water treatment systems to avoid direct tap
water. Available on: <http://ag.arizona.edu/AZWATER/arroyo/081botle.html Access: 21 Jan 2014>.

Author: Victor Magalhes Duarte, MSc1
Co-author: Juan Carlos Rossi Alva, PhD2
1 Electronic and Safety Engineer, Master Science in Environmental Planning, PhD Student in
Energy and Environment, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil
e-mail: prema2023@hotmail.com

2 Professor of Professional Masters in Environmental Planning of Salvador Catholic University-
UCSAL-Bahia-Brazil.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[48]
Correlations between organic content, microbial contamination and zeta
potential of greywater samples from the region of Northeastern
Hungary

N. Boros
(1)
, A. Uveges
(1)
, A. Petranyi
(1)
, F. Peles
(2)

(1)
Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University
of Debrecen, H-4028 Debrecen, temet u. 2-4. Hungary
Phone: +36 52 415155; e-mail: nboros@eng.unideb.hu

(2)
Institute of Food Science, Quality Assurance and Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural and
Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen,
Bszrmnyi u. 138. Hungary

1. Introduction The recycling of greywater for non-potable water applications, such as toilet flushing or
irrigation, is a potential solution to reduce potable water consumption. In Hungary, the precipitation has large
temporal and spatial variability, between 1960 and 2009 the average annual rainfall decreased by 1.7 percent.
The decreasing annual rainfall and the raising water charges will induce us to recycle the greywater in the
immediate future.
We determined the physical, chemical and biological properties of greywater in general and by sources. The
purpose of this study was to establish the correlations between the organic content, bacterial contamination
and zeta potential parameters. In addition, we wanted to evaluate the applicability of microbial rapid tests in
the determination of microbial quality regarding greywater samples.

2. Experimental Greywater samples were collected from different sources, such as baths, showers, kitchen
sinks, washing machines and dishwasher waste pipes. The sampling spots were located mainly in Debrecen
and in the region of Northeastern Hungary. The organic content of the samples was evaluated by two methods:
BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) was determined using 5 day procedure, while DOC (dissolved organic
carbon) was determined using a total organic carbon analyzer, Shimadzu TOC-VCPN (Shimadzu Europe
GmbH, Duisburg, Germany). The zeta potential was measured using Zetasizer Nano Z equipment (Malvern
Instruments Ltd., Malvern, UK). In order to estimate the microbiological load of greywater we used Hygiene
Monitor test kits (Transia GmbH, Ober-Mrlem, Germany).

3. Results and Discussion The mean values of parameters which refer to organic content showed that
certain greywater samples were heavily loaded with organic substance. Greywater has a similar organic
strength to domestic wastewater but it is relatively low in suspended solids and turbidity, indicating that a
greater proportion of the contaminants are dissolved. The results of microbiological tests verified the potential
health risk of greywater reuse, since we detected a considerable microbiological contamination in greywater
samples. As a result of correlation analyzes we found that the zeta potential was affected not only by pH,
conductivity, and ionic strength but by the organic content and bacterial number as well.

4. Conclusions The greywater samples from different sources showed a high variability for all of the
measured parameters. The pollutant load of greywater is less than in domestic sewage, but the occurrence of
faecal indicator bacteria demonstrates the potential presence of faecally transmitted pathogens. On the base
of our investigation we can say that the microbial rapid tests are suitable to estimate the bacterial number in
greywater samples.
The high organic content and considerable bacterial contamination of greywater sources can be determinative
factors for the selection of the treatment technology before recycling. Both of these parameters have
significant influence on the zeta potential parameter of greywater samples.

Acknowledgements The work/publication is supported by the TMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0041
project. The project is co-financed by the European Union and the European Social Fund.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[49]
THE STRATEGY FOR WATER TREATMENT ON REMEDIATION
AND REHABILITATION OF URANIUM AND RADIUM FORMER
MINES OF CENTRAL REGION OF PORTUGAL - ACHIEVED
RESULTS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
S. Barbosa (1)

(1)
EDM-Empresa de Desenvolvimento Mineiro S.A., R. Sampaio e Pina,1,1070-248 Lisboa
00351 21 384 9150 s.barbosa@edm.pt
1. Introduction EDM is a own Portuguese State Company responsible for the Plan of Environmental
Rehabilitation and Remediation works on 175 former mines exploited during the past XX
th
Century in
Portugal. During the last fifteen years, with financial support of Portuguese
Government and EU founding, EDM developed specific characterization
studies, designed solutions for filed works and applied monitoring systems
aiming the environmental attenuation and control of most relevant impacts
that relies on these old mining areas. From the North to the South, Portugal
is a country with huge diversity regarding its geology and with consequent
demarcated differences on its metallogeny and geochemical environments.
EDM has already started to develop different types of passive treatment
systems regarding these different biohydrogeochemistry environments.

2. Experimental, Results and Discussion - Mine effluent treatment
improvements for old uranium and radium mines began 12 years ago and are presently showing very positive
results with evident cost/environment benefits. At a fist stage, flooding with natural attenuation had been
combining. Subsequently innovative passive systems have been constructed considering local conditions,
adsorption and co-precipitation processes and the usage of specific geomaterials for water filtration.
4. Conclusions - Improving
energy efficiency, evaluate
biomineralization
contribution on water treatment processes and assessing the possibilities
of new generation materials usage are, undoubtedly, the next step to
improve these mine water treatment process.

5. References
[1] T. Sousa, A. Chung, A. Pereira, A. Piedade & P. Morais, Aerobic
uranium immobilization by Rhodanobacter A2-61 through formation of
intracelular uranium-phosphate complexes, Jornal of The Royal Society
of Chemistry, 2013.
[2] A. Pereira, L. Neves, J.M. Dias, S. Barbosa, Environmental hazards at Urgeiria and Cunha Baixa-
Quinta do Bispo old uranium mines. IAEA, Proceedings Series 400, Enviromental contamination from
uranium production facilities and their remediation, 2005, p 181-191.


Image 1. Urgeiria Mine - Passive
System for Ra-226 and Uranium

Image 2. Urgeiria Mine - Passive
System; Phytoremediation Basin

Image 2. Urgeiria Mine - Passive
System; Adsoprtion and co-precipitation
Bassin

Image 4. Urgeiria Mine - Passive
System; biogeochemical mineralization


Image 3. Urgeiria Mine - Passive
System; Results for Radium-226


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[50]
Using Technosols as a support to treatment of urban wastewater

D. Bolaos Guerrn
(1)
, F. Macas Vzquez
(1)

(1)
Laboratory of Environmental Technology, University Institutes. Block - A. Campus Vida.
15782 Santiago de Compostela.
+34 881813386 / +34 650975899 darioroberto84@hotmail.com

1. Introduction The purpose of this research has been the application of Technosols as a complement to
treatment of wastewater. The project was developed on a farm which has wine production, between 400000
and 600000 bottles per year, in addition, on weekends and holidays have social and cultural events with a
maximum capacity of 350 people, generating specific increases for flows wastewater.
According to the law, the Authority requires the treatment of the wastewater generated. In the area there is
no public sewer system, so by mutual agreement specifies a point on a tributary to the river Umia. Treatment
plant had a dosing chamber, which tries to maintain a constant flow into a digester fed by gravity settling
tanks. Then the water goes to the first zone vertical flow wetland, and then goes to 3 horizontal flow wetlands.
Above them were planted emergent macrophytes such as reeds (Phragmites), espadana (Typha) and bulrush
(Scirpus), with a density of 3 units per square meter, all typical of wetlands. The control parameters detected
early problems just start operation.
Designers proposed expanding the size of the treatment plant, which is geometric and economically
unfeasible. You could not have residual surface water due to the use of the farm hospitality. Neither can
increase the area of wetlands, because the surrounding areas have other specific uses.
According to the described problem, the main objective of the
project was to contribute to the process of treatment of urban
waste water by applying Technosols in horizontal flow wetlands.
With previous successful experiences in which Technosols have
served to improve water quality [1, 2, 3]. The proposal was to
modify the configuration of the horizontal flow wetlands. For
Tecnosol layer was applied, adding tifa type plants (Typha
latifolia) and modified internal geometry to increase the path
length and residence time, all this, in order to constantly evaluate
the evolution of the parameters quality.

2. Results and Discussion - The soil was taken to the field on May 5th (Image 1.), and the water sampling
started since then and periodically. Different parameters improved on quality, being of primary concern levels
of COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand), TSS (Total Suspended Solids),
PO43-(Phosphate) and NH3 (Ammonia).

3. Conclusions - By applying Technosols in horizontal flow wetlands, the control parameters were reduced
to acceptable for downloads of this type, demonstrating the hypothesis, a result confirmed by the control
samples taken 10 months after November 2013.
Tecnosol and tifa latifolia did not affect negatively to any of the physical and chemical water quality
parameters that were monitored throughout the trial.

4. References

[1] D. Bolaos Guerrn y F. Macas Vzquez, Using Technosols for the treatment of eutrophication in
water bodies. In: International Perspective for Water and Environment IPWE 14, Quito, 2014.
[2] F. Macas, M. Bao, F. Macas-Garcas, M. Bao y M. Camps Arbestain, Valorizacin biogeoqumica de
residuos por medio de la elaboracin de Tecnosoles con diferentes aplicaciones ambientales, Aguas &
Residuos, n 5, pp. 12-25, 2007.
[3] F. Macas-Garca, L. Fontn, X. L. Otero, C. Prez Llaguno, M. Camps Arbestain y F. Macas, Recuperacin de
aguas cidas de la mina de Touro mediante sistemas integrados de barreras reactivas con diferentes Tecnosoles y
humedales., Minera Sostenible. Cmara Oficial Mineira de Glicia. A Corua., pp. 963-973, 2009.



Image 1. Technosol with tifa

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[51]
Development of geochemical studies of waters and wastes with
commercial potential: the ING PAN experience.

A. Porowski
(1)
, . Kruszewski
(1)
, M. Lewandowski
(1)

(1)
ING PAN, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warszawa. Poland.
+48226978700, lemar@twarda.pan.pl

1. Introduction - The Institute of Geological Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences (ING PAN)
specializes in dating of rocks, minerals and waters, reconstruction of geological environments and orogens
evolution, exploration of groundwater origin and water-rock interactions using cutting-edge methods of
isotope geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, sedimentology, tectonics, stratigraphy and hydrogeology.
During the last years, ING PAN has been gradually developed into the centre for geosystem research,
applying the most advanced methods of geochemistry, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction as well as
mathematical modeling of geological processes.
Recently, when collaboration with industrial partners is desired or even indispensable all over Europe, the
commercial application of various studies plays a key factor in the race to obtain funds for innovative
scientific research. This short overview demonstrates examples of application of modern and most promising
geochemical methods in groundwater and wastes studies of significant industrial usefulness, supportet by
ATLAB, project, funded by 7
th
FP of EC REGPOT program

2. Results and Discussion - One of the most promising geochemical tools in exploration of geothermal
energy, geothermal waters and evaluation of thermal water reservoirs is application of chemical and isotopic
geothermometers. During the exploration phase the geothermometers are used to estimate subsurface
temperatures in deep groundwater horizons, using chemical and isotopic composition of water and/or solutes
and specific mineral-solute equilibriums. The successful application of oxygen isotope geothermometer in
SO4-H2O system can be seen in the geothermometric study of hydrogeothermal system of the Sudetes Mts,
SW Poland.
The modern isotope geochemistry and tracer methods were applied also to study the origin of deep circulating
drainage waters in copper mines in foresudetic monocline, SW Poland. Polish copper mines belonging to
KGHM Polish Copper Consortium are the largest in Europe and seventh in the world with respect to amount
of pure copper production. The main copper ore deposits occur in the so-called copper-bearing shales of
Zechstein sedimentary formation of Permian age. The question of the origin of these waters arose in the light
of the proper development of drainage system location, evaluation of its capacity and further economic
extraction of copper ore. The determination of isotopic composition of waters drained in mines, and isotopic
composition of sulfates revealed two genetically different types of waters, namely meteoric waters of modern
hydrological cycle and brines connceted with paleoinfiltration in wormer climates. Moreover, the
groundwater flow pathways, interaction with evaporite formations and other geochemical processes in deep
geological formations have been succesfully reported.
Modern geochemical techniques have been also applied to environmentally and economically very sensitive
problem as tracking the trace elements, initially bounded in coal organic matter, and mobilized during the
coal fires in the mining dumps of Upper Silesian Coal Basin. In these research the special attention have been
paid to strategic elements like gallium, germanium, indium, vanadium. The main method used was an electron
microprobe, operating in the special, trace mode. This microchemical method is capable of analysing
concentrations of trace minerals in single crystals of the particular mineral species. The main achievement is
an uniquely high concentration of germanium found in the crystals of cuspidine, Ca4(Si2O7)F2, of a
metacarbonate slag from Siemianowice lskie dump. As much as 980 ppm of Ge were detected, and this
determination was repeated with a similar result in three other points of the same crystals. Migration and
immobilization of trace elements in the anthropogenic environment, expecially mining dumps, is an important
due to growing industrial demands and ore deposit depletion.

4. Conclusions The development of modern geochemical research with focus on various fields of applied
geochemistry is a proper way to strengthening the collaboration with industry and raising funds for innovative
joint ventures in the wide are of geosystem exploration. Additional assets are connected with highly trained
staff which have an opportunity to improve its knowledge and quality of research.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[52]
Quantity and Quality Assessment of Harvested Rainwater
at University Campus

D. Kaposztasova
(1)
, M. Ahmidat

, Z. Vranayova, G. Markovic


(1)
Technical University of Kosice, Faculty of Civil Engineering
Vyskoskolska 4, 04200 Kosice
daniela.ocipova@tuke.sk, tel:00421556024143

1. Introduction Considerable amount of attention is dedicated to the issue of sustainable storm water
management nowadays because of the impact of the climate change and water scarcity around the world.
Sustainable stormwater management as well as rainwater harvesting, as an
alternative water source, can contribute to the sustainability of the water cycle
[1]. Our previous research [2] shows that rainwater harvesting system is
profitable for the region of Slovakia. The influence of roofing material and
roof slope on the quality and quantity of harvested rainwater in the area of
Kosice-City was explored.
2. Experimental The experiments have been carried out in two places at
Technical University of Kosice (TUKE) -1. The University library roof
where three models and one rain gauge (Image 1.) are located and PK6
building with 2 infiltration shafts. There are three equivalent roof models placed on the roof of the University
library. Design of the models allows for the adjustment of roof slope and also for the replacement of roofing
material. All the components needed for the collection of rainwater can be fastened to the models. Roofing
materials used in the models are ceramic tiles, lakoplastic tiles, and concrete roof tiles. Roofing material of
the model was chosen according to the most commonly used roofing materials in Slovakia.
3. Results and Discussion The previous studies
described that prolonged periods of drought provide the
rain water drained roof surfaces, an increase in the values
of parameters such as turbidity and color, conductivity,
dissolved solids and alkalinity [3]. Our first results of
qualitative indicators of harvested rainwater collected from
a model with ceramic tile are presented. Water samples
were taken regularly on the 3
rd
, 15
th
and 30
th
day of the
month from 100 liter tank. Two parameters were evaluated:
pH and conductivity. These values were obtained through
the collection and subsequent chemical analysis of the
water samples. The pH values of water during 2013 depicted in graph are shown in Image 2. Mean pH value
at 25 C is 6.7, maximum pH is 7.8 and minimum is 6.1. According to (NV SR) no. 269/2010 Z.z. regulation,
the pH value should range from 6 to 8.5. pH values during the observed months of June to December 2013
were of standard value. In 2013 the difference between pH from the first flush and pH from the tank in each
month was carried out. The pH value from first flush was generally lower than pH from the tank. The values
of water conductivity were measured continuously from 2011. In most cases the conductivity values do not
exceed the standard value of 100 mS/m (NV SR) no. 269/2010 Z. z. The month of September is an exception
with higher conductivity values. The average value of conductivity is 96 mS /m.
4. Conclusions - There is necessity to raise peoples awareness in SWM because new approaches usually
dont have only environmental function but aesthetic, economic and educational as well. This paper briefly
described one part of our research at the Faculty of Civil Engineering. The results obtained show tested
roofing materials are suitable for the collection of rainwater. These findings will be used as input for our next
step - data for modelling.
5. References
[1] Vranayov, Z. TZB-info. stavebn spory budovy, technick zazen budov.
[2] http://www.trust-i.net, A Master Framework for UWCS Sustainability (April, 2013)
[3] Sy, D., Stec, A., & Zelekov, M. - A LCC analysis of rainwater management variants. In: Ecological
Chemistry and Engineering, S, (2012), 19(3), 359-372. Retrieved from www.scopus.com


Image 1. University library roof
Image 2. University library roof


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[53]
REMOVING OF Cd(II) ions FROM MODEL SOLUTIONS BY DRIED
MOSS BIOMASSVesicularia dubyana UNDER CONDITIONS OF
BATCH AND CONTINUOUS FLOW COLUMN SYSTEMS

Anna uovsk, Zuzana Dreov, Miroslav Hornk, Martin Pipka, Jozef Augustn,
Juraj Lesn

Department of Ecochemistry and Radioecology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University
of SS. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, Nm. J. Herdu 2, Trnava, SK-917 01, Slovak Republic.
(anna.sunovska@ucm.sk)

The heavy metals and radionuclides in soils and waters are considered as one of the most serious problems
worldwide because these elements are toxic, non-biodegradable, and can be distributed within the food chain.
Cadmium is one of the most toxic metals affecting the environment and was ranked as the No. 7 of hazardous
substances which have a significant potential threat to human health due to their known or suspected toxicity
[1]. Cadmium enters into the environment through wastewater disposed from electroplating, smelting, plastic
manufacturing, pigments, batteries, application of phosphate fertilizers, mining, and metal refining processes.
Many cadmium-containing wastes and wastewaters end up in water systems of lakes or rivers and marine
water.
The aim of this work was to quantitative describe the processes of Cd biosorption by dried biomass
of freshwater moss Vesicularia dubyana under conditions of batch or continuous flow column systems using
gamma-spectrometry and radionuclide
109
CdCl2. In individual batch experiments the effect of time,
concentration of moss biomass or Cd ions, pH, temperature and Cd speciation in solution on these processes
were studied. Also, the characterization of dried moss biomass as a sorbent was carried out in terms of
functional groups portion on the biomass surface determination potentially included in Cd biosorption
processes.
The potentiometric titration revealed the presence of carboxyl, phosphoryl, amino and hydroxyl groups
on moss biomass surface, which were predicted by modelling software ProtoFit. It was found that the Cd
biosorption by moss biomass was a rapid process and the equilibrium was reached within 60 min interaction.
The maximal Cd biosorption 280 mol.g
-1
(d.w.) was found within the range of initial pH0
4 8, the decrease of biosorption about 65 % was observed at pH0 3 and the minimal Cd biosorption 3 mol.g
-
1
(d.w.) was described at pH0 2. The process was also significantly dependent on initial concentration of CdCl2
(20 320 mol.dm
-3
), concentration of biomass (0.25 2.00 g.dm
-3
) and changes
in Cd speciation given by concentration of Cl
-
anions in solutions. The amount of Cd sorbed on moss biomass
increased only slightly with increasing temperature within the range 9 40 C. Experimental data of the Cd
biosorption by moss biomass under conditions of continuous flow column system at initial concentration
36 mg.dm
-3
CdCl2 and flow rate 0.80 cm
3
.min
-1
were well described by Clark (R
2
= 0.981), Thomas (R
2
=
0.964), Yoon-Nelson (R
2
= 0.962) and MDR (R
2
= 0.954) models. These results were also confirmed on the
basis of differences in obtained values of root mean square errors (RMSE), residual sum of squares (RSS)
or corrected Akaikes information criterion (AICc). Furthermore, Thomas model allowed to find the value
of maximal sorption capacity Qmax = 22.31.0 mg.g
-1
(d.w.). Sorbed Cd was removed from the moss biomass
with high efficiency (> 93 %) by extracting with 0.1 mol.dm
-3
HCl. Desorption
of Cd with 0.1 mol.dm
-3
EDTA-Na2 and ZnCl2 decreased in the order: EDTA-Na (92 %) > ZnCl2 (85 %)
> deionized water (20 %).
According to these findings, it can be concluded that dried biomass of freshwater moss V. dubyana can be
used as a potential sorbent for removing of toxic metals or radionuclides from liquid wastewaters
or contaminated waters and the mathematical modelling of sorption processes in continuous flow column
systems can provide an important parameters from the point of view of practice.

[1] ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry), Priority list of hazardous substances. GA,
US Department of Health and Human Services (www.atsdr.cdc.gov), 2013.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[54]
RHIZOFILTRATION OF Cd AND Zn BY ENERGY PLANTS FROM
WASTEWATERS UNDER CONDITIONS OF CONTINUOUS FLOW
SYSTEMS

Zuzana Dreov, Anna uovsk, Miroslav Hornk, Martin Pipka, Juraj Lesn, Jozef
Augustn, Stanislav Hostin

Department of Ecochemistry and Radioecology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University
of SS. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, Nm. J. Herdu 2, Trnava, SK-917 01, Slovak Republic
(z.duresova@gmail.com)

Heavy metals and radionuclides represent a non-degradable and in the environment persistent contaminants,
which can be significantly harmful to human, plants and animals mainly through the food chain. Among the
heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) is referred as one of the most serious metal contaminants not only for the reason
of its significant occurrence in the environment, but also from the view of its negative impacts on living
organisms. Zinc is defined as an important microelement in nutrition, but it is often connected with Cd
contamination of the environment predominately on the basis of physico-chemical similarities as well as
mutual geochemical origin with Cd.
The aim of the work was to quantitatively characterize the rhizofiltration of Cd and Zn from model
contaminated solutions spiked by radionuclides
109
Cd and
65
Zn with using of rhizofiltration system
comprising of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) plants. Giant reed plants were selected as fast-growing energy
crop rich in root system and biomass yielding with possibilities of their application in phytoremediation
methods. The rhizofiltration system was assembled with tubes as individual units connected in series,
whereby the one tube/unit contained only one giant reed plant. The experiments were carried out in two
operation modes. The first, cyclic (closed) flow system represented the solution movement from stock
solution through the rhizofiltration system and flow back into the stock solution. The second, continuous flow
(opened) system was defined with the solution movement through the rhizofiltration system and with
collecting of solution escaping from the system in given time and volume intervals. In all experiments,
the gamma-spectrometric system assembled with well type NaI(Tl) crystal and data processing software was
used for
109
Cd and
65
Zn determination in solutions as well as in plant biomass.
We found, that it is possible to realize the effective Cd and Zn rhizofiltration by root system of giant reed
plants from model solutions under conditions of cyclic (closed) or continuous flow (opened) rhizofiltration
system in terms of completely decontaminated solution or solution containing only minimal volume
radioactivity of
109
Cd and
65
Zn in output from the system obtaining, respectively. Under conditions of
continuous flow (opened) rhizofiltration systems, the highest
109
Cd and
65
Zn specific radioactivity (Bq/g; dry
wt.) were found in plants located near the input of contaminated solution into the system, whereby
the radioactivity in plants decreased in the direction from the input of solution into the system to the output
of solution from the system. The translocation of
65
Zn in terms of values of concentration ratios (CR) [Zn]shoot
: [Zn]root was not affected by horizontal location of plants in rhizofiltration system. However, in the case of
Cd the gradual increasing of the CR within plants location in the direction from the input of solution into the
system to the output of solution from the system was observed. In individual experiments, the effect of
solution composition on the ability of the rhizofiltration system to Cd and Zn removing from model solutions
was also evaluated. It was found that the efficiency of
109
Cd and
65
Zn rhizofiltration by giant reed plants
decreased in the order of solutions: synthetic wastewater ( = 505 S/cm) > deionized water ( = 29.6 S/cm)
> 100 % Hoagland medium (HM) ( = 1 675 S/cm).
From obtained results, it can be concluded that giant reed plants as energy crop show also the application
potential in phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Concretely, this work suggests on possibilities
of giant reed plants utilization in removing of heavy metals from contaminated waters or wastewaters under
continuous flow conditions of rhizofiltration systems.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[55]
Production of soil-cement bricks using water treatment residues

F. Arajo
(1)
, P. Scalize
(2)
, A. Albuquerque
(3)
, J. Lima
(4)
, F. Lima
(5)


(1)
Sanitation Company of Gois, Av. Fued Jos Sebba, N1245, Goinia, GO, Brazil.
+5562 3243-3546, email: fcaraujo40@gmail.com
(2)
University Federal of Gois, Av. Universitria, 1488, Goinia, GO, Brazil.
(3
University of Beira Interior, Edificio 2 das Engenharias, 6201-001 Covilh, Portugal
(4)
Sanitation Company of Gois, Av. Fued Jos Sebba, N1245, Goinia, GO, Brazil.
(5)
University Federal of Gois, Rodovia Goinia/Nova Veneza, Goinia, GO, Brasil

1. Introduction A major environmental concern in the management of water treatment residues (WTR) is
its disposal on soil or water, which is still a solution in several countries such as in Brazil. WTR are classified
as solid waste by most of the international regulations and the most recent environmental legislation ask for
alternative solutions, where its reuse for the construction industry presents a high potential. Therefore, the
present work presents the first results of a research work, which is using WTS for replacing the soil content
in the manufacturing of soil-cement bricks.
2. Experimental - The WTR was used in different
mixtures for replacing soil for the production of soil-
cement bricks, following the procedures of the
standard [1] as present in Table 1 and Figure 1. The
WTR was analysed by scanning electron
microscopy, energy dispersive and X-ray
spectroscopy, and its physical characterization was
setup according to [2].
Figure 1. Soil-cement brick made with waste from WTP.
Compressive strength and water absorption were determined for curing times of to 14, 28 and 56 days after
production.
Table I. Soil-cement composition of the bricks
3. Results and Discussion - A progressive
increase of water consumption (6L to 11L) was
observed as the percentage of WTR increases
(from 0% to 70%). The compressive tests show
that using a cement/aggregates ratio of 1:5 with up
to 60% of WTR, the compressive strength is
above 2 MPa. The higher value was obtained for
the composition 2 with 3.77 MPa, after 56 days of curing time. For the higher curing time (56 days), all the
compositions show water absorption below 20% and, therefore, the composition 2 and 3 show better results
for producing more resistant and durables bricks. As WTS increases, the amount in organic colloids and clay
can cause retardation of cement set, which could have been responsible for the worst results observed for the
compositions 4 to 6.

4. Conclusions - The preliminary results of this project show that WTS can be used for the production of
soil-cement bricks, by replacing the soil content of the mixture, which is also an environmental advantage for
the reuse of this type of residue. The composition with 55% of soil, 30% of WTS and 15% of cement for 56
days of curing time produces bricks with the lower water consumption, the higher compressive strength and
the lower water absorption and, therefore, are the one that guarantee better durability and resistance. However,
for 28 days of curing time, the results also show that bricks can be produced with suitable characteristics for
construction.

5. References
[1] ABNT: ASSOCIAO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TCNICAS. Standard NBR 10.833: Manufacture
of brick and block of soil-cement with use of a manual or hydraulic brickmaking machine Procedure. Rio
de Janeiro, Brazil, 2012. (in Portuguese)
[2] ABNT: ASSOCIAO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TCNICAS. Standard NBR 7211: Aggregates for
concrete - Specification. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2009. (in Portuguese)




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[56]
APPLICATION OF POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY
IN ANALYSIS OF SOLUTE UPTAKE AND ACCUMULATION
IN PLANT TISSUES

Denisa Partelov
1
, Juraj Lesn
1
, Miroslav Hornk
1
, Pavol Rajec
2
, Peter Kov
2
, Stanislav
Hostin
1


1
Department of Ecochemistry and Radioecology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS.
Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, Nm. J. Herdu 2, Trnava, SK-917 01, Slovak Republic
(d.partelova@gmail.com)
2
Biont, Inc., Karlovesk 63, Bratislava, SK-84229, Slovak Republic (rajec@biont.sk)

Positron emission tomography (PET) is generally used for the detailed description of uptake, distribution and
accumulation of substances labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radiotracers in human body within the
medical diagnostic practice or in tissues of laboratory biological models within the pharmacological research.
The PET also provides the quantification of real-time in vivo accumulation dynamics.
The aim of the work was to demonstrate the application potential of the small positron emission tomography
system microPET eXplore Vista Pre-Clinical PET Scanner (GE Healthcare) in the imaging and analysis of
uptake and distribution of 2-fluor-2-deoxy-D-glucose labelled with positron emitter
18
F (2-[
18
F]FDG) within
plant tissues of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). For purposes
of the visualisation of 2-[
18
F]FDG uptake, transport and distribution within plant tissues, experiments were
carried out by immersion of cut area of excised leaf petiole as well as root system of whole plants into model
water solutions differed in D-glucose concentration, ionic strength or initial volume radioactivity. For
acquisition and reconstruction of obtained data program eXplore VISTA 3.1 Analysis & Visualisation
software included mathematic algorithm 3D FORE/2D OSEM was applied. For better visualization and
analysis of obtained images (*.hdr file) after reconstruction, the software Amide.exe ver. 1.0.4 was also used.
For determination of the 2-[
18
F]FDG amount accumulated in individual parts of plants the measurement of
18
F radioactivity by the scintillation gamma-spectrometer with well type NaI(Tl) crystal 54BP54/2 (Scionix,
Netherland) and ScintiVision-32 software (Ortec, USA) was carried out.
From the PET analysis, the PET image of 2-[
18
F]FDG distribution and accumulation within the excised leaf
of radish or tobacco plants was obtained. It was found that the 2-[
18
F]FDG was significantly translocated
from the petiole up to the blade tip within the midrib. Transport of 2-[
18
F]FDG from the midrib into the veins
was observed in less extent and microPET analysis did not confirmed the significant distribution of 2-
[
18
F]FDG within the leaf blade. In individual experiments, the positive effect of increasing D-glucose
concentration for furthered of 2-[
18
F]FDG translocation within the leaf blade was confirmed. In the case of
2-[
18
F]FDG uptake by root system of radish or tobacco plants, the higher D-glucose concentration in the
applied solution had not clear effect on 2-[
18
F]FDG translocation within the stem and leaves or on qualitative
side of microPET image as well. The effect of others solution parameters as well as morphological parameters
of plant tissues on obtained variables such as amount of coincidences included in 2D/3D image reconstruction
or unpaired -photons (singles) not included in 2D/3D image reconstruction or coincidences factor (CF)
describing the 2-[
18
F]FDG transport from the contact area with applied solution (leaf petiole or roots) to leaf
blade or aboveground parts of plant and defined by ratio of analysed coincidences amount was evaluated by
methods of multivariate analyses.
Obtained results suggest that positron emission tomography system microPET eXplore Vista Pre-Clinical
PET Scanner particularly developed for animal objects can be successfully used to in vivo analysis
of the uptake and transport of solutes within the plant conductive tissues represented by xylem and phloem.
This application potential can contribute to description of organic contaminants uptake and accumulation in
plant tissues from contaminated or waste waters as well.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[57]
The adsorption of Benzothiazole by biochar: its adsorptive properties
related to the chemical and physical structure of biochar
Biochar has been intensively studied last years because of its ability to adsorb pollutants and toxins
and also as a potential opportunity to restore polluted areas [1, 2, 3, 4]. The presence of
benzothiazole in the environment is frequent as a consequence of accidental spillage or incomplete
industrial wastewater treatments in the factories for the making of rubber additives [5]. In the
present study, the adsorption of benzothiazole by biochar is simulated in lab conditions to determine
the kinetic of adsorption and the isotherm that characterizes the process. The influence of ionic
strength and pH is also studied. The biochar used in the present research is produced in Touro mine
(Galicia, NW Spain) through two experimental pyrolysers using maize wastes as feed. The relation
within the adsorptive properties of biochar and its chemical composition and physical structure will
be determined through different synergic approaches: SEM, FTIR, porosimetry and determination
of the surface area, in order to effectively design the Terra Preta Technosol [6,7,8].

[1]Cao, X., Ma, L., Gao, B., Harris, W. 2009. Dairy manure biochar effectively sorbs biochar and atrazine.
Enviro. Sci. Technol, 43, 3285-3291

[2]Wang & Xing, 2007. Sorption of organic contaminants by biopolymer derived-chars.

[3]Chen et al. 2008. Transitional adsorption and partition of nonpolar and polar aromatic contaminants by
biochars of pine needles with different pyrolytic temperatures

[4]Moreno Castilla 2004 . Adsorption of organic molecules from aqueous solutions on carbon materials

[5] De Weber, H., Besse, P., Verachtert, H., 2011. Microbial transformation of 2- substituted
benzothiazoles. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol57, 620-625

[6] Macas & Camps-Arbestain, 2010. Soil carbon sequestration in a changing global environment. Mitig
Adapt Strateg Glob Change 15, 16, p. 511-529

[7] Garca Ares MT, Siz Rubio R, Verde, J.R., Macas-Garca, F., Bao Iglesias M, Macas Vzquez F.
Biochar production from maize residues: FTIR, C-NMR spectra and determination of surface properties. Oral
presentation in 2
nd
International Conference Wastes 2013: solutions, treatments and opportunites. Braga, 11-
13 september, 2013

[8] Garca Ares MT, Siz Rubio R, Bao Iglesias M, Macas Vzquez F. Modeling and simulation of biomass
pyrolysis through thermodynamic equilibrium approach using ASPEN PLUS. Poster session in: International
Congress on Energy, Environment, Engineering and Management, 17,18, 19 Julio, 2013, Lisboa.


M. Teresa Garca Ares1: mariateresa.garcia.ares@outlook.es
J. Ramn Verde
1
: joseramon.verde@usc.es
Felipe Macas-Garca
2
: felipe.macias.garcia@usc.es
Manuel Bao
3
: manuel.bao@usc.es
Felipe Macas Vzquez
1
: felipe.macias.vazquez@usc.es

1
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry. University of Santiago Compostela. Galicia, Spain.
2
Tratamientos Ecolgicos del Noroeste, A mina, s/n, Galicia, Spain
3
Department of Chemical Engineering. University of Santiago Compostela. Galicia, Spain


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[58]

BRA-007 B Cisterns Program, contributing to the policy of coexistence
with the Brazilian Semiarid

L.T. Assad
(1)
, C. Gualdani
(2)


(1)
Brazilian Institute of Development and Sustainability (IABS) - www.iabs.org.br
SHIS QI 05, conj. 17, lote 20, Lago Sul, Braslia, Brasil CEP: 71615-170
(+55 61) 3364-6005, assadmar@iabs.org.br
carla.gualdani@iabs.org.br


1. Introduction The BRA-007B Cisterns Program has as its general objective making contributions to
social transformation and improvements in coexistence of local populations with the Brazilian Semiarid
region by means of preservation, access to and management of water resources as essential rights in life and
citizenship processes. Its actions are concentrated in supporting implementation of social technologies for
rainwater catchment for human and other uses, in addition to capacity-building and institutional strengthening
activities for local civil society organizations; impact evaluation studies; identifying and supporting new
social technologies in favor of access to water mainly with the Mandacaru Awards; exchanges of
experiences; knowledge generation and dissemination. The Program thus benefits families in rural areas,
small farmers and schools with construction of cisterns and trains beneficiaries in courses, seminars and
knowledge exchange programs, in search of a new form of interaction with the environment they inhabit. The
Program started in 2010 in a cooperation effort involving the Government of Spain (by means of the Official
Credit Institute ICO) and the Government of Brazil (by means of its Ministry of Social Development and
the Fight Against Hunger MDS), with the Brazilian Institute of Development and Sustainability IABS as
the implementing organization. The amount allocated to this initiative is approximately EUR 20,000,000,
with duration of 5 years, ending in December 2014.
2. Experimentation The Program, by consolidating knowledge of the local reality in the Brazilian
Semiarid, supported construction of cisterns for rainwater catchment in rural areas, in addition to bringing
together a network of coordinators and local replicators for dissemination of knowledge acquired during the
Programs implementation cycle, in capacity-building activities for nearly 200,000 people. This knowledge
also came from two impact evaluation studies, the first being directed at assessing aspects of lifestyles of
families in rural areas before and after cistern construction, taking into account nutritional, anthropomorphic,
gender, activity, schooling, income and other aspects revolving around the quality of life of the 3,500 families
that were analyzed. The other study has also been generating important information about the impact of school
cisterns in the quality of life of students and teachers in areas with restricted access to water, involving 108
schools and their respective rural communities, with regards to aspects such as food security, school evasion,
time in school and others. Also worthy of note is the Mandacaru Awards initiative, which seeks to promote
development of innovative initiatives, by means of identification, consolidation and dissemination of social
technologies, scientific and technological production and successful experiments to foster improvements in
quality of life, involving environmental, economic and social aspects, in search of socially fair and
environmentally sustainable development of
the Semiarid.
3. Results and Discussion So far, 14,658 cisterns have been constructed in 404 municipalities of the 9
Brazilian states in the Semiarid region, in addition to 7 states not in the region but also suffering from shortage
of access to water resources. Of these, 11,457 cisterns were destined to household use, 1,365 to impact studies,
1,080 to irrigation and 756 to schools. A total of 143,963 beneficiaries was reached. Furthermore, 800 local
replicators were trained in topics relevant to water management and coexistence with the Semiarid, in addition
to knowledge exchanges, publications, videos, website and awards for technological innovations in rational
use of water resources.
4. Conclusion The BRA 007-B Cisterns Program aims to promote a new paradigm of coexistence with the
Brazilian Semiarid region, by means of implementation and support for social technologies of access to water,
in addition to institutional strengthening activities for local institutions and knowledge dissemination. This
new paradigm has become consolidated in Brazil over the past two decades as a new approach to facing social
problems at the local level by using local knowledge.
5. Bibliography Convivncia com o Semirido Brasileiro Autonomia e Protagonismo Social. Braslia:
Editora IABS, 2013.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[59]
Mandacaru Awards Innovative Projects and Practices for Access to
Water and Coexistence with Semiarid Regions
L.T Assad
(1)
, C. Gualdani
(2)
, M. Fontana
(3)


(1)
Brazilian Institute of Development and Sustainability (IABS) www.iabs.org.br
SHIS,QI 05, conj. 17, lote 20, Lago Sul, Braslia, Brasil CEP: 71615-170.
(+55 61) 3364-6005, assadmar@iabs.org.br
carla.gualdani@iabs.org.br,
(3)
maiti@iabs.org.br.


1. Introduction The Mandacaru Awards Innovative Projects and Practices for Access to Water and
Coexistence with Semiarid Regions has the objective of promoting knowledge production and development
of successful and innovative activities in favor of solidary and sustainable coexistence with the Brazilian
Semiarid region. This initiative is aimed at small farmer associations, research institutions, civil society
organizations and government agencies. The Mandacaru Awards is one of the activities in the Cisterns
Program BRA-007-B, implemented by the IABS Brazilian Institute for Development and Sustainability,
within the scope of an agreement signed with the FCAS Spanish Cooperation Fund for Water and
Sanitation, with financial support from the AECID Spanish Agency for International Cooperation for
Development, in partnership with the Brazilian MDS Ministry for Social Development and the Fight
Against Hunger. This Award seeks to contribute to social transformation, promoting preservation, access,
management and appreciation of water and other natural resources as a human right essential to life and
citizenship, expanding comprehension, as well as sustainable and solidary coexistence with the Brazilian
Semiarid.

2. Experimentation The first Madacaru Awards took place in 2012, with access, management and quality
of water as the main topic. In this first edition, 10 initiatives/projects, from 7 states in the region, received
the award, for a grand total of BRL 960 thousand. After selection and award distribution,
winners started to be monitored by the committee in charge of the Awards to ensure proper use of financial
prizes in proposed activities. Consolidation of lessons learned has been possible, and a 2
nd
edition has been
announced, with the topic of Water, Participation and Food Sovereignty. This second round will take place
in 2014, with the same categories as the first. The total amount to be awarded has increased to BRL 1 million.
Award Categories: Field Experimentation: small farmer associations and workers unions; Innovative
Practices: non-governmental organizations; Applied Research: research institutions; Innovative
Management: federal, state and municipal government agencies that are from the Brazilian Semiarid or active
in the region.

3. Results and Discussion Monitoring of award winners has demonstrated the importance of social
technologies and actions in favor of solidary coexistence with the Brazilian Semiarid for local communities.
This process made it possible to systematize the potentialities of each proposal, as well as the role played by
the Mandacaru Awards in this context, involving identification, consolidation and dissemination of social
technologies. The following Social Technologies were selected: plate cisterns with automatic mechanisms
and buoy systems, small dams, underground dams, stone tanks, seedling nurseries, biodigestor, recovery of
springs, large wells, community gardens; forager production; agroecological backyards with torrent cisterns
and natural water desalinators.

4. Conclusion The Mandacaru Awards seeks to create a network of knowledge for local dissemination,
regarding social technologies for access to and management of water and other natural resources, by means
of support offered to selected proposals. Significant contributions have been made to generation and
dissemination of new tools and experiments that strengthen autonomy of involved communities, generating
concrete transformations and improvements for populations that find sustainable forms of coexisting with the
Semiarid and its biome, the Caatinga, on a daily basis.

Bibliography R. P. Dagnino, Tecnologia social: ferramenta para construir outra sociedade. Campinas, 2009.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[60]

Microbial community dynamics associated with the removal of
veterinary antibiotics in constructed wetlands microcosms

Joana P. Fernandes
1,2
, C. Marisa R. Almeida
2
, Ana C. Pereira
1
, Iolanda Lourinha
1
,
Izabela Reis
2
, Pedro Carvalho
2
, M. Clara P. Basto
1,2
, Ana P. Mucha
2

1 Faculdade de Cincias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, 4169-007 Porto,
Portugal. Phone: (+351)223401822, email: joana.pfernandes17@gmail.com
2 Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigao Marinha e Ambiental, CIIMAR/CIMAR, Universidade
do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal.

1. Introduction - Veterinary drugs or their active compounds can enter the water system through effluent
discharges derived from livestock industry. Conventional methods of wastewater treatment are generally not
capable or equipped to remove these compounds therefore they are released without efficient treatment.
Antibiotics are of main concern because when released in the environment, they may cause serious toxic
effects and can promote antibiotic resistance.
Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a potential alternative to remove these compounds from wastewater
effluents, being the low costs and easy operations/procedures their main advantages. This technology is
designed to mimic natural wetlands and based on interaction between soil/sediment, plant and
microorganisms to remove the contaminants present in the effluent. Therefore, CWs efficiency will also
depend on the microbial communities present within them. So, it is important to evaluate the impact of
pharmaceuticals, such as veterinary antibiotics, on these communities.
The aim of this research was to study the response of the microbial community from CWs microcosm to two
veterinary drugs (enrofloxacin (ENR) and tetracycline (TET)), drugs present in livestock industry wastewater.

2. Experimental - The microcosms were set up in plastic containers with layers of gravel, lava rock and
sediment, unplanted and planted with Phragmities australis. Each system was wrapped in aluminium foil to
avoid light penetration into the substrate and left to acclimate for one week under greenhouse conditions.
With the containers previously prepared, three treatments were tested: one only with wastewater (control)
and two with wastewater doped with 100 g L
1
of ENR or of TET. For each treatment, both planted and
unplanted microcosms were used.
The study was conducted over twelve weeks, being doped wastewater replaced every week. Thus, every
week, water samples were collected to quantify the levels of antibiotics (by HPLC). Sediment samples were
also collected and characterized in terms of their microbial community structure (by ARISA).

3. Results and Discussion - Proles of ARISA fragment lengths (corresponding to bacterial phylotypes)
were used to evaluate changes in microbial community structure. Analysis of similarities (two-way crossed
ANOSIM) showed a signicant effect of both time and treatments in the community structure, indicating that
the communities were in an adaptation process. However, CWs removal efficiency was relatively stable along
the experiment, with average removal of 98% for ENR and 94% for TET. Furthermore, significant differences
were observed between the community of planted and unplanted systems for ENR treatment, indicating that
plants might also affect microbial communities.

4. Conclusions - This study points to the importance of CWs for the removal of veterinary antibiotics found
in livestock wastewaters, showing promising results regarding its application for the remediation of the
environmental impact of livestock industry.

Acknowledgments: Research partially supported by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
through COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Program and national funds through FCT, under Pest
C/MAR/LA0015/2011 and SFRH/BD/44934/2008.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[61]
Response of PAO to phosphorous overloads in an EBPR-SBR.

A. Real
(1)
, A.M. Garca-Martnez
(1)
, J.R.Pidre
(1)
, M.D. Coello
(2)
, P.M. Pareja
(2)
, C.A.
Aragn
(1)
.

(1)
Fundacin CENTA, Autova Sevilla-Huelva (A49), km 28. 41820, Carrin de los Cspedes,
Sevilla (Spain).
Phone: +34 954 759 020; e-mail: areal@centa.es
(2)
Universidad de Cdiz. Dpto. de Tecnologas del Medio Ambiente. Pol. Ro San Pedro s/n,
11510 Puerto Real, Cdiz (Spain).

1. Introduction Effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a major contributor of phosphorus
(P) to receiving waters leading to eutrophication. Traditionally, in municipal activated sludge WWTPs, P
removal has been reached by physicochemical processes. Nowadays, in most cases, physicochemical
processes are being replaced by a biological process known as enhanced biological phosphorus removal
(EBPR). EBPR involves cycling microbial biomass and influent wastewater through anaerobic and aerobic
zones to achieve a selection of microorganisms with high capacity to accumulate polyphosphate
intracellularly [1].
There are essentially two broad-groupings of microorganisms involved in EBPR, namely polyphosphate
(polyP) accumulating organisms or PAOs and glycogen accumulating organisms or GAOs. The intracellular
polymers, including polyP, PHB and glycogen, play important roles in the EBPR process[2].

2. Experimental - Five 1.25 L-lab-scale EBPR-SBR reactors were subjected to different inlet phosphorous
concentrations, varying from 7.8 to 87,8 mgP/l, in order to assess the response of PAO bacteria to P peaks.
For enhancing P concentration in the raw wastewater a solution of phosphate standard solution (1.0000.002
mg P/l) was employed. Daily the reactors were fed with the enriched wastewater. A 24h-cycle program was
established, including a reaction phase with intermittent aeration, thus, alternating aerobic and anoxic
conditions. COD, PT and PO4 were determined at the influent and effluent of each reactor at the beginning
and end of the 3-days-trial, according to Standard Methods. FISH and DAPI staining were employed for the
identification and quantification of PAOs by eplifluorescense microscopy. Tests were carried out in duplicate

3. Results and Discussion According to results, as the inlet phosphorous concentration increases and,
therefore, the COD/P ratio diminishes, an enlargement of the total phosphorous removal rate is detected
(Table I). The images obtained by epifluorescense microscopy exhibits a growth in the number of PAOs in
biomass samples as the inlet phosphorous concentration increases. In addition, it has been checked that the
intracellular polyphosphate grain size rises according to the same trend.
4. Conclusions Following the analysis of the results, it is deduced that low COD/PT conditions in the inlet
promote PAOs metabolic activity and, therefore, larger phosphorous removal efficiencies.

5. References
[1] Blackall, L.L.; Crocetti, G.R.; Saunderss, A.M.; Bond, P.L. A review and update of the microbiology of
enhanced biological phosphorus removal in WWTPs. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 2002, 81, 681691.
[2] Majed, N.; Chernenko, T.; Diem, M.; Gu, A.Z. Identification of functionally relevant populations in
EBPR processes based on intracellular polymers profiles and insights into the metabolic diversity and
heterogeneity. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 50105017.

Table I. COD, PT and PO4 removal efficiencies
Reactor 0
(7.8 mgP/l)
Reactor 1
(17.8 mgP/l)
Reactor 2
(27.8 mgP/l)
Reactor 3
(47.8 mgP/l)
Reactor 4
(87.8 mgP/l)
COD/PT 106/1 46/1 30/1 17/1 9/1
Average COD removal efficiency (Day
3)
91% 92% 92% 93% 89%
Average PT removal efficiency (Day 3) 7 % 37% 49% 60% 68%
Average P04 removal efficiency (Day 3) 4 % 16% 42% 58% 66%




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[62]
Development of porous alumina membranes for treatment of textile
effluent

Kesia K.O.S. Silva
(1)
, Carlos A. Paskocimas
(2)
, Fernando R. Oliveira
(3)
, Jos H.O.
Nascimento
(4)
, Dany G.K.C. Silva
(5)

(1) Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte - Campus Universitrio CT DET
Av. Salgado Filho, 3000 - Lagoa Nova - Natal RN -Brazil Zip Code: 59078-970
Mobile: +55 84 81094277 - kesiasouto@hotmail.com

1. Introduction Textile production has been considered as an activity of high environmental impact due to
the generation of large volumes of waste water with high load of organic compounds and strongly colored
effluents, toxic and difficult biodegradability. At present, due to the increasing resource constraints and the
environmental requirements, these textile units need to adopt a sustainable approach. Advanced treatment
methods, like membrane filtration, appear to be promising because these methods not only help in reducing
the pollution but also provide a scope for recovery and recycling of water and chemicals. This work deals
with obtaining porous alumina ceramic membranes for filtration of textile effluent in the removal of
contaminants, mainly color and turbidity.

2. Experimental - Two types of alumina with different particle sizes as a
basis for the preparation of formulation for mass production of ceramic
samples and membranes. The technological properties of the samples were
evaluated after using sintering conditions. The sintered samples were
characterized by XRD, XRF, AG, TG, DSC, DL, AA, MEA, RL, MRF-3P
and SEM (Image 1). After the characterization, a standard membrane was
selected with their respective sintering condition for the
filterability tests. The effluent was provided by a local Textile Industry and
characterized at the entry and exit of the treatment plant. A statistical
analysis was used to study the effluent using the following parameters: pH, temperature, EC, SS, SD, oil and
grease, turbidity, COD, DO, total phosphorus, chlorides, phenols, metals and fecal coliform. The filtered
effluent was evaluated by using the same parameters.

3. Results and Discussion - These results demonstrate that the feasibility
of the use of porous alumina ceramic membranes for removing
contaminants from textile effluent with improved average pore size of 0.4
micrometre (distribution range varying from 0,025 to 2.0 micrometre),
with total porosity of 29.66%, and average percentages of color removal
efficiency of 92% (Image 2), 93% of SS, turbidity of 95%, metals 72%
(iron) and COD removal of 75%.

4. Conclusions - The membrane developed showed high efficiency in
removal of environmental contaminants especially in the parameters with color, turbidity and SS, confirming
the feasibility of using porous alumina ceramic membranes in advanced treatment of industrial wastewater
high contaminant load. The recycling and reuse of the treated effluent directly conserve natural resources and
a step towards sustainable development. Technologies based on membrane systems are among the best
alternative methods that can be adopted for large-scale ecologically friendly treatment processes.

5. References
[1] S. Vedajnananda, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Bhattacharya, S. Dutta and S. Ghosh. Crossflow microfiltration
using ceramic membrane for treatment of sulphur black efluente from garment processing industry.
Desalination (2010) (In Press).
[2] A. Solmaz, A. Birul, E. Ustun and Y. Tasdemir. Colour and COD removal from textile effluent by
coagulation and advanced oxidation process. Coloration Technology, 122, (2006), p.102-109.
[3] S. Chakraborty, J. K. Basu and S. Dasgupta. Treatment of a textile effluent: application of a combination
method involving adsorption and nanofiltration. Desalination, 174 (1), (2005), p. 73-85.


Image 2 Treatment effluent

Image 1 - Membrane

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[63]
Desorption of phenolic compounds on activated carbons

J. Madureira
(1)
, R. Melo
(1)
, S. Cabo Verde
(1)
, I. Matos
(2)
, J.P. Noronha
(2)
, I.M. Fonseca
(2)
, F.M.A. Margaa
(1)


(1)
Centro de Cincias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade Tcnica
de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela, Loures, Portugal.
+351 219946253; joanamadureira@ctn.ist.utl.pt

(2)
REQUIMTE/FCT, Faculdade de Cincias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa,
2829-516 Caparica, Portugal.

1. Introduction Phenolic compounds present in wastewater are not easy to degrade by conventional
treatments, increasing toxicity, yet its potential as antioxidants is well known [1]. Adsorption using granular
activated carbon (GAC) as adsorbent has been demonstrated to be an efficient technique to remove these
compounds from wastewater. After the exhaustion of the adsorption capacity, the authors considered the
extraction and recovery of phenolic compounds as a potential way to valorise the wastewater since these
compounds could be used to replace synthetic antioxidants. Furthermore, ionizing radiation, i.e. gamma
radiation, induces modifications in the activated carbons surface chemistry [2] which could improve the
adsorption-desorption capacity of them. The aim of this work is to investigate the desorption capacity of
phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and syringic acid using ultrasound
radiation, before and after the activated carbon irradiation at 25 kGy.

2. Experimental Adsorption/desorption studies were made using low-cost adsorbents, one commercial and
one synthesized, and they were both chemical (elemental analysis, point of zero charge and FTIR analysis)
and physical (N2 adsorption at 77 K and includes the specific surface area, the total pore volume, the
micropore volume and the pore size distribution) characterized. Desorption studies were performed by
ultrasound using different solvents (e.g. organic solvents, aqueous solutions) to optimize desorption
efficiency. The concentration of the phenolic compounds was measured by High Performance Liquid
Chromatography (HPLC). Irradiation studies were performed at different conditions and carried out at the
60
Co
experimental source facility (dose rate: 0.4 kGy/h; absorbed dose: 25 kGy) in the Radiation Technology Unit
located at the Nuclear Technologies Sciences Center, Bobadela, Portugal.

3. Results and Discussion Gamma radiation induced a surface chemistry modification on the studied
activated carbons. Concerning the desorption capacity, the results pointed out to a higher concentration of
phenolic compounds with acetonitrile although gallic acid did not desorb with any solvent. Unlike other
previous works [3], the preliminary results with pure water pointed out to a low concentration desorbed.
Moreover, vanillic acid was the adsorbate that had more affinity with the adsorbents.

4. Conclusions Preliminary results pointed out to a potential wastewater valorisation by antioxidants
extraction using activated carbon as adsorbent. Further studies will be conducted in order to find out the best
conditions to desorb phenolic compounds (e.g. ultrasound frequency, desorption solvents).

5. References
[1] F.J. Benitez, J.L. Acero, J. Garcia, A.I. Leal, Water Res., 37, (2003) p. 4081-4090.
[2] I. Velo-Gala, J.J. Lpez-Pealver, M. Sanchz-Polo, J. Rivera-Utrilla, Carbon, 67, (2014) p. 236-249.
[3] S. Chakma, V.S. Moholkar, Chem Eng J, 175, (2011), p. 356-367.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[64]

A Distributed Sensor Network Powered by Energy Harvesting
Technologies for Wastewater Process Monitoring

M. D. Serra, S. S. Guia, E. J. S. Teixeira, A. Albuquerque, A. Esprito Santo,
J. C. Magrinho


Universidade da Beira Interior - Dep. de Eng. Electromecnica
+351 927 592 880 pedro_d_serra@hotmail.com

1. Introduction Water quality monitoring is of the greatest importance for several applications in
agricultural, industrial and urban applications [1]. The presented technological solution reports a distributed
system, energetically independent, that makes no use of batteries and is composed of a low-power, wireless
sensor network. The energy requirements of this system are completely satisfied using energy harvesting
techniques. The system, still in development, will mainly be applied in the quality monitoring of water and
wastewater systems. The ecological aspects of this solution go well beyond its autonomous energy supply as
it also guarantees the optimization of the processes in which it intervenes.

2. Monitoring System Overview The monitoring system is energetically sustainable: either by the use of
microbial fuel cells [2], suitably adapted to use in wastewater treatment plants, or by galvanic batteries, made
out of copper and zinc electrodes when the system has to be used in soil substrates. The main processing unit
of the system has to supervise and manage the energy harvesting module, integrate and promptly route the
wireless communications between all the units modules and still guarantee accurate and reliable data sets.
The systems instrumentation makes use of small sized and low cost ion-selective electrodes [3].
Developed using electrode printing technologies, the sensors can easily be replaced when their lifespan is
due. Two sensors are here reported as part of the proposed system: a humidity sensor and an H
+
ion-selective
sensor (pH). The humidity sensor establishes a relationship between the humidity in its surroundings and the
corresponding capacitance change, more specifically, the permissivity change in the dielectric material. The
pH sensor is built applying a solid state system approach and platinum/conductive polymer/ionphore
membrane composition: the conductive polymer is comprised of doped polypyrrole and polyaniline; the
sensitive membrane has the ionophore dispersed in a PVC matrix. Both the sensors are previously tested for
selectivity, reliability and lifespan.

3. Impact on the Operation of Wastewater Treatment Process This system would be very useful in
Wastewater Treatment Processes, as it allows the online monitoring of water quality parameters using low-
cost instrumentation, a requirement setup by the Water Framework Directive. It also brings forward an
innovative energy harvesting solution while giving a notorious contribution to the optimization of
bioremediation and monitoring processes.

4. Conclusions The development of wireless sensor networks for water quality monitoring in water systems
using low cost devices based on energy harvesting, is an area of the greatest interest for water management
authorities: such a system will help to get real time information of several different points in a water network
and, therefore, better control the water quality for several uses. The current work is being developed with the
support of a public agency, IAPMEI, in a financial assistance programme called
Passaporte para o Empreendedorismo.

5. References
[1] Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F., Burton, F., Stensel H. (2003). Wastewater engineering: treatment,
disposal and reuse. 4
th
Edition, McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, Ney York, USA, 1848 pp.
[2] Logan, B. E. (2008). Microbial Fuel Cells. John Wiley & Sons.
[3] Buhlmann, P., & Chen, L. D. (2012). Ion-Selective Electrodes With Ionophore-Doped Sensing
Membranes. In P. A. Gale, & J. W. Steed, Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials
(pp. 2539-2576). John Wiley & Sons.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[65]
Effects of ionizing radiation on agro-industrial wastewater

T. Silva
(1)
, R. Melo
(1)
, S. Cabo Verde
(1)
, F.M.A. Margaa
(1)

(1)
Centro de Cincias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade Tcnica
de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela, Loures, Portugal.
+351 219946253; telmasilva@ctn.ist.utl.pt

1. Introduction - Agro-industrial activities are one of the main sources of wastewater pollution. Research on
the application of alternative technologies for advanced wastewater treatment has been widely developed [1]-
[2]. Ionizing radiation, such as gamma radiation, induces the degradation of compounds depending on the
type of energy, dose rate, and absorbed dose [2] having different effects concerning wastewaters content [3].
This research aims to understand the biological and chemical effect of ionising radiation on agro-industrial
wastewater. Several kinds of wastewater originated from Portuguese Agro-Industries (e.g.: slaughterhouse;
swine and dairy) were studied.

2. Experimental - Irradiation studies were performed at different conditions and carried out at the 60Co
experimental source facility (dose rate: 0.4 kGy/h; absorbed dose range: 5-30 kGy) in the Radiation
Technology Unit located at the Nuclear Technologies Sciences Center, Bobadela, Portugal. Microbiological
studies were based on conventional methods [4]. Physical-chemical parameters as COD, BOD, TSS and TKN
were measured according to the Standard Methods [4].

3. Results and Discussion - Table 1 shows the obtained results as a percentage of variation of each parameter,
at specific absorbed dose, by the non-irradiated parameter value. As an example, %CODvariation = [(CODinitial
CODd)/CODinitial]*100, where CODd is the value measured after a given dose and CODinitial the COD value
for the non-irradiated sample (0 kGy).

Table 1 Physical-chemical and microbiological parameters evaluated at 30 kGy in different agro-
industrial wastewaters
Log total


% TSS % COD % BOD % TKN
count


reduction


(cfu/mL)

swine 71% -78% -17% 25% 8

dairy 72% -23% 77% -5% 3

slaughterhouse 8% 32% 49% - 6



4. Conclusions - The main results confirm that gamma radiation impact in wastewater depend on its
composition. Slaughterhouse industry represents the potential supplier for implementation of this technology
since wastewater quality increases after irradiation.

5. References
[1] A.L. Filby, J.A. Shears, B.E. Drage, J.H. Churchley, C.R. Tyler, , Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, (2010) p.
4348-4354.
[2] L. Wojnrovits, E. Takcs, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 77, (2008) p. 225-244.
[3] M.M.A. Daiem, J. Rivera-Utrilla, R. Ocampo-Perez, M. Sanchez-Polo J.J. Lopez-Penalver, Chem. Eng.
J., 219, (2013) p. 371-379.
[4] American Public Health Association, The Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and
Wastewater 20th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, 1998.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[66]
Analysis of household generated greywater samples by ion
chromatography

A. Izbekine Szabolcsik
(1)
, I. Bodnar

(1)
University of Debrecen, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical and Environmental
Engineering; Otemeto Str. 2-4, Debrecen, 4028, Hungary
+36-30-372-00-71; szabolcsikandi@eng.unideb.hu
1. Introduction Greywater reuse is an essential source to save drinking water in households and removing
contaminants by different treatment is a necessary condition. The ion chromatographic analytical method can
be applied to the efficient monitoring of different treatment systems of greywater generated from households.
In this paper ion chromatography (IC) measurements are presented for the analysis of this special wastewater
type. From our point of view these tests are appropriate to gather information about the treatments efficiency.
Our research primary focuses on the determination of some specific anions to certify the applicability of the
effective, comprehensive and environmental friendly methodology. In our examinations we performed
appropriate sample preparation, validation features and optimization of investigation parameters. The
greywater is defined as wastewater from bath, kitchen sink, shower, hand basin, washing machines,
dishwashers, laundries and washing up. It is household generated and has no contact with toilet waste [2, 3].
Based on the organic matter content the professional literature classes the greywater in two groups: high
pollutant greywater (HGW) and low pollutant greywater (LGW) [2, 3]. In our research each type of greywater
samples were analysed to obtain a wide range of information about the application of IC.

2. Experimental - Our measurements were carried out by a DIONEX ICS 3000 instrument. Using standard
solutions is suitable for the determination of monovalent and bivalent anions and cations [1]. This system is
a dual IC which means two distinct chromatographic systems are built in one instrument and we used them
simultaneously to increase the productivity. In this study we present our results for the determination of
anions in greywater samples. During sample preparation the greywater samples were diluted and filtrated.
Based on the elution order we determine the following anions from analysed samples: fluoride, chloride,
bromide, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate.

3. Results and Discussion We examined LGW and HGW greywater samples with different ratios of
dilution. We determined the detection limits of different anion components and other performance
characteristics to the method validation. We examined the effect of different parameters (temperature, flow
rate of eluent, ect.) on the separation in details and also the accuracy of results.

4. Conclusions In our research we confirmed that ion chromatography system is a reliable and efficient
method for the determination of anionic components of greywater samples (LGW, HGW). A suitable sample
preparation method was carried out and detection limits of different samples were also determined. It was
shown that changes in parameters indicate an ion-dependent response. The effect of temperature change is
not only ion-dependent but it can also cause deviations in the retention time of the ions. Furthermore it was
shown that the eluent flow rate effects on the elution and on each peak shapes, which can be critical during
the quantitative evaluation. Our future plan with this dual device is to extend the analysis for the determination
of cationic components, thereby examination of the treatment solutions efficiency can become available.

5. References
[1] Fritz J. S., Gjerde D. T. Ion chromatography, Weinheim, Germany (2009)
[2] Dilip M. Ghaitidak, Kunwar D. Yadav: Characteristics and treatment of greywatera review (2013,
Environ Sci Pollut Res DOI 10.1007/s11356-013-1533-0)
[3] Yash Boyjoo, Vishnu K. Pareek and Ming Ang: A review of greywater characteristics and treatment
processes (2013, Water Science & Technology)

The work is supported by the TMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0041 project. The project is co-financed
by the European Union and the European Social Fund.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[67]
A Floating Treatment Wetland (FTW) system with increased amounts
of biofilm and enhanced hydraulic channeling
Laura Gallego and Leon Lassovsky

Castillo de Utrera 1, 41013, Sevilla, Spain.
Telephone: ++ 34 622 65 4281. e-mail:laurag@lotusfiltersystems.com

Unlike conventional constructed treatment wetlands where plants are rooted onto the sediments, floating
treatment wetlands (FTWs) avoid the possibility of system clogging by providing a support for emergent
macrophytes so they may mature into thick floating mats on the water surface. These mats provide waste
water with an important source of oxygen for bacteria to metabolize waste products, and an extensive support
network for bacteria to establish biofilms upon.
The current project provides platforms into which plant holders with young Typha Latifolia plants have been
securely inserted so they may to grow in a three stage process providing the optimum depth of floatation as
seedlings, young, and mature plants till they create a mat and float due to their inherent positive
buoyancy. Attached to these platforms are Biological Curtains and Hydraulic Curtains made of a
proprietary Propylene mesh to act as an added support medium for bacteria to form biofilms upon, and
channel waste water exposing it to the maximum amount of in biofilm in the treatment facility.
The above platforms have been placed in three treatment areas with different depths and configurations and
a final treatment area designed for final polishing of the effluent to meet the desired parameters for discharge
into the environment and streams without phosphorous, or periodical release of treated water with
phosphorous into channels for its reuse in agriculture when it is needed for irrigation.
The biological and chemical processes occurring in all the treatment areas of this installation have been
studied to document and present the operation and efficiency of this proprietary FTW treatment process. The
initial results, just 40 days after the planting, indicate the removal of BOD, COD and SS were 68%, 60% and
40% respectively with the most important result being the Total N reduction of nearly 80%. It is very
encouraging for a young wetland treatment system to show such results in a facility with such a highly
reduced topographic footprint in comparison to a conventional constructed treatment wetland installation.
Keywords: emergent plants, floating treatment wetland, pond, wastewater, platforms, biological curtains,
hydraulic curtains



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[68]
ARCHITECTURE AS AN EXTENSIVE ANTIDESERTIFICATION
TOOL FOR DRY LANDSCAPES

Complementing the current networks of water supply and sanitation with a multiscalar, decentralized system,
that appear integrated in the urban matrix, enhances resilience for drylandscape cities to extreme weather
events and gives visibility to water infrastructures in the public realm. Water harvesting, treatment and reuse
give form to architecture typologies and urban morphology.

This idea reclames operational abilities for the architecture scale, through decissions like position, typology,
form, or scale. The cyclic relationship between waters liquid and vapor phases implies the simultaneous
design of urban atmosphere through evaporation, and its role as energy balance regulator. Including the
living systems, mainly vegetation, in the water treatment, reduces current energy comsumption rates and
closes the organic matter cicle. The integration of public space, infrastructure and urban nature recovers the
visibility of water in the city and bring the governance closer to citizens. Architecture contributes with its
own disciplinar tools to give public presence to ecologic, social and political issues.

Hydrology and hydrogeology draw a regional dynamic cartography where urbanization is inserted. When we
identify the hydrosystems that underly urbanization, landscape deep natural structure and the way it
spontaneosly works can be incorporated to the urban project, as spaces of aridity or humidity, convergence
or divergence of waters at different scales. Flows of water between patches organize the territory as a dynamic
network

Local watersheds, most of them currently turned into underground sanitation pipes, can be transformed into
a system of management units for harvesting and reuse of water, based on topography. recovering, daylighting
these flows can form a net of local linear infrastructures for purifing and distributing water, that also articulate
urban landscape. These lines, that go through the management units , start their flow at tanks and deposits of
purified water. Superficial, lineal and puntual elements of the system are closely binded to each other.

Water balance for each unit, superblock or building, can be considered as a result of parametrization of urban
landscape conditions, that include in the ecuation aridity, permeability, hypsometry and surface morphology
that point at erosion and flooding risk areas. These parameters, that are translated into hydraulic values
regarding volumes and flows, water quality (quimical energy), and height/speed (potential energy), give
form to water based architecturay types, that optimize their formal features for water management. These
hydraulic buildings work as an antidesertification extensive infrastructure, where architectural programms
hybridate with water spaces, to operate as infiltration terraces, flood abatement basins, greenhouses, etc.

CAROLINA GONZALEZ VIVES, architect, ph.d. candidate
office adress c/leganitos 1. 1dcha. Madrid. cgonzalezvives@gmail.com



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[69]
Determination of pollutant concentration in river profile

M. Zelekov
(1)
, V. Ondrejka Harbukov
(2)
, M. Rehnkov


(1)
Technical University of Koice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Environmental
Engineering, Vysokokolsk 4, 042 00 Koice, Slovakia.
+421 55 602 4116, martina.zelenakova@tuke.sk

(2)
vlasta.harbulakova@tuke.sk

1. Introduction Progressive urbanization and industrial development has also led to increasing use of rivers
for waste disposal activities. The pollution arising from these and other sources, such as use of agricultural
pesticides, has led to the increasing need for rigorous assessment of river water quality. In recognition of the
adverse impacts of pollutants and the need for integrated management, the EU has introduced a series of
Directives aimed at reducing nutrient in aquatic systems [1]. The Water Framework Directive (2000/60) [2]
demands new approaches for managing and improving surface and groundwater quality across the European
Union, with emphasis shifting from chemical towards ecological water quality standards. The variation of
pollutant concentrations in surface waters shares broad interest by scientists and researchers in the field of
water pollution control.
In the last century, the dimensional theory has been profoundly investigated: its highest achievement is the
Buckingham theorem (or pi-theorem, theorem), which states that any equation modeling a physical problem
can be rearranged in terms of dimensionless ratios, thus saving variables to be handled, and especially
enriching the inner physical knowledge of the studied phenomenon [3]. The Buckingham theorem is of
central importance to dimensional analysis [4].
The present research has main objectives to investigate options for estimating the parameters of the models
and to develop model for determination pollutants concentration in a stream.

2. Experimental Development and validation of the model for determination the pollutants concentration
in river profile.

3. Results and Discussion - The differences between measured and predicted nitrogen concentrations can
occur because selections of relevant parameters are not necessarily involved in all aspects, on which the
pollutant concentration depends. Another reason is that measured values are not exactly stated. Differences
occur due to a variety of reasons such as rainfall, influence of source of pollution and outflow of wastewater
and so on. The major differences could occur because of an error in taking the sample or an error in the
determination of the concentration in the lab. Also relevant parameters are required to be used for dimensional
analysis.

4. Conclusions - The obtained results proof that dimensional analysis and using of theorem is appropriate
access to water quality modeling. This method could be used for prediction of any pollutant in water stream.
The model presented in the article has a universal validity for pollutants in streams that are noted for at least
approximate geometric characteristics. But for each pollutant (and particular stream of course) the parameters
of linear function i.e. regression coefficients have to be determined separately.

5. References
[1] A.J. Wade, P.G. Whitehead, L.C.M. OShea, The prediction and management of aquatic nitrogen
pollution across Europe: an introduction to the Integrated Nitrogen in European Catchments project (INCA).
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 6, (2002); pp.299313.
[2] Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 23 October 2000. A framework for
community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities 22. 12. 2000
[3] G. Miragliotta, The power of dimensional analysis in production systems design. International Journal
of Production Economics, 131, 2010, pp.175182.
[4] E. Buckingham, "On physically similar systems; illustrations of the use of dimensional equations.
Physical Review. 4, 1914, pp.345376.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[70]
Reuse of effluent from dyeing process of polyamide fibers modified by
Double Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma

Fernando Ribeiro Oliveira
(1)
, Andrea Zille
(2)
and Antonio Pedro Souto
(2)


(1)
Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte - Campus Universitrio CT DET
Av. Salgado Filho, 3000 - Lagoa Nova - Natal RN -Brazil Zip Code: 59078-970
(2)
2C2T - Centre for Textile Science and Technology, Textile Engineering Department,
4800-058 Guimares, Portugal

Mobile: +55 84 98144994 fernando.oliveira@ct.ufrn.br

1. Introduction - In recent years, textile industry in developed countries is
challenging an increasing global competition due to the changed world
market conditions. Moreover, the increasing environmental and health
concerns owing to the large quantities of water and hazardous chemicals used
in the conventional textile finishing techniques lead to the development of
new technologies. In recent decades, plasma technology has assumed a great
importance among all available surface modification processes. It is a dry,
environmental- and worker-friendly method to achieve surface alteration
without modifying the bulk properties of the materials [1-2]. In particular,
non-thermal plasmas are especially suited because most textile materials are
heat sensitive polymers [3]. In this work were studied two topics: (1) the
physico-chemical improvements occasioned by DBD plasma discharge in dyeing process of polyamide 66
fibers and (2) the possibility to reuse the effluent obtained for a new dyeing process.

2. Experimental - In the present work, polyamide 66 (PA66) fabrics were
treated with a dosage of 2500Kw.min/m
-2
by atmospheric DBD plasma
obtained in a semi industrial prototype. The structural and chemical
modifications of fabrics were further analyzed in terms of SEM, AFM, XPS,
static and dynamic contact angle techniques. Moreover, the tinctorial
behavior (color strength, exhaustion) of the polyamide fabric dyed with direct
dyes, in a single dye bath containing three dyes, were studied by using of
reflectance and absorbance spectrophotometers.

3. Results and Discussion - The results confirmed the high polar
functionalization of PA66 fibers due to plasma incorporation of oxygen
atoms from atmospheric air. Plasma treatment allowed high level of dye
diffusion and fixation on PA66 fibers. The tinctorial behavior showed that the dyebath, with concentration of
1.0% owf was completely exhausted during the dyeing process by treated polyamide fiber, as can be observed
in figure 2b.

4. Conclusions - A relatively low plasma dosage (DBD) can be used to modify the surface of PA66 fibers,
leading to enhanced hydrophilicity and dyeability. Due to these modifications, the dyebath of PA 66 fibers
was completely exhausted, being possible to reuse the same effluent three times in a new dyeing process,
with an excellent level of color uniformity. Plasma technology can offer a very powerful answer in order to
achieve an environmental friendly process to the textile industry.

5. References
[1] F.R. Oliveira, A. Zille, A.P. Souto. Dyeing mechanism and optimization of polyamide 6,6 functionalized
with double barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in air, Appl.Surf.Sc. 293 (2014) 177 186
[2] G. Borcia, N. Dumitrascu, G. Popa, Influence of helium-dielectric barrier discharge treatments on the
adhesion properties of polyamide-6 surfaces, Surf. Coat. Technol. 197 (2005) 316321.
[3] F.R. Oliveira, A.P. Souto, N. Carneiro, J.H.O. Nascimento, Surface modification on polyamide 6.6 with
double barrier discharge (DBD) plasma to optimise dyeing process by direct dyes, Mater. Sci. Forum 636
637 (2010) 846852.

Figure 2 Eflluent (a)
untreated and (b) plasma
treated
Figure 1 Plasmas
Discharge
(a) (b)

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[71]
Tinctorial behaviour of curaua and banana fibers and dyeing
wastewater treatment by porous alumina membranes

Fernando R. Oliveira
(1)
, Felipe M. F. Galvo
(1)
, Ksia Karina O. S. Silva
(1)
, Jos Heriberto
O. Nascimento
(1)
and Antnio Pedro G.V. Souto
(2)


(1)
Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte - Campus Universitrio CT DET
Av. Salgado Filho, 3000 - Lagoa Nova - Natal RN -Brazil Zip Code: 59078-970
(2)
2C2T - Centre for Textile Science and Technology, Textile Engineering Department,
4800-058 Guimares, Portugal

Mobile: +55 84 98144994 fernando.oliveira@ct.ufrn.br

1. Introduction - The ecological benefits of renewable raw materials are clear: they save valuable resources
are environmentally sound and do not cause health problems [1]. Natural fibers have already established a
track record in several different areas of engineering such as, civil, automobiles, architecture among others
[2]. A continued search in the utilization of certain natural fibers that would be discarded to the environment,
such as from the stem of the banana tree, makes further investigations are carried out in order to add more
value to these materials [3]. Curaua, other important natural substrate, are leaf fibers extracted from an
Amazon-forest plant (Ananas erectifolius) that resembles a pineapple plant. Curaua fibers have low-cost of
production and offer a relatively high tensile strength level. Despite these naturals fibers are well established,
for example, as reinforce in composite materials, the dyeing properties of curaua and banana fibers are not
well studied yet. Thus, the dyeing process of these materials was performed with reactive conventional dye
and, after the dyeing of the fibers, the effluent obtained was treated with an advanced method using membrane
filtration.

2. Experimental - Curaua and banana fibers were initially treated by bleaching oxidation method. The dyeing
process, using Remazol Yellow 4 GL dye with concentration of 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 g /L in distilled water, was
carried out in a laboratorial machine equipped with infra-red heating with a liquor ratio of 1:20. The dyebath
exhaustion, kinetic and colour strength (K/S) were studied by using of spectrophotometers machines
(Absorbance and Reflectance). The washing fastness was evaluated in accordance to the stipulated in standard
ISO 105 C06. The effluent obtained was also treated using two types of porous alumina membrane.

3. Results and Discussion - The results showed
an excellent exhaustion of the dyebath by curaua
and banana fibers. Figure 1(a), confirms that the
colour strength (K/S) values obtained in curaua
fiber is more intense for higher concentrations.
Figure 1(b) demonstrates the feasibility of the use
of porous alumina ceramic membranes for
removing contaminants from textile effluent,
permitting an average efficiency of 98%; 92%
and 90% to the dye concentration of 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 g/L respectively.

4. Conclusions -The results showed that is possible to dye curaua and banana fibers using conventional dyes
with excellent colour strength values and washing fastness, creating more opportunity to apply these fibers
in other areas with more values added. The membrane developed presented high efficiency in removal
contaminants, especially in the parameters colour, suspended solids and turbidity.

5. References
[1] Jayamol, G.; Sreekala, M. S.; Sabu, T. 2001. A Review on Interface Modification and Characterization
of Natural Fiber Reinforced Plastic Composites. PolyEngSci, 41:9: 1471-1485.
[2] Mukhopadhyay, S.; Fangueiro, R. 2009. J Thermosplastic Composites, 22:135162.
[3] Oliveira, F.R.; Erkens, L.; Fangueiro, R.; Souto, A.P. 2012. Surface Modification of Banana Fibers by
DBD Plasma Treatment, Plasma Chem Plasma Process, 32:259273.


Figure 1 K/S values of (a) Curaua fiber and (b) the effluent before
and after treatment with porous membrane (dye: 0.5g/L).
(a) (b
)
K/S: 63.7 K/S: 87.0 K/S: 92.1

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[72]
Detailed treatment line for specific landfill leachate remediation and
reuse based on photo-Fenton and ozone (O3, O3/H2O2): toxicity and
biodegradability assessment.

E. De-Torres-Socas
(1)
, C. Amor
(2)
, MS. Lucas
(2)
, JA. Peres
(2)
, I. Oller
(1)
, S. Malato
(1)

(1)
Plataforma Solar de Almera-CIEMAT, Carretera de Sens Km 4, 04200 (Tabernas, Almera),
Spain, estefania.detorres@psa.es.

(2)
Centro de Qumica de Vila Real, Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado
1013, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal

1. Introduction Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are a promising alternative because of their high
effectiveness removing recalcitrant organics in landfill leachate. However, such processes involve great
investment and operation costs. Hence, strategies based on integrated chemicalphysicalbiological
processes must be studied as they can ameliorate the drawbacks of individual processes, improving the overall
treatment efficiency. [1,2]. This work presents a combined treatment line for a particular landfill leachate
consisting of a preliminary physic-chemical stage followed by a chemical oxidation process (solar photo-
Fenton or ozone alone or in combination with hydrogen peroxide) and, finally, toxicity and biodegradability
of the partially treated effluent is assessed. Afterwards, those processes were successfully coupled with an
immobilised biomass reactor (IBR) for improving the effluent end quality.

2. Experimental - The landfill leachate sample under study had a high organic content (2400 mg/L) and,
although it was not toxic, it was non-biodegradable. Pre-treatment was performed in a
flocculation/coagulation pilot plant for processing 200 m
3
/h of wastewater. It consisted of pH adjustment and
iron dosage (FeCl3) until reaching a final dissolved concentration of 56 mg Fe
3+
/L. Homogeneous
photocatalysis was carried out in a CPC solar collector pilot plant installed in Plataforma Solar de Almera
(PSA), consisting of four CPC modules (total irradiated area of 4.16 m
2
). This photo-reactor for batch
operation is equipped with an external temperature control system and it has a total volume of 80 L (total
illuminated volume of 44.6 L). The ozonation system is an Anseros PAP-pilot for batch operation consisting
of a Pyrex cylindrical vessel (V=10 L). Two non-dispersive UV analysers measure inlet and outlet ozone
concentrations. Ozone production can be adjusted providing a maximum concentration of 8.82 g O3/h. Acute
toxicity and short term biodegradability was assessed by respirometric determination of the activated sludge
activity based on the oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Biological oxidation was carried out in an IBR (Immobilised
Biomass Reactor) system of 20 L for batch operation equipped with a recirculation tank and a pH control
system.

3. Results and Discussion - Physic-chemical pre-treatment attained DOC and COD removals of 50% and
18%, respectively. Experimental conditions for solar photo-Fenton were: initial pH 2.6-2.8, initial
concentration of 56 mg Fe
3+
/L and 200 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide doses to maintain a concentration of 500
mg H2O2/L during the assay. DOC and COD eliminations of 39% and 47%, respectively, were achieved after
an accumulative UV energy of 170 kJ/L, a H2O2 consumption of 4.6 g/L and 1000 min of illumination time.
Besides, toxicity and biodegradability of the partially photo-treated effluent were improved so the resulting
wastewater could be further treated in an advanced biological treatment by means of an IBR. This bio-reactor
was operated under batch and continuous mode with the objective of determining the maximum treatment
capacity and the residence time required. On the other hand, further experimentation is in progress in order
to determine the convenience of ozone (alone and in combination with hydrogen peroxide) and conventional
biological oxidation combination.

4.References
[1] D. Cassano, Comparison of several combined/integrated biological-AOPs setups for the treatmnent of
municipal landfill leachate: Minimization of operating costs and effluent toxicity, Chem Eng J. 172 (2011)
p. 250.
[2] S. Renou, Landfill leachate treatment: Review and opportunity, J Hazard Mater. 150 (2008) p. 468.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[73]
Ceramic Macromembrane for Tangento-Axial Micro and Ultra-
Filtration Water Systems
Joan A. Cusid
(1)
, Lzaro V. Cremades
(2)
, Rafael Sitjar
(3)

(1
Departament de Fsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya
C. Pere Serra, 1-15, 08193 Sant Cugat del Valls (Barcelona, Spain)
(2)
Departament de Projectes dEnginyeria, Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya
Avda. Diagonal, 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)
(2)
Departament dEnginyeria Mecnica, Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya
C. Colom, 11, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)


Abstract

During the last 20 years filtration systems for water have significantly advanced, whether for reuse of
wastewater or for water purification for human consumption. Filtration systems are usually based on organic
(polyamides) or inorganic (ceramic) filters. This contribution will present the proposal of a novel prototype
that includes the manufacture of a ceramic macromembrane based on Al2O3-TiO2 and slip-casting. This
macromembrane includes an internal system for rotating the fluid trough a propeller by what has become
known tangento-axial filtration. This filtration allows to overcome the traditional flow filtration employing
extruded ceramic tubes of small diameter. This is an innovation complemented by experimental results, the
description of the advantages and disadvantages analysis and its possible industrial applications.








International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[74]
The coastal change analysis of Kzlrmak Delta, Turkey

A. Sisman
(1)
, R. E.Yildirim
(1)

(1) Department of Geomatics Engineering, Ondokuz Mays University, 55139 Samsun, Trkiye
Tel.: +90-362-312 19 19; fax: +90-362-457-60-35, asisman@omu.edu.tr


1. Introduction Kzlrmak delta has been occurred from
the sediments of the Kzlrmak River for thousands of
years. Kzlrmak delta is an important wetland and 321
species of bird and a lot of plants lives in the delta area.
The Kzlrmak River has 78.646 km
2
drainage area and
185 m
3
/s average flow value [1] The aim of this study is to
investigate temporal changes on the Kzlrmak delta coast.

2. General Information There are 31 regulators and
dams on Kzlrmak River. Therefore the proportion of the
alluvium flowing in the river decreased about %98 [2, 3].
The enlargement of Kzlrmak delta stopped and it began to shrink for the alluviums accumulate in The
Altnkaya dam The Image 2 shows that the aerial photo of the Kzlrmak in 1959. Changing in the coast of
Kzlrmak delta increased after the Altnkaya dam established in 1988 (Image 3). The erosion constantly
continued after 1990. The changing on the coastal area of the Kzlrmak Delta between 1959 (Image 2) and
2009 (Image 4) was determined using NetCAD (5.0) and ArcGIS (9.2) software. According to the results of
this process, it was determined that the 1.600.000 m
2
(160 hectare) of the delta area disappeared.





Image 2. The aerial photo
in 1959
Image 3. The aerial
photo in 1990
Image 4. The aerial photo
in 2009
Image 5. Satellite Image
in 2004 (Google Earth
TM
)
Image 6. The aerial photo
in 2009

There were some precautions to prevent coastal erosion. Building groins was the most important precaution
(Image 4, 5). But the coastal erosion did not stop the eastern side of the delta which there weren't any groin.
Until 2009, 500.000 m
2
(50 hectar) of the delta area disappeared (Image 6).

3. Results and Discussion - The alluvium carried by the Kzlrmak River now accumulate in the Altunkaya
dam and Kzlrmak Delta is affected by this situation. Building groins that aimed to prevent coastal erosion
provided a local solution, and the coastal erosion moved to different regions.

4. Conclutions One of the most important wetland Kzlrmak River has formed over thousands of years,
nowadays the delta is faced with the threat of extinction.

5. References
[1] Ylmaz, C. (2005), Kzlrmak Deltasnda Meydana Gelen Erozyonun Corafi Analizi, TURQUA -
Trkiye Kuvaterner Sempozyumu V, Proceedings, Eds; O. Tysz, M. K. Ertura, 0203 June 2005 stanbul.
[2]Savran S. ve Otay, E. N, (2002), Kzlrmak Deltas Ky Erozyonunun Saysal Modellemesi, IV. Ky
Mhendislii Ulusal Sempozyumu., Proceedings, Vol: 2, 493-505, Antalya.
[3] Zeybek, H.., Uzun, A., Ylmaz, C., zdemir, S. (2011), Kzlrmak deltasnda ky izgisi
deiikliklerinin sonular, Samsun Symposium, 13-16 October 2011 Samsun.
Image 1. Kzlrmak delta

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[75]
Characterization and bioremediation of meat industry wastewaters

Antnio Pirra
(1)
, Marco Lucas
(1)
, Pedro Carvalho
(2)
e Jos A. Peres
(1)

(1)
Centro de Qumica - Vila Real, Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD,
5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal. (+351259350755, E-mail: apirra@utad.pt; jperes@utad.pt)

(2)
Department of Biosciences, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Alle 1, Building 1135, 8000 Aarhus
C., Denmark (pedro.carvalho@biology.au.dk)

1. Introduction - This work presents the results of monitoring the water consumption and the wastewater
pollutant load produced by a meat industry with 40 employees, including a private slaughterhouse in the
northern of Portugal, which slaughters about 17,000 animals annually, resulting in about 1400 ton pig
meat/year. 90% of these carcasses are used in the manufacture of smoked products in the industry. The survey
was done regarding the consumption and use of resources (e.g. water, detergents and other consumables) and
waste production along five years, as well as monitoring and characterization the raw wastewater pollutant
load production (e.g. COD, BOD5 and suspended solids) along 3 months. Further, using this effluent, aerobic
biodegradability experiments were performed in order to study the aerobic treatment of this wastewater.
Trying to optimize the biologic process, in order to reduce costs and increase the treatment efficiency, several
operational conditions were tested: aeration period, initial biomass content and initial pollutant load.

2. Experimental During the experimental work pollution characterization tests were performed to raw
wastewater twice a week, determining CODt, CODs, BOD5, TSS and VSS [1,2]. Simultaneously, several
experimental biodegradability laboratory tests were made, using several batch 4 L aerated reactors, varying
the aeration period between 3 and 12 hours, the initial biomass content (X) between 1 and 2 gL
-1
and the
initial polluting load (S) between 1 and 2 gL
-1
.

3. Results, Discussion and Conclusions The pollution characterization results show that these raw
wastewaters had 700-1500 mg COD L
-1
and 5-8 g TSS L
-1
. The BOD
5
/COD ratio approaches 0.5. In the
aeration experiments, the pH values ranged from 7 to 8 in all reactors. Figure 1 presents some of the aeration
test results. The evolution of COD
removal rate along the period of the
experiments (14 days) shows that the best
compromise result for X1S1 reactor with
6 hours aeration period, resulting in about
90% COD removal in the first 24 hours of
operation. The sludge final settleability at
the end of all experiment was good. The
biomass content and pH evolution,
confirm the combination of 1 gL
-1
initial
biomass content, 1 gL
-1
initial polluting
load, and 6 hours aeration per day, as the
best conditions to optimize the
cost/effectiveness ratio of the aerated
treatment of these effluents.


Figure 1. Effect of aeration period, initial COD load and initial biomass content
in the removal efficiency of the experiments.

4. References
[1] APHA-AWWA-WPCF, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20
th
ed.,
Washington DC, USA, 1998.
[2] Pirra, A. Characterization and treatment of winery effluents from Douro Region. PhD Thesis,
Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal. 296 p., 2005 (in portuguese).


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[76]
The Quality Investment of Underground Water in Turkey Using
Principle Component and Cluster Analysis

Y. Sisman
(1)
, , F. Geyikci
(2)
, U. Kirici
(1)
(1) Department of Geomatics Engineering, Ondokuz Mays University, 55139 Samsun, Trkiye
Tel.: +90-362-312 19 19; fax: +90-362-457-60-35, ysisman@omu.edu.tr
(2)Department of Chemical Engineering, Ondokuz Mays University, 55139 Samsun, Trkiye

1. Introduction The quality of water plays a vital role in all aspects of the survival of human beings and
the global ecosystem. The global population increase is paralleled by the increasing demand for water for
industrial, domestic and agricultural purposes (Jamshidzadeh and Mirbagheri, 2011). In recent years, the
multivariate statistical techniques were used to understand the water quality and explain the water pollution.
The multivariate statistical techniques are principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), factor
analysis (FA), geostatistical analysis and discriminate analysis (DA). In this process allows interpreting of
complex data. Thus, the effect of different can be determined on the water quality easily (Shrestha and
Kazama, 2007; Khalil et al, 2010; Mahapatra et al, 2011) The main objective of this study was to investigate
the water quality of 93 water samples collected in the Amasya and Ordu. A total of 6 variables were observed
in water samples using the principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). The same results
were determined from the CA
2.1. Materials - The water samples were taken at different intervals in Amasya and Ordu province located in
the Middle Black Sea region in the north of Turkey. The observed variables are Color, Electrical Conductance
(EC), pH, Total hardness (Tot. Hard.), Total Alkalinity (as CaCO3) (Tot. Alk.), Bicarbonate, in total 93 water
samples..
2.2. Methods - The principal component analysis (PCA) was created by Karl Pearson in 1901 and now used
in many fields of science. However, PCA is mostly used for investigate correlated data analysis and determine
the predictive models. (Anh and Mgi, 2009). The PCA creates new variables to reduce some unimportant
components. The interpretation of data can be easily achieved using the first few principle components. The
PCA is performed mainly four stages: (1) Create data matrix, (2) Determine the correlation matrix, (3)
Obtained the score and PCA matrix (4) Calculate each principle component value.
While the PCA is used general relationships between data, the CA is used to group individual variables. The
CA is to organize data of a number of groups according to same properties. A dendrogram represents to
hierarchical clustering (Lu et al., 2010).
3. Results and Discussion - The PCA analysis was realized then it is seen that the first two components were
sufficient (81.4%) to explain the data. It can be seen that some variables had a greater value after the analysis
of these components. The scores showed how underground water samples were important in the PCs. It is
decided that the pH and color has a different effect on the underground water quality. It is seen that the same
result from the CA.
6 5 4 3 2 1
3,5
3,0
2,5
2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5
0,0
Component Number
E
i g
e
n
v
a
l u
e

Bicarbonate Tot. Alk. Tot. Hard. EC pH Color
50,03
66,69
83,34
100,00
Variables
S
im
ila
r
it
y

Image 1. Score Plot of variables Image 2. Dendrogram of variables
4. References
[1] Z.Jamshidzadeh,; S.A. Mirbagheri, Evaluation of ground water quantity and quality in the Kashan Basin,
Central Iran, Desalination, 270(1-3), (2011), p: 23-30.
[2] S.Shrestha, F. Kazama, Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: A
case study of the Fuji river basin, Japan. Environ. Modell. Softw., 22(4), (2007), p: 464-475.
[3] B. Khalil; T. Ouarda, A. St-Hilaire,F. Chebana A statistical approach for the rationalization of water
quality indicators in surface water quality monitoring Networks, J. Hydrol., 386(1-4), (2010) p: 173-185.
[4] A.Lu, J. Wang, X. Qin, K. Wang, P. Han, S. Zhang, Multivariate and geostatistical analyses of the spatial
distribution and origin of heavy metals in the agricultural soils in Shunyi, Beijing, China. Sci Total Environ.,
(2012) p: 425, 6674.

Table 1. Eigen analysis of the PCs
PCs
PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6
Eigenvalue 3.88 1.00 0.93 0.12 0.07 0.00
Proportion 0.65 0.17 0.16 0.02 0.01 0.00
Cumulative 0.65 0.81 0.97 0.99 1.00 1.00


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[77]


Decolourisation of dyes by Electro-Fenton treatment using iron
enriched polyacrylamide as catalyst

Bocos
(1)
, M. Pazos, M.A. Sanromn

(1)
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As
Lagoas, Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Spain, +34986812304, ebocos@uvigo.es



1. Introduction This study focuses on the application of iron enriched polyacrylamide on an Electro-
Fenton process by the use of its catalytic activity on the decolourisation of wastewater contaminated with
synthetic dyes. In this technology, the hydrogen peroxide is electrogenerated and powerful oxidants are
yielded by the Fentons reactions. In this process the main drawback is the iron released in the treated effluent.
One possible solution is the immobilization of iron. In this study, the use of iron loaded polyacrylamide
hydrogel (Fe-PH) in the Electro-Fenton process was evaluated. In the first step, anionic polyacrylamide
hydrogel was synthesized. In order to determine the effect of the iron oxidation state, several adsorption
experiments with Fe(II), Fe(III) and mixture of both were carried out. Once characterized the catalysts, a
comparative study of the Electro-Fenton treatment of two model dyes, Reactive Black 5 and Blue Sella Solid,
with free and fixed iron (using the different synthetized Fe-PHs) was carried out.

2. Experimental Polyacrylamide hydrogel was prepared following the method used by Kasgz H et al. [1],
but adding ammonium persulfate as initiator. The polymer formed was cut in little slices and immersed in
distilled water for clean. After clean, they were dried until constant weight. Once dried, hydrogels were placed
in different aqueous solution with an amount of 1600 ppm ions of: Fe(II); Fe(III) and Fe(II):Fe(III) (1:2 mole
ratio, respectively). One more, the polymer was cleaned and dried [2].
The obtained Fe-PHs were used as catalyst in the decolourisation of 150 mL of an aqueous solution at initial
Reactive Black 5 concentration of 100 mg L
-1
. Na2SO4 (0.01M) was used as electrolyte and the solution was
adjusted at pH 2. Thus, the solution was transferred to a cylindrical reactor which contains two electrodes of
graphite sheet. To electrogenerated the hydrogen peroxide, the cathode was continuously aerated at
continuous flow of 1 L min
-1
. The three Fe-PHs were tested by introducing 0.5 g of dried gels inside the
reactor. A constant current drop of 5 V was applied. Samples were taken at the beginning of each experiment
and every 30 minutes. The decolourisation degree was evaluated by monitoring the absorption wavelength
(190-900 ) with an UV-Vis [3]

3. Results and Discussion The efficiency of the Fenton process depends on many factors such as the iron
oxidation state [4]. Therefore, after the Electro-Fenton treatment of Reactive Black 5 with the different Fe-
PHs it was concluded that degradation efficiency order was: mixture Fe(II):Fe(III) > Fe(III) > Fe(II). When
mixture Fe(II):Fe(III) was used, near complete decolourisation (around 96%) after 120 minutes was obtained.
Besides, reusability of the new catalyst was evaluated by successive batches and neither efficiency reduction
nor operational problems were found. In addition, when Fe(II):Fe(III) hydrogel, the treatment of an alkaline
coloured solution was possible even though the decolourisation levels obtained were lower than those reached
when operating at pH 2. Finally, Blue Sella Solid was treated with the enriched in Fe(II): Fe(III)
polyacrylamide, reaching rates of decolourisation of the 87% for two successive batches.

4. Conclusions In summary, it was found that iron enriched polyacrylamide is an appropriated support for
iron retention and the mixture of Fe(II) and Fe(III) enhances the Electro-Fenton process.

Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and ERDF Funds (Project CTM 2011-26423)

5. References
[1] H. Kasgz, S. zgm, M. Orbay. Polymer, 44, (2003) p.1785
[2] O. Ozgur, E. Sema, B. Yakup, A. Nahit, S. Nurettin, Water Res., 43, (2009) p. 4403.
[3] O. Iglesias, M.A. Fernndez de Dios, E. Rosales, M. Pazos, M.A. Sanromn, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res.,
20, (2013) p. 2172.
[4] M.C. Pereira, L.C.A. Oliveira , E. Murad . Clay Miner., 47, (2012) p.285.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[78]
Application of algal biomass for biosorption of Cr (VI) and leather dyes:
optimization, kinetic and isotherm studies

Cobas
(1)
, O. Iglesias, M.A. Sanromn, M. Pazos

(2)
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas,
Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Spain, +34986812304, mcobas@uvigo.es


1. Introduction Leather industry effluents contain a large amount of
contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic compounds. Direct

discharge of this kind of effluents can cause serious problems to the

environment due to contribution of high organic loading, toxicity and

aesthetic pollution related to colour [1]. There is a need to determine

technologies that achieve technically and economically efficient reduction of

the pollutants present in leather effluents. Among these technologies,

adsorption is one of the most attractive processes due to its versatility; it can
Image 1. Fresh F. vesiculosus.
be used for removing metals and/or organic pollutants. However, the main


drawback is the elevated cost of high efficient adsorbent materials, such as activated carbon. For this reason,
in the present study, Fucus vesiculosus was assessed as a low-cost biosorbent for the treatment of a model
leather effluent, obtained by the mixture of different organic and inorganic contaminants such as four different
leather dyes and chromium. F. vesiculosus (Image 1) is a brown algae and this kind of algae are considerate
a residue on the beaches and tons of these algae have to be removed from the coastal every year. Their
biosorption capacity is well known to absorbed different pollutants [2-3], but there are not many papers that
performed a deep study of the adsorption capacity of organic and inorganic contaminants together. In the
present work, the efficiency of the alga has been increased using different physical and chemical
pretreatments. By response surface methodology, using as process variables (pH, biomass dosage and salt
pretreatment of alga), the biosorption process was optimized. Operating at the optimized variables, further
study was conducted through the kinetics and isotherms adsorption studies.

2. Experimental All assays were carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks by mixing biosorbent with 50 mL of the
pollutant solution. The pollutant solution contained four leather dyes and Cr (VI). The biosorbent was cleaned
with distilled water, dried in an oven and crushed. Previous to use it, the biomass was chemical pretreated
with a solution of CaCl2 in order to increase the biosorption of F. vesiculosus [4].

3. Results and Discussion The statistical study was realized in order to optimize the biosorption conditions
and 17 different conditions were assayed. The key variables selected were: initial solution pH, biomass dosage
and CaCl2 concentration in the pretreatment stage. The statistical analysis shows that pH has a negligible
effect, being the biomass dosage and CaCl2 concentration the most significant variables. At optimal
conditions, 98% of Cr (VI) and 88% of dyes removal can be achieved.
The kinetic and isotherms studies were analysed at optimized conditions. In the kinetics studies, pseudo
second -order kinetic provides an excellent fit between the predicted curves and the experimental values for
all studied systems. On the other hand, Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Duninin-Radushkevich isotherms
were evaluated. Freundlich was the best model to explain the binding heterogeneity for the different employed
pollutants.

4. Conclusions The obtained results shows that the pretreatment with CaCl2 increase the adsorption capacity
of F. vesiculosus biomass. Moreover, operating at the optimized conditions this algal biomass can be
considered as efficient low-cost biosorbent to removal inorganic and organic pollutants.

Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and ERDF Funds (Project CTM 2011-25389)

5. References
[1] M. Chrowdhury, M.G. Mostafa, T.K. Biswas, A.K. Saha, Water Resour. Ind., 3, (2013) p. 11.
[2] M. Kousha, E. Daneshvar, H. Dopeikar, D. Taghavi, A. Bhatnagar, Chem. Eng. J., 179, (2012) p. 179.
[3] S. Yalin, S. Sezer, R. Apak, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 19, (2012) p. 3118.
[4] M. Cobas, M. A. Sanroman, M. Pazos, Bioresource Technol., (2014) DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.
2013.12.125


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[79]
The Development of Empirical Models to Predict Energy Utilization and
Efficiency in Wastewater Collection
D.M. Morgan Young, Ph.D, P.E.
(1)

(1) Black & Veatch / Clemson University
201 Brookfield Parkway, Suite 150. Greenville, SC 29607
864.423.2465 (mobile) dmorganyoung@gmail.com
1. Introduction
Providing wastewater and drinking water service to citizens requires energy and a lot of it. The twin
problems of steadily rising energy costs and climate change have therefore made the issue of energy
management one of the most salient issues facing water and wastewater utilities today (USEPA, 2008).
Addressing this need, this research develops a unique energy evaluation framework to assist wastewater
utilities in their pursuit of sustainable energy management initiatives. Heretofore, the majority of energy
management initiatives have been focused on wastewater treatment as this sector of the utilitys operation is
traditionally the largest energy consumer. This study will focus on sustainable energy management in a
historically neglected sector of utility operation: the wastewater collection system.
2. Results and Discussion
This study examines three years of wastewater collection operational data and presents an energy evaluation
framework which introduces empirical equations connecting equipment characteristics, such as service, age
and size, to important operational variables such as Specific Energy (Es) and Specific Cost (Cs). Each year
of data was examined separately in order to increase overall data variability stemming from variability in
weather patterns, equipment characteristics, and operational tendencies. Cross-validation was employed and
each year of data displayed excellent agreement with the other data sets. Finally, the empirical equations are
integrated into an economic analysis which will provide a utility with valuable means to survey not only its
current energy use within its collection system, but also compare alternatives when evaluating new
infrastructure. The figures, tables, and empirical equations generated are not included in this abstract for
brevity.
3. Conclusions
The Triple Bottom Line of Sustainability demands that economic, environmental, and social factors be
considered in sustainability evaluation. In the present study, Specific Energy (Es), or the amount of energy
(in kW) per volume of water pumped (in gallons) provides the utility with a means to evaluate both the
environmental and social aspects of its wastewater collection system. Decreasing the specific energy would
indicate that the utility is using its energy allotment more efficiently; thereby, reducing its incremental
carbon footprint. On the other hand, Specific Cost (Cs), or the cost (in dollars) per volume of water pumped
(in gallons) provides the utility with a means to evaluate both the economic and social aspects of its collection
system. A reduction in specific cost not only indicates that customers are getting a better bargain but it also
reduces the utility's operational costs which could then be redistributed to areas of need.
4. References
[1] United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2008. An energy management guidebook for wastewater
and water utilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from:
http://www.epa.gov/region1/eco/energy/pdfs/guidebook_si_ energymanagement.pdf


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[80]
Dissolved Oxygen modeling using Artificial Neural Networks

Silva. S. R e.
(1)
, Schimidt, F.
(2)


(1)
Av. Universitria, Vale das Goiabeiras, Inhumas (GO) CEP 75400-000, Brazil
+55 62 8155-1022, saulors@yahoo.com

(2)
schmidt99@gmail.com

1. Introduction Water is a fundamental resource in the history of human life. Due to the climatic changes
and accentuated degree of pollution on lakes and rivers, availability of fresh water is in danger [1]. To
preserve hidric bodies, the study of dissolved oxygem is important, because it's quantity on water is directly
related to the capacity of those bodies to sustain life. The data for this study are proceeding from water
samples analisis of Meia Ponte river, whose drainage basin is located in metropolitan region of Goiania,
capital of Goias state, Brazil. Because of the difficulty of installing sensors and collecting data, most
Ecological systems, however, has shown not having plenity of databases to describe the variables of the
system [2]. Due to the complexity of these systems, where most phenomena are not completely known,
complex non-linear software is needed for modeling [3].

2. Experimental - Modeling has the necessity of defining the input variables from the beginning of the
analysis for every particular problem in study. The same should be done with the Artificial Neural Networks,
a software that acts like a specialist, when trainned, and it's able to deal with non-linear problems. This way,
ANN is used, with error backpropagation trainning algorithm, for modeling dissolved oxygen by using ten
physical and chemical parameters as the network input.
In order to expand the data base samples, a technique is used to get a more well trainned network. Then the
data are normalized [0,1] due to the sigmoidal transfer function used. After this brief processing, the total
data it's then divided in two data sets that are used for supervised trainning and avaliation tests [4]. As
objective, this paper describes the use of data from physical and chemical parameters for determination of
dissolved oxygen.

3. Results and Discussion - The objective is not only to find the best architecture for the given problem but
also avaliate the acuracy of prediction for the dissolved oxygen values. A good acuracy of dissolved oxygen
from the model means that the technique can be used for future researches predicting dissolved oxygen based
in the extrapolation of one of the ten input parameters. These parameters may vary due to changes in the
ecological river environment. The proposal of the research has been achieved and the acuracy is close to some
dissolved oxygen meters found in the market.

4. Conclusions - The ANN architecture is discussed, as well as the results. It is presented an application that
implements the Artificial Neural Network techniques, programmed using JAVA language, multi platform,
open source code, that can be used by any interested researcher free of cost. The modeling using ANN is a
technique that can help to study dissolved oxygen in order to minimize pollution effects and save fresh water
for this and future generations.


5. References
[1] BOTKIN, D.; KELLER, E. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. 8. ed. [S.l.]: Wiley, 2011.
ISBN 9780470118559.
[2] SILVERT, W.; BAPTIST, M. Can Neural Networks be used in Data-Poor Situations? Int. Workshop on
Applications of Artificial Neural Networks to Ecological Modelling, 1998. 1998.
[3] CUNHA, A. C., Reviso descritiva sobre qualidade da gua, parmetros e modelagem de
ecossistemas aquticos tropicais. Biota Amaznia. 2013. ISSN 2179-5746
[4] SANTOS, C. C. D.; FILHO, A. J. P. Modelagem Hidrolgica Urbana por meio de Redes Neurais
Artificiais: uma Aplicao para a Bacia do rio Tamanduate em So Paulo, SP . Revista Brasileira de
Meteorologia, 2003. v. 18, n. 2, p. 149159, 2003.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[81]
Electro-Fenton treatment of winery wastewaters using iron alginate
beads

Iglesias, M. Cobas
(1)
, M.A. Sanromn, M. Pazos

(3) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As
Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo, Spain,+34986812304, mcobas@uvigo.es


1. Introduction The disposal of wastes from industrial and domestic sources is becoming a serious
problem throughout the world. Wine industry is one of the industries whose wastes are classified as hazardous
to the environment. A huge number of litres of winery wastewater, that are characterised by a low pH value,
high organic content and chemical oxygen demand in addition to the presence of colour, are originated every-
year [1]. This becomes a large environmental problem when these contaminated waters are released into
waterways or the soil without being previously treated. Due to the complexity of this wastewater, its treatment
increases the cost of wine production. Thus the identification of effective and low cost degradation processes
have increased the attention of researches worldwide [2]. The electro-Fenton treatment is an advanced
oxidation process that uses the electric current to generate H 2O2 that reacts with iron in the Fenton reactions
to finally generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals able to degrade organic compounds [3]. This technology
has proved its efficiency for continuous treatments when iron is immobilized in alginate gel beads [3], which
reduces the investment on reagents and seems a promising technology for its use in the degradation processes
of winery wastewaters.

2. Experimental - Electro-Fenton experiments were carried out in a stirred tank reactor with a working
volume of 150 mL and 8.7 g of Fe alginate gel beads that correspond with a concentration of 150 mg L
-1
of
iron into the solution, and an air flow of 1 L min
-1
. A constant potential drop of 15 V was applied to two
electrodes.

3. Results and Discussion Once the
electro-Fenton process was optimised a
93% of colour removal was attained
(Image 1). The wavelengths that indicate
main specific wine compounds: 465 nm
carotenoids, 550 nm some anthocyanins
and flavanols and 665 nm photosynthetic
pigments [4] were reduced to 92%, 94%
and 95% respectively. These
results are similar to those reached by
Devesa-Rey et al.
[4] by adsorption in activated carbon;
however the electro-Fenton process does
not generate a secondary waste that needs
to be treated.
4. Conclusions - The results indicate the
suitability of electro-Fenton technique in presence of iron alginate gel beads to oxidase winery wastewaters.
Furthermore, the iron immobilization avoids its loss on the outflow in a continuous treatment and the iron
alginate gel beads proved to have a high operational stability in large treatment times.

Acknowledgements: Xunta de Galicia (EM2012/083)

5. References
[1] J. B. Ramond, P.J. Welz, M.I. Tuffin, S.G. Burton, D.A. Cowan, J. Appl. Microbiol., 115, (2013) p. 91
[2] K.P.M. Mosse, A.F. Patti, E.W. Christen, T.R. Cavagnaro, Aust. J. Grape Wine R., 17, (2011) p. 111
[3] O. Iglesias, E. Rosales, M. Pazos, M.A. Sanromn, Environ. Sci. Pollut. R., 20, (2013) p. 2252
[4] R. Devesa-Rey, G. Bustos, J.M. Cruz, A.B. Moldes, Bioreource Technol., 102, (2011) p. 6437


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[82]
Catalytic wet air oxidation of caffeine in aqueous stream over metal
catalyst supported on hydrotalcites

J. Garca, G. Ovejero, A. Rodriguez, S. lvarez


Grupo de Catlisis y Procesos de Separacin (CyPS), Departamento de Ingeniera Qumica,
Facultad de Ciencias Qumicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n,
28040 Madrid, Spain.
Phone Number: +34 913945207; e-mail: jgarciar@ucm.es



1. Introduction Over the last few years there has been a growing concern of the scientific community due
the increasing concentration of micropollutants originating from a great variety of sources as pharmaceutical,
chemical engineering and personal care product industries in rivers, lakes and goundwater. Such substances
are not removed completely by conventional methods of purification, moreover, are bioaccumulated and
therefore may present a potential risk to human health [1]. For total or near-complete elimination of these
contaminants are developing new treatment technologies, known as tertiary treatments; among others,
adsorption, membrane processes, supercritical oxidation or Fenton processes.
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) constitute a promising technology for the treatment of wastewater
containing organic refractory compounds, as a pretreatment step to the conventional biological treatment.
Two available technologies from the group of AOPs are wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air
oxidation (CWAO). These processes are applicable to the detoxification of hazardous waste, detoxification
of wastes toxic to microorganisms in biological processes and as a means of converting non-biodegradable
components into ones readily biodegradable. CWAO has already been applied successfully to treat real
industrial wastewaters such as Kraft bleach plant effluents, ink-plant wastewater, aromatic compounds, etc.
[2].
In this work, caffeine was employed as model compound to study wet air oxidation and catalytic wet
oxidation using niquel and iron hydrotalcite-like compounds as catalyst. The catalyst efficiency is determined
by the rate of TOC removal, cafeine concentration, total nitrogen content and pH of the samples after 180
min of reaction.

2. Experimental - Catalysts were synthesized by incipient wet impregnation technique to obtain a 7% wt of
nickel in the catalyst. Those were characterized by several techniques as XRD, XRF, SEM, TG-DTG, FTIR
and BET. Reaction tests were carried out in a batch reactor (autoclave) with an aqueous solution of 30 ppm
and 0.1 gcatalyst/100mLcaffeine solution.

3. Results and Discussion - The effects of operational conditions such as temperature (120-220C), pressure
(30-60 bar) and initial catalyst concentration (0.3-0.7 g) have been tested. It has been demonstrated that the
catalysts are efficient for the CWAO of the caffeine at mild reaction conditions. The optimum conditions of
temperature and pressure for the maximal mineralization of the nitrogen was found to be different for each
catalyst. No niquel leaching was observed during the batch experiments, whereas a loss of 8% of the initial
iron was observed.

4. Conclusions - The experiments reported in this paper showed that catalytic wet air oxidation in the
presence of Fe and Ni supported catalyst at the employed conditions may achieve high degree of
mineralization of an aqueous solution of caffeine. The optimal conditions of temperature and pressure to
enhance the formation of N2 were found to be different for each catalyst.

5. References
[1] J.L. Sotelo, A. Rodrguez, S. lvarez and J. Garca, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 90(7), (2012) p.967.
[2] S.T. Kolaczkowskia, P. Plucinski, F.J. Beltran, F.J. Rivas and D.B. McLurgh, Chem. Eng. J., 73(2), (1999)
p. 143.
Acknowlegements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Ministerio de Economa y
Competitividad (MINECO) CTQ2011-27169 and Comunidad de Madrid S2009/AMB-1588


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[83]
Hydrogel-immobilized Pseudomonas stutzeri CECT 930 as bio-reactive
medium for permeable reactive barrier

L. Ferreira
(1)
, E. Rosales, M.A. Sanromn, M. Pazos

(1)
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As
Lagoas, Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Spain,+34986812304, ferreira@uvigo.es

1. Introduction Environmental pollution caused by organic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs), have attracted the attention of scientific community in the last few decades.
Despite their low solubility, PAHs are present in surface water, industrial
effluent or groundwater [1]. Amongst the different remediation
technologies for treating groundwater contaminated with PAHs,
permeable reactive bio-barriers (PRBBs) appears to be the most cost
effective, energy efficient and environmentally friendly. PRBBs are
located in the surface across the flow, thus the natural flow current pass
through them without any energy input, creating a passive treatment
system [2]. It is well known the ability of different microorganisms,
mainly bacteria and/or fungi, to degrade a wide range of pollutants. These
microorganisms can be employed as bio-reactive
medium in the PRBBs. They use the contaminants in their metabolic pathway as carbon source. Among the
different microorganisms, Pseudomonas stutzeri CECT 930 has been identified as an appropriated bacterium
for its use as bio-reactive medium, due to its well-known high degradation capacity on a wide spectrum of
PAHs. The aim of the present work is the development of a new bio-reactive medium using P. stutzeri for
groundwater treatment. For this purpose, the bacterium was immobilized by entrapment in several hydrogels.

2. Experimental A pure culture of PAHs degrading bacterium P. stutzeri, was immobilized in several
hydrogels. For this end, bacterium was grown on medium containing as carbon source a model PAHs,
phenanthrene (100M). The cells were harvested during the growth phase and after that were immobilized
in the different hydrogel-beads. The selected hydrogels were alginate (AL), polyacrylamide (PA), agar (AG)
and alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (AP). Batch assays experiments were carried out in 250mL Erlenmeyer flasks
and the continuous assays were performed in fluidized and packed-bed column glass reactors [2].

3. Results and Discussion The degradation ability of P. stutzeri immobilized in different hydrogel matrices
was studied and compared with free cells in several batch experiments. In all cases, similar degradation
profiles were obtained. After 11 days, the degradation levels of phenanthrene were 73% with free cells and
92% in AL, 87% in PA, 81% in AG and 94% in AP using immobilized bacterium. In order to analyse the
physical resistance of these supports and their reusability, several successive batches were carried out. After
four batches, AL support was dissolved and the others supports could be reused without losing their
degradation activity. Moreover, microscopy images revealed that AG and AP possess excellent physical
characteristics (Image 1). P. stutzeri immobilized in both hydrogels were used to fill up the fluidized bed
reactors, this way was employed to evaluate the influence of continuous flow. After 10 days, the AP beads
were dissolved. Accordingly, the AG matrices were employed to fill a packed-bed reactor in order to simulate
a PRBB. Two hydraulic retention times, 4d and 1d, were used and after reached the steady-state the pollutant
removal percentages were around 93 and 83%, respectively.

4. Conclusions The results obtained in the present work open a promising via to use P. stutzeri immobilized
in agar hydrogel as bio-filler in PRBBs for PAHs removal in groundwater.
Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and FEDER Funds (Project CTM 2011-25389)
5. References
[1] A. Mackay and P.M. Gschwend, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, (2001) p. 1320.
[2] L. Ferreira, E. Rosales, M.A. Sanromn and M. Pazos, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., DOI:
10.1002/jctb.4338

Image 1. P. stutzeri immobilized in AG.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[84]

Biodegradation of pesticides by soil bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and

Bacillus halodurans

Ferreira
(1)
, E. Rosales, M.A. Sanromn, M. Pazos

(4)
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Campus Universitario As Lagoas
Marcosende, E-36310 Vigo, Spain Phone: +34 986 812304 e-mail: ferreira@uvigo.es



1. Introduction Every year large quantities of pesticides are worldwide used for controlling, repelling,
preventing or eradicating pests. Part of the applied pesticides does not reach their intended target due to their
degradation, volatilization and leaching. As a result of their high toxicity and the associated environmental
hazards, occurrence of pesticides in water and wastewater has heightened public health concern [1].
Therefore, more efforts are required to meet treatment processes for these emerging pollutants. At the present
time, pesticides can be removed from aqueous medium by various treatment processes, such as physical,
chemical and biological treatments [2-4]. Amongst the several treatment technologies, bioremediation
technology has been found to be very effective and economical.
Nowadays, several microorganisms have been isolated which are able to utilize pesticides as a source of
energy. However, most evidences suggest that soil bacteria are the most adequate microorganisms. For this
reason, in this work the abilities for degrading pesticides by soil bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri CECT
2. and Bacillus halodurans have been evaluated.

2. Experimental Batch experiments were carried out in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks with 50 mL of a mineral
medium reported by Moscoso et al. [4] containing as a carbon source the selected pesticide (imidacloprid,
pyrimethanil, monocrotophos, pirimicarb, methomyl, fenamiphos) at concentration of 10 mg/L. Flasks were
inoculated with approximately 2 mg of active bacteria obtained directly from agar plate and cultivated in an
incubator at 150 rpm and 37.5C, and passive aeration was allowed by cellulose stoppers. Liquid samples
were taken periodically to analyse pesticide concentrations using HPLC.

3. Results and Discussion The degradation ability of pesticides in aqueous medium by P. stutzeri and B.
halodurans was evaluated. In Table I, the percentages of degradation by both bacteria of the target pesticides
are shown.

Table I. Pesticide class and removal by P. stutzeri and B. halodurans
Total removal of fenamiphos was reached in
presence of B. halodurans after 5 days;
however, low removal was obtained using P.
stutzeri. On the other hand, negligible
removals of the other studied organo-
phosphate pesticide were observed for both
bacteria. Therefore, there is no a clear
relationship between the class of pesticide and the bacteria affinity to metabolize them. This fact was also
observed in the degradation of methomyl and pirimicarb and only P. stutzeri reached an appreciable
degradation for methomyl insecticide. Low removals were obtained with imidacloprid, pirimicarb while a
removal of 39% and 20% was obtained for pyrimethanil using B. halodurans and P. stutzeri respectively.

4. Conclusions The results obtained in this study have established that the bacteria P. stutzeri and B.
halodurans are promising candidates for degrading some pesticides commonly present in the environment.

Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and ERDF Funds (Project CTM 2011-25389)
5. References
[1] E. Eriksson, A. Baun, P.S. Mikkelsen, A. Ledin, Desalination, 215, (2007) p. 187.
[2] M. Bourgin, J. Albet, and F. Violleau, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 1, (2013) p. 1004.
[3] O. Iglesias, J. Gmez, M. Pazos and M.A. Sanromn, Appl. Catal. B Environ., 144, (2014) p. 416.
[4] F. Moscoso, F.J. Deive, M.A. Longo and M.A.Sanromn, Bioresour. Technol., 104, (2012) p. 81.
Pesticide Class Removal (%) Time (d)
B. halodurans P. stutzeri
Imidacloprid Instecticide neonicotinoid 1 % (12 d) 8 % (12 d)
Pyrimethanil Fungicide pyrimidine 39 % (12 d) 20 % (12 d)
Pirimicarb Carbamate insecticide 3 % (14 d) 0% (14 d)
Methomyl Carbamate insecticide 5% (14 d) 26 % (14 f)
Fenamiphos Organophosphate insecticide 100% (5 d) 5% (11 d)
Monocrotophos Organophosphate insecticide 0% (14 d) 0% (14 d)

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[85]
Effect of phosphorous on the methanogenic activity of wastewater
treatment microorganims

D. Mancipe, C. Costa, M.C. Mrquez
(1)

(1)
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Salamanca
Address: Plaza de los Cados 1-5, 37008, Salamanca, Spain
Tel.:+34-923-294479; Fax: +34-923-294574.
e-mail: mcm@usal.es

1. Introduction Nutrients are essential for microbial growth in order to achieve high organic matter removal
efficiencies in biological wastewater treatment systems [1]. Usually, they present a positive effect on
treatment performance but in some cases they may play a negative
role in detriment of treatments, mainly in anaerobic processes [2]. The lack
of an adequate knowledge of the nutrient requirements and effects on
methanogenic microorganisms has hindered the anaerobic digestion process
development [3]. Although the effect of certain essential nutrients to
microbial growth on anaerobic digestion process has been studied in depth
by several researchers, there are few studies related to the effect of
phosphorus concentration on anaerobic digestion process and none related to
influence of this parameter on methanogenic population which is the aim of
this work.

2. Experimental - The study was carried out in a 5 L BIOSTAT B Fermenter (B. Braun Biotech). Chemical
oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA) and phosphorous were measured by standard methods [4].
Optical and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations were performed in order to detect possible
morphologic changes in biomass structure during the experiment.

3. Results and Discussion - The increase in the concentration of phosphorus in the influent (from 3.3 mg/l
to 33.3 mg/l) caused an imbalance of the treatment system, evidenced by the decrease in the COD removal
and the accumulation of VFA's in the effluent. This imbalance was caused by the modification of microbial
populations within the reactor. The increase in the phosphorus concentration (which acted as the limiting
nutrient) causes the grown of filamentous organisms and yeast (figure 1), which came into competition with
the original microorganisms in the reactor obtained by natural selection from the system itself, floc-forming
bacteria (figure 2), affecting their populations (mainly that of methanogenic microorganisms) and hindering
the degradation process.



Image 2. Floc-forming bateria in reactor


5. References
[1] C. Chernicharo, Biological wastewater treatment, Vol. 4. Anaerobic reactors, IWA Publishing, London,
2007.
[2] Y. CHEN, J. J. CHENG and K.S. CREAMER, Bioresource Technology, 99, (2008) p. 4044.
[3] B. Y. Ammary, African Journal of Biotechnology, 3(4), (2004) p. 236.
[4] A.P.H.A, A.W.W.A., W.P.C.F., Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, XXI
edition, USA, 2000.

Image 1. Filamentous microorganisms
in reactor
Table I. Modifications by phosphorus
increase
Parameter
Phosphorus concentration
3.3(mg/l) 33.3(mg/l)
COD removal (%) 90 68
Total VFAs (mg/l
expresed as acetic acid)
19 344




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[86]
Influence of chemical and textural properties of the adsorbent on the
adsorption of caffeine present in a pharmaceutical wastewater

S. lvarez, J.L. Sotelo, G. Ovejero, A. Rodrguez, J. Garca


Grupo de Catlisis y Procesos de Separacin (CyPS)
Departamento de Ingeniera Qumica, Facultad de Ciencias Qumicas
Universidad Complutense, Avda. Complutense, s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Phone Number: +34 913945207; e-mail: satorrellas@ucm.es

1. Introduction Caffeine is considered a chemical tracer for domestic pollution due to being ubiquitous
and almost entirely human-related, given that there are virtually no agricultural or industrial releases,
especially in the Northern hemisphere. Concentrations of caffeine have been reported to vary from 20 to 300
g.L
-1
in raw sewage and 0.1 to 20 g.L
-1
in treated wastewater effluents [1-2]. During the adsorption process
the micropollutants compete for the adsorption sites with natural organic matter (NOM) that occurs in
wastewaters. As a consequence, the adsorption capacity of the micropollutants will be reduced compared to
the single system. This competitive effect is substantially more enhanced if NOM presents similar size and
structure of the micropollutants to be adsorbed [3]. So the NOM adsorption can be considered as a negative
effect from the point of view of the micropollutant removal. In this work the adsorption of caffeine present
in a pharmaceutical wastewater by F400 activated carbon and a commercial sepiolite has been evaluated.
2. Experimental Caffeine was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Germany) in analytical purity and used in
the experiments directly without any further purification. Solutions of caffeine of appropriate concentration
were prepared by diluting a stock solution. Granular activated carbon Filtrasorb 400 was supplied by Calgon
(France). Sepiolite, Minclear SG36, was supplied by TOLSA, S.A. (Spain).
An activated carbon from peach stones has been prepared using 12 M H3PO4 solution at 85 C during 6 h,
with a subsequent carbonization at 400 C during 4 h. The basification of F400 activated carbon were
developed with NaOH saturated solution at 25 C during 70 h; the oxidation of the material was carried out
in 6 M HNO3 solution at 80 C during 1 h, using 1 g adsorbent/10 mL solution. All the experiments were
carried out in fixed-bed column operation, as described in Sotelo et al. [4].
3. Results and Discussion The surface chemical groups of the adsorbent, studied by fixed-bed column
adsorption using F400 activated carbon, and its modifications (basified and oxidized carbons), have no
significance influence on the removal of NOM present in the pharmaceutical wastewater. Therefore, the study
of the influence of the textural properties of the adsorbent, through the dynamic adsorption of NOM using
F400 activated carbon, carbon from peach stones and a commercial sepiolite has been carried out. This
experiments lead to conclude that the material with higher pore diameter, sepiolite in this case, presented
values of TOC/TOC0 = 1 in the first hour of operation.
Fixed-bed adsorption experiments of caffeine in pharmaceutical wastewater onto F400 activated carbon and
sepiolite were developed. The breakthrough curves for caffeine and TOC are presented in Fig 1 a-b.
4. Conclusions Surface chemical modifications have no influence on the NOM removal, since higher pore
diameter intervals present a positive
effect on the adsorption.
Breakthrough time and breakthrough
curve profiles of caffeine have been
modified due to the competitive
effect.



5. References
[1] I.J. Buerge, T. Poiger, M.D. Mller, H.-R. Buser, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37(4), (2003) p. 691.
[2] T. Heberer, J. Hydrol., 266(3-4), (2002) p. 175.
[3] C. Hepplewhite, G. Newcombe, D.R.U. Knappe, Water Sci. Technol., 49(9), (2004) p. 257.
[4] J.L. Sotelo, A. Rodrguez, S. lvarez, J. Garca, Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 90(7), (2012) p. 967.
Acknowlegements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Ministerio de Economa y
Competitividad (MINECO) CTQ2011-27169 and Comunidad de Madrid S2009/AMB-1588.

0 50 100 150 200 250
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
NOM
Caffeine


C
/
C
0
t (h)
Fig. 1. Breakthrough curves for caffeine and NOM in the adsorption of a
pharmaceutical wastewater (a) F400 activated carbon, (b) sepiolite.
a)
b)
0 20 40 60 80 100
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
NOM
Caffeine


t (h)
C
/
C
0

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[87]
Rational use of water in dealership vehicles-case study

A.J.L. Marques, S. B. Silva, K. A.S. Cruvinel, M.A. Siqueira
(4)
E.M. Ferreira
(5)

()
Street Alipio Mendes, block. 12, lot. 20, N 637, Cidade Jardim, Goinia-GO, Brazil. E-mail:
engenhariaeambiental@gmail.com, phone: (55) 62 8402-4072
(2) (3) (4)(5)
Praa Universitria, S/N, Universitrio Sector, Goinia-Gois, Brasil.

1. Introduction Researchers have warned over the years about the lack of water in front of excessive
consumption. It is estimated that the current consumption of water is six times higher than that shown in
1900, although the world's population did not grow at the same rate throughout the century (SOECO / MG,
2009) (1).
To restore the balance between supply and demand of water and ensure sustainable economic and social
development, it is necessary that methods and modern alternative systems are properly developed and applied
in light of the characteristics of specific systems and production centers. In this sense, reuse, recycling,
demand management, waste reduction and minimization of waste generation are constituted in association to
conservation practices, the keywords most important in terms of water resources management and pollution
reduction (SAUTCHUK et al., 2005) (2).
Given the context, we sought to develop a work involving the rational use of water in a branch company of
dealership vehicles in the city of Goiania, Gois, Brazil. It is understood as inevitable implementation of a
program of rational use these developments, thus enabling reduced waste, besides being a basic requirement
for sustainable development. The objective of this study was the diagnosis of water consumption in a car
dealership and indicates potential measures for rational use.
2. Methodology We sought to develop work based on an adapted methodology proposed by Sautchuk et al
(2005), when was the primary diagnosis was approached and audit of water use in the enterprise. Determined
the maximum flow and leaks in hydraulic equipment, beyond the identification of leaks throughout the water
distribution system. From the results it was possible to identify losses from leaks and operating conditions of
the hydraulic system. We calculated the consumption indicator (CI) for the administrative area of the
enterprise (L / worker per day) and for the car wash (L / vehicles). We identified opportunities to reduce water
consumption in new development, an approach to the intervention plan.
3. Results and Discussion Among garden tap, shower, toilets, urinals and lavatory faucet, there was a total
of 65 hydraulic equipment. A waste water was identified by leaks in hydraulic equipment 168.00 liters per
day, may estimate a volume loss of 5.040 liters per month, while that leaks in pipes may have caused a loss
of 72 m in a month. Consumption indicators found were 66.00 L / worker per day and 140.00 L per vehicle
washed.
4. Final considerations The values of CI can be improved with the implementation of the intervention plan
through environmental education, in order to achieve employee and operator of the car wash, and also for
replacing hydraulic devices by saving appliances and also for correction of leaks identified in the workplace.
5. References
[1] SOECO/MG. Gerenciamento Sustentvel da gua da Chuva. Belo Horizonte, 2009. Disposable in:
http://www.soecomg.hpg.ig.com.br/agua8.htm, (1), Access in: 16 jun. 2013.
[2] SAUTCHUK, C. et al. Conservao e reuso de gua em edificaes. Agncia Nacional de guas,
Sinduscon-SP e FIESP, (2), 2005.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[88]


Water Distribution Management
The Contribution of the Equity of the Tariffs

A.S. Soares
1,2
, C.P. Oliveira
1,2
, F.J.P. Caetano
1,2


(1)
Universidade Aberta, R. da Escola Politecnica, 147, 1269-001, Lisboa, Portugal
asilvasoares@clix.pt
(2)
Centro de Qumica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av Rovisco Pais,
1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal

1. Introduction The environmental degradation, in its different ways, is a powerful element in the generation
of a large scale shortage of freshwater. This has been one of the reasons for the shortage of quality freshwater,
causing a negative impact on the public health as well as on the economy and the environment in general [1].
The social, political and economic inequalities have also contributed to explain different profiles of
consumption and use of hydric resources. It is necessary to seek new levels of accountability and governance
to ensure the undeniable right to water associated with the use of sound technologies in the specific field of
the operation of the supply/ cumulative distribution for an efficient use of water. In the water
supply/distribution systems a considerable consumption/loss of water and energy has been verified as
inherent to engineering and management activities [2]. The success of any water and energy loss prevention
program depends on an efficient and permanent management program that integrates operational,
institutional, educational and legal actions [3]. These actions, besides leading to reduction of water loss and
energy consumption, should aim at the following objectives: implementation of correct management
methodologies; reduction of production costs; reduction of costs of electrical energy; rationalization of
investments and increase of revenues; satisfaction of clients/consumers.
2. Results and Discussion The reduction of losses and consumptions is relevant for the sustainability of the
systems and, therefore, the tariff balance. This should include covering the costs, directly or indirectly
incurred, along with equality criteria, which is not always the case [4]. The costs recovery should be
associated with the principle of sustainable use of hydric resources, penalizing waste and high consumption.
Furthermore the principle of affordability should also be present to ensure the universal access to water
services [5].
A comparative analysis of the different tariffs applied by the Management Bodies (MB) has been performed
based on: (a) Observational data that can be applied to each one of the established evaluation categories
(consumption level, type of consumers, losses, costs, type of tariff); (b) Integration of categories and
respective properties (quality and quantity indicators, Life-cycle Assessment LCA, types of Managing
Bodies MB).
3. Conclusions The results of this study will be used to develop a uniform tariff model that should, equitably,
reflect the costs paid by consumers, guaranteeing its correct protection no matter the region where they are
being supplied [6].
References:
1. UNDP, 2006, Human Development Report - Power, poverty and the global water crisis, United
Nations Development Programme.
2 EPA, 2012, Planning for Sustainability: A Handbook for Water and Wastewater Utilities, United
States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, USA.
2. ISO, 2007, ISO 24512 - Activities relating to drinking water and wastewater services-Guidelines
for the management of drinking water utilities and for the assessment of drinking water services.
Int.Org.Stand. OCDE, 2002, Problmes sociaux lies la distribution et la tarification de leau,
OCDE, Paris, Frana.
4. OCDE, 2009, De leau pour tous: perspectives de lOCDE sur la tarification et le financement -
messages cls pour les dcideurs, OCDE, Paris, Frana.
5. OCDE, 2010, Des mecanismes de financement innovants pour le secteur de leau, OCDE, Paris,
Frana.
6. Ehrhardt, E., Groom, E., Halpern, J., OConnor, S., 2007, Economic Regulation of Urban Water
and Sanitation Services - Some Practical Lessons, World Bank, Washington, USA

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[89]
Application of acid-base treated vermiculite for sorption of textile
dyestuffs wastewaters

Wojciech Stawiski
(1)
, Snia Figueiredo
(1)
, Olga Freitas
(1)
, Agnieszka Wgrzyn
(2)


(1)
REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politcnico do Porto, Rua
Dr. Antnio Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal, 00351 911 858 901,
stawor@gmail.com

(2)
Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, ul. Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow, Poland.

1. Introduction Effluents containing textile dyes reduce light penetrating in receiving water bodies and
disturb the natural biological processes although most of them are not toxic. Most of the textile dyestuffs are
poorly biodegradable, have a complex molecular structure and are difficult to remove from wastewaters by
conventional treatments [1-3]. Sorption is a very efficient physico-chemical process to treat coloured
wastewater and generates high-quality treated effluent. Vermiculite, seems to be an interesting precursor for
sorbents preparation. It is a hydrous aluminium phyllosilicate fundamentally built of tetrahedral silicate sheets
and octahedral hydroxide sheets. Due to the composition of the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets, the layer
has charge which is balanced by interlayer ion that can be exchanged, even by quite bulky molecules,
characterizing the clays as very good ion-exchangers [5]. This study is focused on the application of modified
vermiculite by acid and base treatment for textile dyestuffs removal.

2. Experimental In order to optimise treatment conditions samples were boiled in different acids and
varying concentrations at 98
0
C for 2h in constant stirring, then placed in a solution of citric acid for 1h stirring
and finally washed in with a NaOH solution for another 1h while stirring. The optimised material was applied
successfully to the removal of two cationic dyes, Methylene blue (Basic Blue 9, C.I. 52015) and Astrazon
red (Basic Red 46, C.I. 110825) from Dystar. Batch equilibrium and kinetic studies were performed.

3. Results and Discussion The batch optimisation showed that treatment with 1.8M nitric acid, followed
by washing with 10% citric acid and 1M NaOH at the end gives the best results. Sorption capacity of the
material increased after the chemical treatment due to exchange of interlayer cations and leaching of metals
from the layers which results in structural changes of vermiculite. It has been proven that treatment with
NaOH must be preceded by acid activation in order to obtain significant increase in sorption capacity. Two
equilibrium models, Langmuirs and Freundlichs, were fitted to experimental data. Based on the best fit,
sorption capacity of each material was calculated; 44 2 mg/g, 60 4 mg/g and 155 10 mg/g for Astrazon
Red and 53 5 mg/g, 66 7 mg/g and 162 6 mg/g for Methylene Blue on raw vermiculite, vermiculite
treated with nitric and citric acid and for the material treated additionally with NaOH, respectively.
Adsorption in the studied systems seems to follow pseudo-2
nd
order kinetics.


4. Conclusions - Present research has given promising results. Treatment with nitric acid followed by
washing with citric acid and then with sodium hydroxide results in significant increase in the sorption capacity
of the material. The results obtained lead us to wide possibilities of further modifications and modifications
of other materials in order to get very efficient materials useful for wastewater treatment.

5. References
[1] Reife A., Freeman H.S., John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 3-31, 1996.
[2] Forgacs E., Cserhati T., Oros G., Environ. Int. 30, 953971, 2004.
[3] Bhatnagar A., Jain A. K., Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 281(1): 4955, 2005.
[4] Pan B.J., Pan B.C., Zhang W.M., Lv L., Zhang Q.X., Zheng S.R., Chem. Eng. J., 151, 1929, 2009.
[5] Chmielarz L., Kowalczyk A., Michalik M., Dudek B., Piwowarska Z., Matusiewicz A., App. Clay Sci.,
49, 156-162, 2010



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[90]
Immobilization of laccase on alumina or controlled pore glassuncoated
nanoparticles and decolorization of melanoidin from bakery effluents

Georgiou R.
1
, Tsiakiri E.P.
1
, Pantazaki A.A.
1*

1
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-
54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.

phone number:+30-2310-997838, e-mal: natasa@chem.auth.gr

1. Introduction-Laccases are blue multi-copper oxidases (E.C. 1.10.3.2; benzenediol:oxygen
oxidoreductase) that have a broad range of industrial applications due to their ability to catalyzes the one-
electron oxidation of both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds and highly recalcitrant
environmental pollutants including melanoidins. Melanoidins are brown, nitrogen containing, high molecular
weight final products of Maillard reaction. Bakers yeast fermentation produces high strength effluents, which
retain very dark brown color due to the presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring
compounds, mainly melanoidins. Immobilization of enzymes including laccases is an important application
in the field of environmental biotechnology to increase enzyme stability and allow enzyme reuse in treatment
of bakery effluents for decolorization of laccases.

Image 1. A ribbon representation of the X-ray-determined
crystal structure of laccase III from Trametes versicolor
(PDB code 1KYA)



Experimental-Immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor (>20 units/mg) was performed on
alumina or controlled pore glassuncoated nanoparticles. Laccase activity determination was assayed
spectrophotometrically by monitoring the absorbance increase from oxidation of syringaldazine at 530 nm
(=65 mM
1
cm
1
). Free and immolized laccase on both types of nanoparticles was used for decolorization of
a range of synthetic melanoidin concentrations as well as of real bakery effluents containing melanoidins.
Decolorization was assayed by ADMI spectroscopy using a Lovibond PFX 1495 Tintometer or
spectometrically at the max of melanoidin (475 nm). The ADMI method relies on the measurement of
permeability in 31 different wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm, with step 10 nm based on the three properties,
which characterize the color: the tint (hue), color intensity (chroma) and the amount of color (value).

2. Results and discussion-Laccase was immobilized either on alumina or controlled pore glassuncoated
nanoparticles (nominal diameter 700 , 120-200 mesh) to overcome problems associated with stability and
reusability of the free enzyme. The catalytic kinetic parameter Km and Vmax values for syringaldazine as
substrate was calculated for free laccase, and for immobilized laccase either on alumina or on controlled pore
glassuncoated nanoparticles. Immobilized laccase was used for study its ability for decolorization of a model
synthetic melanoidin prepared by glucose and glycine, and of real bakery effluents containing melanoidins.
Efficient decolorization of melanoidin by immobilized laccase to alumina nanoparticles was concentration-
dependent reaching 71%, 45%, 29% and 11% for 1%, 5%, 10% and 20% v/v of melanoidin, respectively,
while immobilized laccase to controlled pore glassuncoated nanoparticles reached to 74%, 32%, 30% and
18% respectively. The ability of immobilized laccase was tested to catalyze several cycles of decolorization.

3. Conclusions- Immobilized laccase on both types of nanoparticles constitutes a notably efficient system
for decolorization of bakery wastes containing melanoidins compared with the free enzyme.

4. References
[1] Chandra R., Bharagava R.N., Rai V. (2008) Melanoidins as major colorant in sugarcane molasses based
distillery effluent and its degradation. Bioresour Technol. 99:4648-60
[2] Manole A., Herea D., Chiriac H., Melnig V. (2008) Scientific Annals of Alexandru Ioan Cuza Din Iai
University. Tomul I, s. Biomaterials in Biophysics, Medical Physics and Ecology


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[91]
REMOVAL OF ANTIBIOTICS BY GREEN CLAY SORBENTS

A. V. Dordio*
1, 2
, Susana Miranda
1
, A. J. Palace Carvalho
1, 3


1
Dept. Qumica, Universidade de vora, Rua Romo Ramalho 59, 7000-671 vora, Portugal.
2
IMAR, Universidade de vora, Portugal.
3
CQE, Universidade de vora, Portugal.

* E-mail:avbd@uevora.pt

Contamination of water resources with pharmaceuticals has been one of the top concerns of environmental
sciences in the latest years [1], the matter having received very significant media coverage recently [2].
Antibiotics in particular have been gathering considerable attention and are amongst the most serious worries
due to the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria as result of prolonged exposure [1, 2].
Because most wastewater treatment plants were only designed for removing bulk pollutants, many other more
specific pollutant types that are present in low concentrations in the wastewaters are often inefficiently treated
and end up being released into receiving water bodies. Although in many cases these contaminants are
detected only at small concentrations in environmental samples, the large variety of such compounds and the
high potential for adverse interactions with living organisms (due to the nature of their action) is a matter of
serious concern.
Several advanced technologies have been evaluated as options to treat these contaminants, e.g. advanced
oxidative processes or membrane filtration, but despite the sometimes high removal efficiencies attained,
these technologies are too expensive to be considered as viable solutions on a large scale. Adsorption, alone
or as part of a more complex water or wastewater treatment process, has been seen as playing a very important
role in the removal of many organic xenobiotic pollutants [3]. In this regard, the choice of adsorbent materials
is crucial. However, pollutants removal efficiency is not the sole selection criterion, as the cost of the materials
may provide or preclude economic viability of the water/wastewater treatment system. Therefore, the quest
for efficient adsorbents that are widely available, and do not require expensive processing in order to be used
(thereby allowing lower production costs) is a very important aspect of research aimed to manage this
environmental problem.
In this work we present the study of sorption properties of clay materials (LECA and vermiculite) for the
removal of some pharmaceuticals two antibiotics (sulfametoxanol and oxytetracycline) from water. The
dependence of removal efficiencies on pollutants initial concentrations, contact time with the adsorbents and
other system/environment conditions was assessed. The two clay materials were compared in terms of their
more balanced performance towards the removal of the pharmaceuticals tested and the materials are
suggested as a useful component of a water or wastewater treatment system designed for the removal of
pharmaceutical contaminants.


References
[1] K. Fent, A.A. Weston, D. Caminada, Aquat. Toxicol. 76 (2006) 122-159; C. Mige, J. M. Choubert, L.
Ribeiro, M. Eusbe, M. Coquery, Environ. Pollut. 157 (2009) 1721-1726.
[2] T. Brodin, J. Fick, M. Jonsson, J. Klaminder, Science 339 (2013) 814-815.
[3] A.V. Dordio, J. Teimo, I. Ramalho, A.J.P. Carvalho, A.J.E. Candeias, Sci. Total Environ. 380 (2007)
237-246; A.V. Dordio, A.J.E. Candeias, A.P. Pinto, C.T. da Costa, A.J.P. Carvalho, Ecol. Eng. 35 (2009)
290-302.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[92]

Study of heavy metals elimination with calcium-loaded

Sargassum muticum biomass

L. Carro, M. Lpez-Garca, J. L. Barriada, R. Herrero, M.E. Sastre de Vicente

Departamento de Qumica Fsica e Ingeniera Qumica I, Universidad de A Corua,
c/Ra da Fraga 10, 15008 A Corua, Spain

Tel.: +34 981167000 ext. 2199; Email: marta.lopez@udc.es

1. Introduction - Algae constitute one of the most important biosorbents employed in elimination studies of
heavy metals and organic compounds due to its high capacity to remove pollutants from solution. Some algae, such
as invasive Sargassum muticum are easily available for their use in sorption experiments [1]. Carboxylic acid is
the most important functional group present in the brown algae and is directly associated to the high capacity of
this material to remove heavy metals. Furthermore, coordination capacity of carboxylic acid with divalent cations,
such as calcium, stabilizes the internal structure of the alginates, resulting the well known egg box model [2-3].
In the present work, brown algae S. muticum was loaded with calcium in order to go further in the analysis of the
type of mechanism taking place and to obtain an good material for heavy metal removal .

2. Experimental - Sorption experiments were performed putting in contact 0.1 g of Ca-treated alga biomass with
cadmium, lead or mercury solutions at different concentrations. These mixtures were stirred during 24 h to assure
the equilibrium was reached. Afterwards, calcium released to the solution and heavy metals elimination were
determined using AAS or colorimetric techniques.

3. Results and Discussion - The biomass treated with calcium was put in contact with Cd(II), Pb(II) and Hg(II) solutions
at different concentrations. The biomass showed good removal capacities for all the metals but different behaviours were
found. An exchange metal-calcium ratio close to 1 was determined for lead and cadmium solutions. These results suggest
that cationic exchange mechanism is the main sorption process; calcium is released into the solution and the binding sites
are occupied by lead or cadmium. However, mercury shows a higher metal removal than calcium released back into the
solution. The observed trend in the ratio mercury-calcium is in agreement with the expected behaviour; mercury
elimination is a complex mechanism that combines metal adsorption but also reduction. The main species associated with
mercury elimination are the neutral species (HgCl2,
HgClOH and Hg(OH)2) that are the predominant forms at working pH [4]. Mercury
can be retained by the biomass without calcium released due to complexation or
coordination through metal neutral species. At the same time, mercury elimination
can also be associated to metal reduction.
SEM/EDS analysis highlights the different mechanism explained before, especially
for mercury removal. Mercury deposits were found over material surface after batch
sorption experiments and through EDS analysis these precipitated were identified as
Hg-Cl deposits (Image 1).

4. Conclusions Ca-loaded S. muticum biomass is a good sorbent for heavy metals
elimination, even at high concentrations. In addition, studies
with treated algae showed that the main mechanism associated to cadmium and lead removal is the ionic exchanged,
while mercury elimination is an adsorption-reduction combined process.

5. References
[1] B. Volesky, Sorption and biosorption, BV Sorbex, St. Lambert, Quebec, 2003.
[2] T.A. Davis, B. Volesky, A. Mucci, Water Res., 37 (2003) p. 4311-4330.
[3] P. Lodeiro, A. Fuentes, R. Herrero, M.E. Sastre de Vicente, Environ. Chem., 5 (2008) p. 355-365.
[4] L. Carro, J.L. Barriada, R. Herrero, M.E. Sastre de Vicente, J. Hazard. Mater., 192 (2011) p. 284-291.

Image 1. Mercury deposits over
material surface

Authors wish to thank Ministerio de Economa y Competitividad for the financial support through the research
Project CTM2012-37272, cofounded with the FEDER programme.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[93]
Immobilization of industrial powdered red mud residues for arsenic
elimination

M. Lpez-Garca, J.L. Barriada, R. Herrero, M. E. Sastre de Vicente

Departamento de Qumica Fsica e Enxeera Qumica I. Facultad de Ciencias. Universidade
de A Corua. Ra da Fraga 10,15008. A Corua , Spain.
Tel: +34 981167000 Ext: 2199. e-mail: marta.lopez@udc.es.


1. Introduction- Arsenic contamination in natural water is a worldwide problem and has become a challenge
for the world scientists. Despite arsenic can be considered as an essential element, some of its species present
high toxicity for humans [1]. US-EPA published 0.01 mg/L as a standard for arsenic in drinking water,
requiring public water supplies to reduce arsenic from 0.05 mg/L. Most remediation methods remove arsenic
effectively from water containing high initial arsenic concentrations (usually >100 mg/L) but residual arsenic
concentrations exceed the 0.05 mg/L water quality standard used in most countries [2]. The development of
new removal technologies capable of diminish arsenic contents in wastewater bellow allowed limits has
become an issue of mayor concern. Among these new techniques, adsorption was found as an adequate
alternative.
This work focuses on the use of red mud (raw and immobilized) and its potential application as
arsenic adsorbent. This geological material is a waste formed during the production of alumina when bauxite
ore is subjected to caustic leaching. Thereby, using red mud as arsenic adsorbent constitutes a new use for a
very abundant residue diminishing arsenic concentrations below allowed limits.
2. Experimental- Red mud used in this study was obtained from an alumina production plant. Raw material
was employed to conduct batch experiments, which include: studies of pH influence on adsorption process,
kinetics or arsenic initial concentration effect. Aside from red mud a new material was also developed, using
a chitosan matrix to immobilize the red mud. To obtain this composite material, commercial chitosan was
dissolved in acetic acid solution, this mixture was stirred until chitosan total dissolution, after that, red mud
was added. The resulting mixture was homogenized and added into a NaOH solution dropwise, obtaining red
mud-chitosan beads.
3. Results and Discussion- Batch experiments demonstrated that red mud possess a high capacity to remove
arsenic from solution. It was observed that elimination percentages were high in a broad range of pH. pH 7
was selected in subsequent experiments in order to diminish the amount of acid solution necessary to maintain
controlled pH. At this pH, kinetic experiments indicate that total elimination of arsenic is achieved in less
than 2 min. Isotherm studies showed a linear behaviour, even at high concentrations, which indicates no
saturation of the material. Despite of its promising characteristics, red mud has two main drawbacks: its high
alkalinity and its powdery consistency, which makes very difficult its application in depuration processes.
In order to solve the drawbacks for red mud utilization, red mud-chitosan beads synthesis and
application were studied. Immobilized red mud was found to be able to remove high percentages of arsenic.
At the same time, it possesses mechanical resistance and also maintains solution pH at 7 with very small
additions of diluted acid. Isotherm and kinetic studies also confirm its high capacity to retain arsenic in very
short times.
4. Conclusions- This study has concluded that red mud is very good arsenic adsorbent, achieving arsenic
elimination percentages of 95% in less than 2 minutes, remaining in solution less than 0.005 mg/L of arsenic
for a initial concentration of 0.05 mg/L. Furthermore, the development of easy obtained red mud-chitosan
beads allowed proposing this new material as arsenic adsorbent for very low metal concentrations due to its
mechanical resistance and high removal capacity.
5. Acknowledgements-Authors wish to thank Ministerio de Economa y Competitividad for the financial
support through the research Project CTM2012-37272, cofounded with the FEDER programme.

6. References
[1] C.K. Jain, I. Ali, Water Res., 34 (2000) 4304-4312.
[2] D. Mohan, C.U. Pittman Jr., J. Hazard. Mater., 142 (2007) 1-53.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[94]
Synthesis of iron-fern composites for arsenic decontamination

M. Martnez-Cabanas, J.L. Barriada, R. Herrero. M.E. Sastre de Vicente

Departamento de Qumica Fsica e Ingeniera Qumica I, Universidad de A Corua,
c/Ra da Fraga 10, 15008 A Corua, Spain

Tel.: +34 981167000 ext. 2199; Email: maria.martinez.cabanas@udc.es

1. Introduction Adsorption of heavy metals from wastewaters by non-living biomass is a well-known
technique. There are several studies where different types of biomass are used to remove metals such as
chromium or mercury from aqueous effluents [1-2]. However, these
materials show very low capacity for arsenic removal. Some previous studies
showed the high affinity of arsenic for oxides of metal cations such as Fe or Al.
Taking into account these studies, the present work focuses on the synthesis of
a composed material of biomass and iron which will be mainly used for arsenic
removal but also for other heavy metal elimination. These composed materials
will be immobilized in a solid support, silica gel, to avoid operational problems
and to improve mechanical stability.

2. Experimental The synthesis of the materials was carried out by a sol- Image 1. Composite
gel process (the aqueous precursors method [3]) with encapsulated biomass.
Bracken fern is encapsulated in a gel that is formed by mixing a Na2SiO3 solution with water. Experiments
are done to optimize proportions of silica/water and bracken fern percentage. Other factors to be controlled
during the material formation are pH, stirring time, refrigeration and dry time, and temperature. The material
obtained under optimized conditions was loaded with iron by an adsorption process and then used for arsenic
removal.

3. Results and Discussion As a result of the optimization process, obtained composites were formed with
0.8M silica solution and 0.1g of fern (50%w). These composites present high mechanical stability. Fern
composites were loaded with 200 and 400mg/L of Fe (II) solution obtaining a uniform loaded material as
observed by SEM. Iron-fern composites were tested with a 100 g/L As + 11000 g/L Cd solution showing
high removal capacities for both metals.

COMPOSITES % elimination As % elimination Cd
200mg/L Fe (II) 90 >90
400mg/L Fe (II) >95 >70


4. Conclusions Synthesis parameters were optimized leading new composite materials with good
mechanical properties and high efficiency for iron adsorption. These composites showed arsenic removal
percentages above 80% as well as high capacity to remove other heavy metals.

5. Acknowledgements - Authors wish to thank Ministerio de Economa y Competitividad for the financial
support through the research Project CTM2012-37272, cofounded with the FEDER programme.

6. References
1. L. Carro, R. Herrero, J.L. Barriada, M.E. Sastre de Vicente, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 84 (2009)
p. 1688-1696.
2. M. Lopez-Garcia, P. Lodeiro, R. Herrero, M.E.S. de Vicente, Journal of Industrial and Engineering
Chemistry, 18 (2012) p. 1370-1376.
3. T. Coradin, M. Amoura, C. Roux, J. Livage, Biocers, Industrial Applications, in: M.C. Flickinger (Ed.)
Encyclopedia of Industrial Biotechnology: Bioprocess, Bioseparation, and Cell Technology, John Wiley
& Sons, Inc., 2009.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[95]
Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles immobilized on a silica gel for
arsenic decontamination

Martnez-Cabanas, M. Lpez-Garca, L. Carro, J.L. Barriada,
Herrero, M.E. Sastre de Vicente

Departamento de Qumica Fsica e Ingeniera Qumica I, Universidad de A Corua,
c/Ra da Fraga 10, 15008 A Corua, Spain

Tel.: +34 981167000 ext. 2199; Email: maria.martinez.cabanas@udc.es

1. Introduction Nanoparticles (NPs) are particles with diameters between 1 and 100 nanometers. NPs
usually have high reactivity, surface area and also tuneable properties, which means that they have many
applications in different fields. The most common method for metal nanoparticle synthesis is reduction of
metal salts, using stabilizing agents to prevent particle aggregation. Nowadays, new sustainable synthetic vias
are developed in order to eliminate the use of chemicals. These alternative methods include those on which
natural materials, such as plants or plant extracts, are used. Plant extracts have in their structures phenolic
compounds, tannins and terpenes that can act both as reducing and capping or stabilizing agents. The present
work was devoted to the optimization of this sustainable synthetic via to obtain iron NPs and also to the
application of these NPs in heavy metal removal processes [1-2].

2. Experimental Different kinds of biomass such as algae, tree leaves or fruit peels were selected to obtain
liquors with a high reduction capacity. Dry materials were put in contact with distilled water or a mixture of
ethanol:water at different proportions. Parameters such as temperature, contact time and the type of extracting
agent were optimized to obtain the liquor with higher reduction capacity.
Then, the extracts obtained were mixed with iron salts by mixing volumes of both solutions simultaneously
or drop wise the iron solution over the liquor. The particles obtained were separated from the bulk of solution
or directly immobilized in silica gels.

3. Results and Discussion Liquors with different properties were obtained varying the parameters that
affect the extraction process. Reduction potential measurements of these solutions were used to select the
extract with best capacity for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles. The mixture of the liquors with iron salts
causes solution turns black immediately. This colour change indicates the formation of iron nanoparticles.
However, other liquors or proportions require an increase of the contact time to form the iron compounds.
Afterwards, the particles obtained are characterized to determine their size and the type of compounds
synthesized.
Once Fe-nanoparticles were synthesized, solutions with iron compounds were immobilized in a silica gel
through an aqueous sol-gel technique. The small size of iron compounds hinders their separation from the
solution; therefore, immobilization technique is a good alternative to make easier their use in sorption process
as well as sol-gel process provides a new composite material with good mechanical stability.
These composites were employed in arsenic removal process and high elimination percentages were found
with all the metal concentrations tested.

4. Conclusions Green chemistry methods constitute a sustainable process for obtaining iron nanoparticles
with promising properties for arsenic removal. Sol-gel immobilization overcomes the problem of
nanoparticles manipulation and make easier their separation from the free-metal solution.

5. Acknowledgements - Authors wish to thank Ministerio de Economa y Competitividad for the financial
support through the research Project CTM2012-37272, cofounded with the FEDER programme.

6. References
[1] J. Parsons, J. Peralta-Videa, J. Gardea-Torresdey, Developments in Environmental Science, 5
(2007) p.463-485.
[2] A.H. Lu, E.L. Salabas, F. Schuth, Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit., 46 (2007) p. 1222-1244.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[96]
Water supply to Cartagena in the 19
th
century. Water intake of Fuente
Vieja as an example of water resouce in a semiarid region.

F. J. Prez de la Cruz
(1)
, A. Trapote Jaume
(2)

(1)
Universidad Politcnica de Cartagena. Departamento de Ingeniera Civil
Paseo Alfonso XIII, 52. Cartagena (Espaa) +34625238321 javier.cruz@upct.es

(2)
Universidad de Alicante. Instituto Universitario del Agua y las Ciencias Ambientales
Carretera de San Vicente del Raspeig, s/n. Alicante (Espaa) +34965903400 atj@ua.es

1. Introduction - Until the water of river Taibilla arrived in Cartagena (Murcia, Spain) in 1945, the city did
not solve one of its big problems throughout its wide history: the guarantee of water supply in an adequate
amount and quality. Since the end of the 19
th
century, a series of private
companies searched in some areas near the city for sources of water in order
to overcome the shortage of resources. Among all of them, we can highlight
Carthagena Water & Mining Co. Ltd. which was founded in 1889 in
Manchester. It performed important works of water intake and transportation
from different locations in the Western area of Campo de Cartagena. The
English Company, as it was known by the inhabitants of Cartagena, made
the most of the water resources of the area diverting the occasional flows that
ran through watercourses, taking advantage of the natural runoff of the land
and capturing different springs near the city. The infraestructure was formed
by channels, pipes, siphons, aqueducts and even storage tanks and filters for
the treatment of the water that had been got. They even reached a level of
supply capacity of near 1,000 m
3
per day.
2. Scope of the study - There is not much information left about this
infraestructure (the original project is not preserved). For that reason, the
work is focused on the search for information in the land; having as a final
goal to make possible the identification and rebuilding of the infraestructure.
In this work, we are going to characterise the water intake in the area of
Fuente Vieja, one of the three existing ones, as the most interesting one as far
as the different solutions made for water intake is concerned.
At the beginning, the intake of Fuente Vieja (located 10 kms. away from
Cartagena) was just a spring that, giving name to the place, was used by the
inhabitants of the area. The English Company improved its capacity by
building an infiltration tunnel. Afterwards, it made the most of the
watercourse of Cabezo Negro, which is the place where the spring is located,
building in the upper part of the aforementioned spring a weir (Image 1). Its
function was to retain the water that occasionally ran through the watercourse, being directed to a tank (Image
2) located in the sorrounding area of the spring. The same action was taken in the spring of Gimnez, adjacent
to the spring of Cabezo Negro. Another weir was placed there allowing them to derive the running water of
the spring to the aformentioned tank through a system of communicating vessels dug up in the land (Image
3). By doing this, the two intake watercourses were united.
3. Conclusions - The present work tries to show the different and original solutions raised when making the
most of such a short resource as it is the water in a hydraulic infraestructure of the 19
th
century located in a
semiarid area, with all the difficulties that go with this situation.
4. Bibliografa
[1] M. C. Berrocal y A. Egea, "El abastecimiento de agua de Cartagena en el siglo XIX y comienzos del XX.
La poca de las compaas de aguas". Revista Murciana de Antropologa, 14 (2007) p. 233 - 258.
[2] L. M. Vidal y L. Mallada, "Memoria sobre la trada de aguas potables a Cartagena y su puerto". Cartagena,
1914.

Image 1. Weir in Cabezo negro
Image 3. Tunnel of communication
Image 2. Water tank

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[97]
Advanced treatments with supercritical fluids for the regeneration of
activated carbon fibers saturated with phenol

F. Salvador Palacios, M.J. Snchez Montero, N. Martn Snchez, C. Izquierdo Misiego, J.
Pelaz Fernndez


Dpto .Qumica Fsica. Fac Ciencias Qumicas. Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)
+34923294478. salvador@usal.es

1. Introduction Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) are carbonaceous materials having high porosity, generally
of the microporous type, and a small diameter (10-40 m). They are light and easily malleable. Their large
inner surface area, together with its chemical reactivity, affords these materials outstanding adsorbent
properties.
Among their many uses, owing to their high rate of consumption the most significant ones include drinking-
water purification, industrial, agricultural and urban wastewater treatment processes, air purification, solvent
recovery and odor removal. The regeneration of these adsorbent materials [1] is of great importance for the
economic viability of such processes. A further advantage, from the environmental point of view, is the
possibility of recycling hazardous and toxic wastes.
In this work, we study the regeneration of ACFs saturated with phenol using a treatment in which supercritical
fluids, water and CO2 were used as regeneration reagents.

2. Experimental - Regeneration tests consist of subjecting an original ACF sample to successive cycles of
adsorption/regeneration. The first adsorption cycle is carried out by placing a bed of the original ACF on an
adequately thermostatted sample holder through which a solution containing the pollutant (phenol) is passed.
The effluent current is analyzed continuously with a UV/VIS detector and hence the breakpoint curve can be
obtained and the amount of pollutant retained can be determined. Then, the regeneration process starts,
involving the use of a vertical reactor designed in such a way that the sample carrier can be introduced so that
supercritical water and CO2 can pass through the ACF bed and regenerate it. This process is performed
successively. The effectiveness of the regeneration, expressed as a percentage, can be established by
comparing the adsorption capacity of the regenerated ACF to that of the original ACF.

3. Results and Discussion - We report the results of the regeneration of an ACF of phenolic origin in the
form of a fabric (supplied by Kynol) with water and CO2 under
different experimental conditions (550-650 C and 1-450 bar). It was
observed that the efficacy of regeneration increased progressively as
pressure and temperature increased and that regeneration was
completed very rapidly (5-10 min).
Figure 1 shows the adsorption capacity of an ACF regenerated with
water at 625 C and 75 bar for 7.5 min. The breakpoint curve of the
original ACF (1
st
saturation) can be compared to that of the ACF
after subsequent regenerations (2
nd
, 3
rd
and 4
th
saturations). In all
cases the regenerated ACFs recovered 100% of the adsorption
capacity and even improved it.

4. Conclusions - The regeneration of ACFs with supercritical fluids is a highly effective method that allows
them to fully recover their adsorption capacity in very short treatment periods.

5. References
[1] F. Salvador, N. Martin-Sanchez, R. Sanchez-Hernandez, M. J. Sanchez-Montero, C. Izquierdo,
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2014.02.045.

6. Acknowledgements
Financial support from the Ministerio de Economa y Competitividad (Project CTQ2012-30909) and
Anticipos Fondos FEDER is acknowledged.

0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
A
b
s
o
r
b
a
n
c
e

(
u
.
a
.
)
Time (min)
1th Saturation
2 Saturacin
3 Saturacin
4 Saturacin
Figure 1
1
th
Saturation
2
th
Saturation
3
th
Saturation
4
th
Saturation

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[98]
Effect of treatment with supercritical fluids on the surface chemistry of
activated carbon fibers

M.J. Snchez Montero, N. Martn Snchez, C. Izquierdo Misiego, J. Pelaz Fernndez, F.
Salvador Palacios


Dpto .Qumica Fsica. Fac Ciencias Qumicas. Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)
+34923294478. chusan@usal.es

1. Introduction Owing to their catalytic properties, adsorbent carbonaceous materials, and activated carbon
fibers (ACFs) in particular, have generated considerable interest among researchers [1, 2]. In general, the
surface chemistry of adsorbent carbonaceous materials depends on the presence of heteroatoms such as
oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorous, etc. on their surface, which form functional groups there. These
functional groups on the surface of fibers can act as active or adsorption sites and are thus considered as being
responsible the catalytic activity of the fibers.
The possibility of changing the surface chemistry of carbonaceous materials has led to the appearance of
different modification procedures, which can be classified as oxidative heat treatments and treatments
designed to introduce heteroatoms other than oxygen.
In the present work we study the modification of the surface chemistry of ACFs using supercritical water and
CO2. This is a novel process for obtaining markedly basic ACFs. The scarcity of methods for the preparation
of these fibers and the ability to control their level of basicity mean that its applications, especially in the area
of catalysis, seem to be very promising.

2. Experimental - The modification of fibers with supercritical fluids was carried out in an installation built
specifically for the purpose. It basically consists of a tubular flow reactor that contains a bed with the ACF to
be used. A thermocouple measures the bed temperature . The reactor is placed horizontally inside an oven
that has a fan to ensure homogeneous temperatures and facilitate heat transfer to the reactor. The temperature
inside the oven and inside the reactor is controlled by a controller/programmer. Water and CO2 are driven
through the reactor by a piston pump able to provide the working pressure. The effluent current is cooled by
a coolant before it is discharged through a control valve that maintains the desired pressure throughout the
system.
To observe the effects of the modification treatment the following were carried out (i) pH measurements
using the pH at the point of zero charge method, pHPZC; (ii) determination of oxygenated surface groups by
TPD and (iii) measurements of the adsorption capacity in solution (breakpoint curves).

3. Results and Discussion - The results show that treatments of ACFs with supercritical water and CO2
modify their acid-base character. In general, increases in temperature, pressure and treatment time afford
more basic ACFs and hence by controlling these variables it is possible to obtain ACFs with different pH
values. These findings suggest that supercritical water and CO2 mainly eliminate the surface oxygenated
groups of an acid nature and this elimination is favoured by the increase in temperature.

4. Conclusions - The possibility of modifying the surface chemistry of ACFs with supercritical fluids by
changing the acid/base level in a controlled and precise way allows their catalytic potential to be optimized.

5. References
[1] Pereira MFR, rfo JJM, Figueiredo JL. Carbon 40, (2002) p.2393
[2] Sousa JPS, Pereira MFR., Figueiredo JL. Catal Today 176 (2011) p.383.

6. Acknowledgements
Financial support from the Ministerio de Economa y Competitividad (Project CTQ2012-30909) and
Anticipos Fondos FEDER is acknowledged.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[99]
Plasma-assisted decomposition of atrazine traces in water

P. Vanraes
(1)
, A. Nikiforov
(1)
, E. Vyhnankova
(2)
, M. Subrt
(3)
, F. Krma
(2)
, M. Vvrov
(3)
, P. Surmont
(4)
, F. Lynen
(4)
, N. Daels
(5)(6)
, K. De Clerck
(5)
, S.W.H. Van Hulle
(6)
, J.
Vandamme
(7)
, J. Van Durme
(7)
, C. Leys
(1)



(1) Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent,
Belgium
Tel.: +3292643823. E-mail: patrick.vanraes@ugent.be
(2) Institute of Physical and Applied Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, Purkyova 118,
Brno 612 00, Czech Republic
(3) Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection, Brno University of
Technology, Purkynova 118, Brno 61200, Czech Republic
(4) Separation Science Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan
281 S4-bis, 9000 Gent, Belgium
(5) Department of Textiles, Ghent University, Technologiepark 907, 9052 Zwijnaarde, Belgium
(6) Department of Industrial Biological Sciences, Ghent University, Graaf Karel de Goedelaan 5,
8500 Kortrijk, Belgium
(7) Research Group Molecular Odor Chemistry, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems
(M2S), KU Leuven, Technology Campus, Gebroeders De Smetstraat 1, 9000 Ghent, Belgium

1. Introduction Many organic pollutants are known to be hazardous in relatively small concentrations, to
humans, animals, aquatic life, the global ecosystem or a combination thereof. The efficiency of modern
wastewater treatment plants to remove or decompose the persistent contaminants is too low, causing these
types of micropollution to find their way into surface water, ground water and drinking water [1]. More
efficient and cheap advanced oxidation processes need to be developed in order to address this global issue.
Plasma discharge in contact with water is a promising technique, since it generates highly reactive plasma
species near or in the water solution [2].

2. Experimental - In our experiments, atrazine, a persistent and hazardous pesticide, is chosen as a model
micropollutant for decomposition in different reactors, based on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) discharge
or diaphragm discharge. Its by-products and the energy yield of its degradation are determined by means of
GC-MS and HPLC-MS. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone measurements are performed to characterize the
reactors for specific experimental configurations. The different reactors are compared with each other and
with reactors mentioned in literature on efficiency.

3. Results and Discussion Adding a nanofiber membrane underneath the water surface in our pulsed DBD
reactor doubles the energy yield of atrazine decomposition. This means that adsorption of the micropollutant
on the membrane near the active plasma enhances the decomposition process. We developed another DBD
reactor with a wastewater electrode where ozone produced in plasma is recycled by bubbling it through the
wastewater volume. As our experiments show, this extra ozonation process increases the reactor efficiency
significantly.

4. Conclusions Plasma discharge is a promising technique for decomposition of micropollution in
wastewater. DBD plasma reactors with a water electrode can be further optimized by adding a nanofiber
membrane underneath the water surface and by recycling the produced ozone for extra ozonation.

5. References
[1] M. Kck-Schulmeyer, M. Villagrasa, M. Lpez de Alda, R. Cspedes-Snchez, F. Ventura, and D.
Barcel, Sci. Total Environ. 458460 (2013) pages 466476.
[2] M. Kurahashi, S. Katsura, and A. Mizuno, J. Electrostat. 42 (1997) pages 93105.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[100]
Comparison of various wastewater treatments for colour removal of
reactive dye baths

V. Lpez-Grimau, M. Vilaseca, C. Gutirrez-Bouzn


Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona Tech, Colom, 11 08221 Terrassa (Spain)
+34 93 739 73 16; victor.lopez-grimau@upc.edu


1. Introduction The generation of high coloured wastewater is one of the main environmental problems of
the textile industry. Reactive dyes are widely used in the dyeing of cellulosic fibres since they offer high
washing fastness and brilliant colours. In opposite, these dyes have a low degree of exhaustion and fixation,
from 70% to 90%. The unfixed dye cannot be reused, as it is hydrolysed and unable to be covalently fixed to
cellulosic fibres. The degradation of residual dyes by conventional biological treatment is very poor, being
necessary the application of specific treatments to remove colour [1]. In these work three different methods
the removal of two reactive dyes were compared: electrochemical oxido-reduction, enzymatic treatment and
physic-chemical precipitation using a natural coagulant. The influence of pH and dye hydrolysis on the
decolourisation yield was studied. The effect of high salt concentration was also evaluated, as reactive dye
effluents are characterised by their high salinity.

2. Experimental Simulated dyebaths were prepared at 0.1 g/L dye concentration. The selected reactive
dyes were C.I. Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and C.I. Reactive Red 231 (RR231) with reactive groups
vinylsulphone and monochlorotriazine, respectively. Dye hydrolysis was carried out by boiling solutions at
pH 12 and 20 g/L of NaCl were added to dye solutions. Decolourisation tests were carried out at pH 5 and 9.
Electrochemical treatments were performed with Ti/PtOx electrodes. Lacasse from Ascomycetes
Mycelophtora Thermophila was selected for the enzymatic treatments. Moringa oleifera was used as natural
coagulant in physicochemical treatments.

3. Results and Discussion As can be seen in Table I, the electrochemical treatment is the most efficient
with colour removal yield (95-100%). The coagulation with Moringa oleifera also achieves high colour
removal efficiency (91-94%). Enzymatic treatment provides good colour removal yield for RR231 (92-93%)
whereas for RB5 the efficiency is highly dependent on dye hydrolysis (61-90%), which can probably be
attributed to the effect of the vinylsulfone reactive group on the enzyme activity.
In addition, results of electrochemical and Moringa oleifera treatments are almost independent on pH whereas
in the case of the enzymatic treatment, the pH should be carefully controlled (pH buffered at 5).


4. Conclusions Both electrochemical and Moringa oleifera treatments are very efficient to remove colour
of industrial effluents containing reactive dyes, as their yield has shown to be independent on pH range and
dye hydrolysis conditions. The enzymatic treatment at pH 5 is also suitable to remove triazine dyes. In the
case of vinylsulfone dyes, this treatment shows a marked dependence on dye hydrolysis, being moderately
efficient for the hydrolysed dye and highly efficient without hydrolysis.

Acknowledgements The authors thanks the Spanish Ministry of Economy (MINECO) for its financial
support (Project CTM2012-31461).

5. References
[1] V. Lpez-Grimau, C. Gutirrez-Bouzn, Dyeing Processes, Techniques and Applications. Nova
publishers (2014) p. 205-215.
Table I. Colour removal yield (%) of the different treatments.
Dye
Electrochemical Moringa Oleifera Coagulation Enzymatic
Hydrolysed Not hydrolysed Hydrolysed Not hydrolysed Hydrolysed Not hydrolysed
pH 5 pH 9 pH 5 pH 9 pH 5 pH 9 pH 5 pH 9 pH 5 pH 5
RB5 95 96 96 96 91 91 94 92 61 90
RR231 98 100 99 100 93 92 93 94 92 93






International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[101]
Evaluation of iron-modified diatomite as catalyst
for catalytic ozonation of wastewaters

W. Garca
(1)
, J.E. Duran
(1)
(1)
School of Chemical Engineering, University of Costa Rica, San Jos, Costa Rica
Phone number: (506) 2511-5431, email: esteban.duranherrera@ucr.ac.cr

1. Introduction
Ozonation has been widely used as an advanced oxidation process in wastewater treatment due to the high
oxidizing power of ozone. However, ozone reacts preferably with specific functional groups (amines,
nucleophilic positions, double bonds), which leads to partial oxidation and it is difficult to achieve total
mineralization of organic contaminants [1]. Catalytic ozonation uses homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts
to increase the production of hydroxyl radical in the reaction medium. These radicals increase the rate of
degradation of the contaminant compounds, improving the efficiency of this advanced oxidation process with
respect to the typical ozonation process. Our research group developed a heterogeneous catalyst impregnating
diatomite (Celite) with iron and it showed promising results in heterogeneous Fenton processes [2] leaving
open the possibility to further characterize it in other advanced oxidation processes such as catalytic
ozonation. In this paper, the performance of this iron-modified diatomite for catalytic ozonation applications
was evaluated at different pHs, catalyst concentration, and various reuse cycles.

2. Experimental
CI Reactive Red 191 textile dye was utilized as model pollutant and it was spectrophotometrically quantified.
Ozonation and catalytic ozonation of the textile dye were performed at different pHs (4, 7 and 10). Also, the
effect of catalyst concentration in the system (0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50 and 2.00 g/L) was determined at best
performing pH. To evaluate the contribution of ozone indirect reactions, runs were carried out in the presence
of tert-butanol (TBA), a known hydroxyl radical scavenger. To measure the degree of mineralization achieved
in the catalytic process, COD variation under the optimal working conditions found in the previous
evaluations was monitored. Finally, the performance of the catalyst in 4 consecutive reuse cycles was studied,
including iron leachate measurements.

3. Results and Discussion
The highest degradation of the model contaminant during the ozonation process was obtained at pH=10. This
was expected, since ozone forms OH radicals under basic conditions. In contrast, the catalytic process
utilizing the iron-modified diatomite (1 g/L) showed its best performance at pH=4. Under these conditions,
after 3 min of catalytic ozonation, the textile dye was degraded 60%, while the ozonation process achieved
35% only. The performance of the catalytic process at pH=4 was even better than that showed by the
ozonation process at pH=10 (44% of pollutant degradation). The catalyst concentration that provided the best
degradation efficiency at pH=4 was 2 g/L. Under these conditions, the pollutant degradation increased to 70
% after 3 minutes of operation, and just after 12 minutes of reaction, the degradation was more than 95%.
The addition of 100 mg/L of TBA reduced the dye degradation to 44% after 3 minutes of reaction; this
confirms the generation of hydroxyl radicals by the catalyst. Also, after four cycles of reuse, the modified
diatomite did not present any sign of catalytic deactivation.

4. Conclusions
The use of the developed catalyst increases the degradation efficiency relative to non-catalytic process due
to the generation of hydroxyl radicals, even at low pH. Best operating conditions were found at pH 4 and 2
g/L of catalyst concentration. The obtained performance characteristics, in addition to the non-appreciable
deactivation, make this iron-modified diatomite a promising catalyst to be employed in catalytic ozonation
wastewater treatment applications.

5. References
[1] F.J. Beltran (2004). Ozone reaction kinetics for water and waste water systems. New York: CRC Press.
[2] J.E. Duran, A. Araya & S. Arguedas (2013). Iron-modified diatomite as heterogeneous Fenton catalyst
for water treatment. Proceedings of the IOA and IUVA World Congress, Sept. 22-26, Las Vegas, USA


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[102]
Photo-degradation of oxytetracycline as a way of remediation of
aquaculture's water

J. Leal
(1)
, E. B. H. Santos
(2)
, V. I. Esteves


(1)
Department of Chemistry and CESAM Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies,
University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.
Telef.: +351 914702130; joanaleal@ua.pt

1. Introduction Water quality is a question which causes a big concern for both scientific community and
industries. The goal of this work is apply the photo-degradation process, using sunlight, as a way of
remediation of organic contaminants in aquacultures water.
Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad spectrum antibiotic adopted for treatment and control of a wide variety of
bacterial infections. Its use in aquaculture is allowed in almost all countries of European Union but its effects
on water, fish and the environment, through effluent discharge, is still little studied and explored. Due to its
molecular structure (Image 1), the behaviour and fate of OTC on aquatic
environment is affected by several environmental factors. The effects of
some of these factors pH, salinity, humic matter on photo-degradation
were studied in this work. Additionally, the OTC photo-degradation was
tested in real aquacultures water samples. The results suggest that the rate
constant of OTC photo-degradation in real water samples is higher than
in distilled water and that the individual factors studied significantly affect
the OTC photolysis.

2. Experimental - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride was provided by Sigma Aldrich. Humic substances were
isolated from river Vouga water (Carvoeiro, Portugal). A simulator of solar radiation, the Solarbox 1500
(Co.fo.me.gra, Italy) equipped with a 1500 W arc xenon lamp, 550 W/m
2
was used to the irradiation
experiments. Quantitative analysis was made by HPLC-UV, using a New ACE C18 column-PFP and the
detection was done at 350 nm. The mobile phase was acetonitrile and water acidified to pH 2 with formic
acid (20:80). All irradiated solutions were prepared in water, with an OTC concentration of 4 mg/L.
Aquacultures water samples were spiked with OTC. Irradiation experiments were made in quartz tubes.

3. Results and Discussion - OTC is a zwitterionic molecule and exists in a neutral and positively charged
form at pH 4 and negatively charged at pH 9. The pH strongly influences the photolysis through alteration of
protonation state of molecule as well as of the absorbance spectrum. The photo-degradation of OTC seems
to be promoted in the negative form (high pH values) because negatively charged OTC molecules present a
high electrical density on the ring system and tend to attract reactive species like HO which facilitate OTC
photolysis [1]. The studies performed in different conditions of salinity suggest that the OTC photo-
degradation is enhanced for high salinity values, which can be caused by the interaction of ions in the OTC
photolysis mechanism. Aquatic humic substances (HS) are the main constituents of organic matter and their
presence in water can promote or delay the photo-degradation of organic contaminants. The studies
performed with OTC showed a delay on OTC photo-degradation in the presence of aquatic HS (humic acids,
fulvic acids and XAD-4 fraction). The delay observed is predominantly explained by the light-screening
effect caused by the humic matter. In the irradiation experiments with aquacultures water samples (spiked
with OTC 4 mg/L), the OTC photo-degradation was higher than in distilled water,which can be a consequence
of the interaction of several natural factors.

4. Conclusions The photo-degradation as way of remediation of aquacultures water seems to be a
promising methodology by the significant increase observed on OTC photo-degradation in real water
samples. Based on results attained, higher values of pH and salinity in the natural waters tested seems to
promote the OTC photo-degradation when compared with photo-degradation in distilled water, while the
presence of HS suggest the delay on OTC photo-degradation.

5. References
[1] S.J. Jiao, S.R. Meng, D.Q. Yin, L.H. Wang, L.Y. Chen, J. Environ. Sci., 20 (2008) p.806-813.

Image 1. Oxytetacycline structure

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[103]

Shewhart-type Control Charts and Functional Data Analysis for
Water Quality Analysis based on a Global Indicator
C. Iglesias
(1)
, J. Sancho
(2)
, J.I. Pieiro
(1)
, J. Martnez
(2)
, J.J. Pastor
(2)
, J. del Valle
(2)
,
J. Taboada
(1)


(1)
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering, University of Vigo, 36310
Vigo, Spain.
+34 986814092, carlaiglesias@uvigo.es
Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Academia General Militar, 50090 Zaragoza, Spain.


1. Introduction - This work studies the variability of a Global Indicator for Water Quality (ICA) in the Ebro River
by using two methods: Functional Data Analysis (FDA) and Shewhart-type control charts (STCC) for Statistical
Control Process (SPC). FDA is a method successfully used in the detection of outliers in different studies of
environmental parameters [1-2], sometimes having many and obvious advantages over SPC method [3]. The
studied ICA [4] is based on the four levels of water quality for human consumption set by law based on further
treatment [5]: A1 (simple physical treatment and disinfection), A2 (normal physical, chemical treatment and
disinfection), A3 (intensive, extended physical and chemical treatment and disinfection) and +A3 (A3 plus an
improved treatment). The fact that calculated ICA is based on a European Directive, which has been repealed by
Directive 2000/60/EC, does not affect its purpose, since the proposed methodology is valid for any index definition
for water quality monitoring. This paper focuses on data collected in 2008 in El Bocal station, point of great interest,
because the quality of the water directly affects the drinking water of the city of Zaragoza. For details on the AFD
and SPC methodology, the reader is referred to the work of [6] and [7] respectively.


Xbar-S Chart of ICA
2. Results and Discussion - Results using STCC (Image 1) reflect


M
e
a
n

75

1

UCL=72,44
causes of specific variation, that may be deleted if it is identified,


70
in May, July and October. Year 2008 was anomalous from the


__


S
a
m
p
le
65

X=64,34
60
point of view of the current flows through the Ebro river due to

55
1
LCL=56,24
1
heavy spring rains, which explain the high flow rates for the

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Sample
S
tD
e
v

20,0

UCL=20,46
months of May and June, and the celebration of the International

17,5
_
Expo in Zaragoza, which motivated the maintenance (by artificial

S
a
m
p
le
15,0 S=14,66
12,5
means) of flow rates higher than the usual during the summer


10,0
LCL=8,86

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
months. Both facts may account for these quality index values

Sample
Image 1. STTC for 2008 ICA being outside the normal range during May and July. October


values may be explained by the first rains of autumn falls after a very dry summer. In the case study, no
functional outlier was detected.

3. Conclusions - Shewhart-type Control Charts can be used successfully in the search and elimination of
outliers in water quality analysis based on global indicators.

4. References
[1] J. Sancho, J. Martnez, J. Pastor, J. Taboada, J. I. Pieiro, and P. J. Garca-Nieto, New methodology to
determine air quality in urban areas based on runs rules for functional data, Atmos. Env., 83, pp. 185
192, Feb. 2014.
[2] C. Daz Muiz, P. J. Garca-Nieto, J. R. Alonso Fernndez, J. Martnez Torres, and J. Taboada, Detection
of outliers in water quality monitoring samples using functional data analysis in San Esteban estuary
(Northern Spain), Sci. Total Environ., 439, pp. 5461, Nov. 2012.
[3] J. Sancho, J. Pastor, J. Martnez, and M. A. Garca, Evaluation of Harmonic Variability in Electrical
Power Systems through Statistical Control of Quality and Functional Data Analysis, Procedia Eng., 63,
pp. 295302, Jan. 2013.
[4] E. Beamonte, J. Bermdez, A. Casino, and E. Veres, Un indicador global para la calidad del agua 2003.
[5] Council Directive 75/440/EEC of 16 June 1975 Concerning the Quality Required of Surface Water
Intended for the Abstraction of Drinking Water in the Member States. 1975.
[6] B. W. Silverman and J. O. Ramsay, Functional Data Analysis, 2005.
[7] D. C. Montgomery, Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers 5th Edition.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[104]


NEGEVS PROJECT.
Pedro Villaras Lpez
IES Pravia 9043782 pedrovillarias@hotmail.com
1. Introduction- The human race faces a two pronged attack to her well being in the short term and
to her survival as an advanced civilization in the long run, namely, the climatic change and a
shortage of food , related with the former problem and with the population growth. To cope with
this two connected menaces I propose the use of the huge reserves of oceans water coupled with
the vast desert lands of the planet. I propose some ideas to use the heat of the desert in our favor
like a huge distillery. I suggest the Negev desert as the most favorable place on Earth to begin with.
The water will flow from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea without energy cost. The same reason makes
the Quattara depression in Egypt another very favorable place
2. Experimental- I have made only a very limited experimental prototypes and I lack of any
quantitative data therefore the objective of my presentation will be to call other people with better
equipment and resources to work in them. The full text shows some theoretical designs (seven).
Here is one of them based in a real model.
5.References.
[1] Bahadori, M. N.Sistemas pasivos de refrigeracin en la arquitectura iran. (spanish edition
of Scientific American) n19 Abril 1978, pages 92-99
[2] Parker,Andrew et al. Water capture by a desert beetle. Nature.vol 414.November
2001.pages 33-34
[3] Seely,Mary K.Fog basking by the Namib desert beetle Onymacris unguicularis. Nature vol
262.July 22. 1976.page 284


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[105]
Zinc removal from aqueous solution by perlite and chitosan dispersed
perlite

A.Elmas
(1)
, P. Demircivi
(2)
, G. Nasun-Saygili
(3)

(1)(2)(3)
Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical
Engineering Department, 34469, +90 5356095750, aycaelmas@gmail.com

Introduction Zinc is an essential micronutrient for plants, animals and humans; on the other hand, it is a
pollutant. Zinc is released into the aquatic environment through several industrial activities, such as mining,
metal coating, battery production and also ceramic, wood, fabric, drug, sun blocks and deodorant industry.
Human exposure to these heavy metals at significant levels can cause serious health effects. Accumulated
zinc at human body can lead to health problems as metal-fume fever, nausea, diarrhoea, depression,
lethargy, and neurological signs, such asseizures and ataxia [13]. Consequently, removal of zinc from
wastewater is necessary to ensure adequately treated effluent quality for various uses. The permissible ion
concentration level in drinking water as set by World Health Organization (WHO) is 5 mg/L for zinc.
In this study, perlite and chitosan dispersed perlite were used as the adsorbent. Perlite is a naturally occurring
dense glassy volcanic rock which includes mainly fused sodium potassium aluminium silicate (greater than
70%) and 35% water. Silanol groups can form on the perlite surface providing various adsorption properties.
Chitosan, poly(D-glucosamine), is obtained by deacetylation of chitin. Chitosan is a natural biopolymer,
hydrophilic, and has the ability to form complexes with metals. It is also a non-toxic, biodegradable and
biocompatible material. It contains primary amino groups, which are useful for chemical modifications [4].
In this study, batch studies were performed to investigate the effects of various experimental parameters on
zinc removal such as pH, initial zinc concentration, contact time, adsorbent ratio. Equilibrium isotherms of
batch system were also analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Redushkevich isotherm
models.
2. Experimental -In this study, chitosan was dispersed on perlite to enhance the accessibility of OH and
amine groups for adsorption of zinc ions. Chitosan coated perlite was prepared as spherical beads. Batch
studies were performed to investigate the effects of various experimental parameters on zinc removal. From
0.5g/L to 12.5 g/L perlit and chitosan dispersed perlite were used as adsorbent to find the optimum zinc
removal. Contact time experiments were run between 3-72 h. pH experiments were run between pH 4-10. To
obtain the adsorption isotherms, initial zinc solution concentration was changed between 0.005-0.04 M. Zinc
concentrations were measured by spectrophotometer (Jenway 6305 UV Spectrophotometer) according to
zincon method.
3. Results and Discussion Adsorption capacity of perlite was found %54 according to zincon method. 72
h end-over-end shaking was enough to reach the adsorption equilibrium. The maximum zinc adsorption was
occurred at pH 7.5-8.0. Whereas with chitosan dispersed perlite, zinc was adsorbed at the range of %78 and
zinc adsorption with chitosan dispersed perlite was reached maximum at pH =5.5-6. Zinc adsorption isotherm
was obtained by changing the initial zinc concentration. Temkin isotherm model was fitted well with
experimental parameters for both of the adsorbents. Maximum zinc uptake was found 1197 mg/L and 1941
mg/L for perlite and chitosan dispersed perlite, respectively.
4. Conclusions Maximum zinc removal was observed in the presence of chitosan dispersed perlite. Temkin
isotherm model described well zinc removal on the both perlite and chitosan dispersed perlite single layer
zinc adsorption. Chitosan coated perlite was showed higher zinc adsorption compared with perlite.
5. References
[1] P.N. Cheremisinoff, Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Technology, Marcel Dekker Inc,
New York, 1995.
[2] T. Zoumis, W. Calmano, U. Forstner, Demobilization of heavy metals from mine wastewaters, Acta
Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 28 (2000) 212218.
[3] A. Dimirkou, Uptake of Zn
2+
ions by a fully iron-exchanged clinoptilolite. Case study of heavily
contaminated drinking water samples, Water Res. 41 (2007) 27632773.
[4]T. Tomida, K. Inagawa, S. Masuda, Chem. Lett (1991) 1253.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[106]
Boron removal from aqueous solution by vermiculite in the presence of
gallic acid

P. Demircivi
(1)
, G. Nasun-Saygili
(2)

(1)
Yalova University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical and Process Enginering, 77100, +90
2268155409, pelindemircivi@gmail.com

(2)
Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical
Engineering Department, 34469, +90 2268155409, pelindemircivi@gmail.com

1. Introduction Boron exists in nature as boric acid and boron salts. It is an important micronitruent for
plants; however it can be harmful, if the concentration exceeds limitations. Boron concentration for irrigation
water is 0.3-4 mg/L depending on the sensitivity of the plant [1]. According to World Health Organization
(WHO) boron concentration in drinking water is 0.5 mg/L [2]. Depending on the industrial activities waste
waters includes boron at high concentrations. Therefore, removal of boron from waste water has an important
role for environmental protection.
In this study, vermiculite was used as the adsorbent and Gallic acid was used as adsorption agent. Vermiculite
has high exchange capacity with 2:1 cyristalline structure, in each cell layer structure, the middle layer is an
Al-O(OH) octahedral layer, the upper and lower layers being a silicon-oxygen tetrahedron layer [3]. Batch
studies were performed to investigate the effects of various experimental parameters on boron removal such
as pH, initial boron concentration, contact time and inert electrolyte. Equilibrium isotherms of batch system
were also analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models.

2. Experimental - Vemiculite used in the experiments was supplied from Agrekal Agricultural Company
and particle size was 1mm. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of vermiculite was determined by the sodium
acetate method. Batch studies were performed to investigate the effects of various experimental parameters
on boron removal. From 2.5 to 100 mmol/L HDTMA concentrations were used to find the optimum HDTMA
concentration for boron removal. Contact time experiments were run between 2-24 h. pH experiments were
run between 2-12. To obtain the adsorption isotherms, initial boron solution concentration was changed
between 50-8000 ppm. At last, 0.5 and 1M NaCl were used as inert electrolytes. Boron concentrations were
measured by spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV Spektrophotometer UV-1800) according to curcumine
method.

3. Results and Discussion - Cation exchange capacity of vermiculite clay was found 49.43 meq/100g
according to sodium acetate method. 25 mmol/L Gallic acid concentration and 2 hours end-over-end shaking
was enough to reach the adsorption equilibrium. The maximum boron uptake was occurred at pH 7.5-8.5. In
basic medium, boric acid converted to its anionic form, borate ion (B(OH)4
-
). Boron adsorption isotherm was
obtained by changing the initial boron concentration and it was found that increasing the initial boron
concentration resulted with an increase of boron adsorption until it reached to a plateau. Langmuir isotherm
model was fitted well with experimental parameters and the maximum boron uptake was found 303.03 mg/g.
It was observed that inert electrolyte did not show any significant effect on boron adsorption.

4. Conclusions Maximum boron removal in the presence of Gallic acid was observed in basic medium.
Langmuir isotherm model described well boron removal on vermiculite in the presence of Gallic acid and
single layer boron adsorption occurred on vermiculite clay. Maximum adsorption capacity of vermiculite was
found 303.03 mg/g. Gallic acid was used as a new adsorption agent for boron removal.
5. References
[1] R.Nable, G. Banuelos, J. Paull, B. Dell, P.H. Brown, Boron Toxicity, Boron in Soils and Plants: Reviews,
Kluwer Academic Publisher, The Netherlands, (1997) p. 181
[2] WHO, 2008. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, third ed., World Health Organization, Geneva,
Switzerland.
[3] L. Chmielarz, , P. Kutrowski, Z. Piwowarska, B. Dudek, B. Gil, M. Michalik, M., Montmorillonite,
Vermiculite and Saponite Based Porous Clay Heterostructures Modified with Transition Metals as
Catalysts for the DeNOx Process, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 88, (2009) 331-340.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[107]
Studies on Reduction of Water Consumption in the Production of
Biodiesel

Angela M. Rocha
(1)
,

Fabio M. Fernandes
(2)
, Marcelo Santana Silva
(3)
,
Ednildo A. Torres
(4)
, Victor Magalhes Duarte
(5)
ngela Maria Ferreira Lima
(6)
,
Manuel Jose Saltarin
(7)


(1)
Corresponding author: Email: profmarceloifba@gmail.com

(1)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)
Federal University of Bahia (UFBA)
Postal Address: CIEnAm - Interdisciplinary Center for Energy and Environment - Federal
University of Bahia (UFBA). Rua Aristides Novis, n. 2, 3rd Floor, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
(2)
State University of Bahia (UNEB)

1. Introduction - Climate changes and energy insecurity have contributed to an increasing demand for
biofuels, including biodiesel. However, despite the advantages in using it, a large volume of water is required
in its production [1] [2].
In the current scenario of water scarcity, increasing overall water demand and uncertainty about the
impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle, become mandatory new technologies, strategies and
practices that ensure the optimization of water use in biodiesel production [3] [4].
This paper presents an analysis study for the reduction of water use in the production of biodiesel
from soybean oil in steps of oil extraction, production, purification and quality control.

2. Methodology - The methodology was based on bibliographic references, technical studies and reports of
workbench analysis in biodiesel samples[5].

3. Results and Discussion - The tests reported in the literature were performed with 5 pairs of samples of
soybean biodiesel obtained by transesterification by methylic and ethylic routes, having sodium hydroxide
(NaOH) as the catalyst. The same procedures were applied for each pair, being one with water recirculating
and the other one without recirculation.

4. Conclusions - It is possible to reduce the amount of water involved in the production of biodiesel. The
processes of purification of biodiesel by the use of adsorbents have the advantage of reduced effluent and
thus water reducing. Several other factors influence the water consumption for the production of soybean
biodiesel such as the pH of the washing water and neutralization, residence time of neutral and acidic water;
the catalyst used, the water reuse. The recirculation flow also influences the water consumption in the
production, indicating that the optimal flow is 10% of the biodiesel volume.


5. References
[1] Demirbas A. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections. Energy
conversion and management, 49(8), (2008), p. 2106.

[2] Dabdoub, M.; Bronzel, J. Biodiesel: viso crtica do status atual e perspectivas na academia e na
indstria. Quimica. Nova, 32 (3) (2009), p.776-79

[3] Faccini, C.S. Uso de adsorventes na purificao de biodiesel de leo de soja. Dissertao de Mestrado.
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Instituto de Qumica. Programa de Ps-Graduao em
Qumica. 2008

[4] Geris R. Biodiesel de Soja - Reao de Transesterificao para Aulas Prticas de Qumica Orgnica.
Qumica. Nova, 30(5) (2007) p. 505-515

[5] Quintella, C. M. et al. Cadeia do biodiesel da bancada indstria: uma viso geral com prospeco de
tarefas e oportunidades para P&D&I. Qumica Nova, 32(10) (2009), p. 793-808

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[108]

Water desalination by capacitive deionization with porous structured
carbon foam electrodes

P.F. Rocha , L.M. Goncalves

(1)
University of Minho, Algoritmi Centre, Guimares, Portugal.
+351 253510190 email:a58742@alunos.uminho.pt

1. Introduction Porous carbon electrodes and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) electrodes have significant
potential for energy-efficient water desalination with capacitive deionization (CDI) techniques [1]. However,
most of the implemented solutions requires a four step process, water is pumped in, salts adsorbed, water is
renewed, and or salt ions are desorbed. A simple and portable equipment is pretended and this cycling process
requires extra energy and extra functions in the CDI process. In this work, CDI is tested with porous carbon
foam electrodes. Desalination efficiency and energetic efficiency are compared for different voltage/current
across electrodes and different time for adsorption and desorption. The results will be used in the fabrication
of a continuous flow, self-powered desalination unit.

2. Experimental / Results The square carbon
electrodes were fabricated with Duocel foam, 45
pores per inch, with surface area of 3300 m
2
/m
3

(3% density) from ERG Aerospace Corporation,
thickness of 5 mm and area of 1.3x10
3
mm
2
. The
electrodes are separated 5 mm, and partially
immersed in 5 ml of DI (deionized) water, with 3
to 30 g of NaCl salt dissolved. Constant voltage
from 800 mV to 1600 mV was applied during
adsorption process and 0 V applied during
desorption. Figure 2 presents salt removal and
energetic efficiencies
for NaCl concentrations of 2 g/ml and 6 g/ml. Figure 1 Current and conductivity measured during four CDI cycles
2 g/ml
6 g/ml















Figure 1. Salt removal efficiency and energy used for applied voltages from 800mV to 1600 mV. The NaCl concentration was 2
g/ml and 6g/ml, respectively on the left graph and right graph.

4. Conclusions -.Carbon porous foam was applied in CDI desalination process. Voltage of 1200 mV
presented the higher desalination efficiency, however, lower voltages presented higher energy efficiency.

5. References
[1] Porada, S., et al. "Review on the science and technology of water desalination by capacitive
deionization." Progress in Materials Science 58.8 (2013): 1388-1442.
Acknowledgments - This work has been supported by FCT Fundao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia within the Project Scope: PEst-
OE/EEI/UI0319/2014.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[109]
Aerobic biodegradability of winery effluents from the
Vinho Verde region (Portugal)

Antnio Pirra
(1)
e Antnio Oliveira
(2)



(1)
Centro de Qumica - Vila Real, Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD,
5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal. +351259350755, apirra@utad.pt
(2)
Direo Regional de Agricultura e Pescas do Norte. Delegao Basto-Douro. Parque
Florestal 4600-206, Amarante, Portugal. vianaoliveira@drapn.mamaot.pt


1. Introduction - Winery effluents (WEs) are agro-industrial wastewaters, with about 10 to 100 times more
polluting load than urban effluents [1]. The production of 1000 L of wine causes an average pollution load
that is equivalent to the one produced by 100 people [2]. In the Minho region there are about 250 000 m
3
of
WEs produced each year. Their treatment is possible by aerobic biological processes (activated sludge-AS ),
that reduces the pollutant load in relation to Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS
) and pH. In this work it was determined the most suitable pollutant load (as volumetric load-VL) for the AS
treatment process. Additionally, the influence of the pH adjustment and the addition of the macronutrients
nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to raw wastewater were also studied, aiming to improve this WEs
treatability.

2. Experimental The operating conditions for the AS reactors were defined regarding the biomass content
(as VSS L
-1
) and VL (as g COD L
-1
day
-1
) applied. Previous experiments established 2 g L
- 1
VSS
concentration as the optimal biomass content in the reactor. VL2, VL3 and VL4 load modes, were also
defined which correspond, respectively to 2, 3 and 4 g COD L
-1
day
-1
. Two different experiments were made
from the Vinho Verde region: one using the effluent without correction (NC) and the other using the effluent
with correction (C) (pH correction, N and P addition). Each of the two experiments were monitored along 2
consecutive months, increasing progressively the loads as defined before, until steady state is reached for
each load. All the analyses were made according to APHA Standards (1998).

3. Results and Discussion - An analysis of the VL removed values of as a function of VL applied in both
experiments shows more efficient results when the effluent is corrected in terms of pH, and nutrients (Fig.1),
particularly for 2-3 g COD L
-1
day
-1
VL applied. Higher VL seems to crash the system. In the other hand, for
values lower than 2 g COD L
-1
day
-1
VL applied, the effluent correction seems not to be justified, considering
that both the obtained values for pH (7.1) either for COD removal (93 %) are similar to the ones without
corrections.
4. Conclusions - The AS process was effective
for WEs COD removal EVs originated in the
Minho region , leading to about 2.3 g COD L
-1

day
-1
VL removed for 3 g COD L
-1
day
-1
VL
applied. The best results correspond to around
96% COD removal rates, for VL applied until 3
g COD L
-1
day
-1
, with of pH and nutrients
correction. The treated effluent showed a of 210
mg L
-1
residual COD, 170 mg L
- 1
TSS and pH
6.8, which is ready to distribute in a water
course after a finishing polishing treatment.

Figure 1 VL applied vs VL removed



5. References [1] Pirra, A. Characterization and treatment of winery effluents from Douro Region. PhD
Thesis, Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal. 296 p., 2005 (in Portuguese).
[2] Brito, A. [et al.] - Brewery and winery wastewater treatment: some focal points of design and operation:
Springer US, 2007.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[110]
Winery effluents treatment in Portugal:
an uncomfortable overview

Antnio Pirra
(1)
e Antnio Oliveira
(2)



(1)
Centro de Qumica - Vila Real, Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD,
5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal. +351259350755, apirra@utad.pt
(2)
Direo Regional de Agricultura e Pescas do Norte. Delegao Basto-Douro. Parque
Florestal 4600-206, Amarante, Portugal. vianaoliveira@drapn.mamaot.pt

1. Introduction - Modern viticulture has been definitively connected to heritage, cultural and ecological
values, and therefore should adjust their practices in order to limit their negative environmental impacts.
Changes in production processes, recovery of byproducts and treatment of Winery Effluents (WE) are
important the aspects that modern wineries should implement, in order to be eco-efficient and in accordance
to law requirements. Those aspects become even more important in wineries in relation to other industries,
because they produce and reject effluents that represent a serious environmental problem, due to its
composition, volume, and organic loads associated. WEs are agro-industrial wastewaters, with about 10 to
100 times more polluting load than urban effluents [1]. The production of 1000 L of wine causes an average
pollution load that is equivalent to the one produced by 100 people [2].
Nowadays, knowledge and technology can significantly reduce the environmental impacts associated with
the wine activity. However, the complete and generalized use of these tools is reduced. The effluents produced
in portugal affect watersheds from the local and national rivers, most of them considered as fishing waters.
Some of its tributaries are even classified as watersheds for salmonids, which are particularly vulnerable
ecosystems.

2. Discussion - Portugal as about 238,000 ha of vines, and a correspondent wine production of 6,500,000 hL
in 2010. In the 2005/06 campaign there were registered more than 61,680 winemaking agents [3]. Despite
the acknowledge that WEs are causing serious environmental problems associated with the high pollutant
load imbalance in nutrients, acid pH and high content of phenolic compounds and seasonality of production,
there is no official information about the quantity or destiny of the majority of the WE volume produced in
this region. We can estimate that in Portugal this activity originates annually around 2,000,000 m
3
of WEs.
An official inquire made by a governmental agency held in 2004 for analyze of compliance with
environmental regulations, made to the most representative companies in the wine industry in Portugal,
revealed that only 2 companies (1%) comply with all environmental requirements. Another inquire held in
2005, revealed that the few wastewater treatment plants located in the wineries, face serious operating
problems and suffer from poor technical support.

3. Conclusions - From several reports consulted, and from the results presented above, we can conclude that
only 12% of the total Wineries producing more than 1000 hL of wine in Portugal were legally authorized to
discharge their respective WE, and only 7% had the necessary license to discharge them in watersheds (Fig
1) [5]. We can estimate that, the effective implementation of UE effluents regulations in this area would result
in the creation of 400,000 new jobs and an
annual saving of around 72 billion [4].

Figure 1 - Number of wineries (production > 1000
hL) and their situation regarding environment

4. References [1] Pirra, A. Characterization and
treatment of winery effluents from Douro Region. PhD Thesis, Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real,
Portugal. 296 p., 2005 (in portuguese).
[2] Brito, A. [et al.] - Brewery and winery wastewater treatment: some focal points of design and operation, US, 2007
[3].Ministrio da Agricultura do Desenvolvimento Rural e das Pescas / Instituto da Vinha e do Vinho, I.P.- A Produo
de vinho em Portugal. Factos & Nmeros n 1: 2009.
[4]. Diretiva Quadro gua [online]. [Consult. 12 set. 2012]. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/index_en.htm
[5]. MAOTDR/MADRP. Estratgia Nacional para os Efluentes Agro-Pecurios e Agro-Industriais. 1 Edio, 2007.

475 Units with production> 1000 hL
55 (12%) Authorization to reject WEs
33 (7%) License to reject WEs into watersheds

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[111]
Removal of Cr(III) from aqueous solutions by activated carbons
prepared from agricultural wastes. I.-Kinetics.

A. Idriss-Bah
(1)
, M. Stitou
(2)
, E. M. Cuerda-Correa
(1)
, C. Fernndez-Gonzlez
(1)
, A.
Macas-Garca
(3)
, M. F. Alexandre-Franco
(1)
, V. Gmez Serrano
(1)


(1)
Departamento de Qumica Orgnica e Inorgnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de
Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, ES06006-Badajoz, Spain.
+34-924289300 Extn 8612; emcc@unex.es

(2)
Departement de Chemie, Universit Abdelmalek Esaadi, Tetouan, Morocco.

(3)
Departamento de Ingeniera Mecnica, Energtica y de los Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieras
Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, ES06006-Badajoz, Spain.

1. Introduction A great variety of versatile adsorbents are used at present for the removal of pollutants
from wastewater. Silica gel, alumina, activated carbons and synthetic exchange resins are among the most
widely used adsorbents [1]. Although small amounts of chromium are essential for human life, many Cr
species are well-known carcinogens and extremely toxic. Consequently, the removal of chromium
compounds from wastewater is a topic of current concern. In this work, a series of six carbonaceous
adsorbents prepared from olive- and fig-tree woods have been tested as potential adsorbents of trivalent
chromium. The kinetic aspects of the process are reported here.

2. Experimental Six activated carbons prepared from olive- and fig-tree woody residues have been used
as adsorbents for the removal of trivalent Cr from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents exhibit values of SBET
ranging from 296 up to 2030 m
2
g
-1
. For the kinetic experiments a fixed amount of adsorbent was kept in
contact with Cr(NO3)3 9H2O solutions having an initial concentration equal to 4 10
-3
M. Aliquots were
extracted at pre-set time intervals and the concentration of Cr(III) in the supernatant liquid was determined
by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The experiments were performed at 25, 35 and 45C in order to
analyze the influence of temperature on the adsorption kinetics of Cr(III).

3. Results and Discussion As an example, the C vs. t plots obtained for the removal of Cr(III) by sample
O-3 at different temperatures are shown in Figure 1. The
experimental data obtained as described above were fitted to
the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle
diffusion and Bangham models. As a rule, the data fit better to
the pseudo-second order model than to the pseudo-first order
one. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics is not conditioned
by intra-particle diffusion phenomena. Diffusion inside the
pores also influences the adsorption rate to a very limited
extent.
The activation thermodynamic functions of the adsorption
process have been calculated by applying an Arrhenius-like
activation enthalpy (
material used in the preparation of the adsorbents.

4. Conclusions Six activated carbons prepared from agroindustrial wastes (namely, olive- and fig-tree
woods resulting from the trimming processes of both trees) have been used as adsorbents for the removal of
trivalent chromium from aqueous solution with promising results. The experimental data fit reasonably well
to the pseudo-second order kinetic model.

5. References
[1] H. Huang, Q. Song, W. Wang, S. Wu and J. Dai, J. Environ. Manage., 101, (2012) p. 68.

Time (h)
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
p
p
m
)
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
T = 25C
T = 35C
T = 45C
Figure 1. Adsorption kinetics of Cr(III) by sample O-3.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[112]
Removal of Cr(III) from aqueous solutions by activated carbons
prepared from agricultural wastes. II.-Equilibrium and themodynamics.

A. Idriss-Bah
(1)
, M. Stitou
(2)
, E. M. Cuerda-Correa
(1)
, C. Fernndez-Gonzlez
(1)
, A.
Macas-Garca
(3)
, M. F. Alexandre-Franco
(1)
, V. Gmez Serrano
(1)


(1)
Departamento de Qumica Orgnica e Inorgnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de
Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, ES06006-Badajoz, Spain.
+34-924289300 Extn 8612; emcc@unex.es

(2)
Departement de Chemie, Universit Abdelmalek Esaadi, Tetouan, Morocco.

(3)
Departamento de Ingeniera Mecnica, Energtica y de los Materiales, Escuela de Ingenieras
Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, ES06006-Badajoz, Spain.

1. Introduction Olive tree (Olea europaea, L) has been cultivated for centuries in areas of Europe, Northern
Africa, Australia and South America. Common fig-tree (Ficus carica, L) is widely known for its edible fruit
throughout its natural distribution area in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern region, and northern India,
and also in other areas of the World with a similar climate. In the conditioning tasks of both trees large
amounts of a woody residue are generated. Hence, attractive alternatives to valorize these by-products are
economically interesting. One of such alternatives is the preparation of activated carbons to be used as
potential adsorbents of pollutants in aqueous solution. In this connection, although small amounts of
chromium are essential for human life, many Cr species are well-known carcinogens and extremely toxic. In
this work, a series of six carbonaceous adsorbents prepared from olive- and fig-tree woods have been tested
for the removal of trivalent chromium. The equilibrium and thermodynamic aspects of the process are
reported here.

2. Experimental Six activated carbons prepared from olive- and fig-tree woody residues have been used
as adsorbents for the removal of trivalent Cr from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents exhibit values of SBET
ranging from 296 up to 2030 m
2
g
-1
. For the kinetic experiments a fixed amount of adsorbent was kept in
contact with Cr(NO3)3 9H2O solutions having an initial concentration equal to 4 10
-3
M. Aliquots were
extracted once the equilibration time was elapsed and the concentration of Cr(III) in the supernatant liquid
was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The experiments were performed at 25, 35 and
45C in order to analyze the influence of temperature on the adsorption kinetics of Cr(III).

3. Results and Discussion As an example, the q vs. C0/Ce
plots obtained for the removal of Cr(III) by sample H-1 at
different temperatures are shown in Figure 1. The
experimental data obtained as described above have been
fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The results
suggest that the adsorbent-adsorbate interactions are
relatively weak. The standard average thermodynamic
functions of the process have been calculated. According to
their values, the process can be regarded as exothermal,
exoentropic and spontaneous in nature. The values of the
differential thermodynamic functions calculated from the
Claussius-Clapeyron equations reveal a very low affinity of
the adsorbent towards the solvent. The adsorption of Cr(III) takes place with desolvation of the metal species.

4. Conclusions The activated carbons prepared from olive- and fig-tree woods have been used as adsorbents
for the removal of Cr(III) from aqueous solution with promising results. The experimental data fit well to the
Langmuir model. Up to 496 mg of Cr(III) can be removed per gram of activated carbon.

C
e
/C
0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
q
e

(
m
g

g
-
1
)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
T = 25C
T = 35C
T = 45C
Figure 1. Adsorption isotherms of Cr(III) by sample H-1.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[113]
Motion System Design Activated Sludge Treatment Sludge Lixiviates
lvaro Chvez Porras
1
Felipe Pinzon
2
Angela Grijalba
3

1
Industrial Engineer; Assistant Professor; Doctor in Civil Engineering; PIT Group Leader - Production, Innovation and Technology,
Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogot DC Colombia. alvaro.chavez@unimilitar.edu.co, (+ (571) 6500000)
2
Engineer Geographer; Associate Professor; PhD Environmental Technologies; PIT Group Leader - Production, Innovation and
Technology, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogot DC Colombia. Luis.Pinzon@unimilitar.edu.co
3
Environmental and Sanitary Engineering, University of La Salle, Bogota, Colombia; Group Production Assistant Researcher,
Innovation and Technology-PIT, Industrial Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering - Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogot
DC angela.grijalbac@gmail.com
Humans have tried to manage municipal solid waste - MSW resulting from human activities in final disposal
sites. Currently landfills , open dumps before , have been a tech solution in the nineteenth century ; where
burial was a way to mitigate the problem ; generating "Environmental Sustainability " with the " Reduce,
Reuse and Recycle" , as the main objective. These systems generate by-products in liquid and gaseous state
due to the degradation processes of organic matter , which require treatments to minimize the pollution load.
The leachate is treated with biological systems. In landfill disposal in cells which have systems for leachate
collection , which are then taken to a treatment plant wastewater in which sludge containing a highly polluting
remaining heavy metals are generated ago.
2

In the Latin American case, the Doa Juana Landfill - RSDJ, Bogot DC, Colombia, which provides MSW
6 municipalities , with an average of 5891.8 t / day and which capital district provides 5880.0 . t / day of total
2014 leachate samples collected from the former cells ie with more than 5 years, compared with the newest
results reflected the RSDJ basic character having an average pH of 8.35 ; an electrical conductivity of 20.63
mS / cm , as for the other parameters predominant Cl -2697 mg / l sulfate 613.4 mg / l , among the major
cations include the predominance of Cr ( VI) and Hg ( II ) ( 0.75 and 0.11 mg / l ) versus nitronium 45.5 mg/l.
Therefore, it is a highly mineralized leached . Given that organic , inorganic and pathogenic contaminants
present in leachate concentrations are above the established local environmental laws , gives this type of
waste a characteristic highly dangerous .
Therefore the implementation of a system arises Activated Sludge - SLA, by Secuencial Bach Reactor - SBR.
Pilot Study SBR which is a tank containing aerobic sludge settling properties optimal designing. RBC
operation is based on the self-regulating activity of the microorganisms that break down organic material.
Such microbial groups together symbiotic relationships set high metabolic efficiency in the form of granules
whose density allows them to settle. The activated sludge in the SBR remain without additional support.
There is evidence that treatment of leachate from landfills is a difficult problem to solve. This statement may
help explain the large number of technologies and research that have been conducted around the issue. In
general it can be said that there is still much room for innovation. However, this solution may be given when
a clear politics of waste management is established, from production, processing, transportation and final
disposition.
3

The benefits of implementing an activated sludge system are high organic load removal, effluent optimum
organoleptic characteristics, stable processes when sludge is properly managed, these sitemas are
characterized by the limited space that requires installation, getting mineralization organic matter, chemical
oxidation, reduction persistent organic compounds and versatility because their parameters can be controlled.
Research is needed in the search for alternative solutions to decrease the concentration of ammonia nitrogen
and Heavy Metals possibly being the cause of inhibitions in the process of efficient treatment of leachate.

2
AFONSO, M.L.C.; PAWLOWSKY, U. & PATZA M. da G.: "Tratabiliodade dos Despejos de Laticnios por Lodos Ativados em
Batelada", 27 Congresso Interamericano de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, 2001
3
Zapata, A. Un mtodo de gestin ambiental de lixiviados mediante una biobarrera secuencial. Tesis de Maestra. Universidad
Nacional Medelln, Colombia. 2012.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[114]
Statistical analysis of total dissolved solids and turbidity of streams from
Membrane Bio-Electro-Reactor for Municipal Wastewater Treatment

Adewale Giwa (1), Shadi Hasan (2
)

(1) (2)
Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
+97128109333 and agiwa@masdar.ac.ae, swajih@masdar.ac.ae


Abstract As population is increasing in most parts of the world coupled with rise in industrial activities
and agriculture production, the use of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation, district cooling and industrial
applications is increasing at an alarming rate. Therefore, there is need to devise alternative treatment
procedures for water production and ensure that the produced water meets the quality required for the desired
application. Wastewater treatment for potable and non-potable uses is becoming increasingly important
because of the need to reduce depletion of fresh water resources and mitigate the scarcity of water. Many
wastewater treatment technologies have been used in the past and new methods are currently being devised.
The activated sludge process (ASP) is the conventional treatment approach and this method involves the use
of microorganisms to remove the wastes such as organic matter in the wastewater [1-3]. The use of ASPs has
also found applications in the biological removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and metals in domestic, commercial
and industrial wastewater [4-6]. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, which consists of a semi-
permeable membrane added to the conventional biological treatment to aid filtration of water and retention
of biomass in the treatment reactor, is another applied technique for reclamation of wastewater [7-11].
Wastewater treatment through the use of MBRs has been shown to offer comparative advantages over
conventional activated sludge systems. Since MBRs allow the retention of microorganisms or biomass in the
treatment reactor, MBRs have the benefits of higher concentration of biological species in the reactor for
treatment [12] and better treated effluent quality [13]. The membrane in the MBR can be submerged inside
the reactor or used externally in side stream applications. The submerged MBR, in particular, offers the
advantages of low energy consumption [14]; low pumping costs, small environmental footprint, and feed-
forward control of oxygen demand [15]. However, in order to determine the quality of effluent and
characteristics of wastewater in wastewater treatment, a lot of components need to be determined leading to
high cost of operation and complexity of quality measurement. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the
predicaments associated with measurements by studying some lumped components and the individual
components on which they are dependent. In this study, non-mechanistic models were used to describe these
composite components and properties such as total dissolved solids (TDS) and turbidity because of the huge
complexity that normally results from attempts to use differential equations to obtain their removal from
wastewater. Since these components and properties are functions of a pool of other substances and properties
in the mixed liquor, it is highly necessary to find out which components are more sensitive to these lumped
components. In this paper, the dependence of TDS and turbidity of influent and effluent on the other system
properties in a wastewater treatment system was investigated. This provided opportunity to obtain the values
of these properties and variables of concern from other system variables; instead of duplicating laboratory
tests. TDS and turbidity are important water quality indicators, particularly for the effluent, because these
properties provide a firsthand face-value assessment of the quality of the produced water in terms of the
dissolved solids present and appearance. Some studies had been carried out in the past to find the relationship
between the properties of wastewater and treated effluent in order to reduce measurement constraints and
provide adequate basis for recommending treated water for different applications [16-17]. However, there are
limited literatures linking TDS and turbidity with other wastewater treatment systems properties. The
statistical analysis of total suspended solids (TSS) was also carried out in this paper to determine the
properties on which TSS is mostly dependent upon. The system used in this study is the membrane bio-
electro-reactor (MBER), a system which combines biological degradation, membrane filtration and
electrocoagulation of the pollutants in wastewater in a hybrid set-up.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[115]
Application of water treatment sludge for producing concrete floor
F. Arajo
(1)
, P. Scalize
(2)
, A. Albuquerque
(3)
, J. Lima
(4)
, F. Lima
(5)


(1)
Sanitation Company of Gois, Av. Fued Sebba, N1245, Jardim Gois, Goinia, GO, Brazil.
+5562 3243-3546, email: fcaraujo40@gmail.com
(2)
University Federal of Gois, Av. Universitria, 1488, Goinia, GO, Brazil.
(3
University of Beira Interior, Edificio 2 das Engenharias, 6201-001 Covilh, Portugal
(4)
Sanitation Company of Gois, Av. Fued Sebba, N1245, Goinia, GO, Brazil.
(5)
Escola de Agronomia, Samambaia, Rodovia Goinia/Nova Veneza, Goinia, GO, Brasil

1- Introduction - Water treatment sludge (WTS) is classified as solid waste
by most of the international regulations, as well as in Brazil [1], where the
most common disposal practice is its release on water streams. However,
there are several useful alternatives for WTS disposal and management,
such us its use for the production of building materials. WTS was applied
for the production of concrete (between 4% and 8% of the total moisture),
and have obtained mechanical compressive strength greater than 27 MPa
[3]. Therefore, the objective was to use WTS as sand substitute in different
proportions for the producing concrete floor.

2- Experimental - The
study was carried out
with the WTS
generated in at the
WTP, located at the
city of Goiania (Gois,
Brazil), which uses
aluminium sulphate as
the primary coagulant. Interlocked floor samples were produced according to the normative definitions [2]
(Image 1). Therefore, different samples were produced for WTS proportions of 0% (control), 5%, 10%, 15%,
20% and 25% (Table 1). The quality of the pavers was checked at the EEC-UFG labs (UFG, Goinia, Brazil),
namely through testing of compressive strength and water absorption, according to the methods established
in the standard [2].

3- Results and discussion - In the tests after 28 days of curing time, it was noticed that the insertion of the
WTS in the floors has decreased the mechanical tensile strength as the proportion of sludge has been
increased. The samples with 5% of sludge, the resistance has increased compared to the control. The water
absorption of the samples was below the maximum of 6% setup by the standard [2]. The lower values were
obtained for the samples with 0% and 5% of sludge, with 7.9 and 8.0%, respectively.

4- Conclusions - This study allowed concluding that the WTS can be used for concrete artefacts
manufacturing, replacing sand. The sample with 5% of sludge has showed 33.5% higher mechanical strength
than that obtained in the sample without sludge, but for higher percentages of sludge, the mechanical
resistance has decreased. None of the samples has reached the minimum breaking tensile required by
standards for concrete with up to 28 days, neither the water absorption standard value for 14 days of curing
time was reached. Therefore, according to Brazilian standards, the samples used in this study cannot be used
for flooring that has vehicle traffic. However, it can use in paving sidewalks for pedestrians, which requires
less effort.

5- References
[1] ABNT (2004): NBR 10004: Solid waste Classification. RJ.
[2] ABNT (2013): NBR 9781: Concrete paving units Specification and test methods. RJ.
[3] HOPPEN, Cinthya et al.(2006). The use of centrifuged sludge from a water treatment plant (WTP) in
portland cement concrete matrices for reducing the environmental impact. Qum. Nova, So Paulo, v.29, n.1,
Feb.


Image 1. Concrete floor with WTS
Table 1 Consume of materials for the different samples.
Sample WTS (%) Cement (Kg) WTS (Kg) Sand (Kg) Rubble (Kg) Water use (L)
1 0 29.36 0.00 110.45 36.36 3.0
2 5 29.36 8.81 101.64 36.36 4.0
3 10 29.36 17.62 92.83 36.36 6.5
4 15 29.36 26.43 84.02 36.36 8.0
5 20 29.36 35.24 75.21 36.36 10.0
6 25 29.36 44.05 66.40 36.36 12.0




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[116]
Program Operational Improvements and Physical Facilities of Water
Treatment Plants . Case Study: WTP Pirenpolis Gois

D. Paula
(1)
, E. Caixeta
(2)
, C. Oliveira
(3)
, P. Scalize
(4)
, A. Albuquerque
(5)


(1)
Sanitation Company of Gois, Av. Fued Sebba, N1245, Jardim Gois, Goinia, GO, Brazil.
+5562 3243-3562, email: deborapauladmb@hotmail.com
(2,3)
Sanitation Company of Gois, Av. Fued Sebba, N1245, Jardim Gois, Goinia, GO, Brazil.
(4)
University Federal of Gois, Av. Universitria, 1488, Goinia, GO, Brazil.
(5)
Calada Fonte do Lameiro, Edificio 2 das Engenharias, 6201-001 Covilh, Portugal.

1- Introduction - The Program Operational Improvements and Physical Facilities
of Water Treatment Plants, optimization of activities aimed at improving the quality
of work carried out in water treatment, both in operational issues such as the
implementation of new technologies and suitability of the WTP physical structure.
As proposed case study, WTP Pirenpolis, is located 120 km from the state capital
of Gois Goinia (Image I), with conventional treatment with ascendent filter
(Russian filter) system to treat 105 L s
-1
of capacity.

2- Experimental - Through the program requirements developed by a
multidisciplinary team of professionals of Company, such as architects, engineers,
technicians, biologists, biochemists and others, showed up the points for
improvement, use of appropriate building materials and compliance standards and
ordinances relevant. The actions taken were: the replacement of the fluosilicic acid
by the hydro-saturator system; digital weighing chlorine, automated sample
collection, measurement macro facility, installation of safety equipment and
accessibility (1), emergency lighting, registration maneuver with independent drive.
Use of appropriate building materials. The Image 2 illustrates the WTP before
improvements.

3- Results and discussion - The result of the use of fluoride hydro-saturator brought quality and operator
safety as the system applies the fluoride in the water at the correct concentration (2). The digital readout of
chlorine in ETA prevents accidents because the employee does not need to have direct contact with the
product, the automated collection of water in nature, filtered and treated with direct arrival in the laboratory
as well as Macro-measurement of raw and treated water improves the speed collections and readings as well
as the drive with the appropriate registry keys glimpsed different and independent professionals. The
improved results of the water treatment was verified with a set of actions in the recovery and repair of existing
pathologies providing better compliance with the Ordinances of potability.
The images 3 to 6 illustrate the WTP after improvements.
4- Conclusions - The reform of WTP Pirenpolis brought evolution in working conditions of employees,
procedures for optimized water treatment and the possibility of technical visits by schoolchildren and
community, offering comfort and safety. Thus with enhancement and new technical used, intent to readjust
the Administrative Rules and Norms, was to improve the quality of treated water.

5- References
(1) ABNT (2004): NBR 9050: Accessibility to buildings, furniture, equipment and urban spaces. RJ.
(2) MS ADMINISTRATIVE RULE N 2914 December 2011.
Image 1. Location of the
study area Gois city.
(Wikipedia)

Image 2. WTP before
improvement


Image 3. WTP after improvement. Image 4. Russian filter system Image 5. The new Laboratory Image 6. Fluoride Hydro-saturator

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[117]
Image 1 Dyeing Machine Denim

Characterization of effluent from jeans industry (indigo) in each stage
of the textile processing and possible treatments
Kesia K. O. S. Silva
(1)
, Luiz P. Brito
(2)
, Anaxmandro P. Silva
(3)


Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte - Campus Universitrio CT DET Av.
Salgado Filho, 3000 - Lagoa Nova - Natal RN -Brazil Zip Code: 59078-970
Mobile: +55 84 81094277 - kesiasouto@hotmail.com

1. Introduction The great diversity of the textile industries activities causes the formation of wastewaters with
high complex characteristics during the productive process, according to the industrial process used. Waste from
textile industries have low levels of degradation, so could pollute the water sources in which they come into contact,
they have characteristics of being persistent in the environment. The dye used in the production of denim (indigo),
classified as Vat Dyes, produces effluent of intense colors and difficult to treat, because of the presence of a keto
group (C = O), which are essentially insoluble in water. The principal aim of the present work is the characterization
of the textile wastewater
in the production of denim (indigo), to know the contaminante load in each
stage of the textile processing, to indicate the possible treatments and
reutilizations/recyclings.

2. Experimental In the experimental phase were defined six sampling
points in the production process of the textile processing (image 1): P1 -
water supply; P2 washing box; P3 dyeing box; P4 - pre-wetting and sizing
box; P5 - softening box; P6 - entry of effluent treatment plant. The
monitoring period was 6 months every 15 days. The procedures for
collection, preservation and characterization of the samples were
according to Standard Methods (APHA-AWWA-WPCF, 2000). It was analyzed the following properties and
pollutants agents: temperature; pH; alcalinity; color; COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand); total and suspended
solids; heavy metals, thermotolerants coliformes, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity.

3. Results and Discussion - The results of characterization demonstrate that there is a high load contaminante
in textile effluent proveniente from dyeing with corante indigo (image 2). The highest values of the
parameters monitored by point were: pH (P2) = 11.87; temperature (P4) = 52.44; alkalinity (P2) = 1105.20
mg CaCO3; Total Solids (P5) = 384.21 mg/L; turbidity (P3) = 5310 NTU; COD (P5) =
3081.73 mg/L; electrical conductivity (P3) = 14.66 mS/cm;
dissolved oxygen (P1) = 5, 05mg/L; color (P3) = 1798.55
mgPtCO/L and the significant presence of metals monitored in P6.
The conventional treatments of eflluents do not always apply to
sector textile. In this sense, the Advanced Oxidation Processes
(AOPs) have a best perspective to treat them. They are processes
with potential to produce hydroxyl radicals (OH), highly
oxidizing species, capable of mineralizing the organic matter. Image 2 Indigo dyeing eflluent

4. Conclusions - As a subsidy for the treatment of effluents from the jeans industry, according with the
characterization, main suggestions: by membrane filtration, photocalalysis, enzymatic biodegradation,
recovery of indigo blue by electroflocculation, others treatments. The correct adoption of measures of
treatment, reuse and recycling, by the characterization of environmental contaminants produced at each stage
of textile processing, becomes possible to minimize the consumption of raw materials, water and energy in
textile industrial precessos, promoting the preservation of the environment.

5. References
[1] Silva, K. K. O. S. Characterization of liquid effluent in the process dyeing with textile indigo.
Dissertation (20107). UFRN Brazil.
[2] A. Solmaz, A. Birul, E. Ustun and Y. Tasdemir. Colour and COD removal from textile effluent by
coagulation and advanced oxidation process. Coloration Technology, 122, (2006), p.102-109.
[3] Metcalf & Eddy; Wastewater Engineering, Treatment, Disposal, Reuse. Ed. McGraw Hill, Third Ed.,
1991.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[118]
UV-TiO2-H2O2 Process for Parabens
Degradation: Optimizing the System

M.J. Muoz
(1)
, J.R. Domnguez
(1)
, P. Palo
(1)
T. Gonzlez
(1)
, J. Beltrn de Heredia
(1)
,
E.M. Cuerda-Correa
(2)
, J.A. Peres


(1) Department of Chemical Engineering and Physical Chemistry. Avda. De Elvas, s/n.
Faculty of Science. 06071 Badajoz (Spain)
(2) Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry. Faculty of Science. 06071 Badajoz
(Spain)

1. Introduction Parabens are some of the most relevant emerging pollutants nowadays. Advanced oxidation
processes are feasible methods for combating this emerging pollution. Among them, UV-TiO2-H2O2 have
been found to be very effective in the removal of organic pollutants [1]. This work presents the results
obtained from the photodegradation with UV, titanium dioxide and hydrogen peroxide of parabens
(methylparaben, ethylparaben, prophylparaben and buthylparaben). The application of statistical design of
experiments (DOE) was used to study the influence of two operating variables: hydrogen peroxide and
titanium dioxide initial concentration. A design of experiments procedure has been carried out in order to
optimize the process as well as to study the interactions existing between the two variables under study.

2. Experimental The reactor used in the photochemical experiments of the photodegradation consisted of
a glass vessel with an external jacket surrounding the reactor, and a water stream was pumped from a
thermostatic bath in order to maintain the temperature constant in each experiment (20C) . For these
photodegradation experiments, a low pressure vapor mercury lamp which emitted monochromatic radiation
at 254 nm was used. For every experiment conducted, the reactor was filled with 350 ml of aqueous solution
parabens (5 ppm each one) with the selected initial TiO2 and H2O2 concentration.

3. Results and Discussion - The design of experiments (DOE) was used to study the influence of the different
operating variables to average removal of the four parabens. The H2O2 concentration was found to be the
most important variable conditioning the removal efficiency, followed by TiO2 concentration (Image 1). The
ANOVA test reported significance for 5 of the 5 involved
variables. The response surface methodology (RSM) technique
was used to optimize parabens degradation. The optimum value
of the two variables are in one corner of the study region, means
that there is no an optimum value of the variable in that range.
You can only talk about the trend or influence of these variables
Studio. After 30 minutes reaction, parabens have disappeared.

4. Conclusions UV-TiO2-H2O2 as an advanced oxidation
process is a feasible and reliable process for eliminating parabens compounds from water and wastewater
effluents. The application of statistical design of experiments (DOE) has been used to analyze the influence
or the operation conditions on the photooxidation of parabens by UV irradiation in the presence of TiO2 and
H2O2.

5. References
[1] J. Rivera, M. Snchez, M.A. Ferro, G. Prados, R. Ocampo, Chemosphere, 93 (2013) p. 1268.




Image 1. Pareto graphic: standarized effects.








Image 1.
Image 1.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[119]
Optimization of the UV-H2O2 Oxidation of parabens

M.J. Muoz
(1)
, J.R. Domnguez
(1)
, P. Palo
(1)
T. Gonzlez
(1)
, J. Beltrn de Heredia
(1)
,
E.M. Cuerda-Correa
(2)
, J.A. Peres
(1) Department of Chemical Engineering and Physical Chemistry. Avda. De Elvas, s/n. Faculty of
Science. 06071 Badajoz (Spain)
(2) Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry. Faculty of Science. 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

1. Introduction Parabens are some of the most relevant emerging pollutants nowadays. Advanced
oxidation processes are feasible methods for combating this emerging pollution. Among them, ultraviolet
(UV) have been found to be very effective in the removal of organic pollutants [1]. Strong oxidizing species,
principally hydroxyl radicals, are generated from ozone or hydrogen peroxide in the presence of UV light [2].
Hydroxyl radical is powerful oxidizing specie that exhibits an oxidation potential of 2.80 V. Important
advantages of hydroxyl radicals with respect to many other oxidants are its scare selectivity. This work
presents the results obtained from the photodegradation with hydrogen peroxide of parabens. The application
of statistical design of experiments (DOE) was used to study the influence of two operating variables:
hydrogen peroxide initial concentration and solution temperature (T).

2. Experimental - All experiments were performed in a cylindrical glass reactor. Basically, the
reactor is equipped with a radiation lamp in axial position and a quartz sleeve which houses the
lamp. This is a low presure mercury lamp, with emits a monochromatic radiation at 254 nm. The
photodegradatin experiments were performed by bubbling air into the reaction liquid, in order to
maintain stirred the whol e solution. An external jacket surronding the reactor maintained the
selected temperature in each experiment. For every experiment conducted, the reactor was filled
with 350 ml of aqueous solution parabens (5 ppm each one) with the selected initial H2O2
concentration.

3. Results and Discussion - The design of experiments (DOE) was used to study the influence of
the different operating variables to average removal of the four parabens (methylparaben,
ethylparaben, prophylparaben and buthylparaben). The hydrogen peroxide initial concentration is
the factor most influential, has a possitive effect and
more intense in the removing of compounds. The other
less influential factor on the target variable is the
temperature, it has a positive effect on this variable
(Image 1). Under optimal conditions (hydrogen
peroxide concentration=1.47910
-3
molL
-1
, T= 36C)
total parabens degradation was achieved. The surface
plot is the most important graphical representation in the
RSM. Within his region the studied response is
represented by a convex surface. After 30 minutes reaction, parabens have disappeared.

4. Conclusions - The application of statistical design of experiments (DOE) has been used to analyze the
influence or the operation conditions on the photooxidation of parabens by UV irradiation in the presence of
hydrogen peroxide. H2O2 initial concentration exerts the most significant influence among the studied
variable. This suggests that the degradation takes place thorough a hydroxyl radical-induced
mechanism.

5. References
[1] Y. Deng, J. Environ. Waste Management., 4, (2009) p. 366.
[2] T. Kurniawan, WH. Lo, J. Chem. Eng., 125, (2006) p.35.




Image 1. Pareto graphic: standarized effects.










International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[120]

[1] Lucas, M. J., Noreen, R. A., Sutherland, L. C., Cole III, J. E., and Junger, C. M., 1997. Handbook of the acoustic characteristics of
turbomachinery cavities. ASME.
Acoustic Characteristics of a Hydraulic Pump and Noise Reduction due
to Pump-Circuit Interaction

Jens Keller, Eduardo Blanco, Ral Barrio, Beatriz de Pedro Palomar, Jorge Parrondo

(1)
Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Gijn, Gijn, 33204,
Spain Tel.: 0034 985 18 26 61, kellerjens@uniovi.es

1. Introduction - Centrifugal pumps force the circulation of the fluid, while supplying energy to it, by
means of a bladed rotor. They have to be reliable and have to operate with low vibration levels even at
off-design conditions. The passing of the blades in front of the volute tongue leads to acoustic waves which
are radiated at the blade-passing frequency (fBP) and harmonics into the hydraulic circuit and are
travelling at the speed of sound. The acoustic waves are reflected at different elements of the circuit [1].
The amplitude of the fBP fluctuations depends, besides the pump geometry and the operating point, on the
acoustic coupling of the circuit with the pump. Fast-response pressure transducers placed at the pump volute
were used in order to study this effect.

2. Experimental setup - A hydraulic facility (see Fig. 1) was used in order to study
the influence of the acoustic impedance of the circuit on the pressure fluctuations. Its

main components are a water tank, polycarbonate (PC) pipes and a centrifugal pump.

A dead-end branch situated at the discharge side was filled partially with water up to

0.5 m and the remaining part of 1.0 m with air. It could be activated by means of a

valve (V3) situated close to the bifurcation. Five pressure transducers placed at the
Figure 1. Hydraulic circuit
centrifugal pump in the tongue region allowed monitoring the pressure fluctuations in



detail.


[3] Pressure signals at pump volute - The flow-rate investigated corresponds
to 40%QN, with the valve of the dead-end branch open and with the pump
running at 625 rpm. The averaged time signals for the different pressure
transducers at the pump are presented in Fig. 2. The averaged time signals were
obtained by the use of a trigger signal to overlap the individual time signals, so
that the averaged time signals contain only components at the pump rotation
frequency fR and harmonics, with the main component being the fBP. The second
highest peak is situated at the second harmonic (2 fBP).

[4] Results of influence of acoustic impedance- The acoustic characteristics of
the circuit on the pressure fluctuations were investigated. The impedance was
changed by adjusting the pump rotational speed. It was also changed by
activating a vertical dead-end branch situated at the discharge pipe (see Fig. 1).
The pressure fluctuation amplitudes at fBP for each sensor, normalized by the
dynamic pressure referred to the blade tip speed, are shown in Fig. 3. A trend of
increasing amplitude for increasing frequency can be observed, although the
pressure amplitudes were normalized. Between 45 Hz and 55 Hz this trend is
reduced and even inverted for some sensors. For sensors 2 and 3, situated in the
narrow channel of the volute, with the valve closed, the amplitude of pressure
fluctuations drops between 45 Hz and 50 Hz.

[5] Conclusions - The effective sound radiation and propagation mainly takes
place at fBP and not 2 fBP, even though there is an important pressure component
at 2 fBP in the tongue region. The pressure fluctuations can be easily influenced
by activating a dead-end branch without changing the pump operating point.









Figure 2. Averaged pressure
time signals at pump



















Figure 3. Influence of dead-end
branch on amplitude at fBP


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[121]

AREA 2
WASTE


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[122]
ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF
PASSION FRUIT SEED OIL (Passiflora setacea e Passiflora alata)
Paula, Regina Cssia Mattos de
(1)
; Pimentel, Caroline Guilherme
(1)
; Gomes,
Antnio
(2)
, Freitas, Suely Pereira
(1)
.
(1)
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Av. Athos da Silveira Ribeiro, 164 bloco I Cidade
Universitria Ilha do Fundo Rio de Janeiro RJ Brasil.
+(55)219965-62423 reginacassiamattos@yahoo.com.br
(2 )
Embrapa Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisas Agropecurias- Av. das Amricas,29501Guaratiba RJ

1.Introduction - The use of seed by-products from fruit process has contributed to increase the supply
of vegetable oils rich in bioactive compounds regarding consolidated cosmetics and functional foods.
This study evaluated the extraction effect on the yield and quality of passion fruit seed oil from P.
alata and P. setacea species. The oxidative stability and antioxidant content of the samples were
monitored during storage at 20 1 C at different water activities (Aw).
2.Experimental - The sample was submitted to air drying at 50
o
C. The oil extraction was performed by
cold pressing and under heating (55 5
o
C) in screw speller. For comparative purpose, the oil was also
extracted using anhydrous ethanol as solvent. The oil antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH
method (radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidrazilo). The oxidative stability measurement was conducted by
using the Rancimat method at 110 C using air flow at 20L/h. The oils samples were stored during 15,
30, 45 and 60 days at 20 1 C at different and controlled air activity, distilled water (1.00) and
supersaturated saline solutions: NaCl (Aw = 0.75) and LiCl (Aw = 0.09). Fisher test, at p<0.05, were
used for data comparison.
3.Results and Discussion - The best experimental condition showed an extraction efficiency of 97%
compared to ether extract value carried out by Soxhlet (33 g/100 g). As compared with pressed oil, the
ethanol-based oil showed a higher antioxidant activity, indicating that this solvent transfers to the extract
the phenolic compounds present in the seeds. P. setacea oil presented higher antioxidant activity (IC50
range 6054 to 7347) and higher induction period (7.12 to 7.14 h) as compared with P. alata oil,
respectively15880 to 19591 and 6.12 to 6.15 h. In the Figure1 IC50 mean values, obtained from P. setacea
oil at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of
storage are shown. The best conditions
were reached for oil samples stored in
the presence of saturated NaCl solution
(Aw=0.75). Thus, at high water activity,
about 1.0, the antioxidants compounds
have been damaged.
For oxidative stability, it can be
observed that the oil stored in the
presence of saturated NaCl solution
(Aw=0.75) showed a lower degradation
rate of the bioactive compounds as
compared with oil stored at Aw=1. The
P. setacea oil presented higher
antioxidant activity and induction period as compared with P. alata oil. Therefore higher antioxidant
contents can promote a higher oxidative stability for oils with similar fatty acids composition.
4. Conclusions: The passion seed oils extracted with ethanol presented an antioxidant capacity similar
to olive oil, IC50 2057g oil/g DPPH. The P. setacea showed higher antioxidant capacity then P. alata,
indicating its greater potential in natural products formulation. Regarding bioactive compounds
preservation, it is recommended its storage at 0.68 water activity, approximately.
5. References: Prez-Jimnez, J.; Arranz , S.; Tabermero, M.; Daz-Rubio, M.E.; Serrano, J.; Goni, I.;
et al. (2008). Uptaded methology to determine antioxodant capacity in plant foods, oils and beverages:
Extraction, measurement and expression of results. Food Research International, 41, 274-285.

Fig.1: Antioxidant capacity of P. setacea oil during
storage.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[123]
Evaluation of the methylene blue adsorption by chemically activated
waste animal bones

U. Iriarte-Velasco
(1)
, I. Sierra
(1)
, E.A. Cepeda
(1)
, L. Zudaire
(1)
and J.L. Ayastuy
(2)


(1)
Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Pharmacy, UPV/EHU, Vitoria, Spain.
unai.iriarte@ehu.es, +34 945013030

(2)
Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Fac. of Science & Technology, UPV/EHU, Leioa, Spain.

1. Introduction The gap between demand and supply of highly porous materials is widening and this
has caused scarcity of the material in addition to becoming expensive. Bone is an inorganic template
containing organic material inside which can be converted into porous hydroxyapatite by pyrolysis.[1]
Nowadays, there is a growing research interest in the use hydroxyapatite (HAp) which chemical formulae
is Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. It has been recently successfully used in catalysis, in electrochemistry and as highly
specific adsorbent for both liquid and gaseous effluents.[2] In the present work pork bone, an abundant
biomass source and food waste, has been converted into structured porous HAp by a three-step process
including pre-charing under mild conditions, chemical activation and thermal activation. The influence
of different activating agents on the chemical and textural properties of the produced material were
carried out. Also, the feasibility of the produced material for water treatment was investigated by
methylene blue adsorption tests.

2. Experimental - The investigated activating agents were NaOH, KOH, K2CO3, H2SO4 and H3PO4.
Thermal activation was carried out at 800 C under nitrogen atmosphere. Produced materials were
characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, potentiometric titrations, FTIR, SEM-EDX and methylene
blue adsorption tests.

3. Results and Discussion - BET area of the activated bone chars varied in the 3.2 to 117 m2/g range
and total pore volume from 0.006 to 0.303 cm
3
/g. Treatment with H3PO4 reduced pore volume and
surface area. KOH showed little influence whereas NaOH, K2CO3 and H2SO4 increased total surface area
up to 53%. It is noteworthy that, as shown in the figure,
acid treatment increased mainly microporosity whereas
alkali activation increased both micro and mesopore
surface area. Regarding the adsorption capacity,
significant differences were reported in the adsorption
profile of methylene blue. Mass transfer rate was increased
by activation with sulphuric acid and equilibrium was
reached after 60 minutes of contact time, about three times
lesser time than the required by non-activated bone char.
Langmuir monolayer capacities of the non-activated bone
char was 26.6 mg/g whereas it varied in the 6.5 39.9
mg/g range for chemically activated samples., being
maximum by K2CO3 activation.

4. Conclusions textural and chemical properties of bone char were readily modified by chemical
activation. Alkali activation increased equilibrium uptake capacity, whereas acid activation increased
mass transfer rate during the first stages of the adsorption process.

5. References
[1] P.A. Goodman, H. Li, Y. Gao, Y.F. Lu, J.D. Stenger-Smith, J. Redepenning, Carbon, 291-298 (2013)
[2] R. Chakraborty, D. RoyChowdhury, Chem. Eng. J. 491-499 (2013).



0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1 10 100 1000
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

a
r
e
a
,

m
2
/
g
Pore size, A
Non chemically treated NaOH
K2CO3 H2SO4

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[124]
Preparation of carbon-based adsorbents from the pyrolysis of sewage
sludge with CO2

I. Sierra
(1)
, U. Iriarte-Velasco
(1)
, E.A. Cepeda
(1)
, M. Gamero
(2)
and A.T. Aguayo
(2)


(1)
Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Pharmacy, UPV/EHU, Vitoria, Spain.
irene.sierra@ehu.es, +34 945013290

(2)
Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Fac. of Science & Technology, UPV/EHU, Leioa, Spain.

1. Introduction Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants. In the last decades,
its amount has rapidly increased with the urbanization and industrial development. Furthermore, sewage
sludge is mainly composed of the substances responsible for the offensive, pathogenic and toxic
characteristics of the untreated wastewater. Consequently, its handling and disposal is an issue of great
concern. Various methods have been adopted to utilize or dispose sewage sludge, such as landfilling,
combustion and direct farmland application. Nevertheless, all these methods have several limitations,
and the development of environmentally friendly solutions is of main interest. One of the most promising
alternatives is the conversion of sludge into adsorbents, especially activated carbon.
This work approaches the preparation of adsorbents from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge with CO2. The
temperatures studied are higher than those employed in the literature. In addition, the achievement of
adsorbents with higher surface area by acid washing has been investigated. This method can be used to
reduce the high inorganic content of the material, which is the main drawback of the physical activation.
Several authors have reported that acid washing prior to activation is more effective than post-activation
washing [1]. In this work HCl washing has been performed either before or after physical activation of
sludge with CO2, in order to improve the efficiency of the washing procedure.

2. Experimental - Adsorbents were prepared from sludge collected from an urban wastewater plant.
Sludge was dried and after grinding and sieving, particles within 0.5-1.0 mm range were selected.
Adsorbents were prepared by pyrolysis in a quartz tube furnace in a CO2 atmosphere (100 ml/min).
Sludge was heated from 20 to 600-1000 C at a rate of 15 C/min. Samples were soaked at the final
temperature for 30 min, and then cooled in N2 atmosphere. Carbonized samples were washed with 3 M
HCl. Samples were then washed with distilled water until the pH of the washing water was achieved.
Another set of samples was washed with acid (HCl 3 M) prior to carbonization with CO2. The textural
properties of the adsorbents were determined by nitrogen gas adsorption/desorption at 77 K.

3. Results and Discussion - Results show that acid washing after physical activation with CO2 is very
effective to improve the BET surface area of the adsorbents (as an example, the value increased from 50
to 290 m
2
/g for the sample activated at 700 C). The post-activation washing has a limited effect at low
temperatures, while at 900 C a great improvement is observed (164 g vs 43 m
2
/g).

4. References
[1] A. Ros, M.A. Lillo-Rodenas, E. Fuente, M.A. Montes-Moran, M.J. Martin, A. Linares-Solano,
Chemosphere. 65, 132-140 (2006).


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[125]
Sewage sludge as a substrate for maize plants production

F. Soares dos Santos, L. Martins de Oliveira, C. E. Souza Teodoro, A. Portz, G. J.
Rodrigues


Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Departament of Agribusiness Engineering, Av. Dos
Trabalhadores, 420, Vila Santa Ceclia, Volta Redonda,RJ, 27255-125 Brazil.
+55 24 21073561. e-mail: fabianasoares@id.uff.br

1. Introduction The sewage sludge can be an important organic fertilizer, mainly due to the high
content of organic matter and nutrients [1,2]. Thus, the sewage sludge can be an alternative source of
nutrients to reduce production costs, thereby increasing profits for producers. The objective of the study
was evaluate the production of organic compost from the mixture of sewage sludge and pruning waste
(composed primarily of wood, tree leaves and grass) in different concentrations to produce maize plants.

2. Experimental The experiment was conducted in the Volta Redonda city / Rio de Janeiro State /
Brazil. The sewage sludge was analyzed for the presence of inorganic, organic and biological
contaminants in accordance with the legislation CONAMA 375/2006. It was subjected to composting
waste being mixed with pruning waste, the ratios of 3:1 and 19:1 (sewage sludge : pruning waste) , with
the proportions set based on the concentrations of C and N present in the sludge sewage and pruning
waste. The aeration of composting system was carried with perforated pipes of 1 inch diameter, being
tumbled and moistened manually. At the end of the composting phase, about four months, maize seeds
were sown in pots containing 8 liters of the different treatments of compost mixed with different
proportions of a commercial substrate, using three replicates for each treatment. The treatments were 0:1,
1:2, 1:1, 2:1, 1:0 considering the relation of sewage sludge and pruning waste : commercial substrate.
Plants were grown in a greenhouse and harvested after 30 days. At harvest were evaluated diameter of
the stems (mm), plant height (cm) and number of leaves. Plants were separated into roots and shoots,
washed and dried with forced air circulation at 70
0
C for calculation of dry matter production.

3. Results and Discussion The results indicate that the adding of organic compost with sewage sludge
and pruning waste improved the development of maize plants. In the treatment 0:1, with 100%
commercial substrate, the development of the plants was significantly smaller, as both shoot and root,
demonstrating the effectiveness of organic compost in plant development. The treatment had the highest
development of shoot and root was 2:1 (organic compost : commercial substrate). Relation of height
plant (cm), number of leaves and stem diameter (mm) of maize plants, the treatment 0:1, with 100%
commercial substrate, showed a smaller plant development corroborating the results of dry matter
production. Therefore, the addition of a organic compost with sewage sludge and pruning waste favored
the development of the plants. Plants whose vessels were not added compound (treatment 0:1) showed
visual characteristics of leaf yellowing.

4. Conclusions - The use of organic compost with sewage sludge and pruning waste favored the
development of maize plants, showing the fertilizing potential of the compost obtained.


5. References
[1] LOPES, J.C. et al. Horticultura Brasileira, 23 (1), 2005) p.143-147.
[2] SILVA, W.T.L. et al. Potencialidade do uso de composto produzido a partir do lodo de esgoto urbano
e poda verde de rvore. EMBRAPA-Circular Tcnica 25. Dezembro de 2004.


6. Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledges the financial support by the FAPERJ (Fundao
Carlos Chagas de Amparo Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro).


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[126]

Changes in enzymatic and microbiological activities during
adaptation of a conventional activated sludge (CAS) to a CAS -
OXIC settling anaerobic (OSA) adapted process.

Pablo Romero1, M.D. Coello1, J.M. Quiroga1, C.A. Aragn2

1 Department of Environmental Technology, University of Cdiz, Plg. Ro San Pedro s/n,
Puerto Real, Cdiz, Spain (pablo.romero@uca.es; dolores.coello@uca.es;
josemaria.quiroga@uca.es ; +34 659621623 (Romero); +34 956016530)
2 Foundation Centre for New Water Technologies (CENTA).Autova Sevilla-Huelva (A-49)
km. 28. Carrin de los Cspedes. Seville. Spain. ( caragon@centa.es )


A crucial aspect of the operation of wastewater treatment plants is the production of excess sludge in the
conventional activated sludge (CAS) process, which stands for the most common process used
worldwide. Treatment and disposal of this hazardous waste represents an important cost in the
management of WWTPs. Within the different strategies that have been developed for achieving a
reduction of excess sludge produced at the CAS process, the OSA process is one of the most promising
due to its simplicity and reported effectiveness. Cell decay occurred at low oxidation-reduction potential
and subsequent degradation reactions count as the major causes of sludge reduction at OSA process.
Presence of higher enzymatic and microbiological activity in the aeration reactor, as a consequence of
previous exposition of sludge and floc matrix to anaerobic conditions in sludge holding tank, could also
enhance degradation of release matter. In this study, it is presented results of an OSA pilot plant
concerning not only to the key aspect of excess sludge reduction, but also to enzymatic and
microbiological activities in sludge from aeration tank. Particularly, an OSA process with an sludge
anaerobic exposition time (SAET) of 5.5 hours achieved a sludge reduction of 33.6% with an average
increment of 23,2%, 22,6% and 7,59% for specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), dehydrogenase and
protease activity respectively and negligible difference for glucosidase activity in comparison with
conventional running. Another running of OSA process with SAET 8 h achieved a reduction of 38.9%
for excess sludge reduction and an average increment of 27,9%, 11,31%, 28,7% and 26,57% for SOUR,
dehydrogenase, protease and glucosidase activity respectively, in comparison with control unit.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[127]
Direct identification of hazardous elements in ultra-fine and
nanominerals from coal fly ash obtained in the diesel co-firing

Marcel F. Braga
1
, Esdras P. S. Filho
1
, Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Gabriel S. Silva
1
,
Luis F. O Silva
1

1
Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development,

Centro
Universitrio La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliao de Impactos Ambientais em
Minerao. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS, Brazil.

E-mail: marcelfbraga@gmail.com

Abstract

This investigation presented an initial assessment of the environmental impacts and potential health
effects associated with coal fly ash produced during diesel co-firing.Many hazardous elements that are
typically detected bymultifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-
TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS in ultra-fine compounds and nanominerals from the co-fired coal fly ashes
(CFAs). It provided an in-depth understanding of coal ash produced during diesel co-firing. Several of
the neoformed ultra-fine compounds and nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those
commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of aluminosilicates, carbonates, sulphides and
phosphates.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[128]
Sublimates and gaseous emissions from the Truman Shepherd Coal
Fire, Floyd County, Kentucky: a re-investigation following attempted
mitigation of the fire

Marcel F. Braga
1
, Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Gabriela G. Lopes
1
, James C.Hower
2
,
Luis F. O Silva
1

1
Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development,

Centro
Universitrio La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliao de Impactos Ambientais em
Minerao. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS, Brazil.

2
University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive,
Lexington, KY 40511, United States

E-mail: marcelfbraga@gmail.com

Abstract

The investigations about the Truman Shepherd coal mine fire, Floyd and Knott counties, Kentucky, has
been the focus of the researchers over the last four years. During July and November 2011 and January
2012 field investigations, we measured gas emissions, collected minerals, and characterized the nature
of the fire. New vents opened over the course of the study and have continued to open since January
2012, coincident with the eastward advance of the fire. This is the first study of Kentucky coal fires
where the original vents were able to be studied in addition to new vents on each subsequent trip.
Neoformed minerals associated with the vents are primarily ammonium sulfates and ammonium
chlorides with minor zeolites. BTEX emissions, especially benzene, vary considerably, ranging from
relatively low to comparable to those from very large fires, such as the Ankney coal fire in Wyoming.
Vent emission data collected displays a general trend of decreasing carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide
emissions from July through January. The projected annual greenhouse gas and mercury emissions from
the fire are 65.69 t of CO2, 4.51 t of CO, 5.73 t of CH4, and 1.667 kg Hg. The November 2011 CO/CO2
ratios are indicative of more complete combustion than at any other time during the study, possibly
indicative of decreased moisture in the system.




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[129]
Ultrafine particles in sublimates from the Ruth Mullins Coal Fire,
USA

Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Amanda N. Silva
1
, James C.Hower
2
, Marcos L. S. Oliveira
1

1
Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development,

Centro
Universitrio La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliao de Impactos Ambientais em
Minerao. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS, Brazil.

2
University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive,
Lexington, KY 40511, United States

E-mail: claudeterms@brturbo.com.br


Abstract

Minerals sublimated of the Ruth Mullins fire in abandoned underground and surface mines in the high
volatile A bituminous Middle Pennsylvanian Hazard No. 7 coalbed, Perry County, Kentucky, were
studied by optical mineralogy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolutiontransmission electron
microscopy (HR-TEM). Optical investigation revealed the presence of salammoniac and a fine,
unidentified fibrous mineral. XRD also showed the presence of salammoniac, along with trace amounts
of quartz, kaolinite, and, probably, phengite. Both cubic and dendritic salammoniac forms were detected
with HR-TEM. Gypsum, jarosite, with cubic pseudomorphs after pyrite, and Fe-minerals, including Cr-
bearing hematite in association with jarosite, were observed with HR-TEM. Dehydration of jarosite can
lead to the formation of less hydrous Fe-sulfates and hematite.




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[130]
Nano-mineralogical study of coal and fly ashes from coal-based
captive power plant
(India)

Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Binoi Saikia; Gabriela G. Lopes
1
, Rivana B. Modesto
1
, Esdras
P. S. Filho
1
, Marcos L. S. Oliveira
1



1
Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development,

Centro
Universitrio La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliao de Impactos Ambientais em
Minerao. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS, Brazil.

E-mail: claudeterms@brturbo.com.br

Abstract

Recently has been received much concern around the world for their adverse effects on human health
and the environment during the utilization of coal derived nano-particles. In this investigation the mineral
matter present in some industrially important Indian coals and their ash samples are addressed. Coal and
fly ash samples from the coal-based captive power plant in Meghalaya (India) were collected for different
characterization and nano-mineralogy studies. An integrated application of advanced characterization
techniques such as Raman, X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron
microscopy (HR-TEM) / (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS / (selected-area diffraction pattern)
SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS analysis, and Mssbauer
spectroscopy were used to know their extent of risks to the human health when present in coal and fly
ash. The study has revealed that the coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel,
quartz, and other minerals in lesser quantities were found to be present in the coal fly ash. Fly ash carbons
were present as chars. Indian coal fly ash also found to contain nanominerals and ultrafine particles. The
coal-fired power plants are observed to be the largest anthropogenic source of Hg emitted to the
atmosphere and expected to increase its production in near future years. The Multi Walled Carbon Nano-
Tubes (MWCNTs) are detected in our fly ashes, which contains residual carbonaceous matter responsible
for the Hg capture/encapsulation. This detailed study on the inter-relationship between the minerals
present in the samples and their ash components will also be useful for fulfilling the clean coal technology
principles.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[131]
INVESTIGATION OF COPPER RECOVERY FROM
WASTEWATER USNG STEEL CATHODE IN
ELECTRODEPOSITION METHOD
Aye Kuleyin, Hlya Erikli Uysal
Ondokuz Mayis University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Kurupelit
Campus Samsun Turkey
akuleyin@omu.edu.tr
ABSTRACT
Electrodeposition method is one of the attractive methods used for the removal and
recovery of metal ions from metal plating, metal processing and electronics industry
wastewaters. In this study, both removal and recovery of copper from copper containing
industrial wastewater with electrodeposition method were achieved. Experiments were
conducted using steel cathodes. In studies, the effects of current, pH, conductivity and
concentration on electrodeposition were investigated and optimum values were
obtained. Accordingly, the observed copper removal from copper containing industrial
wastewater at optimum conditions, was %80 using steel cathode. An additional result
of the study was the accumulation of copper recovered from the wastewater on the
cathode. The reaction rate of process was evaluated using relevant reaction kinetic
equations.
Key Words: Metal Removal, Electrodeposition, Heavy Metal, Wastewater.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[132]
Mobility of Brazilian coal cleaning rejects by Fenton reaction: an
accelerated weathering procedure to evaluate potential
environmental impacts

Adriane P. Nordin
1
, Fabiane Marostega
1
, Andria G. de Mello
1
, Giovani A. Piva
1,
Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Luis F. O. Silva
1

1
Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development,

Centro
Universitrio La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliao de Impactos Ambientais em
Minerao. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS, Brazil.

E-mail: drikaperachi@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT

An accelerated weathering test for sulphides associated with Brazilian Coal Mining Residues (CMR)
with Fentons reaction is proposed, that are exposed to oxygen and water during the mining of coal.
SEM/EDX and TEM were used to evaluate the nature, occurrence and distribution of minerals in
remaining coals and other lithological units, before and after applying the test. Oxidation of CMRs was
evaluated by analyzing soluble sulphur (sulphate) and dissolved metals by ICP-MS or ICP OES. As
dissolved sulphate increases, dissolved Zn, Cd, Cu and Co concentrations increase, leading to
undetectable amounts in the remaining solid phases; dissolved Ni and Mn also increase with the
mobilized sulphur, but the remainder in the solids is the most important fraction; Fe and Pb are not
mobilized due to precipitation as jarosite or hematite in the case of Fe or as sulphate in the case of Pb.
Agreement between the obtained results and the predictions by geochemical modelling is discussed




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[133]
Mineralogical characterization of sediment
Rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

Adriane P. Nordin
1
, Fabiane Marostega
1
, Gabriela G. Lopes
1
, Giovani A. Piva
1
,

Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Luis F. O. Silva
1

1
Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development,

Centro
Universitrio La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliao de Impactos Ambientais em
Minerao. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS, Brazil.

E-mail: drikaperachi@hotmail.com


ABSTRACT

A major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world is the Acid drainage from
coal mines and metal mining. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount
of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.)
that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine
abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a
determinate area. These
multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information
must
be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the
Tubaro River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean,
and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment
rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite,
quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni,
Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-
MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the
existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubaro
River.




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[134]
Soil and cadmium relations in some Galician soils

Esdras P. S. Filho
1
, Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Jos J. O. Dias
1
, Giovani A. Piva
1
, Marcos
L. S. Oliveira
1

1
Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development,

Centro
Universitrio La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliao de Impactos Ambientais em
Minerao. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS, Brazil.

E-mail: esdrasfilho@gmail.com


Abstract

Four different soils of the surface and subsurface horizons an Ultisol (U), a Fluvent (F), an Inceptisol
(I) and a Fluvaquent (Fa) were treated with an acidic solution of Cd
2+
with the aim of establishing their
sorption capacity, the distribution of cadmium in the different geochemical phases of the soil, and to
decide the probable mineralogical changes resulting from the treatment. The cadmium fractioning
process was carried out by means of a sequential chemical extraction. XDR and FE-SEM/EDS were used
to determine the mineralogical composition of all of the horizons before and after the treatment with
cadmium. The majority of the cadmium that was added was not sorbed by the soils, which retained
between 10.22% in Fa and 16.09% in F. The horizons with the highest content of iron, manganese and
aluminium oxides, organic matter and high mineralogical variety in the clay fraction were those that
absorbed the most cadmium. The percentage of exchangeable Cd was the highest in all of the soil, while
the fraction ofmetal associatedwith crystalline Fe oxides and the residual fractionwere very low. The acid
treatment affected the mineralogy of all of the soils, reducing the percentage of themost labile minerals
and leading to the formation of amorphous phases capable of sorbing Cd. The images obtained by FE-
SEM and EDS confirmed the formation and fixation of Cd gels on muscovite, as well as the formation
of Cd(NO3)2 4H2O in Fa.G.




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[135]
Multiwalled Carbon nanotubes in coal fire soot

Esdras Pereira de Souza Filho
1
, Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Gabriel S. Silva
1
, James
C.Hower
2
, Giovani A. Piva
1
, Marcos L. S. Oliveira
1

1
Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development,

Centro
Universitrio La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliao de Impactos Ambientais em
Minerao. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS, Brazil.

2
University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive,
Lexington, KY 40511, United States

E-mail: esdrasfilho@gmail.com


Abstract

Coal combustion usually produce a variety of mineral and organic deposits associated with the venting
emission gases. In addition to the tars typically found at the Ruth Mullins coal fire, Perry County,
Kentucky, a sooty carbon, superficially similar to a carbon from a university-based stoker-fired power
plant, was sampled in an August 2010 visit. Carbons in the soot include complex carbon particles,
nanotubes encapsulating mercury, onionlike structures with polyhedral and quasi-spherical morphology
with hollow centers, and metal-bearing multiwalled nanotubes. Mineral and amorphous inorganic phases
included glassy AlSi spheres with associated lead and selenium; nanopyrite grains with trace arsenic
and selenium; nanohematite with V
3+
; salammoniac; quartz; cadmium- and lead-bearing jarosite; fibrous
pickeringite with surficial natrojarosite; and Cd-, Co-, Mo-, Ni, V-, W-, and Zr-bearing nanospheres. The
enrichment of
15
N in the soot is associated with the fractionation of NH3 to NH4 in the formation of
salammoniac. Selenium, lead, and zinc are found in relatively high concentrations in the soot and
mercury, with 5.68 ppm, has a higher concentration than any Kentucky fly ash.




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[136]
Industrial Wastes: Red Mud and Kaolin Waste alternative use

Maria Lcia P. Antunes
(1)
, L. Sottovia
(1)
, E.C. Rangel
(1)
, N.C. Cruz
(1)
, J.A.S.
Souza
(2)
F.T. Conceio
(3)

(1)
Paulista State University (UNESP-Sorocaba), Av. Tres de Maro, 511, Sorocaba, So
Paulo, Brazil.
Phone: 55 11 99510856 e-mail: malu@sorocaba.unesp.br

(2)
Universidade Federal do Par, Rua Augusto Correa, 1, Belm, Par, Brazil.

(3)
Paulista State University (UNESP-Rio Claro), Av.24-A , 1515, Rio Claro, Brazil.


1. Introduction Brazil is a privileged country in terms of mineral resources. Brazil has large reserves
(by volume) of iron ore, manganese, bauxite, gold, tin, and non-metallic minerals (such as kaolin). The
industries of beneficiation of these resources are responsible for generating
significant amounts of waste that are disposed in environment. In this
scenario, it is worth highlighting two residues, produced in large quantities
in Brazil: the red mud and kaolin waste. Red mud is highly alkaline waste
generated by Bayer Process, during refining of bauxite to produce alumina.
Already, the kaolin waste comes from kaolin refining process. The fate of
these residues are deposition dams [1]. These require large areas for its
construction as well as constant monitoring to prevent leaks, which means a
cost for the production of these minerals. An alternative to the problems
caused by these residues is the development of technologies that aim their
use. Thus, the aim of this work is to present a characterization of waste, and
present results of two alternative uses for these materials: as adsorbent of textile dye and as material to
produce ceramic coatings by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation.

2. Experimental - Red mud samples were provided from the alumina plant located at So Paulo State,
and the kaolim waste comes from Par State, Brazil. The chemical composition of samples were
determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Mineral composition was
determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using a Philips X-Pert wide-angle X-ray diffractometer
operating at 40kV and 40mA with CuK radiation. The morphology of samples were observed under a
Philips CM200 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a JEOL JSM 6010 Scanning Electron
Microscope (MEV). Red mud was tested as adsorbent to textile dye. Isothermal studies were promoted
by contact of 0.200g of adsorbent and 50mL of Reactive Blue 19 dye (RB 19). The RB 19 concentrations
were determined using a Hach DR-2800 spectrophotometer. Red mud and kaolin waste were used to
produce ceramic coatings for protection by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of aluminium alloys. The
composition and structure of ceramic coating were investigated using X-ray diffraction and Fourier
Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and using scanning electron microscope.

3. Results and Discussion - Figure 1 shows the kaolin waste. Their chemical composition is silicon and
aluminium. The major components of Red Mud were iron, aluminium, silicon and titanium. Both Wastes
present valuable composition. Adsorption in red mud was found to be significantly dependent on solution
pH, with acidic conditions proving to be the most favorable. The Langmuir isotherm was the most
appropriate to describe the phenomenon of dye removal. The maximum adsorption capacity of red mud
is 357mg/g. Ceramic coating obtained by Plasma Eletrolytic is uniform and present good resistance.

4. Conclusions - Red Mud and Kaolin Waste present valuable composition to different application. The
adsorption study of red mud indicate that this residue has potential to be used in the treatment of effluents
from textile industries. It is viable to produce ceramic coatings using red mud and kaolin waste by PEO
process. Relatively thick layers (up to 3.5m ) were obtained.

5. References
[1] A.R. Hind, S.K. Bhargava, S.C. Grocot, Colloids and Surfaces A, 146, (1999) p. 359.

Figure 1. MET image of kaolin waste

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[137]
Evaluation of physical properties and acoustic performance the
agglomerates of wood pellets with polyurethane residue

M. Zeni
(1)
, R. Rauber
(1)
, A. M. C. Grisa
(1)
, M. F. O. Nunes
(2)
(1)
Materials Research Laboratory ,Universidade de Caxias do Sul CCET - Brasil.
(2)
Universidade de Caxias do Sul CEAA - Brasil.
+55 54 32182100, amcgrisa@ucs.br

1. Introduction New clusters that bring both environmental and economic benefits are being developed
by industry to be used in different sectors. The wood pellets are produced in panels with wood particles
with the incorporation of a synthetic adhesive and consolidated by applying pressure [1]. According to
[2] applications of clusters are indicated for the packaging industry, and also used in civil construction.
The production of pellets with the usage of waste from different sources can contribute and stimulate the
production of new materials as the use of lignocellulosic residues and polymers that contribute to soften
environmental impacts in the footwear industry, PU is used in shoe soles for their lightness and comfort,
resistance to abrasion, tearing and bending, as well as its elasticity and flexibility [3]. In order to minimize
the problem of polymeric materials disposal, the incorporation of polyurethane (PU) waste is a viable
alternative for the development of agglomerates. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence
of different levels of PU residue in wood pellets with the analysis of the moisture content and acoustic
performance.

2. Experimental The agglomerates of wood particles Eucalyptus grandis with 0.85 to 1.4 mm were
obtained with the addition of PU residue (2.0 mm) in the proportions of 100, 85/15, 30, 5/40 and 45.5 /
60% (m/m) with 20 parts of Elastan (trade binder) by cold compression. The performance of the prepared
panels with 30.0 x 30.0 x 1.4 cm, were evaluated by determining the moisture content and acoustic
performance against airborne noise, according to the methodology employed in previous studies [4].

3. Results and Discussion The Average Moisture Content (AMC) of particle boards ranged from 9.78%
for panels exclusively made of wood, to 4.30% for panels with 40/60 wood-PU, the addition of waste
PU yielded a decrease in the AMC of the clusters. The cluster 40/60 of PU residue showed better
performance compared to the reduction in sound level, showing
the biggest reductions in frequency bands of 125, 250, 500,
2,000, 4,000, 8,000 and 16,000 Hz.


4. Conclusions Agglomerates with 40/60 of PU showed the
highest reductions in sound level. Agglomerated with wood
particles and PU granular solids can be used in the treatment of
acoustic partitions, walls, coating and ceilings, increasing the
comfort of thermal and acoustic environments and applications
in conditions where the humidity is a limiting factor for the
usage of 100% wood.


5. References
[1] S. Iwakiri. Painis de madeira reconstituda. Ed. FUPEF,
Curitiba, 2005, vol. 1, 1- 247.
[2] Associao Brasileira da Indstria de Painis de Madeira ABIPA. Nmeros. Available from:
<http://www.abipa.org.br/produtosMDP.php >. Acesso em: 26/04/2013.
[3] J. C. Caraschi; A.Leo; P. V. C. Chamma, Polmeros.19(1) (2009).
[4] M. V. Rizzo, N. Bortoluz, W. B. Ribeiro, M. Zeni, A. M. C. Grisa, M. F. O. Nunes. Isolamento trmico
e acstico em compsitos com resduo de poliuretano rgido e fibras de bananeira e celulose. In: 1
Encontro Luso-Brasileiro de Engenharia de Compsitos. Porto, 2013.


Figure 1. Relationship between different % of waste
PU and ground wood pellets in the noise levels

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[138]
The study of simulated soil degradation in the polyethylene films
with pro-degrading additive
A. M.C.Grisa , M. Zeni M. Savaris , RN Brandalise
Materials Research Laboratory / University of Caxias do Sul - CCET - Brazil.
+55 54 32182100, amcgrisa@ucs.br
Introduction - The high amount of polymeric wastes disposed in inappropriate places
has been a concern since it can trigger environmental impact due to its resistance to
assimilation by microorganisms [1, 2]. The degradation of polymer waste in different
media has been studied in order to propose alternatives to the inertia in the degradation
of polymers, the search for colonies of microorganisms capable of assimilating
polymers or additives as oxy-pro degrading has been the subject of numerous studies
[3,4]. The addition of pro-degrading additive to polyolefins has the function to promote/
accelerate the oxidation process being the onset of oxygenated groups. Therefore, this
study aims to analyze the effects of the addition of pro-degrading additive in chemical
and thermal properties of polyethylene films and its consequences when exposed to
simulated soil for 120 days according to ASTM G160-03.
Experimental - Pure polyethylene films (PEp) and polyethylene with addition of 0.8%
of pro-degrading additive (PEa) (5x5 cm) were placed in polypropylene cups with
simulated soil (sand, horse manure and ground), placed at a kiln where withdrawals
were made at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days (ASTM G160-03). During the test parameters of
temperature, moisture and pH were monitored. Thereafter, the samples were washed in
sequence with water and 70% ethanol, placed in a desiccator for 48 hours and
characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform (FTIR) and
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).
Results and Discussion - As preliminary results we emphasize that the simulated soil
moisture was maintained between 20 and 30%, pH between 6.5 and 7.5 and the
temperature ranged from 8 to 25 C during the period from July to November 2013
with most sunny days. In the characterization by FTIR, the sample of PEa showed no
chemical changes when compared to PEp. After 120 days of exposure in simulated soil
changes occurred in the films of PEp and PEa in the bands of 1651 cm -1, which may
indicate oxidation formed during the degradation and between 900-1200 cm -1, related
to the development of alcohols [5]. The Thermal characterization by TGA, after 120
days in simulated soil, had no significant changes in the degradation temperature for
the sample of pure polyethylene. However, the presence of additive in the sample after
120 days in simulated soil showed a small decrease in the temperature of degradation
onset.
Conclusions - The addition of pro-degrading additive at a concentration of 0.8% did
not cause chemical changes in the properties of the films before the exposure to the
simulated soil. After testing in the simulated soil, the sample of PEp showed chemical
changes and PEa sample showed chemical and thermal changes, showing early
degradation process.
References
[1] A. Ammala, et. Al, Progress in Polymer Science. 36 (8) (2011) p.In 1015.
[2] DM Wiles, G. Scott, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 91 (2) (2006), p. 1581.
[3] RA Gross, B. Kalra, Science, 297 (5582), (2002) p. 802.
[4] GQ Botelho, et.al., Polymers Degradation and Stability, 86 (3) (2004), p. 493.
[5] Y. Ohtake, et. al. Polymer Degradation and Stability. 60th (1), p.79.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[139]
Optimization of Cu(II) Biosorption Process by date palm (Phoenix
dactylifera L.) seeds using Box-Behnken Design
S. etinta
(1)
, D. Bingl
(1)
, S. Elevli
(2)
, N. Uzgren
(3)

(1)
Kocaeli University, Department of Chemistry, Kocaeli, Turkey.
Tel: +902623032030, E-mail:denizbingol1@gmail.com; deniz.bingol@kocaeli.edu.tr

(2)
Ondokuz Mays University, Department of Industrial Engineering, Samsun, Turkey.
(3)
Dumlupnar University, Department of Business Administration, Ktahya, Turkey.


1. Introduction Increasing environmental pollution from industrial wastewater particularly in
developing countries is of major concern. Heavy metal contamination exists in aqueous waste streams
of many industries, such as metal plating facilities, mining operations,
tanneries, etc. [1]. One of environmental pollutant is copper, which is a
metallic element that is essential to human health. Too little is unhealthy and
too much can lead to copper poisoning. The maximum contaminant level goal
for copper is 1.3 mg/L or 1.3 ppm. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
has set this level of protection based on the best available science to prevent
potential health problems [2]. Adsorption/Biosorption is the most preferred
among the various methods used for the removal of heavy metals from
waters. In recent years, there is a growing interest in the search of low-cost,
easily available, their physico-chemical characteristics and environment
friendly biomaterials suitable for the efficient removal of heavy metal ions.
Response surface methodology (RSM) techniques are a very useful tool to reduce the time and cost of
the study [3].
In this study, RSM was applied for modeling a batch sorption process used to remove copper ions from
aqueous solutions using date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seeds as waste product.

2. Experimental - Batch experiments were performed for the removal of copper ions from aqueous
solutions using date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seeds. The effects of three variables, i.e. initial pH,
biosorbent mass and initial copper concentration, on the sorbed amount of copper (a response) onto date
palm seeds were evaluated. Full factorial design with central point and Box-Behnken design were used
to determine the optimum process conditions in a copper sorption process.

3. Results and Discussion - The results of this study revealed that the experimental designs were suitable
for prediction of the sorbed copper amount. Regression equation was developed to explain the effects
and interactions of the tested parameters. In addition, it was proposed an alternative use of date palm
seeds, as untreated sorbents for the removal of copper ions as an eco-friendly process. A regression model
in coded unit that correlates qe (mg/g) with all the variable terms was developed, which is given by:
qe (mg/g) = 2.3200 + 0.9525.pH + 0.7272.Co 0.8881.m 0.7609.pH
2
0.4731.Co
2

+ 0.3009.pH*Co 0.7484.pH*m 0.3583.Co*m
(1)
High correlation among the observed experimental results and the predicted values by using Eq. 1
demonstrates that the model is well fitted, considering the determination coefficient (R
2
-adj= 99.87%)
and the standard deviation (S= 0.0464), and only 0.13% (residuals) of total variation was not explained
by the model.

4. Conclusions - It was proposed an alternative use of date palm seeds, as untreated sorbents for the
removal of copper ions as an eco-friendly process.

5. References
[1] T.V. Ramachandra, N. Ahalya & R.D. Kanamadi, Biosorption: Techniques and Mechanisms CES
Technical Report 110, Bangalore, 2005.
[2] http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/copper.cfm. Accessed July 24, 2013.
[3] R.G. Brereton, Applied Chemometrics for Scientists, John Wiley&Sons, 2007.


Image 1. Date palm fruit

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[140]
Chemical characterization and mineralogy of roasted pyrite ash of an
abandoned sulphuric acid production plant

Csar M. N. L. Cutruneo
1
, Jos J. O. Dias
1
, Colin R. Ward
2
, Xavier Querol
3
, Giovani
A. Piva
1
, Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Marcos L.S. Oliveira
1


1
Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development,

Centro
Universitrio La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliao de Impactos Ambientais em
Minerao. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS, Brazil.
2
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales,
Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
3
Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Jordi Girona 1826, 08034
Barcelona, Spain


E-mail: cesar@projeconsult.com.br

Abstract
The obtention of sulphur generte a hematite-rich waste, known as roasted pyrite ash, which contains
significant amounts of environmentally sensitive elements in variable concentrations and modes of
occurrence. Whilst the mineralogy of roasted pyrite ash associated with iron or copper mining has been
studied, as this is the main source of sulphur worldwide, the mineralogy, and more importantly, the
characterization of submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles, in coal-derived roasted pyrite ash remain to
be resolved. In this work we provide essential data on the chemical composition and nanomineralogical
assemblage of roasted pyrite ash. XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM were used to identify a large variety of
minerals of anthropogenic origin. These phases result from highly complex chemical reactions occurring
during the processing of coal pyrite of southern Brazil for sulphur extraction and further manufacture of
sulphuric acid. Iron-rich submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles within the ash may contain high
proportions of toxic elements such as arsenic, selenium, uranium, among others. A number of elements,
such as arsenic, cromium, cupper, cobalt, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium,
strontium, titanium, zinc, and zirconium, were found to be present in individual nanoparticles and
submicron, ultrafine and nanominerals (e.g. oxides, sulphates, clays) in concentrations of up to 5%. The
study of nanominerals in roasted pyrite ash from coal rejects is important to develop an understanding
on the nature of this by-product, and to assess the interaction between emitted nanominerals, ultra-fine
particles, and atmospheric gases, rain or body fluids, and thus to evaluate the environmental and health
impacts of pyrite ash materials.





International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[141]
Nickel and Vanadium speciation in comminuted coal and petroleum
coke co-combustion

Csar M. N. L. Cutruneo
1
, Jos J. O. Dias
1
, James C. Hower
2
, Giovani A. Piva
1,
Andria G. de Mello
1
, Claudete G. Ramos
1
, Marcos L.S. Oliveira
1


1
Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development,

Centro
Universitrio La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliao de Impactos Ambientais em
Minerao. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS, Brazil.
2
Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky
40511, United States
E-mail: cesar@projeconsult.com.br

ABSTRACT
Nickel and Vanadium in emissions as of fossil-fuel combustion and in the fly ash can be an environmental
concern. The fly ash from the combustion of a 70% coal/30% petroleum coke blend in a 500 MW
pulverized-fuel utility boiler was studied by a variety of X-ray, optical microscopy, and electron beam
methods. The fly ash V and Ni are present in heterogeneous silicates, glass, sulfates, oxides and
oxyhydroxides, and crystalline and/or amorphous mixed clay minerals, and also in Ni, detrital
ferromagnesian silicates. Vanadium- and Ni-bearing spinels are incorporated into magnetite structures.
Multiwalled nanotubes encapsulate V and Ni, and C60, C70, and C80 fullerenes and their derivatives are
present.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[142]
Biodrying of agricultural wastes in greenhouses to be used as
biomass
F.J. Colomer Mendoza
(1*)
, L. Herrera Prats
(1)
, J. Esteban Altabella
(1)
, J.V. Segarra
Murria
(2)
, V. Lucas Puchol
(2)
(1*)
fcolomer@uji.es
(1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction. Universidad Jaume I, Ave.
Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castelln (Spain). Phone number: +34 964728111
(2)
HELIOTEC 2006 S.L. Centro de Energas Renovable, Paraje Les Grutes de Sant Josep, s/n
apdo.206. C.P. 12600 La Vall dUix, Castelln (Spain). Phone number: +34 964652880

1. Introduction Biodrying consist on the decrease of the humidity of the waste by aerobic fermentation.
The process is optimized with proper aeration, preventing anaerobic fermentation [1]. Microbial activity
causes the temperature rise, improving the evaporation of water in the substrate [2, 3]. Thus, in this work,
drying of citrus garden wastes has been analyzed. So, once the waste has been collected, it can be dried
to acceptable moisture to be used as a biomass. Thus, the problem of waste in the land would be
eliminated; therefore, it would diminish the risk of fire due to the uncontrolled burning on the country.
Moreover, a quality biomass would be produced as an agricultural by-product.
2. Experimental Assays were performed in Castelln in eastern Spain in 2013. They worked with
citrus waste mass (WM) from prune (branches and leaves[B&L]). They were placed in a 40 cm height
pile above wooden pallets. In order to take profit of the sun's heat, trials were conducted in a greenhouse,
with top opening to enhance the chimney effect.
3. Results and Discussion In all three assays, the moisture decreased faster during the first days of the
process, which coincides with the days of greater microbial growth and thus greater biological activity.
When the moisture drops below 20% microbial activity slows down and the decrease of moisture is due
to the heat of the sun. Environmental humidity and wind velocity influence on the dry time.
4. Conclusions Biodrying uses the heat of the aerobic biodegradation of the waste aided by a flow of
air to evacuate the moisture. The experiment has been performed inside of a greenhouse, so the increase
of temperature by solar radiation is enhanced, allowing a reduction of moisture, even when the biological
activity ceases. In addition, this method is particularly suitable for gardening and agricultural residues.
5. References
[1] Sugni M., Calcaterra E., y Adani F. (2005). Biostabilization-biodrying of municipal solid waste by
inverting air-flow. Bioresource Technology, 96, 13311337.
[2] Bailey J.E. y Ollis D.F. (1986). Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals. 2a ed. Mc Graw-Hill. New
York, 984p.
[3] Prescott L.M., Harley J.P. y Klein D.A. (1993). Microbiology. W.C. 5a ed. Communications Inc,
Dubuque, Iowa, USA. 1088p.
Table II. results of biodrying in different samples
Test moisture i/f
(%)
% moisture
reduction
% weight
reduction
solar radiation
(Wh/m
2
)
daily solar radiation
(W/m
2
)
rainfall
(L/m2)
1 48.75/11.28 76.86 42.23 118052 4372 60.4
2 42.08/9.31 77.87 36.13 75466 5031 18.8
3 44.35/8.52 80.79 39.17 123815 6516 28.3
4 49.46/9.87 80.04 7.49 43321 2166 0
5 43.75/ 56.38 20.97 36108 1815 2

Table I. description of the assays
Test Dates of the assay (2013) Days T emperature
12:00 o.c
Maxim T
(C) WM
WM
1 April, 24
th
May 27
th
27 18.9C 32.3 C B&L
2 May, 13
th
28
th
15 20.9 C 30.7 C B&L
3 May, 31
th
- June, 19
th
19 24.2 C 39.5 C crushed B&L
4 October, 18
th
November, 6
th
19 23.3 C 29.2 C B&L
5 November, 22
th
- December, 21
th
19 14.6 C 23.2 C B&L



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[143]
Biomethanization of refuse from composting plants

E. Cirstea
(2)
, A. Gallardo

Izquierdo
(1)
, F.J. Colomer Mendoza
(1*)
, N. Edo Alcn
(1)

(1*)
fcolomer@uji.es
(1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction. Universidad Jaume I, Ave.
Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castelln (Spain). Phone number: +34964728111

(2)
Facultatea de Ingineria Mediului si Biotehnologii, Universitatea Valahia din
Trgoviste.Str. N. T Radian, BI. T1 sc. A. et 1, ap 3, , 130062. Dmbovita (Romania)

1. Introduction Composting is an aerobic process which transforms biodegradable wastes in
compost. A variable fraction, according to composting and refining method, is normally unstabilized
(refuse). The quantity of refuse can be from 4-5 % [1], to 25-58 % [2]. The amount of biodegradable
matter in the refuse can be considerable (75 - 85%) [2]. In this work, the feasibility of biomethanizing
this fraction is analyzed. So, the main purpose of reducing the volume of wastes in landfills and biogas
emissions could be achieved. Moreover, the generated biogas could be valorizated.
2. Experimental In order to achieve the mentioned goal, statistically representative samples were
collected from three (3) composting and recycling plants from different provinces of Spain. Samples
were anaerobically fermented for analyzing the biogas generated in the process. For the experiment as
substrate for fermentation, refuse resulting from the composting process, after aerobic fermentation was
used. This refuse is no longer used in any other operation of recycling, being deposited in landfills for
degradation. The experience was carried out in three plastic reactors (one of them for each plant), of 10
L capacity each one. They were sealed and gas output was performed at the top of the reactor with a
cubit, where balloons were attached for biogas collection. Biogas emissions (% methane and % carbon
dioxide) were measured by means of chromatograph Perkin Elmer. Chemical analyses were made at
the beginning of the experiment, with dried up samples. Parameters followed during analysis were:
percentage of C [%] , N [%], C.O.D. [kg O2/kg. v.s.], S [%], pH, volatile solids [%], and ashes [%].The
experiment lasted for 67 days.
3. Results and Discussion In Table I, data results are showed about the volume of biogas produced
during anaerobic digestion and the concentration of methane in biomethanization. After anaerobic
digestion in reactor 3 decreasing in percentage of volatile solids was 25.39%. In reactor 2 after
fermentation, the percentage of volatile solids decreased only 8.63%. At the end of an anaerobic
digestion, reactor 1 consumed the lowest percentage of volatile solids, 1.86%, producing a small amount
of biogas. In reactor 3, volume of biogas accumulated in the 67 days of fermentation was 149.65 litres
of accumulated biogas. Methane volume was 115.23 L/kg d.w. The calorific value of methane is 37,200
kJ/m
3
, thus, from the experiment can be obtained a total calorific value of 4290 kJ/kg d.w., which
converted into energy is 1.19 kWh/kg d.w.









4. Conclusions In some composting plants, aerobic fermentation is not complete, which involves
dumping a non stabilized waste (refuse) in landfills. This refuse could be fermented anaerobically and
getting biogas, reducing methane emissions in landfills.
5. References
[1] A.P. Economopoulos (2010) Technoeconomic aspects of alternative municipal solid wastes treatment
methods. Waste Management, 30, (2010), pp. 707715.
[2] D. Bernad-Beltrn (2013) Integracin de la metodologa de Anlisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV) y
Sistemas de Informacin Geogrfica (SIG) para la evaluacin ambiental de sistemas de gestin de
residuos. Ph.D. Thesis. Universitat Jaume I. Spain.

Table I. Results obtained in the experiment
Reactor Volume of biogas/kg d.w.
[ml/kg]
% Methane Volume of methane/kg d.w.
[ml/kg]
(1) 5270 0 0
(2) 8620 29 2499.8
(3) 149,650 77 115,230.5
d.w.: dry weight



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[144]
Evaluating the potential for using anaerobic digestate in hydroponic
culture

H.M. West
(1)
, M. Othman
(1)
, M.L. Clarke
(2)
, S.J. Ramsden
(1)


(1)
School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus,
Loughborough, LE12 5RD, UK. Tel. 00441159516268; E. helen.west@nottingham.ac.uk
(2)
School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD



1. Introduction - Hydroponic production systems utilise liquid nutrient solutions as a plant growth
medium for high-quality tomatoes and other crops. An advantage of hydroponics is that high quality
crops can be produced on a relatively small area of land compared to soil systems. Given the
increasing interest in using alternative nutrient solutions for hydroponic culture as a means of
reducing costs but also for increasing sustainability, we studied the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic
digestate as a nutrient medium for hydroponic culture. Traditionally, organic nutrients have not been
used for hydroponic culture, primarily because of concerns regarding phytotoxicity due to high
concentrations of ammonium. We present data obtained from controlled temperature growth trials
using conventional hydroponic solutions and three anaerobic digestates, two originated from food
waste feedstocks (both PAS110 compliant) and one from cattle manure and potato waste (not PAS110
compliant). The aim of the work was to determine the feasibility of using digestates in hydroponics
and the specific objectives were to quantify yield and quality of tomato and lettuce and determine the
microbiological risks.
2. Experimental - A series of growth experiments was conducted using tomato (cvs Supersweet 100
and Moneymaker) and lettuce (cv. Little Gem) grown to different levels of maturity. Digestates were
diluted to ensure the ammonium concentration of the final hydroponic solution was 10%; the degree
of dilution to attain this level meant that solutions had to be amended with nutrients that were removed
or limited during dilution. Controls consisted of a standard recommended inorganic solution and the
standard solution plus 10% ammonium. The nutrient contents of the three digestates differed, none
exceeded the PAS110 limit for potentially toxic elements.
3. Results and Discussion The tomato fruit yield was similar for all five treatments and sugar
content and results of taste tests indicated that fruit quality was also equivalent. Lettuce yields were
unaffected by the digestates, although there was a weakly significant trend towards less biomass
production in plants grown in the conventional solution. Lettuce leaves had higher concentrations of
calcium and copper when grown in solutions containing digestates. Both food waste digestates tested
positive for Salmonella and all three digestates were positive for E. coli. Neither Salmonella nor E.
coli cells were internalized by the lettuce. The E. coli present were unlikely to be pathogenic and E.
coli O157 was absent from all samples. Evaluating the microbiological risk of using digestates in this
context is difficult because of the paucity of data in the literature. The hydroponic solutions amended
with digestates contained ~1.6 log CFU/mL of E. coli; the critical density for E. coli O157:H7
colonizing roots is thought to be 2 log CFU/g of manure when in soil systems. How this translates to
liquid culture is a matter of conjecture, but intuitively one would expect the cells to be more likely to
encounter a root when in a solution, unless restricted because of adherence to suspended organic
matter.
4. Conclusions - Microbial safety concerns may limit usefulness of using anaerobic digestates for
lettuce production until further data are available. A recommendation would be to use pasteurized
and PAS110 accredited digestates. Despite the dilutions required to reduce the ammonium content to
10%, nutrient savings were made for a range of micronutrients in addition to N, P and K. Allowing
for savings of 11%, 1% and 4% for N, P and K respectively, we calculate that cost reductions of
1,700 - 1,800 per ha per annum could be made for these nutrients when used in tomato production.
These estimates are before any allowance for potential changes in capital costs or other running costs
associated with adapting existing systems to the use of digestate. Savings could be greater if crops
less sensitive to ammonium were grown since this would result in lower dilutions and therefore lower
deficits to make up. This would need to be balanced against a greater amount of suspended solids,
which may block irrigation pipes.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[145]
Environmental-friendly approaches for selective recovery of metals
from spent hydrodesulphurisation catalysts

Isabel S.S. Pinto, Helena M.V.M. Soares


REQUIMTE , Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of
Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
hsoares@fe.up.pt

In a green process, the selective recycling of metals from wastes using environmental-friendly (low
energy requirements and minimizing effluent emissions) is desirable. However, the design of
environmental-friendly flow sheets for recycling metals selectively, with high yield and purity, from
wastes is a challenge.
Spent hydrodesulphurisation (HDS) catalysts are hazardous wastes form petroleum refineries that
contain multi-elements and some of them are present at low-grade. This fact poses many problems for
designing simple, low cost and environmental-friendly processes. The recovery of metals from solid
wastes, when hydrometallurgical processes are used, also presents several disadvantages: some of the
reagents are expensive and slow reaction rates occur. In addition, the use of high concentrated solutions
for extracting metals does not allow a selective extraction step, which requires more complex recovery
processes.
Considering the points mentioned, the present work reports the studies performed on the development of
a nearly closed cycle for recycling Mo and Ni, with high yield and purity, from spent HDS catalysts [1-
4].

Experimental studies were performed in a roasted Ni-Mo, alumina-based, spent HDS catalyst. In order
to achieve a more selective recovery, a two-leaching stages approach was tested: (i) NaOH solution to
extract Mo and (ii) EDTA solution for Ni, leaving Al in the catalyst residue. Conventional and
microwave-assisted methods were compared in terms of leaching efficiency and selectivity.

Microwave-assisted leaching proved to be more efficient, using less concentrated solutions, which also
increased the selectivity of the target metals over Al. For the optimized conditions using microwave
heating, 89% of Mo and 6% of Al were removed with a NaOH solution of 0.25 M. In the second leaching
stage the best result was obtained for EDTA 0.1 M with recoveries of Ni and Al of 80 and 2.8%,
respectively.

The selective recovery of Mo, as a salt of strontium molybdate, and Ni, as a metal phosphate, from the
respective leachates, were attained with a global yield of 85 and 74 %, respectively, together with high
purity (99 and 96 %, respectively) by combining metal leaching (alkaline and EDTA for Mo and Ni,
respectively) from the HDS spent [1,3] and precipitation [2,4] steps.


References
[1] I.S.S. Pinto and H.M.V.M. Soares, Hydrometallurgy, 129, 2012 p. 19-25.
[2] I.S.S. Pinto and H.M.V.M. Soares, J Clean Prod, 52, 2013 p. 481-487.
[3] I.S.S. Pinto and H.M.V.M. Soares, Hydrometallurgy, 140, 2013 p. 20-27.
[4] I.S.S. Pinto and H.M.V.M. Soares, Separation and recovery of nickel and aluminum from an EDTA
leachate of spent hydrodesulphurisation catalyst using precipitation methods (in preparation).



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[146]

TOOL TO CALCULATE LEACHATE GENERATION AND
MANAGEMENT IN LANDFILLS

J. Esteban Altabella
(1*)
, F. J. Colomer Mendoza
(1)
, A. Gallardo Izquierdo
(1)
, M.
Carlos
Alberola
(1)

(1*)
altabell@uji.es
(1)
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction. Universidad Jaume I, Ave.
Vicent Sos Baynat s/n, 12071 Castelln (Spain). Phone Number: +34 964.728.111
1. Introduction: The traditional estimation of leachate

generation is based on the application of Water Balance

Method (WBM) developed by the U.S. EPA [1]. Other

calculation tools as: Hydrology Evaluation of Landfill

Performance (HELP), SOILINER and FULLFILL use this

system. However, there are methods such as Serial Water

Balance (SWB) [2] to achieve more accurate estimations by

considering more factors: construction time of the cells,

time of exposure to the environment, compression values,

amounts of waste and field capabilities. In order to

complement these methods, the authors have created

LABLEACHATE, a calculation tool that estimates
Figure 1: Leachate evacuation system automatically the amount of leachate in landfills and then

design the evacuation system and leachates dam.


2. Experimental: The mathematical relationships defined in the LABLEACHATE allows to link the
factors identified in the WBM and SWB methods and determining the expected leachates volume using
automatic calculations by means of Excel. The tool uses this information for automatically
dimensioning the needed evacuation system and leachate dam.
3. Results and Discussion: The creation of the LAB LEACHATE to preliminary level, allows designing the
evacuation system and dam according to the estimate leachate production. Furthermore, the tool permits
calculate the necessary materials (drainage, geomembrane, geotextile, pipes, etc.) and their quantities in
order to project the leachate management and storage system in landfills.
Table 1: Description of leachate collection and storage system
Estimation leachate Evacuation leachate Leachate Dams
By defining the mathematical By defining of the mathematical By definition of the
relationship between the relationships for dimensioning mathematical relationships
factors described in the WBM pipes and trenches of leachate for dimensioning leachate
and SWB methods [1, 2]. drainage system [3]. dams [4].

7. Conclusions: This is a tool that applies the models WBM and SBW for estimating leachate generation
and designing, depending on the obtained quantity, the needed evacuation and collection system and
storage. So, the companies which exploit landfills would be able to plan the works and budgets.
8. References:
1. D. G. Fenn, K. J. Hanley, T. V. Degeare. U.S Environmental Protection Agency, (1975). Use of the
water balance method for predicting leachate generation from solid waste disposal sites. p. 3-35.
2. M. T. Orta, R. Cruz, N. Rojas, I. Monje, J. Sanchez. Waste Management & Research, (2003). Serial
wter balance method for predicting leachate generation in landfills. p. 127-136.
3. I. Vaquero. (2004). Manual de Diseo y Construccin de Vertederos de Residuos Slidos Urbanos.
155-208.
4. E. Pons, F.A. Zapata. (2009). Guas para el proyecto, construccin, explotacin, mantenimiento,
vigilancia y planes de emergencia de las balsas de riego con vistas a la seguridad. p. 168-219.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[147]
Evaluation of Waste Management in Residential Buildings

S. Vilcekova
(1)
, E. Kridlova Burdova
(1)

(1)
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, Vysokoskolska 4,
042 00 Kosice, Slovakia
+421556024260, silvia.vilcekova@tuke.sk, +421556024125, eva.kridlova.burdova@tuke.sk

1. Introduction In densely populated urban centres for example, appropriate and safe solid waste
management is of the most importance in creating a healthy environment for the population. In the past,
waste management elements were often only evaluated from a purely engineering and technical
viewpoint instead of being embedded in a local, institutional, socio-cultural and economic context. This
was also influenced by national, political and regulatory aspects as well as by national, global and
economic factors [1]. The Slovak building environmental assessment system (BEAS) was developed on
the basis of existing systems used in many countries. BEAS as a multi-criteria system which is
incorporated in proposed main fields: site selection&project planning; building construction; indoor
environment; energy performance; water management and waste management. The goal of waste
management is to minimize the waste generated from all phases of life cycle of buildings. The field of
waste management will be introduced in the paper. The aim is weighting and analysis of significance of
waste management indicators using MCDA method.

2. Experimental Creating a set of indicators for assessment is an important step in the whole
environmental assessment process [2]. In order to establish a comprehensive set of indicators for this
method of building environmental assessment for residential buildings, existing methods of building
environmental assessment used worldwide were combined with valid Slovak standards and codes and an
academic research paper. To achieve this, a three-step process was carried out. In the first step a full
range of indicators relating to sustainable building efficiency were collected through an extensive review
of the literature. In step two, a draft indicator list was selected from the full indicator list based on an in-
depth analysis, and in step three, a survey was conducted to gather comments from experts in order to
refine the selected draft indicators. The hierarchy structure of system BEAS allowed the use of multi-
criteria decision analysis (MCDA) for weight significance determination. MCDA is a tool for the
evaluation of effectiveness and decision support.

3. Results and Discussion - The proposed fields and indicators respect Slovak standards, rules, studies
and experiments. Waste management field has three indicators of assessment. First is assessment of Plan
of waste disposal originating in construction process with weight 25 %, second indicator of assessment
is Measures to minimize waste resulting from building operation with weight 37.5 % and third indicator
is Measures to minimize emission resulting from building construction and demolition with weights 37.5
%. For the purpose of system verification, a statistically significant set of buildings needs to be evaluated.
The outcome from the system verification will result in the modification of the fields and indicators
weighting.

4. Conclusions - The theoretical level of present knowledge of building environmental assessment is
completely analysed and applied making it necessary to implement this knowledge to construction
practice. The presented system is developed for the construction process stage. For the purpose of system
verification, a statistically significant set of buildings is required to be evaluated. The outcome from the
system verification will be result in the modification of the fields and indicators weighting.

5. References
[1] Mosler, H. J., Drescher, S., Zurbrgg, Ch. et al. Formulating waste management strategies based on
waste management practices of households in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. Habitat International 30, (2006)
p. 849862.
[2] Zelekov, M., Zvijkov, L. Selection of impact indicators and their evaluation for environmental
assessment of water construction. Pollack Periodica 6(1) (2011) p. 83-92.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[148]
Economical Evaluation of Municipal Waste Management System
B.Elevli
(1)
, T.Aydn
(2)
, S.Coruh
(3)

(1)
OMU Engineering Faculty, Samsun,TURKEY
birol.elevli@omu.edu.tr
(2)
OMU Engineering Faculty, Samsun, TURKEY
taneraydin67@gmail.com
(3)
OMU Engineering Faculty, Samsun,TURKEY
scoruh@omu.edu.tr

1.Introduction The population growth in urban areas and the changes in consumption habits have
caused a considerable increase in household waste production. Municipalities are faced with serious
environmental and administrative challenge with respect to management of household waste. They have
to developed and implement a system to overcome this problem that is known as Municipal Solid Waste
Management (MSWM) system[1,2,3]. In this study, the current status of MSWM system of 19 Mayis
Municipal has been evaluated, the collection and transport cost has been estimated, and related problems
have been identified to improve the service level. There are 2 waste-trucks with a capacity of 10 ton to
collect household waste. The city is divided into 14 districts. Two types of bin are located to streets
totaling 1078, of 597 Type1 and 481 Type2. Trucks collect waste everyday from two districts, once
or twice per week from the other districts.
2.Methods - In order to evaluate household waste collection system, a team traveled in the waste
collection trucks, recording trip time from bin to bin, time to empty bin into trucks. Total travel time,
and related costs are also estimated.
3.Results and Discussion - The obtained data have been evaluated. The abstract results are given in
Table I.
Table I. The cost of household waste collection
Days TRUCK1
($/month) (ton/month) ($/ton)
TRUCK1 11484 152504 0,075
TRUCK2 11484 103769 0,111

4. Conclusion The economical evaluation of 19Mayis MSWM system indicated that the system is
very costly and daily work is unbalanced. The main reason for that is the lack of optimized routing
for waste collection system. It was found that the development of optimized waste collection routing
and scheduling must be implemented.
5.References
[1] Sharholy, M. and oth., Municipal solid waste management in Indian cities- A review, Waste
Management, 28 (2008) 459-467.
[2] Pires, A., and oth., Solid waste management in European countries: A review of system analysis
techniques, Journal of Environmental Management, 92 (2011) 1033-1050.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[149]
Economical Analysis of Organic Fertilizer Production from Poultry
Waste

B.Elevli
(1)
, E.Uzgoren
(2)
, M.Ulucay
(3)

(1)
OMU Engineering Faculty, Samsun, TURKEY
birol.elevli@omu.edu.tr
(2)
DPU Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Kutahya, TURKEY
ergin.uzgoren@dpu.edu.tr
(3)
DPU Graduate School of Social Sciences , Kutahya, TURKEY
mulucay71@hotmail.com

1.Introduction Poultry industry is one of the important sectors to provide inexpensive meat and eggs
and it has grown rapidly in different region of Turkey. Tavsanli, Kutahya is one of these areas. This
growth has caused some local environmental problems that are local disturbances due to disturbing
odor, flies and rodents and landscape degradation. The main cause of local area pollution with nutrients
and pathogens is poor manure management. In order to overcome these problems and provide
inexpensive meat and eggs, poultry manure should be controlled. The transformation of poultry manure
into organic fertilizer is one of the alternatives to manage manure. In this study, economic analysis of
organic fertilizer production from chicken manure has been carried out. There are 16 poultry farms with
1140000 chickens in Tavsanli is 1140000 and each produces 0.14-0.16 kg/day manure, which is totaling
about 171 ton/day. One of these farms having 140000 chickens has decided to construct fertilizer plant
to produce organic fertilizer from chicken manure. The plant can handle 21 ton/day fresh manure. The
required investment is about 200000 with 33000 working capital. The estimated operational cost is
about 100000, includes labor, energy, packing and other costs. The expected production is 210
ton/month pellet and 52.5 ton/month fine fertilizer. Estimated sale price is about 80 /ton and 70/ton.
The resulting revenue is 20475 x 12 = 245700 /year. The economic evaluation is given in Table I.
TABLE I. Economic Evaluation of Fertilizer Plant (x1000 )
Years 0 1 2 3 4 5
Revenue 245 245 245 245 245
Capital cost -200
Operating cost -100 -100 -100 -100 -100
Amortization -31 -31 -31 -31 -31
Before tax -200 114 114 114 114 114
Tax (%30) 0 -34,2 -34,2 -34,2 -34,2 -34,2
Amortization 31 31 31 31 31
Working Capital -33
Net Flow -233 110,8 110,8 110,8 110,8 110,8
NPV(20%) 98,40
IRR 41%
Payback less than 2 years
2. Conclusion The economical evaluation of fertilizer plant indicated that the system is very
economic in addition to its contribution to environmental protection.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[150]
Is Arrocampo reservoir a thermal paradise for common carp?
E. Garca Ceballos, J. Martin, J.C. Escudero
Ecology Area. Vegetal Biology, Ecology and Earth Science Department, Extremadura
University, Avd Elvas s/n 06071 Badajoz, Spain.
Phone: 677392591, engarzu@unex.es
1. Introduction - The thermal Final preferendum is defined to be the temperature selected by species
within a thermal gradient independently of its previous thermal history (1). This value is a good estimator
of the optimum temperature for growth and it is considered to correspond to the general physiological
optimum of the species (2-4). Arrocampo Reservoir is used as cooling basin for a nuclear power plant
located in souther Europe. Its annual mean temperature is about 30 C, where the carp is the dominant
pelagic fish species (5). The objective of this work is to determine the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) thermal
Final prefrendum and compare the results with the thermal values found in this reservoir where
temperatures are hardly found in other natural fresh-water habitat of Extremadura.
2. Experimental - We have used a prefabricated concrete model (6) where it has established a horizontal
thermal gradient. We have determined the Final preferedum , Optimum niche and Selected niche (mean
selected temperature, median33% and range of temperature after reaching the thermal stability of the
selection, respectively), over an annual cycle of a population of 33 carps 1+.
3. Results an Discussion - The thermal Final preferendum, Optimum Niche and Selected Niche selected
for each of the seasons are shown in Table I.
Winter Spring Summer Autum
Final preferendum
(C)
29,8 30,8 30,7 30,5
Optimum niche (C) 26,9-31,6 30,2-31,5 30,1-31,5 30,1-31,1
Selected miche (C) 25-33 27-32 27-32 27-33
Table I. Final thermal preferendum,Optimum Niche and Selected Niche of carp population in each of the
seasons.
4. Conclusions - The obtained values of the thermal Final tpreferendum, optimum niche and selected
niche are similar to the temperature values found and selected in the Arrocampo reservoir during an
annual cycle becoming, therefore, this habitat with anomalous thermal conditions into a suitable habitat
for carps.
5. References.
(1) F.E.J. Fry, 1947. Effects of the environment on animal activity. Univ. Toronto Studies Biol. 55, Publ.
Ont. Fish Res. Lab. 68: 1-62.
(2) J. R. Brett, 1971. Energetic responses of salmn to temperatures. A study of some thermal relations in
the physiology and freshwater ecology of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).Am. Zoologist , 11: 99-
113.
(3)T.L. Beititnger and L.C. Fitzpatrick, 1979. Physiological and ecological correlates of preferred
temperature in fish. Am. Zoologist , 19: 319-329.
(4)R.W. McCauley and J.M. Casselman, 1981. The final preferendum as an index of the temperature for
optimum growth in fish. From. Proc. World Symp. on Aquaculture in Heated Effluents and
Recirculation Systems, Stavanger 28-30 May, 1980 Vol. II.Berln 1981.
(5) L.Encina, A. Rodriguez-Ruiz, C. Granado-Lorencio. 2008. Distribution of common carp in a Spanish
reservoir in relation to thermal loading from a nuclear power plant. Journal of Thermal Biology, 33: 444-
450.
(6) J.J. Perez-Regadera, J. Martin, E. Garcia-Ceballos, J.C. Escudero. 1995. Model development for the
determination of Final preferenda in freshwater species. Application in tench Tinca tinca (L). Pol. Arch.
Hydrobiol. 42: 27-34.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[151]
Influence of the N mineralization winery waste in two amended soils
I. Rodrguez-Salgado
1
, P. Prez-Rodrguez
1
, M. Daz-Ravia
2
, D. Fernndez-
Calvio
3
, J.C. Nvoa-Muoz
1
, M. Arias-Estvez
1


(1)
Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Area, Faculty of Sciences of Ourense, University of Vigo,
Galicia, Spain. isabelrs@uvigo.es.+34 988 387 070
(2)
Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiolgicas de Galicia, IIAG-CSIC, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
(3)
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg,
Denmark

1. Introduction Winery industry is one of the most productive agricultural sectors in Spain and this
leads to high generation of winery wastes, being most of them highly organic [1]. However, a particular
winery waste is that originated after wine clarification due to the use of bentonite which removes
undesirable substances from the musts. The resulting waste, called Bentonite Waste (BW), is mostly
inorganic although it presents a notably enrichment in C and N. The addition of this waste to soil as an
amendment could be a useful alternative to improve soil respiration and soil carbon and nitrogen
dynamics, as well as to contribute to soil fertility [2]. The main objective of this work is to study the
effects of BW addition in the N mineralization of two soils amended with different doses of this waste,
which is also compared to N mineralization of soil without waste and the waste alone.

2. Experimental - The experiments consisted in the mixture of 70 g (<2 mm) of one young vineyard soil
(S) and one old vineyard soil (P) from D.O. Ribeiro (Ourense, NW Spain). Incubation of mixtures of
soils and waste (at rates of 0, 40, and 80 Mg ha
-1
), and soil an waste separately, were carried out in
triplicate under laboratory conditions, at 25 C and maintaining constant the humidity, during 3, 7, 14,
21, 49, 63, 84 and 126 days. A solution of KCl 2M was used to extract N-ammonium and N-nitrate forms.

3. Results and Discussion Results show different behaviors regarding N mineralization in amended
soils, and soils and waste treated separately. In S40, N mineralization occurs in NH4
+
form, obtaining the
higher value of mineralization percentage at 14 days (14%). This ammonium does not nitrify due to soil
pH from day 14 till the end of the experiment is around 9, which suggests that N is lost as NH3 by
volatilization [3]. For S80, negative values of ammonified N were attributed to a greater consumption
than production of N that results in NH3 volatilization, which also affects negatively to Nitrobacter
activity. As consequence, a lower percentage of N mineralization was observed in S80 (5% at day 14)
than the unamended S soil. Higher values of N mineralization are produced in the unamended S soil,
around 10% at day 84. In the P amended soil, a significant NH4
+
nitrification is observed with a
subsequent increase in the NO3
-
concentration and thus, the percentage of N mineralization at 84 days
was about 24 and 26% in the soil mixtures (P40 and P80 respectively). The soil P has a notable buffering
capacity that allow to pH to remain stable at around 6.5. In the unamended P soil the percentage of N
mineralized reaches 10% at 63 days, mainly due to the production of NO3
-
. As regards the behavior of
the BW two phases can be distinguished during N mineralization. Until 63 days, the concentration of
NH4
+
increases producing the highest percentage of mineralization (3.7%). Then, the activation of
Nitrobacter causes an increase in the production of NO3
-
which is accompanied by a slight decrease in
the soil pH.

4. Conclusions A higher N mineralization was observed in the soil-waste mixtures than in the soil (S
or P) or in the waste used separately. This could be to some stimulating effect of the addition of the waste
to soils, leading to increase in the rate of organic matter mineralization. Although BW has a higher
organic matter content than the soils, its microbial activity is low. Thus, it is proposed that the
mineralization reactions that occur in the soil-waste mixtures are mediated by the native microbial
activity of the soil.

5. References
[1] L. Ruggieri, E. Cadena, J. Martnez-Blanco, C.M. Gasol, X. Gabarrell, T. Gea, X. Sort, A.
Snchez, J. Clean. Prod., 17(9), (2009) p. 830.
[2] J. Maha, A. Cabaneiro, T. Carballas, M. Daz-Ravia, Biol. Fertil. Soils., 45(1), (2008) p. 99.
[3] C. de la Fuente, J.A. Alburquerque, R. Clemente, M.P. Bernal, Biol. Fertil. Soils., 49(3), (2013) p.
313.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[152]
Institutional Task Manager as a Tool for Environmental
Management

Caroline Ferreira Bailon
(1)
, Paulo Roberto Rodrigues Bravo
(2)
, Edson Salviano da
Silva
(3)


(1)
Vital Brazil Institute, Maestro Jos Botelho Street, 64 Santa Rosa Niteri
(+55 21) 2711-9223
carolinebailon@vitalbrazil.rj.gov.br

(2)
paulobravo@vitalbrazil.rj.gov.br;
(3)
esalviano@vitalbrazil.rj.gov.br


1. Introduction The computerization of systems and processes in the workplace helped the
dissemination of Information Technology for sustainable thinking when considering the economic and
environmental possibilities because they serve as useful tools in waste minimization process. Due to
more severe and greater awareness by consumers and environmental laws, companies are not only using
a larger amount of recycled materials but also concerned about the reduction of waste generation.

2. Discussion - Annual consumption of A4 paper in offices is abundant, regardless the field of
companys activity, and its impacts beyond the generation of waste, but since the process of paper
production that involves the cutting of trees, lots of fresh water and consumption energy. That situation
contributes to the spread of deployment software for management activities in companies, because
besides the advantages for rapid dissemination and historical record of institutional information, there
are also significant environmental benefits. Based on these aspects Vital Brazil Institute, one of the
official laboratories responsible for the strategic production of medicaments for the Ministry of Health,
implemented in 2008 the Manager Request, Work and Action, management tool that directly influences
the amount of paper used and therefore discarded, besides indicating the parameter consumer company.


3. Results - This case study presents data relating to the annual consumption of A4 paper since
the deployment manager in the institution, comparing the results to the period that the Manager tool was
not used and indicating proposals to reduce the number of consumed reams.






















Keywords: Paper, Consumption Reduction, Task Manager.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[153]
Short-term evolution of some chemical properties of a mineral waste
from winery industry

I. Rodrguez-Salgado
1
, P. Prez-Rodrguez
1
, L. Cutillas-Barreiro
1
, D. Fernndez-
Calvio
2
, M. Arias-Estvez
1
, J.C. Nvoa-Muoz
1


(1)
Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Area, Faculty of Sciences of Ourense, University
of Vigo, Galicia, Spain. isabelrs@uvigo.es.+34 988 387 070

(2)
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen,
Frederiksberg, Denmark

1. Introduction Huge quantities of wastes are originated in winery industries, and its management is
a worried issue that should be solved in order to avoid environmental impacts. Bentonite waste (BW) is
derived from the use of bentonite mineral as fining agent in wine production, whose strong enrichment
in organic matter and macronutrients. Recent studies about BW characterization were carried out and
they showed its suitability to reuse it as an amendment in vineyard soils [1]. Other organic wastes from
winery industry were also studied as soil amendments even composted [2], to know their behaviour in
different degrees of maturation. Since previous studies have shown that BW addition contributes
significantly to changes in some chemical soil properties, however it is still unknown how are modified
some chemical properties of the BW separately, which will be addressed in this study.

2. Experimental Evolution of some chemical properties of BW was examined during 126 days in a
dark chamber, under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Three replicates of BW were
analyzed after 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 49, 63, 84 and 126 days. The chemical properties analyzed were: pH, total
C and N, EC, water soluble and neutral salt-extractable cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu), and available P.

3. Results and Discussion Main changes are observed in the pH which decreases slightly till 21 day,
when reaches a minimum value of 5.7, increasing afterwards for three weeks up to keep fairly constant
at 9.5-10 after 126 days of incubation. These changes in pH could be due to the mineralization of organic
N present in the waste and the subsequent production of NH4
+
during the first phase, which leads an
increase of pH. In addition, total C and N also decrease throughout 126 days because of the mineralization
of the organic matter present in the BW. Regarding cations, K is the most abundant in both, water and
neutral salt extractions, mainly due to the enrichment that this waste shows in K-salts during the
winemaking process [3]. Moreover, the higher values of EC should be expected although the maximum
value of this parameter was 0.5 dS m
-1
which is not exceed those found for other organic wastes used as
agricultural amendments [4]. As regards available P, their values are constant throughout nine weeks but,
afterwards, it increases until 1300 mg kg
-1
. These high values of available P are possibly due to the
addition of phosphoamonic salts to the must, which accelerates the fermentation process. Water soluble
cations (such as Na, K and Cu) concentrations increase with time, probably due to the solubilization of
the organic matter associated to the waste.

4. Conclusions Obtained results were unexpected due to the waste on its own had a different behaviour
compared to soils studied previously, and also compared to the mixture of both (soil and waste).
However, mixtures of both materials maximize the changes in analyzed chemical properties. Finally,
more studies mixing mature waste are necessary to know the most suitable time of maturation before its
wide use as soil amendment

5. References
[1] Nvoa-Muoz, J.C.; Simal-Gndara, J.; Fernndez-Calvio, D.; Lpez-Periago, E.; Arias-Estvez,
M. Bioresour. Technol. 2008, 99 (15), 6771-6779.
[2] Bustamante, M.A.; Paredes, C.; Morales, J.; Mayoral, A.M.; Moral, R. Bioresour. Technol. 2009, 100
(20), 4766-4772.
[3] Bustamante, M.A.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Agull, E.; Andreu, J.; Paredes, C.; Moral, R. Agric. Ecosyst.
Environ. 2011, 140 (1-2), 80-87.
[4] Tiquia, S.M.; Tam, N.F.Y. Bioresour. Technol. 2000, 72 (1), 1-7.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[154]
Preparation and characterization of foam glass of glass of fluorescent
lamps using alternative fonts by CaCO3 as foaming agent

I. Nunes
(1)
, V. dos Santos
(1)
, R. N. Brandalise
(1)

(1)
Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), Centro de Cincias Exatas e Tecnologia (CCET),
Rua Francisco Getlio Vargas, 1130. CEP 95070-560. Caxias do Sul/RS Telefone
(55) 54 3218 2371 *isaac.eq@gmail.com

1. Introduction
The glass wastes have huge potential application and can be 100% recycled without any loss of its
properties [1], and reintroduced in production processes, resulting in a reduction in the use of raw
materials as well as energy saving in the melting process of new glass production [2].
One potential use for glass waste of fluorescent lamps is the preparation of foam glass [3]. This artifact
has an application in civil construction, due to low rates of heat transfer (0.04-0.08 Wm
-1
K
-1
) [4].
The preparation of foam glass occurs from the mixing of the powder with a foaming agent. The
practiced firing temperature causes a decrease in the viscosity of the glassy phase and the decomposition
of the foaming agent, releasing gas into the amorphous phase, giving rise to porous body [5].
2. Experimental
The glass tube by fluorescent lamp decontaminated of mercury, donated by Apliquim Brasil Recicle,
was grinded till the point that it could fully pass through a sieve 150 ABNT (106 m). As foaming agent
was used commercial calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (Quim Vale, minimum purity 97%), grinded egg shell
and oyster flour in a percentage of 2, 3 and 4% by weight. The glass was mixed with the foaming agent
in a planetary mixer (model C Pavitest 3010) with about 15g of a solution (5%) of poly(vinyl alcohol)
(PVA) per 100g of powder. The specimens were shaped in press (Bovenau 10t) with a pressure of 40
MPa, using a cylindrical mold ( = 54mm) and air-dried for 24h, after 6h in oven at 60C followed by
18h in an oven at 105C. The samples thus obtained were fired at 800C with heating rate of 5,0Cmin
-
1
.
3. Results and Discussion
The results obtained for the volumetric expansion of vitreous foams prepared with 2, 3 and 4% CaCO3
showed that the composition with 3% have a higher volumetric expansion CaCO3 (513.8%) compared
to the others (2% showed 339 6% and 4% had 388.7%). Tests with foams prepared with eggs shells and
oyster flour will also be evaluated in terms of the percentage of volumetric expansion, showing the
possibility of using such materials to replace the commercial CaCO3.
4. Conclusions
In relation to CaCO3 percentage, 3% showed the highest percentage of vitreous expansion foams. The
foam glasses obtained in this work showed low density (0,21 gcm
3
) and can be used for thermal
insulation. The evaluation of the compositions with alternative sources of carbonate will evidence the
possibility of replacing this material.

5. References
[1] M. Dal B, L. Silva, V. Oliveira, Cermica Industrial, Volume 14 (2009) p. 29.
[2] E. Furlani, G. Tonello, S. Maschio, Waste Management, 30 (2010) p.1714.
[3] R. Aaboe,E. Oiseth, Anais Int. Symp. Org. by Concrete and masonry research, (2004) p.167.
[4] G. Scarinci, G. Brusatin, E. Bernardo, Glass foans inCellular Ceramics: Structure, manufacturing,
properties and applications, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2006, p.158-176.
[5] H. R. Fernandes, F. Andreola, L. Barbieri, I. Lancellotti, M. J. Pascual, J. M. Ferreira, Ceramics
International 39, (2013) p. 9071.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[155]
Influence of organic matter content in the mechanical properties of
mortars manufactured with Biomass Bottom Ashes.

F. Agrela
(1)
, M.G. Beltrn
(1)
, M. Cabrera
(1)
, A. Barbudo
(1)
, J.R. Jimnez
(1)

(1) Construction Engineering Area, University of Crdoba, Ed. Leonardo Da Vinci, Campus
Rabanales, Ctra. N-IV, Km-396, C.P. 14014 - Crdoba, Spain.
* Corresponding Author: Francisco Agrela, Tel. y fax: +34 957212239; fagrela@gmail.com

1. Introduction The generation of energy from biomass combustion has increased significantly in
recent years. The use of such materials involves the generation of waste which is landfilled. In order to
provide an environmental solution to this type of waste, some studies have been conducted to investigate
their mechanical behaviours in mortars and concretes [1-4].
In Spain, there are a large number of biomass power plants, which primarily use olive residues. These
plants produce electrical power and two types of residues are obtained: Biomass Fly Ashes (BFA), used
for agricultural fertiliser and construction applications, and Biomass Bottom Ashes (BBA), which is
transported to landfills or dumps since the properties of these residues are not well known.
Depending on the combustion process and raw materials used, BBA could contain a high percentage of
unburned particles and organic matter. This factor influences the physical and chemical properties of the
material, which may result in not being able to be used.
Therefore, this study aims to determine the amount of organic matter for three power generation plants
and its effect on the compressive strength of mortars.

2. Experimental Six types of BBA from three biomass power plants were characterized physically and
chemically to determine their nature and their amount of organic matter. Similarly, this BBA were used
to manufacture mortars in order to determine the loss of strength respecting conventional mortars with
BBA previously calcined, according to UNE-EN1744-1. Moreover, the setting time of the mortar was
determined.
Table I Summary of results

3. Results and Discussion Table I shows the average of results
obtained. Significantly lower resistances were obtained in mortars with
uncalcined BBA respecting mortars where calcined BBA were applied.
In turn, higher strength losses were obtained in mortars with greater
amount of organic matter content, as observed in Table I.

4. Conclusions - A higher content of organic matter in the BBA is related to the loss of strength of
mortar, so that the existence of organic matter negatively affects the mechanical properties of mortars.
Furthermore, the existence of higher quantity of organic matter affects the setting speed, adversely
affecting the workability of these mortars.

5. References
[1] Cuenca, J., Rodrguez, J., Martn-Morales, M., Snchez-Roldn, Z., Zamorano, M., 2013. Effects of
olive residue biomass fly ash as filler in self-compacting concrete. Construction and Building Materials
40, 702-709.
[2] Carrasco, B., Cruz, N., Terrados, J., Corpas, F.A., Prez, L., 2014. An evaluation of bottom ash from
plant biomass as a replacement for cement in building blocks. Fuel 118, 272-280.
[3] Maschio, S., Tonello, G., Piani, L., Furlan,i E., 2011. Fly and bottom ashes from biomass combustion
as cement replacing components in mortars production: Rheological behavior of the pastes and materials
compression strength. Chemosphere 85, 666-671.
[4] Kula, I., Olgun, A., Erdogan, Y., Sevinc, V., 2001. Effects of colemanite waste, cool bottom ash,
and fly ash on the properties of cement. Cement and Concrete Research 31, 491-4.


Org. mat.
content
Loss of
strength
L-BBA1/L-BBA2 3.3 6.7
PG-BBA1/PG BBA-2 3.8 17.3
V.V-BBA1/V-BBA2 12.4 31.1

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[156]
Physical and chemical characterization of Biomass Bottom Ashes to
be applied in civil constructions

F. Agrela
(1)*
, M. Cabrera
(1)
, M.G. Beltrn
(1)
, M.J. Rodrguez
(1)
, A.P. Galvn
(1)

(1) Construction Engineering Area, University of Crdoba, Ed. Leonardo Da Vinci, Campus
Rabanales, Ctra. N-IV, Km-396, C.P.14.014Crdoba, Spain. T
* Corresponding Author: Francisco Agrela, Tel. y fax: +34 957212239; fagrela@gmail.com

1. Introduction In the coming years, the production of energy from renewable resources will play a
fundamental role [1]. Andalusian region, in the southern of Spain, can potentially produce large amounts
of biomass, mainly from olive farming and related industries. The biomass is burnt via a thermochemical
degradation process to obtain electric power [2]. Usually, Biomass Bottom Ashes (BBA) and Biomass
Fly Ashes (BFA) are the two types of by-product produced in this process.
BFA has typically been used in agriculture due to its mineral nutrient content, mainly potassium [3], and
as mineral addition to traditional concrete [4]. BBA are obtained in the bed of the kiln, and the extraction
is by water drag. Due to this process, this by-product is obtained with high humidity. BBA are
traditionally disposed of in landfills.
In this work BBA were studied in order to identify the most important physical and chemical properties.
The study was focused on the potential use of BBA as a building material.

2. Experimental Six types of Biomass Bottom Ash (BBA) from three biomass power plants were
characterized physically and chemically to determine their nature and their amount of organic matter.

3. Results Table I shows the average of results obtained.

Table 1: Physical and chemicals properties of BBA samples
Average values
Chemical compounds
Si (%) 23.16
Density (EN 1097-6) g/cm
3
1.93 Ca (%) 15.59
Water absorption (EN 1097-6) % 21.31 K (%) 15.38
Friability Coefficients (UNE 83-
115)
% 30.06
Mg
(%)
2.85
Modified Proctor test (UNE-EN
103-501)
Density (g/cm
3
) 1.17
Total Sulphur (UNE-EN 1744-
1:2009)
(%) 0.41
Moisture (%) 28
Chloride soluble(UNE-EN 1744-
1:2009)
(%) 0.17
California Bearing Ratio CBR (
UNE-EN 103502)
Unsoaked (%) 29 Organic matter content (%) 4.09
4-day soaked (%) 28
LOI

(%) 11.47

4. Conclusions - The low density and high water absorption capacity of BBA confirms that it is
composed of particles with a low specific weight. BBA present a good bearing ratio and the continuous
grain size distribution. These by-products primarily consist of Si, Ca and K, while the measured amounts
of Mg were lower than 5 %. Thus, Si is the most abundant element, followed by Ca and K. The average
values of the major compounds are 23.16 % for Si, 15.59 % for Ca and 15.38 % for K. The relative
abundance of elements was determined as follows: Si > Ca >K > Mg.

5. References
[1] Callejn-Ferre AJ, Carreo-Snchez J, Surez-Medina FJ, Prez-Alonso J, Velzquez-Mart B.
Prediction models for higher heating value based on the structural analysis of the biomass of plant
remains from the greenhouses of Almera (Spain). Fuel 2014;116:377-387.
[2] Rosa JM, Pasadas M. Biomass potential in Andalusia, from grapevines, olives, fruit trees and poplar,
for providing heating in homes. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2012;16:4190-4195.
[3] Basu M, Pande M, Bhadoria P.B.S, Mahapatra S.C. Potential fly-ash utilization in agriculture: A
global review. Progress in Natural Science 2009;19:11731186.
[4] Cengiz Duran Atis. Strength properties of high-volume fly ash roller compacted and workable
concrete, and influence of curing condition. Cement and Concrete Research 2005;35:1112 1121.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[157]
ALKALINE HYDROLISIS FOR DISINFECTION OF ORGANIC
WASTE

S. C. Pinho
1*
, M. F. Almeida
1


and O. C. Nunes
2


(1)
LEPABE, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of
Engineering, University of Porto, Portugal
scpinho@fe.up.pt, phone: +351225081422


1. Introduction A large number of methods are available to inactivate microorganisms. Most of them
involve heating, chemical treatment or irradiation, both alone or combined. The selection of the method
depends on the type of material being treated as well as the final purpose. Wet heat treatment is the most
used, being conducted at different temperatures, depending, also, upon the material and the treatment
objectives. This method has, however, significant disadvantages, such as being extremely time-
consuming and not adequate to treat heat sensitive materials.
The complete inactivation of various microorganisms using alkaline hydrolysis has been proven in
several studies [1, 2]. This technology is used to destroy animal carcasses, tissues, anatomical parts,
blood, body fluids, toxic agents and fixatives [3, 4]. The alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to have
significant advantages compared to other treatments, because it sterilizes and destroys at once, and also
reduces the total waste volume [3, 4].
This study reports the alkaline treatment as a disinfection alternative method for organic waste
contaminated with infections agents. The effect of alkaline treatment on the degree of Geobacillus
stearothermophilus inactivation at 110 C with different sodium hydroxide concentrations was assessed.
The effluent obtained after treating selected organic materials was characterised with respect to total
organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days
(BOD5).

2. Experimental The experiments were carried out in a Parr batch reactor with a titanium vessel of
450 mL capacity under temperature and pressure control. The spore suspension at 10
7
CFU/mL was
mixed with 45 mL of 0.5 M, or 1 M NaOH solutions. The batch reactor was heated at 110 C with heating
rates of 5 C/min and holding time of 30 minutes. Pork meat was used has reference of organic materials.
Approximately 20 g of material was added, considering the use of the NaOH solutions at L/S=5:1,
L/S=10:1 and L/S=20:1.


3. Results and Discussion - The results demonstrated that, organic materials were almost destroyed at
0.5 M NaOH and totally destroyed when the 1 M NaOH were used. The effluents obtained after treatment
showed high pH, TOC, CQO and BOD5. Although with very organic load the effluents were
biodegradable after neutralization.

4. Conclusions - Under the studied conditions the disinfection was achieved; therefore, alkaline
treatment might be used as an alternative method for disinfection of contaminated waste.

5. References

[1] F. Taguchi, Y.Tamai, K.Uchida, R. Kitajima, T. Kawaguchi, S. Miura, Arch. of Virology, 119, (1991)
p.297.
[2] R.G.L Murphy, J.A. Scanga, B.E. Powers, J.L. Pilon, K.C. VerCauteren, P.B. Nash, G.C. Smith, K.E.
Belk, J. of Animal Science, 87, (2009) p.1787.
[3] H. Leon Thacker Carcass Disposal: A Comprehensive Review. National Agricultural Biosecurity
Center, Kansas State University, 2004.
[4] S. Kalambura, N. Voa, T. Krika, Z. indrak, A. pehar, S. Kalambura, Archives of Industrial
Hygiene and Toxicology, 62, (2011) p.249


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[158]
Study of a Physical Process for the Recovery of Gold and Copper
from Printed Circuit Boards

E. Ventura
(1, 2)
, A. Futuro
(2)
, J. Dias
(1,*)


Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, LEPABE, Faculty of Engineering, University of
Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +351 22 5081422;


Fax: +351 22 5081447; E-mail address: jmdias@fe.up.pt.
(2)
Department of Mining Engineering, CIGAR, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, R.
Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.

Abstract

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is increasing sharply in the last decades,
demanding the implementation of efficient management strategies. The correct management of such
waste stream is of major importance, particularly to the environment and health, due to the content of
hazardous components in electrical and electronic equipment [1]. In addition, from an economic
perspective, the significantly high amounts of valuable components, including precious metals, that can
be found in these materials, have also drawn high attention to the development of efficient recovery
processes [2].
Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) found in WEEE are extremely appealing for recovery, due to their high

concentration of metals, that present high economic value [3].

The present work focused on the development and evaluation of

a low cost and environment-friendly method for the recovery of

metals from PCB wastes, focusing on gold and copper, using

Physical/Mechanic Processes.

The recovery method studied started with the PCB

Disassembling (motherboards, graphic boards, modem boards

and memory boards), followed by a Comminution and

Granulometric Classification and finally Magnetic and

Hydrogravitic Separation. The Hydrogravitic Separation, used

to concentrate the metals in the fractions of higher metal

content, is considered to be the innovation of the work

performed. Hydrometallurgical extraction of the metals

followed by Atomic absorption spectroscopy was performed to

determine the concentration of gold and copper before and after
Image 1. Stereo microscope observation after

the physical treatment in study.

hidrogravitic separation. Fraction -1.70+0.85 mm.

The first stage of the process enabled the separation of valuable Top-left: Mixture; Top-right: Sterile; Bottom:

compounds and the removal of the disposable ones, the second
Concentrate.



one allowed the liberation of the metal from the matrix were it was embedded and the third stage sorted
it out by size, enabling the determination of which granulometric classes had the best degree of
liberation. After, the ferromagnetic fraction was removed by Magnetic Separation thus improving the
feed on the final stage, where the Hydrogravitic Separation using a Wilfey table was used to refine the
finest and richest fractions, in the range of 0.425 1.70 mm (Image 1).
Through the studied method it was possible to obtain concentrates with maximum increases of the metal
content of 95% for gold and 57% for copper. The metal content of the concentrates was, accordingly,
2.6 wt.% for gold and 44 wt.% for copper, corresponding to maximum recoveries of 69 wt.% and 81
wt.% for gold and copper, respectively. The results indicate high potential of this method for the
production of concentrates with high added value from PCB.


References:
1. J. Cui, L, Zhang, J. Hazard. Mater., 158, (2008) p. 228.
2. A. Tuncuk, V. Stazi, A. Akcil, E.Y. Yazici, H. Deveci, Miner. Eng., 25, (2012) p.28.
3. Y. Park, D. Fray, J. Hazard. Mater., 164, (2009) p.1152.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[159]
Decreasing Waste in BIM-based Industrial Projects Design and
Execution

M. Isabel Jimnez Gmez
(1)
, Moiss Blanco Caballero
(1)
and Alberto Snchez Lite
(1)


(1)
Department of Manufacturing Processes Engineering
+34 983184935 mariaisabel.jimenez@egi.uva.es





The design and execution of technical projects in industry usually generate large amounts of waste that
is necessary to manage and solve. This process is quite complex and difficult to schedule. However,
there is a model to develop industrial projects called Building Information Modelling (BIM) that allows
to organize since the first day of work all the stages, planning, materials, human resources, costs and
whatever a project needs to achieve the final objective of the project.
That is why in this work we present a specific method to apply the BIM model from the point of view to
decrease the waste in the design and execution of industrial projects. For it, we divide the whole project
in several sets of tasks. This way, we analyse, measure and propose solutions to manage the waste
management in function of the conditions that are required.
It is very important for the following engineers generations to incorporate to their curricula all the
elements needed nowadays in their professional work. As university researchers, we have just included
in the industrial engineering curricula and studies programme this method to improve the students
abilities and knowledge, specially for their work life.
Also, we apply the last certifications that makes the projects better with higher quality and guarantee.
For example we propose Leed certification about energy and environmental design for sustainable
buildings. The set of rules about the use of strategies to achieve the sostenibility in buildings of any
type is very important for us too, so in the projects curricula is observed.
There are also other features to analyze and to include in the projects view as energy efficiency,
alternative energies and the materials selection.
Some of the certifications now are volunteer task, but it does not mean they are not important, and soon,
in next future, they all will have to be applied, althoug now no.
For example, Spanish green certification is a model to evaluate and certificate buildings in environment
terms, which is based on the Building Technical Code and European directives.
The local context and climate are also very important to be taken into account since the first moment of
beginning the design of a technical project.
As it can be observed, there are too many parameters to measure and study in the designing of a project,
so this type of work is quite difficult. The BIM model is an interesting tool that makes this work easier
and well organized offering tools and help to do it in a good way. That is why the method we propose is
BIM-based.
The results of this work are showed through the evaluation of our students learning, but also in the
students response to our tests about the projects subject method applied and the relation with the
professional job as engineer.
We hope to continue in this work way improving even more this method, because this is the first step
for considering the real relevance that the waste management has got in general in our lifes, and
specifically in the realization of industrial projects.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[160]
Comparative assessment of two urban sustainability systems: an
application to waste management in Cartagena (Spain)

A.I. Domenech
(1,2)
, P. Jimnez-Guerrero
(3)
, N. Ratola
(3)


(1)
Escuela Universitaria Politcnica, UCAM - Catholic University of Murcia (Spain)
(2)
Department of Building and Urbanism, University of Alicante (Spain)

Tel: +34868888175; E-mail: aidomenech@ucam.edu

(3)
University of Murcia, Department of Physics, Ed. CIOyN, Campus de Espinardo 30100
Murcia (Spain).


1. Introduction urban metabolism is an important topic of research nowadays. However, scientific
literature is scarce related to the assessment of waste management in cities from a sustainability
perspective. In this sense, several systems of indicators have been developed in order to assess,
synthetically, urban sustainability; they also include indices related to waste management [1].

Hence, the applicability of two sets of sustainability indicators has been tested in the urban context of a
complex Mediterranean city as Cartagena (Spain), which includes one of the largest harbours in the
Mediterranean area. This city presents a complex socio-economic, urban, and environmental geography,
which constitutes an ideal study framework for the case study of sustainability indicators. Due to the
large number of vectors included in sustainability indicators related to urban metabolism, in this
contribution we focus exclusively on waste management-related issues.

2. Experimental - the target area covers 12621173 m2, including 86 sections belonging to 7 districts.
The total population of the area is 100226 people (municipal census of 2011), compared to a total of
around 217998 inhabitants in the whole city. We excluded outskirts areas that have traditionally been
independent of the city itself. For the choice of systems among those recognize worldwide the criteria
taken into account were: (1) existence of information, (2) indicators with an urban scope, (3) governed
by parametric indices so as to facilitate the comparison between them and obtaining a specific result.

The systems selected were (1) CASBEE for Urban Development, and (2) Methodological Guide for
Auditing, Certifying and Accrediting of the Quality and Sustainability in the Urban Environment (MG).
For waste management, CASBEE defines the Q1.3.1 index as the rate of total waste recycling, while
SICCGMs defines a larger number of indicators (MTU.06.38 related to waste generation; MTU.06.39
regarding gross separate collection; MTU.06.40 covers the proximity to waste collection points;
MTU.06.41 includes the proximity to a recycling centre; finally MTU.06.42 stands for the closure of the
cycle of organic matter).


3. Results and Conclusions - the results indicate that assessing waste management from indicator
systems can contribute decisively in the direction of urban practices towards sustainability goals, despite
the difference in the relative importance of the various indicators covered, different evaluation criteria
and the peculiarity of statistical information managed for the calculation of the indicator in each of the
systems.

4. References
[1] N. Munier, Ecol. Indicat., 11, (2011) p. 1020



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[161]
Quantifying the contributions from the energy and waste
management sectors to air quality exceedances over the Iberian
Peninsula

P. Jimnez-Guerrero, N. Ratola, J.P. Montvez

University of Murcia, Department of Physics, Ed. CIOyN, Campus de Espinardo 30100
Murcia (Spain).

Tel: +34868888175; E-mail: pedro.jimenezguerrero@um.es

1. Introduction A wide number of studies show that the Iberian Peninsula (IP) exceeds some of the
thresholds of air quality established in the legislation. In this sense, chemistry transport models (CTMs)
play a key role in assessing and understanding the emissions abatement plans through the use of
sensitivity analysis strategies. These analyses characterize the changes in model outputs due to variations
in the input parameters. Since the management strategies of air pollutant emission is one of the
predominant factors for controlling urban air quality, this work assesses the impact of the energy and
waste management emitting activities on Iberian air quality.

2. Experimental - the methodology includes the use of the regional modelling system MM5 (using
NCEP reanalysis at 0.5 resolution as boundary conditions)-EMEP-CHIMERE for the year 2010 in a
domain covering southwestern Europe. The model was applied with fine temporal and spatial resolution
(three nested domains with resolutions ranging from 10 to 1 km to characterize regional to urban
responses). In order to represent the sensitivity of the chemistry and transport of aerosols, tropospheric
ozone and other photochemical species, several hypothetical scenarios of emission control have been
implemented to quantify the influence of different emission sources regarding the energy and waste
management sectors. The modelling approach lies on a sensitivity analysis to determine the emission
reduction and the strategy needed in the target area, in order to attain the standards and thresholds set in
the European Directive 2008/50/EC.

3. Results and Discussion - the results depict that the system is able to characterize the exceedances
occurring in the IP, mainly related to the maximum 8h moving average surpassing the limit value of 120
g m-3. Furthermore, compliance with the PM10 daily limit values (50 g m-3) is not achieved in the
target area, as also indicated by measurement techniques. The sensitivity analysis indicates that large
reductions in the precursors emissions are needed in all scenarios examined to reach the thresholds set
in the European Directive. Ozone and particulate matter air pollution improve considerably in most of
the scenarios included.



4. Conclusions - this work therefore contributes to a better understanding of the transport and
dispersion patterns of air pollutants coming from energy and waste management emitting activities in
such a complex area like the IP, employing modelling methodologies.


Image 1. Example of Iberian Peninsula modelling
characterization (exceedances of PM 10)

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[162]
Levels and distribution of atmospheric persistent and emerging
pollutants in the southeast Iberian Peninsula

N. Ratola
(1,2)
, P. Jimnez-Guerrero
(1)
, S. Ramos
(2)
, J.A. Silva
(2)
, A. Alves
(2)
, J.P.
Montvez
(1)


(1)
University of Murcia, Department of Physics, Ed. CIOyN, Campus de Espinardo 30100
Murcia (Spain).
(2)
LEPABE, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465
Porto (Portugal)

Tel: +34 868888552; E-mail: nrneto@um.es (Nuno Ratola)


1. Introduction the understanding of the atmospheric behaviour of semi-volatile organic contaminants
is crucial to define strategies to prevent and/or mitigate the effects of environmental pollution, and,
ultimately, its effects in human health. The enormous amount of legacy and emerging compounds being
object of concern is a difficulty when trying to draw a comprehensive picture. And although some effects
are already studies in some parts of the globe, there are still numerous regions where the most basic
information, such as levels, is inexistent.
In this sense, the southeastern Iberian Peninsula (sometimes referred as the Levante) is one of those
areas. Having very particular climatic fingerprints, it can be an excellent location to assess the
atmospheric distribution of contaminants and the influence meteorological parameters have in such
processes.
Five different chemical classes were analysed: brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and
synthetic fragrances (musks). While the first four are better known chemicals, musks only recently have
raised concern, due to their high consumption and release into the environment. All classes present an
important bioaccumulation and endocrine disrupting potential [1].

2. Experimental - passive air samples (see Image 1) were collected in 13 sites, deploying polyurethane
foam (PUF) disks sequentially for three months in the period of one year, comprising four sampling
campaigns, one per season.
An analytical procedure based on Soxhlet extraction and two clean-up methods - solid phase extraction
(SPE) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) - was employed before quantification by gas-
chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MS).

3. Results and Conclusions - as such, the main objective of this work was to assess the levels and the
spatial and temporal patterns of these pollutants, and some seasonal fingerprints were found, particularly
for PAHs and musks. The atmospheric transport of the target compounds was also investigated, in
correlation with the meteorological data, showing a decisive influence of these parameters.

4. References
[1] B. Van Der Burg, R. Schreurs, S. Van Der Linden, W. Seinen, A. Brouwer and E. Sonneveld, Int. J.
Androl., 31(2), (2008) p. 188


Image 1. Passive air semplers
deployment set-up

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[163]
Effect of amended mine tailings on the percentage seed germination
of Noccaea caerulescens
L.Benidire
(1)
, W. Aboudrar
(2)
, C. Sirguey
(3),
A. Boularbah
(4)


(1)(2)(4)
Universit Cadi Ayyad, Laboratoire Aliments, Environnement et Sant, BP 549, 40000,
Guliz,Marrakech, Maroc.
(3)
Universit de Lorraine /INRA, UMR 1120, Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, 2, avenue
de la Fort de Haye, BP 172, 54505 Vanduvre-ls-Nancy Cedex, France.

Abandoned mine tailings sites in semiarid regions remain unvegetated for extended periods of time and
are subject to eolian dispersion and water erosion. Heavy metal contamination from those areas is a major
threat for the environment and the health of the populations living near this site [1,2]. Several methods
were already used to clean up the environment from these kinds of contaminants, but most of them were
costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable
technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals and metal pollutants from contaminated
soil. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. In this study, the potential
phytostabilization of Kettara mine tailings was examined using metal-hyperaccumulating species
Noccaea caerulescens (formerly Thlaspi).
The interactions between N. caerulescens and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to
understand their effect on germination. The remediation measures consisted of the application of
different amendments. Four treatments were established: agricultural soil, one organic treatment
(compost (Cm)) and tow inorganic treatment (lime (L) and natural phosphate (NP)). We have mixed the
tailing with 50% of agricultural soil or 50% of compost. Each one the mixtures were then amended with
lime (CaCO3) or natural phosphate.
Germination was assessed in waste and the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the agricultural
soil treatments allowed germination of the F04 population N. caerulescens, achieving levels comparable
to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50%
of agricultural soil mixed with lime and 50% of agricultural soil with rock phosphate exhibited greater
germination percentages. Considering the unequivocal ability of N. caerulescens for phytoremediation,
the results suggest that agricultural soil and lime may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination
and early growth of this species in mine tailings.
References

1. Boularbah A, Schwartz C, Bitton G, Aboudrar W, ouhammou A, Morel JL, 2006. Heavy metal contamination
from mining sites in south Morocco: 2. Assessment of metal accumulation and toxicity in plants. Chemosphere, 63:
811- 817.
2. El Hamiani O., El Khalil H., Lounatea K., Sirguey C., Hafidi M., Bitton G., Schwartz C. et Boularbah A., 2010.
Toxicity assessment of garden soils in the vicinity of mining areas in Southern Morocco. Journal of Hazardous
Materials, 177, 755761


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[164]
WASTE MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS ON
RESIDENTIAL AREAS FROM BUCHAREST AND ITS
INFLUENCE AREA

Gabriela Pavelescu
(1)
, Cristian I. Ioja
(2)
, Lidia Niculita
(3)
, Luminita Ghervase
(1)
, Dan
Savastru
(1)


(1)
National Institute of Research and Development for Optoelectronics INOE 2000, 409
Atomistilor St., Magurele, Ilfov County, Romania.
+40728055046, gpavel@inoe.ro

(2)
University of Bucharest, Centre for Environmental Research and Impact Studies,
Bucharest, Romania.

(3)
Politehnica University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania.


1. Introduction
Effective waste management of residential areas is a key objective of the environmental policy of the
European Union, especially because of the very high incidence in the economy, environment and society
[1,2]. Changing consumption patterns of the population has increased the quantities and types of waste
diversification (especially packaging waste, electrical and electronic appliances, construction waste),
especially in predominantly structural or functional rural areas. The paper aims to highlight specific waste
management system evolution under the influence of the implementation of EU directives.

2. Experimental
The chosen study area includes Bucharest city and its suburban area, with 8 cities and 32 villages [3].
The influence area of Bucharest has a strong relationship with the city because it has offered various and
multiple conditions for a large transfer of human and economic activities and functions performed in city
support. Data collected through questionnaires included information regarding the waste recycling habits
and the frequency of waste collection from the households and by private collection services.

3. Results and Discussion
In Bucharest, the average daily volume of household waste increased from 0.8 (in 2000) to 1.2 kg/capita
(in 2012). Waste management system in Bucharest and his area of influence is a classic system, based
on disposal in landfills. There is very low level of recycling and recovery of waste at source, which
contributes to increased pressure on landfills. It was established that most of the landfills in the influence
area of Bucharest exercises direct and indirect impacts on the environment and the proximity of
residential. The most significant impacts are on groundwater quality with projection in health risk of
population, risk of fire starting due to emission caracterised by inflammability, noise induced by transport
vehicles, dust and plastic wastes carried by the wind, especially by dehydrating the surface layer,
pestilential odors resulting from decomposition of organic matter, increasing appearance of insects, birds
and rodents as negative environmental vectors, decline of land price, loss of agricultural use.

4. Conclusions
The influence of the waste management in the metropolitan area of Bucharest. It was found that the major
impact of the faulty waste management system reflects upon the groundwater resources, which in turn
pose a great health risk for the population.

5. References
[1] EEA. Urban sprawl in Europe. The ignored challenge. Report no.10. Copenhagen: European
Environment Agency; 2006.
[2] G. Andrusz, M. Harloe, I. Szelenyi, Cities after Socialism. New York: Blackwell Publishing; 1996.
[3] M. Nae and D. Turnock, The New Bucharest: Two decades of restructuring. Cities 28, (2010) p. 206.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[165]
Research of infiltration facility effectiveness for safe drainage of
rainwater runoff

G. Markovi
(1)
, M. Zelekov
(2)

(1)
Technical University of Koice, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Architectural
Engineering, Vysokokolsk 4, 042 00 Koice, Slovakia.
+421 55 602 4116, gabriel.markovic@tuke.sk

(2)
Institute of Environmental Engineering, martina.zelenakova@tuke.sk.

1. Introduction This article aims to provide an overview of the measured data of infiltration systems
at the campus of Technical university of Kosice and describes the effectiveness of infiltration facilities
infiltration shafts in real conditions. Infiltration shafts are located in campus of the University. All
rainwater runoff from roof of PK6 building is flow into the two infiltration shafts.
The permeability of infiltration zone is an essential qualitative and quantitative prerequisite for
infiltration of rainwater. Permeability is represented by a filtration coefficient kf, which represents the
effectiveness of infiltration facilities [1]. Therefore, the most important design parameter of the
infiltration facilities is to determine the filtration coefficient kf on-site. Filtration coefficient kf of the soil
in studied infiltration shafts near the PK6 building was determined by taking samples of soil from the
bottom of the infiltration shafts. Through the laboratory tests, the samples were evaluated as gravel
blended with a fine-grained soil and infiltration coefficient set at 10
-3
m/s.

2. Results and Discussion - As a result
from theoretical calculation (tab.1), the
efficiency of infiltration shaft respectively
time required for infiltration of rainwater
inflow in studied infiltration shaft would
be ranges of minutes. As resulting from the
overall measured data during the research,
the total infiltration of rainwater runoff
inflow into the infiltration shaft, take place
at the time of termination of rainfall
events, respectively short-time after,
which represent a high infiltration
efficiency of this infiltration shaft, given by the coefficient of infiltration of soil at the bottom of shaft.
Therefore, despite the smaller surface for infiltration of infiltration shafts with compared to other types
of infiltration facilities, the infiltration coefficient of surveyed infiltration shafts kf = 1.10
-3
ensures safe
disposal of surface runoff.

3. Conclusions - As is apparent from the theoretical calculation as well as from measurements during
research, times required for infiltration of surface runoff at infiltration shaft vary in the range of minutes,
which means that the results obtained by calculation and the results obtained by experimental
measurements in real conditions for the area of infiltration respectively for infiltration shaft correlate
with each other. With the correct design, realization and maintenance of infiltration facilities, it should
be operation of this device safe, fluent and without complications. It is therefore necessary that the
designer of the infiltration facilities known hydrogeological conditions in the interest area.

4. References
[1] DWA A 138 Planung, Bau und Betrieb von Anlagen zur Versickerung von Niederschlagswasser.
[2] MARKOVI G.: Sustainable management of rainwater for the sewerage system of buildings, Thesis,
Koice 2012.

Tabla I. Required time for rainwater infiltration
in shaft A depending of the infiltration coefficients
from theoretical calculation [2]
Infiltration
coefficient
Rainfall periodicity
(time of infiltration in
hours)
kf = 10
-2
rD(0,5) t = 0,05 h
kf = 10
-3
rD(0,5) t = 0,13 h
kf = 10
-4
rD(0,5) t = 1,4 h
kf = 10
-5
rD(0,5) t = 14 h
kf = 10
-6
rD(0,5) t = 143 h (6 days)
kf = 10
-7
rD(0,5) t = 1432 h (60 days)



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[166]
Effect of lignocellulosic biomass fermentation by-products (alcohols)
on pervaporation performance for the recovery of ethanol

E. Stange, O. Souza, N. Sellin, C. Marangoni


Sanitary and Ambient Engineering Department, University of Joinville Region, Rua Paulo
Malschitzki 10 - Joinville/SC Brazil. 89219-710
+55 47 34619180 cintia.marangoni@univille.br

1. Introduction As many countries are investing in the development and use of biofuels as a way of
reducing environmental impacts and ethanol is one of these fuels that can be produced from various raw
materials [1], the use of agricultural or agro-industrial waste is an interesting option. Despite this fuel
has been produced on a large scale basis in Brazil during three decades using sugarcane as feedstock,
there is many criticisms and an outgoing debate about the ethical issue of use food (or available lands for
cultivation) as an energy source. Lignocellulosic material does not play an intrinsic role in the food chain
and thus a fundamental aspect that make them an attractive alternative for ethanol production. One of the
bases for the development of Brazil is the agriculture, which in certain states such as Santa Catarina,
banana is widely cultivated and for every ton of bananas industrialized approximately 3 tons of
pseudostem, 160 kg of stems, leaves 480 kg and 440 kg of shells are generated [2]. The potential yield
of ethanol from lignocellulosics varies significantly between feedstocks, so many applications in
alcoholic fermentation are reported in literature with different wastes. Specifically in the case of ethanol
from bananas, although there are few studies, the citations that do exist involve the use of the fruit, leaves
and other waste such as the pseudostem. The use of lignocellulosic biomass will not only affect feedstock
pretreatment and fermentation process of the ethanol production but also the downstream processing.
The composition of the fermentation broth influences the separation, and the use of different substrates
leads to the need to reevaluate the process, even if it is already well established. Thus, the aim of this
research is to investigate effects of lignocellulosic biomass fermentation by-products on membrane
performance for the recovery of ethanol by using pervaporation.

2. Experimental - Model solutions of ethanol/water and by-products were separated in pervaporation
experiments to characterize ethanol transfer across the hollow PDMS membrane. By-products were
previous determined by fermentations, identifying five different alcohols in major concentration in the
mixture. The solution with same concentrations as obtained from fermentation was supplied (20 L/h,
23
o
C) from reservoir positioned upstream from the membrane. A vacuum pump coupled to the permeate
side of the assembly provided the pressure drop (<5 mmHg) for vaporization of ethanol. The permeate
vapor was directed to a condensation bath refrigerated with liquid nitrogen. The liquid retentate was
recirculated to the feed tank.

3. Results and Discussion - Five components were identified from 16 analysed (alcohols, acetates,
cetones, organic acids): propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, pentanol and methanol. These were
coupled individually with ethanol in pervaporation tests. All components increased the total flux of
permeate, however propanol, isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol did not favor the permeation of the ethanol.
Separation factor exhibited incremented values when mixtures of etanol/gua/pentanol (almost 2 times)
and ethanol/water/methanol (more than 3 times) were pervaporated.

4. Conclusions - Among the analysed components present in the fermentation broth of banana wastes, it
was observed that methanol increases the PDMS membrane selectivity in pervaporation of ethanol.

5. References
[1] Espaa-Gamboa, E., Mijangos-Cortes, J., Barahona-Perez, L., Dominguez-Maldonado, J.,
Hernndez-Zarate, G., Alzate-Gaviria, L. Waste Manag. Res., 29, (2011) p. 1235
[2] Souza, O., Schulz, M.A., Fischer, G.A.A., Souza, E.L., & Sellin, N. (2011): Bioethanol banana pulp
and peel. In: II SIGERA, Proceedings of II International Symposium on Agricultural Waste Management
and Agribusiness, Foz do Iguacu - Brazil, March. (In Portuguese)


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[167]
AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF THE BIOFUEL n-BUTANOL
AND ITS RELATIVE EFFECTS ON BENZENE
BIODEGRADATION IN GRANITIC SOILS

M. Rosas
(1,2)
, J. Cardoso
(1,2)
, M. M. Carvalho
(1,3)
, M. C. Vila
(1,2)
, M. T. Oliva-Teles
(3)
, A. S. Danko
(1,2)
and A. Fiza
(1,2)

1
CIGAR, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465
Porto, Portugal, phone and fax +351 22 50 82 255; mrosas@fe.up.pt
2
CERENA, Technical Institute of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
3
REQUIMTE, Institute of Engineering of Porto, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Rua Dr.
Antnio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal, mmc@isep.ipp.pt

Biofuels are gaining more interest globally due to issues concerning climate change and energy safety.
Therefore, biofuels industry and scientific community are examining ways to increase sustainable
production of other biofuels such as biobutanol, as alternative to bioethanol. As it happens with any other
fuel, adversities during transport, production and use of these biofuels can result in spills and
contamination of soil and groundwater.
The release of contaminants into the soil matrix produces a negative impact in soil quality, creating, in
some cases, unacceptable risks to public health. To reverse this situation, several remediation
technologies can be used, such as enhanced bioremediation and bioventing. Both technologies use the
degradation capacity of indigenous or adapted microorganisms to biodegrade organic compounds
adsorbed to soils. These technologies require carrying out preliminary studies of aptitude. The first
experiments to do in order to perform these studies intend to test the use of a microbial consortium and
determine the effect of the presence of biofuels on the behaviour of these microorganisms. The objectives
of this work were to evaluate: a) remediation time and efficiency for both technologies in granitic soils
contaminated with benzene and biobutanol; b) biomass growth; c) and residual benzene and butanol
concentrations. To achieve these objectives, several experiments was performed in column containing
granitic soil connected to a respirometric circuit composed of oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzers,
pump, flowmeter controller, the bioreactor (column) and a computer to receive and store data
(temperature, O2 and CO2 concentrations). Through oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide depletion,
it was possible to determine the kinetics rates of biodegradation. Benzene concentrations in gas phase
were also determined daily by gas chromatography (GC-FID). At the end of each column test, the content
of organic carbon in the soil, the concentration of butanol, and the biomass concentrations (using
heterotrophic plate counts) were determined.

Acknowledgements: This work was supported by FEDER funds through the Operational Program for
Competitiveness Factors - COMPETE and National Funds through FCT (Portuguese Science and
Technology Foundation) under the project number PTDC/AAG-TEC/4403/2012 (ISIS).

References
[1] Carvalho, M., C. Vila, J.S. de Carvalho, V.F. Domingues, C. Delerue-Matos, M. T. Oliva-Teles, and
A. Fiza, Benzene biodegrability tests on a residual granitic soil, Chania, Greece, 2011.
[2] Soares, A. A., J. T. Albergaria, V. F. Domingues, M. D. C. M. Alvim-Ferraz, and C. Delerue-Matos,
Remediation of soils combining soil vapor extraction and bioremediation: Benzene, Chemosphere
80:823-828, 2010
[3] Mariano, A. P., R. C. Tomasella, C. Di Martino, R. M. Filho, M. H. R. Seleghim, J. Contiero, and D.
d. F. d. Angelis, Aerobic biodegradation of butanol and gasoline blends, Biomass and Bioenergy:1175-
1181, 2009.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[168]
Environmental radioactivity in the Sabugal region and impact of past
uranium mining

Fernando P. Carvalho
a
, Joo M. Oliveira, Margarida Malta

Instituto Superior Tcnico/Laboratrio de Proteco e Segurana Radiolgica,
Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, km 139, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS, Portugal
a
Tel.: +351219946332; E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

1. Introduction The extraction of radioactive ores was held in the municipality of Sabugal (Portugal)
during most of the 20th century in several mines (Fig. 1). The Bica
mine was the last to close, in the 80s, and on its premises the
chemical treatment of the ore for uranium extraction was carried
out also. During exploitation, sulfuric acid was injected in the
underground mine for in situ uranium extraction. The heaps of
mining and milling waste have been exposed to leaching by rain
water. Radioactive contamination of groundwater and surface
waters in this area was assessed.

2. Experimental Mining waste, water from mines, water wells,
and water courses in the region were sampled for determination of
pH, dissolved O2, redox potential, sulfates and radioactivity.
Measurements of radionuclides were made by radiochemistry and
alpha spectrometry [1].

3. Results and Discussion - The materials of waste heaps, exhibited very high concentrations of
radionuclides, in particular at Vale da Arca mine with 28000 Bq/kg of
238
U, 26000 Bq/kg of
226
Ra and
16000 Bq/kg of
210
Po, while the waste heaps of Bica Mine displayed concentrations of 9000, 18000 and
7800 Bq/kg for the same radionuclides, respectively. For comparison, the soil of an agriculture plot of
this region showed concentrations (already high) of 750, 800 and 550 Bq/kg for the same radionuclides,
respectively. The waterlines of this region showed higher concentrations in sediments downstream
mines, indicating mine discharges and transport of radionuclides from waste heaps by surface runoff into
streams. However, in the water (dissolved phase) the concentrations of radionuclides were just 2-3 times
higher than in reference stations. This was due to the low aqueous solubility of these radionuclides at pH
near neutrality. The groundwater in the area of influence of the Bica mine showed that flood water from
mine galleries, with pH 3 and containing high concentrations of dissolved uranium and its descendants,
has been spreading in the aquifer. For example, in wells and boreholes near the Bica mine, concentrations
of radionuclides
238
U,
226
Ra and
210
Po in the soluble phase were 230, 44, and 10 mBq/L, respectively,
and several times above reference groundwater stations. Those enhanced concentrations decreased
further away to lower values. The environmental radioactive impact of these mines in Sabugal region is
in many respects similar to impacts reported for other uranium mining regions in Portugal [2,3].

4. Conclusions - The mining and milling waste, as well as recently produced sludge from treatment of
mine drainage, need to be caped in order to reduce runoff and ensure protection of the aquifer and surface
water lines. Acid and radioactive water of underground Bica mine may need continued neutralization for
several years in order to reduce contamination of groundwater. Monitoring of radioactivity in this region
is needed to allow advising water use by population and to keep under control environmental
contamination and radiation exposure.

5. References
[1] Carvalho FP, Oliveira JM. Alpha emitters from uranium mining in the environment. J Radioanal
Nucl Chem 2007; 274: 167-174.
[2] Carvalho FP, Oliveira JM, Malta M. Analyses of radionuclides in soil, water and agriculture products
near the Urgeiria uranium mine in Portugal. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 2009; 281:479-484.
[3] Carvalho FP, Oliveira JM, Faria I. Alpha Emitting Radionuclides in Drainage from Quinta do Bispo
and Cunha Baixa Uranium Mines (Portugal) and Associated Radiotoxicological Risk. Bull Environ
Contam Toxicol 2009; 83:668-673.


Figure 1. Old uranium mines
(solid circles) in Sabugal region


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[169]
Health Care Waste in the Intensive Care Unit of the Botucatu School
of Medicine University Hospital UNESP Emergency Room

M.J.. Trevizani Nitsche
(1)
, S.R.L.R. Olbrich
(2)
, M.V.M.F.F.Alves,
(3)
, P.A.Araujo
(4)
,
D.D.Matarazzo
(5)
, G.M.Pessoa
(6)
, A.E.Oliveira
(7)
.


(1)
Rodovia Domingos Sartori, 696. CEP. 18.607-621. Botucatu, So Paulo Brasil.
(55)14 997982225 - zecatre@fmb.unesp.br

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)
UNESP Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho -
Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu Departamento de Enfermagem

1. Introduction: Health care waste (HCW) is the type of waste that results from activities performed in
health care services during care provision to humans or animals. Presently, according to RDC 306/04,
issued in 2004 by Anvisa, and Resolution no. 358/05, by CONAMA, waste groups have the following
classification: Group A (biological waste), Group B (chemical waste), Group C (waste containing
radionucleotides), Group D (common waste) and Group E (piercing and cutting waste). In Brazil, 149
tons of waste are collected every day, and HCW corresponds to approximately 1% to 3 % of that total.
An efficient way to adequately manage HCW is through the Health Care Waste Management Plan
(HCWMP), and it is possible to reduce the risk posed by certain materials in addition to ensuring disposal
in an ecologically correct and economical fashion. According to the Pan-American Health Organization
(PAHO), the management process enables health care establishments to adequately manage waste.
Hence, there is greater control and reduction in the health risks caused by infectious or special waste, in
addition to facilitated recycling, treatment, storage, transport and final disposal of solid hospital waste in
an environmentally safe fashion.
2.Objectives: To evaluate the management of HCW of Groups A and D from the in the Intensive Care
Unit of the Botucatu School of Medicine University Hospital UNESP Emergency Room.
3.Methodology: The waste flow was followed up, and during four random days in the month of
September 2011, waste was quantified by estimating daily and monthly values, according to its
classification.
4. Results and Discussion: In 2011, the University hospital produced an average of 57,676.8 kg/month
of biological and common waste. By adding Groups A and D, during the four days, approximately 209.8
Kg of waste (202.2 Kg of Group A and 7.6 Kg of Group D) were produced in the establishment under
study, which is equivalent to an average of 52.45 kg/dia. In one month, the production is of approximately
1,573.5 kg/month. The establishment under study produced approximately 5.77 kg/bed/day per patient
of biological waste and 0.23kg/ bed/day of common waste. The rate for hazardous health care waste was
96.38%; the rate for infecting health care waste was 96.38%; the variation in the proportion of waste
from Group A was of 96.38%, and that from Group D was 3.62%.
5.Concluding remarks: It was possible to observe that efforts have been made in relation to waste-
producing sources, particularly in the phases of segregation and packaging of waste in Group A.
However, little attention is given to other waste types, which are usually packaged without a recycling
perspective and are disposed of conjointly with those considered to be of biological risk. It is essential
that all professionals involved in HCW manipulation be trained on the relevant aspects related to the
manipulation and inadequate disposal of such waste as well as on the importance of recycling and its
implantation in their establishments. Key words: waste management
5. References:
[1] ANVISA Agncia Nacional de Vigilncia Sanitria. 2004. Resoluo RDC n 306/2004. Dirio
Oficial da Unio, 22 dez. 2004.
[2] CONAMA Cons. Nac Meio Amb. Resoluo n 358/2005. Dirio Oficial da Unio, 4 maio 2005.
[3] Sisinno CLS, Moreira JC. Ecoeficincia: reduo gerao, resduos e desperdcios em
estabelecimentos de sade. Cad. Sade Pblica. 2005 nov-dez, 1(6):1893-1900.
[4] Phillip JR, Saneamento, Sade amb: Desenvolv sustentvel. RJ 2005. 842p.
[5] Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatstica, IBGE. Pesq Nac Saneamento Bsico, RJ 2010.
[6]Garcia LP, Zanetti-Ramos BG. Gerenciamento dos resduos de servios de sade: uma questo de
biossegurana. Cad. Sade Pblica, Rio de Janeiro. 2004 mai-jun, 20(3):744-752.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[170]
HEALTHS SERVICE WASTE AND SELECTIVE COLLECTION
- VIRTUAL PUBLISHING
M.J.. Trevizani Nitsche
(1)
, S.R.L.R. Olbrich
(2)
, M.V.M.F.F.Alves,
(3)
, G.M.Pessoa
(4)
,
A.E.Oliveira
(5)
.


(1)
Rodovia Domingos Sartori, 696. CEP. 18.607-621. Botucatu, So Paulo Brasil.
(55)14 997982225 - zecatre@fmb.unesp.br
(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)
UNESP Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho - Faculdade
de Medicina de Botucatu Departamento de Enfermagem

1.Introduction: The waste of health service (RSS), generated in hospitals, health centers, medical clinics
or other places with similar function, can be a source of pathogenic microorganisms, chemicals and
radioactive, and are potentially a risk factor for population and the environment. Thus, it is important to
draw up a Plan of Waste Management of Health Services (PGRSS) in order to minimize the production
of RSS and ensure the correct routing and secure them. The RSS are discarded according to their
classification, ranging from A to E, so segregation is also something important. Group A matches with
biohazardous waste; Group B, residues with chemical risk; Group C waste containing radionuclides;
Group D, common waste (packaging, syringes without needles - uncontaminated, etc.); Group E,
materials and piercing sharp. The selective garbage collection is also separated and disposed according
to their characteristics (metals, paper, plastics and glass). It is a system for collecting recyclables
previously separated and sent for processing, so they can be reused or recycled. This method minimizes
the use of raw materials, preserves natural resources and saves energy in the production of new materials.
Disclose this information to the public is important because they may incorporate this knowledge and
apply it, collaborating with preserving the environment and reducing their own healths risks. An
excellent communication channel for the dissemination of this information is Blog. It is simple, modern,
easily accessible, allows popular participation and is a tool for developing collaborative projects.
2.Methods and Data, Description of Case Study:Provides adequate orientation manual Guidelines
regarding Waste Health Service and a virtual version Selective Collection, aimed at increasing the
availability of access, broaden public awareness and guide the population, and helping to reduce damage
to the environment. Creation of a blog using tools found in Internet, working as modules preconfigured
to manage certain content and design of the presentation. http://residuosdesaude.blogspot.com.br/
3.Conclusions and Findings: Proper management of RSS is primordial for the populations heath risks
neutralization and contamination of the environment. The success of such management depends directly
on the attitude and active participation of the people involved. As a tactical strategy focuses on raising
awareness of the importance of the topic and PGRSS selective garbage collection, and timely uses the
virtual space, providing educational and reflective moments for the general public. Key words: selective
collection, management, waste management, biological risk, virtual publishing.
4. References:
[1] ANVISA Agncia Nacional de Vigilncia Sanitria. 2004. Resoluo RDC n 306/2004. Dirio
Oficial da Unio, 22 dez. 2004.
[2] CONAMA Cons. Nac Meio Amb. Resoluo n 358/2005. Dirio Oficial da Unio, 4 maio 2005.
[3] Sisinno CLS, Moreira JC. Ecoeficincia: reduo gerao, resduos e desperdcios em
estabelecimentos de sade. Cad. Sade Pblica. 2005 nov-dez, 1(6):1893-1900.
[4] Phillip JR, Saneamento, Sade amb: Desenvolv sustentvel. RJ 2005. 842p.
[5] Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatstica, IBGE. Pesq Nac Saneamento Bsico, RJ 2010.
[6]Garcia LP, Zanetti-Ramos BG. Gerenciamento dos resduos de servios de sade: uma questo de
biossegurana. Cad. Sade Pblica, Rio de Janeiro. 2004 mai-jun, 20(3):744-752.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[171]
OPEN-LOOP RECYCLING: USE OF FLY ASH AND GYPSUM AS
CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE IN CEMENT
MANUFACTURING.
ABSTRACT
The excessive generation of industrial wastes leads to a huge loss of resources and raw
materials. The coal combustion produces in large amounts many of these industrial wastes
(more than 60 million tonnes per year in the European Union, and around 68 % of this amount
corresponds to fly ash).
Likewise, the construction industry, specifically the production of the cement clinker, also
generates a notable impact on the environment due to the generation of gases and particles (the
production of a tonne of cement emits to the atmosphere one tonne of CO2), to the exhaustion
of natural raw materials and to the high energy consumption. For the reasons mentioned above,
there have been many researches in order to study the reduction of the clinker factor in
cementitious mixtures, by means of the additions of wastes with pozzolanic properties (as the
fly ash), that partially or fully replace the Portland cement, also now in ternary mixtures, grating
thus to these wastes on added value. In absence of Portland cement there have been studied
several mechanisms such as alkaline activation at an elevated temperature curing in
cementitious mixtures in order to accelerate the reaction of the fly ash and obtaining high
strength at early ages. In the present work Portland cement is completely replaced by fly ash
in the binary system (Portland cement / calcium aluminate cement) and ternary system
(Portland cement / calcium aluminate cement / calcium sulphate) and for this purposes it is used
water and two solutions (one of sodium hydroxide (8 molar) and another one of 85 % of sodium
hydroxide (10 molar) and 15 % of sodium silicate), in order to determine the influence of the
mixing liquid in the formation of phases and development of resistance at ambient temperature.
The results of this research indicate that the alkali activation of fly ash under curing conditions
(25 C and 86% of relative humidity) accelerates the hydration reaction of the pozzolan and
contributes to the formation of zeolite-type phases, in some cases with very few curing hours.
The mechanisms governing hydration differed in alkaline and neutral media. In alkaline media
the reaction rate of calcium aluminates (CA) is faster and thus higher amount of C3AH6 and
AH3 is formed. In addition, when using the alkaline solutions, the hexagonal hydrates normally
formed in the mixtures of CAC with water, are inexistent as well as the ettringite in ternary
mixtures containing gypsum. Finally, the resulting compressive strength indicates that the
highest values are obtained in those hydrated mixtures under alkaline conditions where a large
amount of fly ash is used in front of the resistance achieved when using the same compositions
but water- hydrated. However, the compositions containing a higher amount of CAC keep the
highest values of resistance when water-hydrated. In general, in ternary systems, the addition
of gypsum leads to an increase of resistance.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[172]
Use of alginate/chitosan polymeric membranes as an alternative for
removal of glyphosate herbicide from water

R. T. A. Carneiro
(1)
, T.B. Taketa
(2)
, M.A. de Morais
(2)
, C.M.G. da Silva
(3)
, M.M.
Beppu
(2)
, L.F. Fraceto
(1)

(1)
Departamento de Engenharia Ambiental, Universidade Estadual Paulista UNESP,
Avenida Trs de Maro, n 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil. E-mail:
leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.br
(2)
Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais e Bioprocessos, Faculdade de Engenharia
Qumica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas - SP, Brasil.
(3)
Departamento de Bioqumica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas,
Campinas, SP, Brasil.

1. Introduction Today, enormous amounts of pesticides are being produced, sold and used all over the
world and great part of these have been deposited in soil and water. Glyphosate is a non-selective and
effective herbicide against all types of pests and is being used for a long time. In this context this herbicide
can be found in water as a contaminant and a procedure to remove it from water is need [1,2].
We have investigated the potential use of biopolymeric membranes prepared with chitosan (CS), alginate
(AG) and a bilayer chitosan/alginate (CS/AG) membrane on the adsorption of glyphosate present in
water sample, in order to create an easy methodology to apply in the remediation of contaminated water.
2. Experimental The adsorption isotherms of glyphosate in membranes (AG, CS and CS/AG) were
investigated using the kinetics models (pseudo-first and pseudo-second order), as well as the adsorptions
models (Langmuir and Freundlich). The membranes were characterized by transmission electron
microscopy and the interaction between glyphosate and membrane was investigated by Fourier transform
infrared spectroscopy.
3. Results and Discussion Kinetics results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was reached within
4 hours and that CS membrane presented the best adsorption result (10.88 g of glyphosate/g of
membrane, followed by the bilayer CS/AG (8.70 g of glyphosate/g of membrane). The AG membrane
did not show adsorption capacity for this herbicide. For CS and CS/AG curves the pseudo-second order
model showed good linear fits presenting high correlation coefficients values. Fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy results obtained from CS membrane after glyphosate adsorption exhibit new absorption
bands related to the herbicide, showing an interaction between glyphosate and the CS membrane. The
adsorption isotherms obtained from the glyphosate and CS and AG membranes were better adjusted to
the model proposed by Freundlich, indicating a high affinity between glyphosate and CS membrane and
in the case of CS/AG a moderate affinity.
4. Conclusions - The proposed membrane-based methodology was successfully used for treatment of a
water sample with glyphosate, demonstrating its potential utility in applications involving removal of
this herbicide and in this way, opening a new perspective to use of biopolymer membranes as a versatile
and low cost method to use in water treatment systems in order to eliminate agricultural chemicals from
water supplies. Acknowledgments:This research was supported by the Brazilian agencies FAPESP,
CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) and FUNDUNESP.
5. References
[1] M.A. Moraes, D.S. Cocenza, F.C. Vasconcellos, L.F. Fraceto, M.M. Beppu, J. Environ. Management
131, (2013), 222.
[2] D.S. Cocenza, M.A. Moraes, M.M. Beppu, L.F. Fraceto, Water, Air and Soil Pollution 223, (2012),
3093.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[173]
A diagnostic tool in water monitoring: rapid protocol with physical,
chemical and biological information

Frederico G. S. Beghelli
(1)
, Renata de Lima
(2)
, Vivian Lira
(1)
, Mnica Pscoli
(2)
,
Marcelo L.M. Pompo
(3)
, Viviane Moschini-Carlos
(1)

(1)
Universidade Estadual Paulista Jlio de Mesquita Filho UNESP. Av. Trinta e um de
maro, 511, Alto da Boa Vista, Sorocaba,SP, Brazil.
+55(15)3238-3400 (3431) fred_sb@hotmail.com
(2)
Universidade de Sorocaba, UNISO. Rodovia Raposo Tavares, km 92,5, Artura, Sorocaba,
SP, Brazil.

(3)
Universidade de So Paulo USP. Rua do Mato, Travessa 14, 321, Butant, So Paulo,
SP, Brazil.

1. Introduction Water is an essential resource for life on Earth acting on ecosystem functioning and
its regulation. It is a determinant and essential factor for the maintenance and development of all living
beings and very important to climate. Due to the intense increase in human population and consequently
increasing demand for water there is a concern with the water quality which has become increasingly
scarce leading to problems with human and animal health, climate and world ecosystems. In this sense
the monitoring and management of the water resources reached a critical level. The concern about
towards establishing targeted protocols to rapid monitoring can be very valuable in special if include
physical, chemical and biological approaches and different kind of assays, for example in situ and ex situ
valuation, because these different parameters ensure a better and more complete view regarding the actual
situation of the environment. In this work we performed physical, chemical and biological analyses of a
tropical urban reservoir with the objectives to assess the current state of the Itupararanga reservoir
(Brazil, SP) and to establish a rapid assessment protocol.
2. Experimental The following physical and chemical variables were determined in five points (P1,
P2, P3, P4 and P5): pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, water clarity, temperature, solid in water,
nitrogen and total phosphorus. The biological variables were: rapid analysis of phytoplankton and benthic
macro invertebrates, total and fecal coliform and chlorophyll a concentration. The genotoxicity assay
was realized with Allium cepa to calculate the relative index of chromosomal abnormalities [1].
3. Results and Discussion - The results showed differences between sampling points that can be
understood as a result of eutrophication and sewage discharges. Correlations between suspended solids
and fecal coliforms (r = 0.79) were observed indicating pollution from effluent discharge. The
phosphorus and chlorophyll analysis allowed the classification of the reservoir as supereutrophic
condition. Cluster analysis indicated similarity among the most impacted areas (P3, P4 and P5) and less
affected (P1 and P2) confirming the biotic data. The predominance of the genus Cylindrospermopsis is
worrying since there is the possibility that these cyanobacteria release cyanotoxins in water. However,
the analysis of benthic community corroborated with IAR (alteration index) where values above the
control for all sampling points were recorded with the group impacted what had higher values. The Allium
cepa assay showed no significant differences in the mitotic index between the different collection points,
however in relation to the chromosomal abnormalities the points P4 and P5 were the points that showed
significant differences to the control. These results suggest a presence of toxic pollutants in the reservoir
water and once the Cylindrospermopsis spp may produce the hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin indicating
that the cyanotoxins can be present in the more impacted areas.
4. Conclusions It is concluded that this reservoir is cause for concern in relation to the presence of
toxic pollutants. Moreover, it was found that the protocol used is of great utility as diagnostic tool and
once that with combined physical, chemical and biological variables was possible to get a more
complete picture of the environmental status of the study area than the investigation of only one or a
few of these variables.
5. References
[1] G. Fiskesj. The Allium test as a standard in environmental monitoring. Hereditas 102: 99-112.
(1985).


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[174]
Speciation of zinc in plant tissues of giant reed (Arundo donax L.)

Barbora Michlekov Richveisov, Zuzana Dreov, Jozef Augustn, Miroslav
Hornk, Martin Pipka, Juraj Lesn

Department of Ecochemistry and Radioecology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University
of SS. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, Nm. J. Herdu 2, Trnava, SK-917 01, Slovak Republic
b.richveisova@gmail.com


Zinc is an important microelement as nutrient, it has enormous biological importance and plays essential
metabolic roles in plants, of which the most significant is its activity as a component of a variety of
enzymes, such as dehydrogenases, proteinases, peptidases and phosphohydrolases. Zn is relative mobile
in soils and water and easily forms bonds with other elements, especially with several organic compounds
and with S anions, which are insoluble in water. Zinc in soil is believed to be in forms of free and complex
ions in soil solutions. Several other ionic species occur as non-specifically and specifically adsorbed
cations, which can be easily mobilized in soils. Only soluble forms of Zn are available to plants and are
taken up by root system from water solutions in cationic forms. Subsequently, during both short and long
distance transport to other plant tissues, cationic forms are incorporated to many bioorganic compounds
differing in stability, ionic character and physico-chemical properties such as solubility in lipid structures
and mobility across cell membrane systems.
Our aim was to improve sequential extraction procedure in order to distinguish individual Zn species on
the basis of the solubility in polar and organic solvents after complexing Zn with suitable ligands in situ.
As a model giant reed plants were selected as fast-growing energy crop rich in root system and biomass
yielding with possibilities of their application in phytoremediation methods.
Plants of giant reed (Arundo donax L. var. versicolor) were obtained by vegetative propagation under in
vitro conditions. In the next step, plants were cultivated for 2-4 weeks in 25 % Hoagland nutrition media
(HM) and then transferred to HM spiked with
65
ZnCl2. Dried biomass was treated by sequential extraction
in combination with complexing reaction in order to distinguish free Zn
2+
ions from Zn irreversible bound
to the functional chemical groups of the cell components. Concentration ratio of individual species was
calculated from radioactivity of extracts and remaining biomass by gamma spectrometry
(gamma spectrometric system assembled with well type NaI(Tl) crystal and data processing software
were used for
65
Zn determination in solutions as well as in dried plant biomass of A. donax).
Experiments with giant reed plants grown in the presence of sub-phytotoxic ZnCl2 concentration showed
that zinc is distributed from roots to shoots reaching the root-to-shoot concentration ratio 5.4:1.
Up to 78 % of Zn found in roots and up to 66 % of Zn found in shoots were not removable by the
extraction with CHCl3 after biomass treatment with dithizone (diphenylthiocarbazone, CAS No. 60-10-
6) in situ. The remaining Zn in roots and shoots was nearly completely extracted with 0.1 M HCl.
Extraction procedures with Folch reagent (CHCl3 : MetOH = 2:1) showed that Zn is not accumulated in
shoot and root lipid fractions. Up to 92 % of root and 62 % of shoot Zn in non-lipid fraction were not
transformed to Zn dithizonates and remained in biomass after CHCl3 extraction.
Radiotracer methods in combination with standard sequential extraction methods can be a powerful tool
for the study of long distance transport and speciation analysis of bivalent metals entering the plant
tissues via root system. Speciation of Zn and other bivalent metals entering the plant tissues plays
decisive role in the both long distance and short distance transport of these metals in plant and is
responsible for phytotoxic behaviour of metals and participation in metabolic processes.
Zn in giant reed taken up from nutrient solution is trapped mainly in root plant tissues and is not
accumulated in lipid fractions. Zinc in dried plant is only partly available for derivatization with dithizone
in situ in non-polar organic solvents. However, the next study will be necessary for obtaining quantitative
data describing interaction of zinc with anionic functional groups of the cell components, such as
carboxylic, thiol and phosphonates groups of intermediates and for calculation of corresponding
concentration equilibria given by stability constants log K of Zn-ligand complexes.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[175]
PHOSPHATE REMOVAL FROM AQUEUS SOLUTION BY
ELECTROCOAGULATION USNG IRON AND STANLESS
PLATE ELECTRODES
Nevzat Beyazt, Aye Kuleyin
Ondokuz Mayis University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department,
Kurupelit Campus Samsun Turkey
akuleyin@omu.edu.tr, nbeyazit@omu.edu.tr

ABSTRACT
In this study,, phosphate removal from aqueus solution by electrocoagulation using iron
and stainless steel plate electrodes in a batch mode using iron (Fe) and stainless steel
(St) electrodes immersed vertically and, in parallel, monopolar configuration. The
effects of such as pH (2, 4, 6, 8), current density (20, 40, 60, 80 A/m
2
), electrolyte
(NaCl) concentration (400, 600, 800, 100 1200 mg/L), anionic polyelectrolyte
concentration (100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mg/L) and operation time of EC (2.560 min)
on the removal efficiency of metals were examined..Obtained experimental results were
considered in relation to such as removal efficiencies, electrical energies and electrode
consumptions.
Key Words: Phosphate Removal, Electrocoagulation, Wastewater.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[176]
INVESTIGATION OF COPPER RECOVERY FROM
WASTEWATER USNG STEEL CATHODE IN
ELECTRODEPOSITION METHOD
Aye Kuleyin, Hlya Erikli Uysal
Ondokuz Mayis University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Kurupelit
Campus Samsun Turkey
akuleyin@omu.edu.tr
ABSTRACT
Electrodeposition method is one of the attractive methods used for the removal and
recovery of metal ions from metal plating, metal processing and electronics industry
wastewaters. In this study, both removal and recovery of copper from copper containing
industrial wastewater with electrodeposition method were achieved. Experiments were
conducted using steel cathodes. In studies, the effects of current, pH, conductivity and
concentration on electrodeposition were investigated and optimum values were
obtained. Accordingly, the observed copper removal from copper containing industrial
wastewater at optimum conditions, was %80 using steel cathode. An additional result
of the study was the accumulation of copper recovered from the wastewater on the
cathode. The reaction rate of process was evaluated using relevant reaction kinetic
equations.
Key Words: Metal Removal, Electrodeposition, Heavy Metal, Wastewater.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[177]


Determining the performance of vermicomposting process according
to sewage sludge characteristics and earthworm species


Hanine Suleiman
1
, Agnieszka Rorat
1,2
, Marcin Miczarek
2
, Anna Grobelak
2
, Barbara
Pytycz
3
, Magorzata Kacprzak
2
and Franck Vandenbulcke
1


1
Universit Lille Nord de France, LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numrique et Ecotoxicologie, F-59650
Villeneuve dAscq, France;
2
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, Czestochowa,
Poland;
3
Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland;



Large sewage sludge quantities are produced in wastewater plants worldwide. The
sewage sludge concentrates various contaminations but is rich in nutrients which may
improve soil physical and chemical properties. Non-biodegradable pollutants such as
heavy metal contents may prevent its use in agriculture and constitute a challenge for
environmental protection. Vermicomposting is often presented as a low cost and an
environmentally friendly process in which earthworms are used to cooperate with
microbes to accelerate organic matter degradation. Moreover, earthworms have shown
an ability to accumulate heavy metals and change their bioavailability. However,
vermicomposting may be affected by the sludge composition itself; the worm species;
the duration of the composting period and the presence of bulk organic matter which
can be wastes originating from other human activities. The aim of this study was to
assess the effectiveness of vermicomposting process applied on different sewage sludge
with different earthworm species. For this purpose, agronomic parameters and heavy
metal contents were measured in the substrate compartment (matrix=compost) as well
as biomarkers (immunocyte numbers and riboflavin contents) in the biological
compartment (worms). The specific action of 3 different earthworm species commonly
used in vermicomposting was investigated (Eisenia fetida, Eisenia andrei and
Dendrobaena veneta). Three different sewage sludge (previously mixed with grass
clippings, sawdust and municipal wastes in the same proportions) were also tested.
Monitoring of the process was done after three time periods. Dendrobena veneta has
shown low resistance to all experimental conditions. Eisenia sp. worms exhibited a high
ability to accumulate some heavy metals. The bioavailability of Cu, Ni and Pb has been
decreased significantly in compost. Vermicompost obtained after 45 days was
acceptable according to compost quality norms in France and Poland.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[178]
Final disposal of municipal solid waste: diagnostic management of
the municipality at Santo Antnio de Gois, GO, Brazil
E. de Melo Ferreira
(1)
, K. Alcione da Silva Cruvinel
(2)
, E. Costa
(3)
.


(1)
Street OM 32, Block 33, Lot-28, Residential Orlando Morais, Goinia, GO, Brazil.
(62)3264-1148 - evaldodemeloferreira@gmail.com

(2)(3)
Praa Universitria, S/N, Universitrio Sector, Goinia, Gois, Brazil.

1. Introduction Studies assessing the form of management in the areas of solid waste disposal consist
of a current and significant importance for the establishment of control measures in these areas demand.
For assessing the quality of final disposal of waste, the Companhia Ambiental
do Estado de So Paulo (CETESB) was made the Quality Index Landfill
Waste (QILW) (1). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the waste
management of the municipality of Santo Antnio de Gois through QILW.

2. Methodology - The method for performing this research consists of five
different steps. First step: literature survey on the topic; Second stage:
consultation to official documents of the prefecture and online documents of
the Secretaria do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Hdricos do Estado de Gois
(SEMARH GO) (2); Third stage: Technical visits will the landfill area;
Fourth step: comparison of features found with the applicable laws and
normal and fifth step: evaluation with QILW.

3. Results and Discussion The evaluating of the area of waste disposal using the QILW (Equation)
consists of grading the site characteristics, structure and operational aspects. The QILW obtained was 3.
07, showing the conditions of the area are inadequate. For the area to be considered adequate, the value
should be less than 6.1.
Equation. QILFW = (Sub1 + Sub 2 + Sub 3) / 13
Where, Sub1 is the subtotal of the characteristics of the site; Sub 2 is the subtotal of infrastructure; Sub
3 is the subtotal of 13 operational and the number of items observed aspects:

QILW = 22 + 7 + 11 / 13
QILW = 3.07

4. Conclusions The Santo Antonio de Gois even having owned environmental license is with the final
disposal of solid waste in total disagreement with Brazilian law. Santo Antnio de Gois made in 2013
the PGIRS, which there is a proposal for formation of consortium with Inhumas, Brazabrantes, Goianira
and Nova Veneza. If it does not and the area of current provision remains used, the adoption of techniques
/ technology for the conversion of landfill area in simplified measures, requiring it to purchasing a new
area is required.
Should make the waterproofing of the new ditch construction system for draining the liquid leachate and
gas, construction of pond for receiving and treating leachate, build system to capture the treated material,
analysis of the self-purification capacity and resilience also the receiving body, removing animals and
scavengers, construction of roads to vehicular traffic, establishing a new hedge, covered for receiving
recyclable shed, construction of headquarters and scale for weighing trucks arriving with the waste.

5. References
[1] CESTESB COMPANHIA AMBIENTAL DO ESTADO DE SO PAULO. Inventrio Estadual
de Resduos Slidos Urbanos, (1), (2012). p. 110.

[2] GOIS. SEMARH SECRETARIA DO MEIO AMBIENTE E DOS RECURSOS HDRICOS DO
ESTADO DE GOIS. Relatrio de Vistoria na rea de Disposio Final dos Resduos Slidos
Urbanos do Municpio de Santo Antnio de Gois, (2), (2011).


Image 1. Area of final disposal of municipal solid waste in
Santo Antnio de Gois, GO, Brazil

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[179]
Mutual interactions between sewage sludge-amended soil and
earthworms comparison between Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei
composting species

Agnieszka Rorat
1,2
, Hanine Suleiman
2
, Anna Grobelak
1
, Magorzata Kacprzak
1
,
Franck Vandenbulcke
2
and Barbara Pytycz
3



1
Czestochowa University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Poland;

2
Universit Lille Nord de France, LGCgE-Lille 1, Ecologie Numrique et Ecotoxicologie,
Villeneuve dAscq, France;
Phone number : +48 604530454 ; E-mail : AgnieszkaRorat@gmail.com

3
Jagiellonian University, Institute of Zoology, Cracow, Poland;

1. Introduction - Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei, morphologically similar epigeic earthworm species,
are commonly used in vermicomposting process and are recommended by OECD as test organisms in
ecotoxicology. It has been shown, that those annelids may accumulate contaminants, especially heavy
metals. They also change the bioavailability of metals for plants, which may constitute a risk but also a
great interest of the sewage sludge vermicomposting process. It is therefore crucial to monitor the
composting process. On the one hand, agronomic parameters can be used to assess the quality of the final
product and biomarkers. On the other hand, mainly immune and defense parameters can be measured in
earthworms to establish the influence of contaminants on organisms. The main aim of this study was to
analyze the contents of selected Metallic Trace Elements in substratum during vermicomposting process,
and to study their possible accumulation in earthworms body and their impact on immune system.

2. Materials and methods - Dewatered sewage sludge from three different municipal wastewater
treatment plants, characterized with different heavy metal concentrations, were separately precomposted
with soil, and then divided into plastic boxes with perforated lids (3318.512 cm), 2200g per box.
Individuals of E. fetida and E. andrei were provided from genetically-defined colonies maintained in the
Lille University (France) and placed separately in boxes, 40 worms per each. All chemical, physical and
biological analysis were performed after 3, 6 and 9 weeks of exposure, as described previously [1].

3. Results and Discussion - Riboflavin content in coelomocytes was slightly decreased by addition of
sewage sludge during the first 6 weeks of exposure, which corresponds to results obtained previously on
Dendodrilus rubidus species [2], and restored after 9 weeks. Both species exhibited high body
accumulation factors for Cd and Zn, but not for Cu, Ni and Pb, which stays in agreement with other
researches [3]. No important differences between species were observed according to all measured
parameters.

4. Conclusions - In this study, sewage sludge constituted a good source of nutrition for earthworms and
no mortality was observed. Physical and chemical analysis of final product allows us to consider its
application as a fertilizer. Riboflavin may serve as a biomarker in vermicomposting process monitoring.

5. References
[1] A. Rorat et al., Appl. Soil Ecol, 64 (2013), p. 237.
[2] B. Plytycz et al., Chemosphere, 81 (2010) , p.199
[3] A.J. Morgan, Heavy Metals, Earthworms and Vermicomposts[in:Vermiculture technology],
Taylor & Francis Group, USA, 2010

Acknowledgements The project was financed with National Center for Science grant based on DEC-2013/09/N/NZ9/01937, by K/ZDS/001955 from
the Jagiellonian University, the French Agence National de la Recherche and by BS MN/401/304/12 from Czestochowa University of Technology
(CUT). A Rorat. was supported by a doctoral fellowship from Lille 1 University and (CUT).


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[180]
A Physicochemical Optimization Studies for Particulate Suspension
Pre-treatment by Flocculation Prior to Dewatering

Benjamin A. Oyegbile
(1)
, Satyanarayana Narra
(1)

(1)
Chair of Mineral processing, Brandenburgische Technische Universitt, Cottbus-
Senftenberg, Siemens-Halske-Ring 8, 03046 Cottbus, Germany.
+49355694324, oyegbaki@b-tu.de

Abstract
Flocculation optimisation studies was conducted on a model kaolin suspension prior to pre-treatment in
a Couette device. The relevant physicochemical parameters based on our pre-treatment technique
(pelleting flocculation) such as the sludge volume index (SVI), capillary suction time (CST), residuals
solids content TS, degree of charge neutralization or residual charge and residual turbidity were fully
optimized for the model system during the flocculation experiments using both conventional Jar tests
and colloid titration. The results of the investigations shows an optimum polymer dose of approximately
5.8 kg
FS
/t TS for CF-2501, 4.5 kg
FS
/t TS for Z-7692, 4.4 kg
FS
/t TS for P-611BC. This optimum dose was
found to be nearly true for both physicochemical optimisation tests that were conducted for this
investigation (Jar test, Colloid titration) and the results serve as a guide in the subsequent process
engineering optimisation for a new pre-treatment reactor under construction.




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[181]
Use of eggshell and cementitious residues as sorption agents of zinc in
a coarse-textured soil

A. Karam
(1)
, M. Aider
(1)
, A. Kastyuchik
(1)
, A. Jaouich
(2)


(1)
Department of Soils and Agrifood Engineering, Universit Laval, Qubec, Canada.
Antoine.Karam@fsaa.ulaval.ca

(2)
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Universit du Qubec Montral,
Canada.

1. Introduction The recycling of food waste such as eggshell and industrial cementitious residues is
an arduous process. Soil amendment is one possible use. It is known that calcareous materials have great
potential to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in Zn-polluted soils. Zn sorption in soils
has been found to be correlated with several soil properties such as cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH,
exchangeable basic cations, clay, organic carbon and calcium carbonate content of soils [1-3]. However,
there is much less information on the behavior of freshly added Zn in acid coarse-textured soils amended
with biological material. The application of by-product materials which contain limestone on acid soils
could improve the sorption capacity of the low-CEC soil.

2. Experimental An experiment was designed to assess the sorption of zinc (Zn) by an acid coarse-
textured soil treated with chicken eggshell rich in calcium carbonate (CES), concrete residues rich in
calcareous products (CR) and CaCO3 (analytical grade). The soil was collected from an abandoned sand
pit that had not received organic materials. The soil was air dried and ground to pass a 2-mm sieve. The
soil contained quartz, plagioclase, calcite, mica, chlorite, gypsum and alkaline feldspars. The
amendments were thoroughly mixed with the soil at rates ranged from 0 to 166.7 g kg
-1
. Each treatment
was replicated three times. Soil samples were equilibrated with 0 and 50 mg Zn L
-1
for 72 h at room
temperature, then they were centrifuged and decanted. The supernatant solution was analyzed for pH,
and Zn and Ca by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The amount of Zn sorbed (mg kg
-1
) was
calculated based on the difference between the initial and equilibrium Zn concentrations. Soil pH
measured in water (pHwater) was determined after 24 hours and 21 days.

3. Results and Discussion The values of pHwater, pH of the equilibrium supernatant solution
(pHequilibrium) and Ca concentration in the equilibrium solution (Caequilibrium) increased with amendment
additions depending on the type and rate of amendment application. CR treatment produced higher
pHwater values than CES treatment, due to the higher content of alkalizing products of cement. The acid
neutralizing capacity of CR was higher than that of CES. Analysis of variance revealed a highly
significant effect (P < 0.001) of both CES and CR rates on the amount of Zn sorbed (Q). The increasing
order of Zn sorbed after amendment was: CR-amended soils CaCO3-amended soils CES-amended
soils. Unlimed soil (pHwater 5.5) sorbed 3.3% of added Zn whereas CES-amended soils (pHwater 6.6 to
8.4) and CR-amended soils (pH
water
8.5 to 12.1) sorbed respectively from 6.7 and 76.9 (lowest lime rate)
to 34.7 and 100% (highest lime rate) of added Zn. (CES + CR)-amended soils sorbed more Zn than CES-
amended soils. The values of Q were positively correlated (P < 0.01) with CES and CR rates, and
Caequilibrium, pHequilibrium and pHwater of amended soil samples. Nevertheless, pHequilibrium was the only
variable which had contributed the most to the variation of Q.

4. Conclusions Alternative liming materials such as eggshells mixed with concrete residues rich in
calcareous products can be used as a calcitic amendment to increase the pH and natural capacity of acid
coarse-textured soil to immobilize cationic trace metals. CR amendment treatment was more effective
than CES treatment in raising the pH of acid sandy soil. Zinc sorption by limed coarse-textured soil is
highly pH-dependent.

5. References
[1] A. Karam, M.P.Cescas y R. Ledoux, Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 14, (1983) p. 785.
[2] M.B. McBride, Adv. Soil Sci., 10, (1989) p. 1.
[3] V. Girija Veni, R.K. Rattan y S.P. Datta, Int. J. Agric. Sci., 4, (2013) p. 102-105.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[182]
WEEE in Brazil: a retrospective 2002-2014



Wanda Maria Risso Gunther
Angela Cassia Rodrigues
( 1 ) and ( 2 ) Av. Dr. Arnaldo 715 , So Paulo - SP - Brazil
( 1 ) Phone Number: 55 11 3061-7889 Email: wgunther@usp.br

Introduction: The current pattern of production and consumption, technological
innovation and marketing strategies result in rapid replacement of electrical and
electronic equipment (EEE). As a result of this dynamic, growing quantities of solid
waste are generated; whose management is a major challenge for policy makers in
urban centers. In addition to the volume and diversity, also worries the presence of
hazardous substances and the fate of post-consumer products. Heavy metals,
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), brominated flame
retardants (PBB and PBBE) may be released during handling and disposal, which can
present risks to human health and the environment. In Brazil, despite the significant
increase in the consumption of goods and products, this is a still emerging theme, but
with increasing approach in the last decade. Objectives: This paper presents an
evolution of the treatment of the issue of WEEE in the country in the period 2002-2014,
focusing the regulatory legal framework, infrastructure, recycling, developed academic
research, and the means of public information. Methods: It is based on a survey of
literature and documents and includes discussion of data from previous studies of the
authors, related to this subject. Results and Conclusions: During the period assessed
the panoramic view of WEEE has undergone considerable changes, which put in
evidence this theme, such as: i) adoption of public policies that consider solid waste
WEEE; ii) significant growth of the recycling market, with a significant increase in the
number of agents recycling (formal and informal ); iii) significant increase in the
consumption and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment in the Brazilian
population due to the improvement and access to income, with consequent generation
of WEEE; increasing amount of studies and conducting technical and scientific events
on the topic. The emergence of point measures such as voluntary fundraising campaigns
by some manufacturers, municipal government or NGOs, which act as palliative or
temporary measures were important, but permanent measures are necessary to promote
the continuous cycle of collection, treatment and disposal WEEE, particularly the
creation of integrated management systems, as occurred in the countries of the
European Union. Despite the relative increase in the public discussion of the matter, it
appears that there is still much to be investigated and disseminated to society, to
promote awareness and foster social pressure. There is a lack of specific norm about
WEEE management, with clear definition of responsibilities, collection goals set on the
amount of products put in market, goals for recycling of waste collected and deadlines
that take into account the urgency and importance the issue.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[183]
Whey as a raw material to produce lactic acid and polilactide

P. Caballero
(1)
, B. Rodriguez-Morgado
(1,3)
, E. Remesal
(2)
, L. Martn
(3)
, J. Parrado
(1)

(1)
Departamento de Bioqumica y Biologa Molecular, Universidad de Sevilla. C/Profesor
Garca Gonzlez 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain).
(2)
Grupo Kimitec. Parque Empresarial Primores. C/ Pintores n 19. La Mojonera, 04745
Almera (Spain).
(3)
Cyclovita S.L. Avd. de la Innovacin, 1, 41020 Sevilla (Spain)

Phone Number:954552222; e-mail: parrado@us.es

1. Introduction The manufacture of cheese generates a huge amount of whey, the liquid remaining
after the separation of milk fat and casein from whole milk.
Whey is one of the main by-products generated worldwide, and owing to its high
biological and chemical oxygen demand (30.000-50.000 and 60.000-80.000
ppm respectively), its likely to cause serious environmental pollution problems,
so its spill is banned since 1996.
Moreover, whey has an interesting composition, keeping over 50 % of milk
nutrients, having a significant lactose content as well as proteins, water-soluble
vitamins and minerals.
The aim of this work is to develop a bioprocess that allow a complete
valorization of whey (protein, lactose, salts and biomass), with the main interest
of producing lactic acid as building block to obtain lactic acid oligomers (OLAs)
for agrotechnological purposes.
2. Experimental We have designed laboratory scale fermentations in a 2 l fermenter (Image 1) in order
to optimize the fermentation parameters with intention of scale up work in a secondary stage of the
project. Subsequently we have developed a lactic acid-proteins-salt separation process using molecular
filtration combined with organic solvent extraction.
3. Results and Discussion The fermentation was carried out using whey as a sole source of carbon and
nitrogen leading to total lactose consumption.
The main component in the fermented product is lactic acid (~ 40 g/l), being the minor components
soluble proteins, minerals and lactobacillus biomass.
By the lactic acid purification technology developed, coupled with a concentration process we have
obtained 90 % lactic acid product that has served to yield OLAs.
4. Conclusions Through a simple, low-cost fermentation and separation process, we have obtained a
total valorization of whey. The main valuable product is the lactic acid, that has a high applicability as
"building blocks" in the OLAs production.
5. Acknowledgements The project has been supported by the Industrial Technology Centre (CDTI),
the IDEA Agency, and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).
6. References
Drumright, Ray E., Patrick R. Gruber, and David E. Henton. 2000. "Polylactic Acid Technology."
Advanced Materials 12 (23): 1841-1846.
Wee, Y., J. Kim, and H. Ryu. 2006. "Biotechnological Production of Lactic Acid and its Recent
Applications." Food Technology and Biotechnology 44 (2): 163.














Image 1. 2 litter fermenter.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[184]
Betaine recovery from aqueous solutions by adsorption and flotation

N. Kotsiopoulou, N.K. Lazaridis

Division of Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,
GR541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
Tel.: +30 2310 99780; Email address: nlazarid@chem.auth.gr

1. Introduction Molasses is one of the by-products of the sugar production process and is the final
residue from the sugar crystallization unit. Molasses is used as a substrate in a wide range of industrial
fermentations, for example, in the production of alcohols, acids and yeast cells. The sugar-beet molasses
used as a growth medium for yeast contains high amounts of betaine (up to 6% dry solids, DS), also
known as N,N,N-trimethyl glycine, a soluble nitrogenous compound. Trimethylglycine is not
significantly consumed during these fermentations; it undergoes the following processing stages and
becomes a significant constituent of wastewater [1].
Trimethylglycine is a compatible solute, which is able to restore and maintain an osmotic balance in
living cells. It is synthesized and accumulated in response to abiotic stress. Trimethylglycine also acts as
a methyl group donor and has a number of important applications, including its use as a feed additive.
The wastewater from bakers yeast production contains low levels of readily degradable sugars and acids
and high levels of betaine (trimethylglycine). The average concentration of organic pollutants by total
chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 25 000 mg L
-1
of which up to 33% is accounted for betaine [1,2].
In anaerobic wastewater treatment plants, betaine can nearly entirely be degraded by the multi-step
process. However, it seems attractive the possibility of betaine recovery because it is a high value solute
(synthetic betaine costs ~90-200 Euro/Kg).
The objective of this study was the recovery of betaine from aqueous solutions by adsorption and
flotation. The novelty of the current work is that there is limited published information regarding betaine
recovery from aqueous solutions.

2. Experimental The adsorption experiments were conducted in falcon tubes. The mass of adsorbents
was 0.025 g, the volume of solution 25 mL, the shaking rate 16 rpm and adjusted pH at the desired values.
The electro-flotation experiments were carried out in a cylindrical flotation reactor equipped with two
parallel perforated electrodes (8 cm diameter) at the bottom. The used electrodes were from aluminium
(ASTM 7075) with an inter electrode gap of 0.5 cm. The power supply unit was a TF 21 58 Dual DC
apparatus, purchased from Marconi Instruments. The experimental procedure of electro-flotation was
conducted by pouring a given amount of betaine aqueous solution (250 mL) in the cell and applying a
certain electrical current. Aliquots were collected periodically and centrifuged to measure the residual
betaine content.

3. Results and Discussion Batch adsorption experiments were realized to find out the effect of pH and
adsorbent dose. A variety of inorganic and organic materials were used as potential sorbents.
Flotation experiments were run by employing sodium oleate as collector and 0.1 A electrical current.

4. Conclusions - Bentonite (aluminium phyllosilicate) was found as effective sorbent for betaine
recovery (~90%). essentially impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite.

5. References
[1] M. Koplimaaa, A. Menertb, V. Blonskajab, T. Kurissooc, S. Zubc, M. Saarelehtb, E. Vaarmetsb, T.
Menertb, Procedia Chemistry 2, (2010) p. 120.
[2] E. Cibis, A. Ryznar-Luty, M. Krzywonos, K. Lutos1awski, T. Mikiewicz, J. Env. Manag. 92, (2011)
p. 1733.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[185]
Melanoidins removal from simulated molasses effluents by
coagulation-flocculation

T.I. Liakos, N.K. Lazaridis

Division of Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,
GR541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
Tel.: +30 2310 99780; Email address: nlazarid@chem.auth.gr

1. Introduction Melanoidins are dark brown to black coloured natural condensation products of sugars
and amino acids produced by non-enzymatic browning reactions called Maillard reactions. Naturally
melanoidins are widely distributed in food and widely discharged in huge amount by various agro-based
industries especially from cane molasses based distilleries and fermentation industries as environmental
pollutants [1,2].
Decolorization of molasses spent wash by physical, chemical and biological methods has been
investigated by a number of researchers. The drawbacks associated with physicochemical treatment
methods are excess use of chemicals, sludge generation with subsequent disposal problems, high
operational costs and sensitivity to variable water input [3].
The objective of this study was the removal of melanoidins from simulated and real effluents by
coagulation/flocculation. The novelty of the current work is the comparison of the studied method as pre
or post-treatment complementary to conventional anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment. Additionally,
a solution to the problem of sludge generation in coagulation was attempted by sludge re-use.

2. Experimental Ferric chloride, a conventional coagulant, was selected in this work because iron-
based salts have been reported more effective [4]. Coagulationflocculation experiments were conducted
in a jar test device (AZTEC, U.K.) for simulated and real wastewaters to evaluate the effect of pH, the
amount of flocculant and the mixing time.
The sludge produced from the addition of ferric ions in wastewaters was collected by centrifugation and
filtration. The sludge was washed with aqueous solutions in the pH range 410, to remove melanoidin
content, and after then was solubized by the addition of a small amount of HCl. The resulting solution
was re-used in a second series of flocculation experiments.

3. Results and Discussion In general, coagulation was favored in acidic and neutral pH while the
alkaline environment has an adverse effect. At pH = 5, the remaining color content was 2000, 700 and
360 ADMI for simulated, untreated and treated wastewaters, respectively.
The data from sludge re-use experiments were promising since the sludge kept its original coagulation
ability without any significant loss. This behavior indicates that sludge could be used in successive
cycles, without the need of ferric ion addition and sludge disposal.

4. Conclusions - Coagulation experiments could achieve color removal 90% and higher, at pH= 5, for
all wastewaters but with different ferric ion dose; furthermore results almost 70% and 90% reduction in
COD of untreated and treated wastewaters, respectively. Coagulation is a fast process, completed within
10 min. Finally, after flocculation the produced ferric hydroxide sludge was washed, solubilized and re-
used effectively in a new run.

5. References
[1] R. Chandra, R. Bharagava, V. Rai, Bioresour. Technol. 99, (2008) p. 4648.
[2] T. Tondee, S. Sirianuntapiboon, S. Ohmomo, Bioresour. Technol. 99, (2008) p. 5511.
[3] S. Jiranuntipon, Dcoloration deffluents de distillerie par un consortium microbien PhD Thesis,
Laboratoire de Gnie Chimique l'Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 6 Mars 2009.
[4] Z. Liang, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, H. Liu, Chem. Eng. J. 152, (2009) p. 88.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[186]
Utilization of Oxygen Uptake Rate for predicting the biological
treatment potential of molasses wastewaters

G. Lionta
(1)
, K. Tzelepi
(1)
, Ch. Thoma
(1)
, A. Deligiannis
(1)
, C. Tsioptsias
(1)
, A. T.
Xatzopoulos
(2)
, G. Dimitreli,
(1)
,

P. Samaras
(1*)

(1)
Department of Food Technology, Alexander Technological Education Institute of
Thessaloniki, GR-57400 Thessaloniki
*Corresponding author: Tel. 00302310013474, e-mail: samaras@food.teithe.gr,

(2)
Department of Electronic engineering, Alexander Technological Education Institute of
Thessaloniki, GR-57400 Thessaloniki

1. Introduction Wastewaters from food industries are rich in biodegradable organic molecules and
nutrients while usually contain high levels of fats and proteins with a low biodegradability rate [1-3].
The treatment potential of these wastewaters is conventionally estimated by the examination of their
organic content and especially by the assessment of the ratio of BOD5 to COD. However, due to the
presence of a wide range of organic compounds, ratio values often fail to reflect the degradation potential
due to biological treatment; moreover, biodegradation usually depends on the existing activated sludge
unit capacity for the dissociation of the particular substances. The activated sludge Oxygen Uptake Rate
(OUR) measurements are used in this study for the assessment of the biological treatment potential of a
high strength industrial effluent, i.e. molasses wastewaters, subjected to various treatment processes.

2. Experimental - Different pre-treatment techniques were applied to anaerobic treated molasses
wastewaters, including ozonation, and electrocoagulation. The Oxygen Uptake Rate of the treated
samples was investigated by measuring the dissolved oxygen consumption rate upon the addition of the
particular effluents into a municipal activated sludge sample, using a bench scale system. In addition, the
properties of each sample were measured for the determination of BOD5, COD and nitrogen content,
using standard methods of analysis.

3. Results and Discussion - OUR of molasses wastewater was negligible, indicating that these
wastewaters contain a high amount of biorefractory compounds with a toxic character to the activated
sludge biocommunity. Therefore, mixtures of molasses/municipal wastewater in ratios 10/90 v/v were
employed for further studies. Ozonation and electrocoagulation resulted in the enhancement of the
biodegradability of the mixtures, and the increase of the components with easy or moderate
biodegradability, in accordance to BOD5/COD ratios. However, the production of a sample containing
substances of high biodegradability was not achieved, even under intense treatment conditions.

4. Conclusions - The Oxygen Uptake Rate of molasses wastewater subjected to various chemical
treatment processes was measured in this work. It was deduced that this parameter may become a
valuable indicator for the early prediction of the biological treatability of the particular samples; however,
this method may have a high implementation potential for the estimation of the efficiency of the
biological process for the treatment of various industrial wastewaters.

Acknowledgements
This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund ESF) and Greek
national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National
Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARCHIMEDES III. Investing in
knowledge society through the European Social Fund

5. References
[1] Mantzavinos D., Kalogerakis N., Environment International 31(2), (2005) p. 289.
[2] Omil, F., Garrido, J.M., Arrojo, B., Mendez, R., Water Research 37, (2003) p. 4099.
[3] Masse, L., Masse, D.I., Kennedy, K.J., Process Biochemistry 38, (2003) p. 1365.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[187]
Study of the anaerobic digestion treatment of baker's yeast effluents

M. Mischopoulou
(1),(2)
, P. Naidis
(2)
, P. Samaras
(1*)

(1)
Department of Food Technology, Alexander Technological Education Institute of
Thessaloniki, GR-57400 Thessaloniki, Greece
*Corresponding author: Tel. 00302310013474, e-mail: samaras@food.teithe.gr,

(2)
Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR- 54124 Thessaloniki,
Greece

1. Introduction - Baker's yeast industry produces large amounts of high strength wastewater, which are
characterised by high concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, total
phosphates, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS) and dark brown colour. These effluents have to be
treated before their discharge, in order to minimise their environmental impacts [1]. The methods used
for treatment include anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic process. Anaerobic digestion exhibits
many advantages, such as low energy demand, transformation of most of the organic substances present
into biogas, low nutrient demand and small sludge formation [2]. This study focuses on the anaerobic
digestion of molasses wastewater aiming to the optimization of the process by using various reactor
configurations or pre-treatment of the influents.

2. Experimental - The molasses wastewater and the sludge used in the experiments were collected from
the anaerobic digester of the wastewater treatment plant of a baker's yeast manufacturing company. The
experimental set-up consisted of an 1 L anaerobic batch reactor,; an alternative configuration was
examined by the addition of Anox Kaldness K1 carriers. The produced methane was measured by the
water displacement method. The reactors operated under magnetic stirring in a thermostated chamber at
35 C. An alternative pre-treatment technique applied to the raw molasses wastewaters, for enhancing
their biodegradability, using ozonation of wastewater samples for various reaction times in a bubble flow
reactor. The following parameters were analyzed for the determination of samples quality: COD, pH,
total solids, volatile solids, ammonium, nitrate and total nitrogen, phosphates, according to standard
methods of analysis.

3. Results and Discussion The effluent quality was greatly enhanced due to anaerobic digestion.
However, treatment process proved to significantly affect the efficiency: ozone pretreatment improved
the biodegradation potential of the influent, resulting in a higher gas methane production rate; similar
results were observed by the incorporation of the plastic carriers in the anaerobic reactor. Potentially the
presence of carries favored the development of a multidisciplinary biocommunity resulting to the
increase of the process efficiency and the production of an effluent of better quality than the single
anaerobic system.

4. Conclusions Utilization of plastic carriers or ozone pretreatment of high strength molasses
wastewater enhanced the performance of the anaerobic digestion, resulting to higher methane yields and
the production of an effluent with better quality than the effluent subjected to conventional anaerobic
treatment.

Acknowledgements The financial support through the co financed by the European Union and the Greek
State Program EPAN-II (OPC-II)/ESPA (NSRF): 'SYNERGASIA II', Project MOL-TREAT-Integrated
treatment of high molasses wastewater for recovery of high added value products and reduction of
pollutant loading (11SYN-8-699) is gratefully appreciated.

5. References
[1] M.E. Ersahin, R.K. Dereli, H.Ozgun, B.G. Donmez, I. Koyuncu, M. Altinbas, I. Ozturk, Clean - Soil,
Air, Water 39 (6), (2011) p. 543.
[2] A. M. Jimenez, R. Borja, A. Martin, Biochemical Enginnering Journal 18, (2004) p. 121-122.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[188]
Study of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) during biological
treatment of molasses wastewater and co-treatment with activated
carbon and visible light.

D. C. Banti
(1*)
, M. Sofidou
(2)
, M. Lachani
(2)
, P. Samaras
(2)
, M. Mitrakas
(1)


(1)
Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
*Corresponding author: Tel. 00302310013913, e-mail: bandidimitra@yahoo.com

(2)
Department of Food Technology, Alexander Technological Education Institute of
Thessaloniki, P.O. 141, GR-57400 Thessaloniki, Greece

1. Introduction - In this project, the activated sludge process is examined for diluted molasses
wastewater (10% v/v) in three bench scale systems and it is compared with the addition of Powdered
Activated Carbon (PAC) and the artificial visible light irradiation. Molasses wastewater is examined
because of its problematic treatment in food industry. Biological treatment and carbon adsorption have
been combined into a synergistic treatment step in order to remove soluble organics, whereas the visible
light irradiation aims to wastewater bioaugmentation. EPS are studied as they constitute the main
substance of activated sludge matrix. EPS determine the physicochemical and biological properties of
biofilms and they are mainly composed of proteins and carbohydrates [1-3].

2. Experimental The molasses wastewater are diluted in urban wastewater with 10% v/v ratio. The
biological process is carried out in three bench scale Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR), implementing a
12hr cycle treatment (feed, anoxic phase, aeration, sedimentation, flow). The reactors operated for 2.5
months until today and they are still in progress. The samples are collected from mixed liquor during
aeration phase. Thereafter, EPS are extracted with a three stages thermal treatment method. Proteins are
analysed with modified Lowry method and polysaccharides with Dubois method.

3. Results and Discussion - The results concluding from EPS study are the following. First of all,
proteins dominate in comparison with polysaccharides with a percentage of 80-100%. Indicatively,
protein values in soluble EPS fluctuate from 90 to 200 mg/gVSS while protein values fluctuate from 1.5
to 8 mg/gVSS. Regarding the PAC addition, the only remarkable change occurs in proteins of soluble
EPS, which decrease on average from 145 mg/gVSS (biological process) to 95 mg/gVSS (PAC addition).
This reduction has, obviously, been caused by the adsorptive activity of PAC. Regarding the visible light
irradiation, likewise the previous case, the only noteworthy change occurs in proteins of soluble EPS,
which increase on average from 145 mg/gVSS (biological process) to 200 mg/gVSS (visible light
irradiation). his increase has, probably, taken place because of microorganisms bioaugmentation due to
the irradiation.

4. Conclusions - The main conclusions are that proteins dominate in EPS of molasses wastewater (10%
v/v). Furthermore, it is noticed that PAC addition contributed in sEPS reduction. So this method deserves
to be studied further (e.g. analysis of systems efficiency-cost). The visible light irradiation increased
sEPS. Therefore, it deserves further research with regard to the other characteristics of wastewaters
polluting load (e.g. BOD values).

Acknowledgements - The financial support through the co - Financed by the European Union and the
Greek State Program EPAN-II (OPC-II) / ESPA (NSRF): 'SYNERGASIA II', Project (FOUL-MEM) -
"New processes for fouling control in membrane bioreactors (11SYN-8-1084), is gratefully appreciated.

5. References
[1] E.Z. Agusti, A.B. Pia, J.A.M. Roca, J.L.A. Molina, Sep. Purif. Technol., 112, (2013) p. 110.
[2] G.P. Sheng, H.Q. Yu, X.Y. Li, Biotech. Adv., 28, (2010) p. 882-894.
[3] X.Y. Li, S.F. Yagn, Water Res., 41(5), (2007) p. 10221030.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[189]
A novel valorisation process of sewage sludge. Enzyme production by
Bacillus licheniformis.

B. Rodriguez-Morgado
1
, P. Caballero
1
, R. Jimenez
1
, Paloma Gallego
1
, M.A. Perez
1
,

M. Tejada
2
, C. Aragn
3
, A. Garca-Martnez
3
, J.J. Salas
3
, J. Parrado
1



(1)
Departamento de Bioqumica y Biologa Molecular, Universidad de Sevilla. C/Profesor
Garca Gonzlez 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain).
(2)
Departamento de Cristalografa, Mineraloga y Qumica Agrcola, Universidad de Sevilla,
Cta. Utrera Km 1. 41089 Sevilla
(3)
Fundacin Centro de las Nuevas Tecnologas del Agua. Autova Sevilla-Huelva (A-49), Km.
2841820 Carrin de los Cspedes (Sevilla). Espaa.
Phone Number: +34954556113; e-mail: bromo@us.es
1. Introduction Sewage sludge (SeSl) are a wastewater treatment plants by-product, despite being
treated as waste, has a suitable composition to be used as fertilizer because of its N and P content and its
low C / N ratio. These have a high organic matter content, making them an ideal product for organic soil
amendment. Employed as organic amendments, are very important for farming applications, and can also
be used as a soil remediation tool. However, its direct application to the soil can cause severe problems
due to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, unstable organic materials, low bioavailability of its
elements, phytotoxicity, etc. So that, to solve these problems, currently sludge biological transformations
are performed primarily through composting processes.
In this communication, we present an alternative to composting process; a biological process consisting
in a single stage Bacillus licheniformis fermentation, a microorganism widely used in valorization of
organic wastes.
During fermentation, bacterias of genus Bacillus excreted a large variety of extracellular hydrolytic
enzymes, which can modify the physical properties of the SeSl, thus increasing the bioavailability of the
organic compounds that form it.
In order to improve the properties of the bioestimulant extract of SeSl, have been added chicken feathers,
rich in organic nitrogen in form of proteins and that stimulate the production of proteases by Bacillus.
Thus, the resulting end product is a hydrolyzed soluble organic extract rich in organic matter bioavailable,
fundamental in processes of microbial biostimulation and / or phytostimulation; and finally, contains a
wide variety of hydrolytic power (cellulase, protease, lipase, amylase), which are stimulators of the
bioavailability of the organic matter present in soil.
2. Experimental
Chemical determinations: Sewage sludge and feathers were chemically analyzed by inductively coupled
plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using a Fisons-ARL 3410 sequential multielement
instrument equipped with a data acquisition and control system.
Enzymatic determinations: Various methods have been used for the different enzymatic activities, such
as the method described by Beynon and Bond (1989) for protease assay, an adaptation of the method of
Kilcawley (2002) for lipase activity, etc.
3. Results and Discussion - We have tested various concentrations of feathers to determine the optimum
for enzymes production. Cellulase production is not affected by the feather addition to the fermentation
media. With respect to lipase, it is observed that concentration of 1% is optimal, but activity declines in
the time, however, in case of the sample with concentration of 0% a great lipase production was also
observed, but occurs later. For protease activity, highlights the need to add a protein substrate (feathers),
with the optimum at the lowest concentrations.
4. Conclusions - The SeSl fermented with feathers become biostimulants both for soil microorganisms
and for plants, so this new product (SeSl + F Ferm) may be used in both agriculture and bioremediation
processes.
5. References
[1] J. Parrado, B. Rodriguez-Morgado, M. Tejada, T. Hernandez, C. Garcia. Enzyme and Microbial
Technology, 57, (2014), p. 1-7


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[190]
Characterization of biochar produced from different waste and
invasive plants

R. Saiz-Rubio
(1)
, E. Dez
(1)
, J.R. Verde
(1)
, F. Macas-Garca
(1)
, F. Macas
(1)

(1)
Departamento de Edafologa y Qumica Agrcola, Facultad de Biologa, USC, Spain
+34 981563100 ext. 13386 ruthsaizrubio@gmail.com

1. Introduction - Wastes should be considered as an off-site resource or in an inappropriate manner; the
aim of the waste management is to get value out of it. On the other hand, the
introduction of invasive species is estimated to be the second cause of biodiversity
loss globally [1]. Energy recover means the combustion of waste with energy
generation and the production of useful co-products [2]. Biochar is a stable, rich
carbon product obtained from carbonization of biomass in absence of oxygen at
relatively low temperatures (<700C) [3]. Biochar feedstock and production
conditions affect significantly the quality and properties of biochar [5]. The aims
of this study are: (i) To produce biochar from different agricultural waste and
invasive plants using a slow pyrolysis reactor and varying the operation conditions
and (ii) To analyse the properties of the biochar produced in order to evaluate it for soil amendment,
carbon sequestration applications and environmental management.

2. Experimental - As feedstock we used corn cob, Acacia wood, Eucalyptus wood, sawdust, chicken
manure, pine bark and rice husk. Biochar was produced in an experimental unit of biomass pyrolysis.
The operation conditions vary between 300-400C and the residence time from 1.5h to 6h. The methods
used to characterise biochars included CHNS elemental analysis, nutrient and heavy metal content, pH
and electrical conductivity, CEC, TG, DTA, SEM, chemical oxidation and extractable carbon fractions
to estimate the labile fraction of carbon.

3. Results and Discussion - The results show different properties depending on the feedstock and
pyrolysis conditions. In all of them the C content is higher than in the feedstock [6]. The C content affects
all the properties studied. We also obtain higher P content.

Table 1. Elemental characterisation of biochar from different feedstock.


4. Conclusions - These products increase the efficiency of the pyrolysis process, giving value to a
material that before was considered as a waste in bioenergy production processes. We also obtain positive
effect in waste management, reducing greenhouse gases emissions and producing potential materials to
soils as recalcitrant C, structuring, fertilising, soil amendment, adsorbent of anions, metals and water.

5. References
[1] J. Bedia Jimnez, Expansin en la franja litoral cantbrica de las plantas exticas invasoras, Locustela, no. 2, pp. 85-89,
2004.
[2] F. Macas, F. Macas-Garca, C. Nieto, J. Verde, C. Prez, M. Bao and M. Camps-Arbestain, Gestin de residuos y cambio
climtico, in Gestin de residuos orgnicos de uso agrcola, Santiago de Compostela, Servizo de Publicacins e
Intercambio Cientfico, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 2011, pp. 11-24.
[3] J. Lehmann y S. Joseph, Biochar for environmental Management, London: Earthscan PUblications, 2009.
[4] C. Brewer, R. Unger, K. Schmidt-Rohr y R. Brown, Criteria to select biochars for field studies based on biochar chemical
properties, Springer, n 4, pp. 312-323, 2011.
[5] A. Fuertes, M. Camps Arbestain, S. M, M.-A. JA, F. S, L. R, S. RJ, A. WP, A. F and M. F, Chemical and structural
properties of carbonaceous products obtained by pirolysis and hydrotermal carbonisation of corn stover, Australian Journal
of Soil Resarch,48, pp. 618-626, 2010.
Samples %C %N %H %S % Ash %O O/C H/C
Acacia bark 2h 350C 64,48 2,2349 4,195 0,128 5,48 23,48 0,27 0,78
Acacia trunk 3h 350C 71,92 0,40053 3,86 0,053 2,33 21,44 0,22 0,64
Eucalipto 1h 400C, 1/2h 350C 69,32 0,41339 5,085 0,005 1,94 23,24 0,25 0,88
Pine sawdust 65,75 0,71772 5,043 0,065 0,71 27,72 0,32 0,92
Chicken manure 6h 300C 32,59 3,0165 3,936 0,319 46,44 13,70 0,32 1,45
Corn cob 77,18 0,76801 2,131 0,032 6,28 13,61 0,13 0,33
Pine bark 88,67 0,619085 1,0355 0,059 4,44 5,18 0,04 0,14
Rice husk 49,56 2,2805 1,465 0,358 23,33 23,00 0,35 0,35
Figure 1. Biochar.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[191]
Substrate interactions between 4-nitrophenol and 4-nitrotoluene
during biodegradation of their mixture

P. Karlova


Institute of Chemical Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Technicka 5, 166 28
Prague, Czech Republic.
Phone number: +420 220 444 128, E-mail. pavlina.karlova@vscht.cz

1. Introduction Nitroaromatic compounds are hazardous and persistent pollutants of water and soil.
Microbial degradation of the individual nitroaromatic compounds has already been well described in
literature. However, because several compounds often occur in the environment mutually influencing
each others degradation, further research into the biodegradation of their mixtures is still needed. Our
aim was to describe substrate interactions between 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and 4-nitrotoluene (4-NT)
during their degradation from simulated waste water by a mixed microbial culture.

2. Experimental The degradation experiments were carried out in a continuously operated packed-bed
reactor (PBR) and in shake flasks with free suspended cells. In both set-ups, 4-NP and 4-NT were at first
degraded separately, then in a mixture, and their degradation characteristics were compared.
The concentration of 4-NP and 4-NT in the medium was measured by HPLC/DAD.

3. Results and Discussion Experiments performed in the PBR showed that, when treated separately,
4-NP and 4-NT were degraded with the efficiency over 99 and 95 %, respectively. When in a mixture,
4-NP was still completely removed from the media but the 4-NT removal efficiency dropped by half and
remained so during the whole experiment regardless the increasing concentration of both substrates at
the PBR inlet. Overall, the PBR was able to remove high organic loadings of 4-NP, 4-NT, or their mixture
(up to 0.74; 0.64 and 0.69 g.L
-1
.day
-1
, respectively). The results of the shake flask experiments
corroborated our finding that 4-NP negatively influenced 4-NT degradation. The 4-NT degradation rate
was considerably decreased in both the presence and absence of 4-NP in the medium when the
compounds were degraded by cells adapted to 4-NP and 4-NT. Only 4-NT grown cells were able to
degrade 4-NT at a rate comparable to that of 4-NP. Thus, cell adaption appears to play an important role
in 4-NT biodegradation.

4. Conclusions Despite their structural similarity, 4-NP and 4-NT seem to be degraded by different
metabolic pathways. 4-NP showed a strong negative effect on 4-NT biodegradation apparent not only
during the degradation of their mixture but even on the cell adaptation level. The PBR proved an efficient
tool for the degradation of 4-NP and 4-NT as the sole sources of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. However,
for the complete removal of 4-NT from their mixture, a more complex reactor set-up would be needed,
such as a two-stage PBR with the second stage adapted solely to 4-NT.


Acknowledgements
Financial support from specific university research (MSMT No 20/2014)


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[192]
Influence of Waste Addition on the Porosity of Clay-Based Ceramic
Materials

R.J. Galn-Arboledas
(1)
, T. Cotes
(2)
, C. Martnez
(2)
, S. Bueno


(1)
Fundacin Innovarcilla. Pol. Ind. El Cruce. C. Los Alamillos 25. 23710 Bailn (Jan)
SPAIN.
+34 953 67 85 59, materiasprimas@innovarcilla.es

(2)
Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering. Higher Polytechnic
School of Linares, University of Jan. 23700 Linares (Jan). SPAIN.

1. Introduction Ceramic materials offer a unique combination of properties such as high strength and
hardness, wear and corrosion resistance and thermal stability. Control of porosity in ceramics is of great
interest for their feasibility in a wide range of applications. In particular, porous clay-based ceramics are
cheap and have a high potential as building materials [1] and filtering media [2-4].
Clay-based ceramics can tolerate the presence of different type of waste
since they are produced from natural raw materials with a very wide-
ranging chemical and mineralogical composition. Thus, a wide variety of
waste materials have been studied as alternative resources for their
incorporation into clay ceramics [5-8].
This work evaluates the addition of two kind of waste on the porosity and
microstructure of extruded clay-based ceramics from Jaen (Southern
Spain). Selected waste types are screen glass from monitors and oil-
impregnated diatomaceous earths from the filtration of vegetable oils.
2. Experimental Shaping of a reference clay-based material (R) and two
waste-containing formulations (10wt.% of screen glass, R10G, and
10wt.%wt of diatomaceous earth, R10D) was carried out through vacuum
extrusion. Firing of test specimens was performed at three maximum temperatures: 850, 950 and 1050C
and sintered specimens were characterized to determine density, bending strength and water absorption.
Microstructure was observed by SEM while pore size distribution was determined by mercury intrusion
porosimetry. Permeability coefficient was calculated as described in [1].
3. Results and Discussion Image 1 shows mercury intrusion volume versus pore size of specimens
fired at 950 C. Materials containing glass waste have lower porosity and larger pore size due to partial
melting of glass. As a consequence, mechanical strength
of R10G increases up to 40 % due to the lower porosity [7]
while, contrary to expectations, permeability also
increases due to the larger pore size. In the case of R10D
materials, extra porosity created by oil combustion during
sintering also leads to larger permeability values although
a significant decrease of mechanical strength is observed.

4. Conclusions Incorporation of waste into ceramics can
be an eco-friendly alternative for modification of their
microstructure and related properties such as porosity,
pore size, mechanical strength and permeability.

5. References
[1] M.M. Jordn, T. Sanfeliu, C. de la Fuente, Mater. Construcc., 51(261), (2001) p. 5.
[2] J.M. Benito, A. Conesa, M.A. Rodrguez, Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. V., 43(5), (2004) p.829.
[3] M. Sobsey, C. Stauber, L. Casanova, J. Brown, M. Elliot, Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, (2008) p. 4261.
[4] Y. Lv et al., J. Membr. Sci., 331, (2009) p. 50
[5] L. Zhang, Constr. Build. Mater., 47, (2013) p. 643.
[6] S. Monteiro, J. Alexandre, J.Margen, R. Snchez, C. Vieira, Constr. Build. Mater., 22, (2008) p.
1281.
[7] R.J. Galn-Arboledas, A. Merino, S. Bueno, Mater. Construcc., 63(312), (2013) p. 553.
[8] C. Martnez, T. Cotes, F.A. Corpas-Iglesias, Fuel Process., 103, (2012) p. 117-124


Image 1. Pore size distribution

0,1 1 10
0,0
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
2,5
3,0
3,5
4,0
R
R10G
R10D
Pore size (m)
I
n
t
r
u
s
i
o
n

x
1
0
-
2

(
m
L
/
g
)
Table I. Properties of materials fired at 950C
Material
Strength
(MPa)
Permeability
10
-14
(m
2
)
R 13 1 2.4 0.2
R10D 18 1 3.2 0.3
R10G 9 1 3.1 0.3




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[193]
Study of olive solid residue as an additive in bricks production
M.T. Cotes Palomino
(1)
, C. Martnez Garca
(2)
, D. Eliche Quesada
(3)
, F.J. Iglesias
Godino
(4)
, F.A. Corpas Iglesias
(5)


(1)

)
Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering. Higher Polytechnic
School of Linares, University of Jan. 23700 Linares (Jan). SPAIN +34 953 648515,
mtcotes@ujaen.es

1. Introduction The growing demand for olive oil in the market, motivated by the properties beneficial
to health and its presence in the Mediterranean diet, make the agroindustry of the olive grove of
enormous importance in Spain. first world power in the sector of olive oil, with an average production
of between 40 and 60 of the world's total. Andalusia, also shows clearly a strong implementation of the
sector, highlighting Jaen as the first olive oil-producing province in the world (the international olive oil
Council, 2010 data). Taking into account that around 80% of the processed olive to be a residue, the
generation can be considered of more than 4 million tons of residue a year. In recent years, this figure
has caused many research papers that allow its disposal or recovery [1,2]. However the disponsal of
olive oil industrial waste is an environmental problem. Removal systems are insufficient to treat the
amount of waste are produced a year, hence the importance of alternatives for its comprehensive and
recovery treatment. [2]. In this sense, the ceramics industry or the cement industry are manufacturing
processes that make possible the recovery of waste.[3,4]. This is the case then where the characteristics
of the residue from the production of olive oil have been studied for possible use in the production of
ceramic Materials. Financial support for this research was obtained under Research of Excellence
Project Eco-Rujo(RNM-2390). Supported by Consejera de Economa, Ciencia y Empleo de la Junta
de Andaluca and el Ministerio de Economa y Competitividad.

2. Experimental The raw materials have been initially characterized by fluorescence of RX, and
elemental analysis. Thermal behaviour was determined by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and
differential thermal analysis (DTA)

3. Results and Discussion The elemental analysis show that, carbon
content is more than 50%, therefore it is an organic residue, which will mean
an energy intake in the combustion process and to facilitate the generation of
a porous matrix of material structure. The FRX analysis shows that the major
components are silica and potassium and aluminium oxides. A high
potassium content can encourage processes of fusion of the ceramic paste
during the sintering process.

Fig.1.Wet pomace TGA
The TGA-DTA curve of the waste is typical of a solid fuel.

4. Conclusions The use of olive solid residue as an additive in brick manufacture would provide
product added value in their technological properties and production costs. In addition due to the organic
nature of this type of waste, clay products may present a more porous microstructure, reducing their
weight and expected to improve thermal and acoustic insulation properties.

5. References
[1] A. Roig, M.L. Cayuela, M.A. Snchez- Monedero. Waste Manage. 26, (2006), p. 960-969.
[2] R. Borja, F. Raposo, B. Rincn. Grasas y Aceites 57 (1) (2006), p. 32-46.
[3] M.D. La Rubia-Garca et al. Contr. Buil. Mat. 36 (2012), p. 495-500
[4] J.A.De la Casa, M. Lorite, M. Jimnez, E. Castro. J. Hazard Mat. 169, (2009), p. 271-278.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[194]
Innovative Teaching Techniques in Chemical Engineering:
Development of Laboratory Practices Videos in the Chemical
Engineering Area.

C. Martnez Garca (1), M.T. Cotes Palomino (2), J. Martnez Njera(3), A.M. Coves
Martnez.

(1)
Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering. Higher Polytechnic
School of Linares, University of Jan. 23700 Linares (Jan). SPAIN.
+34 953 648548, cmartin@ujaen.es

1. Introduction This innovation in Chemical Engineering area it has been done in subjects of the
degree of Industrial Chemical Engineering and Energy Resource of Higher Polytechnic School of Linares
in University of Jan. With this experience is primarily intended to promote the use of innovative
teaching strategies that encourage an active participation of the university student as well as improve and
update teaching methodologies and promote the use of Information and Communication Technologies.
[1,2].
The main objective that you want to achieve is the selection of some teaching practices of different
degrees offered in the Higher Polytechnic School of Linares so the students of these degrees in further
courses can share them. This will allow the students to perform are subjects previously know the work
that will develop in the laboratory. [3]
2. Experimental - For the preparation of this work the most important parts of the laboratory practices
were identified in the subjects of Introduction to Chemical Engineering and Experimentation in Chemical
Engineering II for the degree in Industrial Chemical Engineering and the subject Chemical Engineering
for the degree in Energy Resources of the HPS of Linares, the objective is to relate them with the
theoretical concepts of these subjects.
Subsequently, and in coordination with the students of this subjects were designed the structure and
recording sequences necessary for mounting the videos of the laboratory practices selected. The
recording of all sequences was carried out in the laboratory of Experimentation in Chemical Engineering
in the Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering of the HPS of Linares. The
practices were recorded while students carried them out during the academic course 2012-13 and 2013-
14. The recordings were conducted in 6 sessions. Previously was held by students, a pre-testing of
recording and initial scripts work. Once finished the recordings, was the Assembly of each of the
practices, combining images, video and text.
The videos have been implemented on the platform of virtual learning which has the University of Jan:
ILIAS platform, as well as in the wiki of chemical engineering, developed in a previous project of
educational innovation in those same subjects.
3. Conclusions - Students valued positively prepared practical videos and consider them helpful in the
learning process of the involved subjects. The majority of them considered that the workload that resulted
in them the same recording has not been excessive and would repeat the experience in subsequent
courses. Also these same students have used the material recorded in the previous year, improving the
academic results obtained in laboratory practices. The involved teachers also value very positively the
experience and will be extended to the rest of the practices of the subjects that are taught in the next
academic year 2014-2015.

5. References
[1] C. Arniz, E. Ojeda. Universidad de Sevilla. ISBN: 978-84-693-8192-2. Secretariado de Recursos
Audiovisuales y Nuevas Tecnologas. (2010)
[2] T. Martn-Blas, T., A. Serrano-Fernndez. Comput. and Educ., 52 (1), (2009), pp 35-44.
[3] Jyothi, S., Mc Avinia, C. y Keating, J. A. Comput. and Educ., 58 (1), (2012), pp 30-42.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[195]
Use of Land of Diatoms from Beer Industry for New Materials
Manufacturing

C. Martnez Garca
(1)
, M.T. Cotes Palomino
(2)
, D. Eliche Quesada
(3)
, L. Prez
Villarejo
(4)
, S. Bueno Rodrguez
(5)
, R. Galn-Arboledas
(6)

(1)
Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering. Higher
Polytechnic School of Linares, University of Jan. 23700 Linares (Jan). SPAIN.
(2)

(5,6)
Fundacin Innovarcilla, Bailn, Jan (Espaa)

1. Introduction There are many industries which generate waste how consequence of its own activity,
this case is beer industry. Into these residues are included the land of diatoms from filtration of beer. [1].
Actually the only destination of wastes is its withdrawal by an authorized company for its disposal, in
the majority of cases, in landfill. This represents an economic and environmental cost to the beer
company. There are many studies that have shown that the polymeric materials, cement and ceramic
industries are the most appropriate achieve the inerting and neutralization of waste through encapsulation
into the matrix. [2-4].
Also, are becoming more demanded bricks with better properties, for example better thermal
conductivity and acoustic insulating capability, a way of increasing this properties is introduce organic
wastes in ceramic matrix. [5-7]. This study shows a research above land of diatoms from beer industry
for make new materials in ceramic industry. This work is supported by the Research Excellent Project
Keram-Eco: Valuation of waste in ceramic materials for a sustainable and efficient building (TEP-7253).
Funded by the Counselling of Economy, Science and Employment of Andalusia Government and the
and the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Government of Spain.

2. Experimental The raw materials have been characterized by fluorescence of X-ray, and elemental
analysis. After have been prepared specimens with 0%, 3%, 7% and 10% by weight of waste, using a
mix of clays commonly employed in the ceramics industry of Bailn. This mix contained 40% in weight
of black clay, 30% wt of blonde clay and 30% wt of red clay.
After sintering at 950 C for 3 h, real density was determined by He, and the adsorption and desorption
isotherms with N2 and were determined the distribution of mesoporosity analysed following the BJH
(Barrett, Joyner, and Halenda) method. The following parameters were measured with the adsorption
isotherm: the BET surface area (m
2
/g), pore volume (cm
3
/g) and pore size ().

3. Results and Discussion The elemental analysis show that, land of diatoms has a 6,460% of carbon
content. Respect to the other data, very relevant information is the sulphur content, since there is no
presence of the same in the waste. This tells us that none of this waste would be harmful sulphur oxides
in combustion. The XRF analysis shows that the major relevant content of silica and alumina. The results
of isotherms show on one hand, a surface area between 1.19 and 1,79 m
2
/g, a pore size between 121.3
and 131.7 therefore a porosity of mesoporous.
4. Conclusions This study show that the use of wastes in manufacturing ceramics is an option that
coincides with the principles of sustainable development. The use of these wastes from the beer industry
can constitute an environmental and economic benefit, since it permits the use as raw material of some
products currently considered to be wastes. It can be translated in an improvement in the lifecycle of the
material obtained. Finally the results show an increase in the porosity of the specimens prepared.
5. References
[1] G. Simate et al. Desalination, 273 (2011), p. 235-247.
[2] S.P. Raut, R.V. Ralegaonkar, S.A. Mandavgane. Constr. Build. Mat., 25, (2011), p. 4037-4042
[3] S. Rauta et al. Archiv. of Civil and Mech. Eng.13, (2013), p. 269-275.
[4] M. Sutcu, S. Akkurt. Ceram. Int. 35, (2009), p. 2625-2631.
[5] I. Demir, Waste Manage. 28, (2008), p. 622-627.
[6] D. Eliche, C. Martnez, L. Martnez, T. Cotes, L. Prez, N. Cruz. Appl. Clay Sci. 52 (3), (2011), p.
270-276
[7] C. Martnez, T. Cotes, F.A. Corpas-Iglesias, Fuel Process., 103, (2012) p. 117-124


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[196]
Study of the application of green/pruning wastes compost and
vermicompost extracts in tomato seedlings and analysis of their
suppressive effect against fungi pathogens

M.R. Morales Corts
(1)
, M.A. Gmez-Snchez, R. Prez-Snchez
(1)
Filiberto Villalobos 119. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Ambientales. Universidad de
Salamanca. 37007. Salamanca. Spain.
+34 923294690 reme@usal.es


1. Introduction Water extracts prepared from composted organic matter have been used by farmers for
centuries for their perceived beneficial effects on plant health and growth. This positive effect is due to
composts chemical and microbiological composition Also, it is clear the highly dependent on chemical
pesticides for control of plant pathogens. Fungicides and fumigants commonly have drastic effect on the
soil biota and human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vigour effect and the
disease suppression ability against three fungi pathogens of green/pruning wastes compost (CT) and
vermicompost (VT) extracts.

2. Experimental Extracts were prepared mixing mature compost and vermicompost of green/pruning
wastes with tap water in ratio 1:5 w/w. Their chemical compositions were analysed and four different
pot experiments over tomato seedling production were carried out in order to determined vigour effect
and suppressive effects againts Fusarium oxyosporum, Rhizocthonia solani and Phytopthora cactorum
of CT an VT extracts

3. Results- The results are presented in tables 1-3
Table I. Chemical composition of green/pruning compost extract (CT) and vermicompost extract (VT)
NH4
+
mg
kg
-1

Ca
2+
mg kg
-1

Mg
2+
mg
kg
-1

NO
3-

mg kg
-1

PO4
3-

mg kg
-1

K2O
mg kg
-1

SO4
2-
mg
kg
-1
pH
CE mS/cm
CT 16,125 50 27,5 3820,875 149,6625 3600 60 7,81 2,46
VT 4,515 75 10 808,475 148,1275 99 30 7,53 0,555

Table II. Vigour effect on tomato seedling of green/pruning compost extract (CT) and vermicompost
extract (VT)
Diameter (mm) Dry weight root
(g)
Dry weight shoot
(g)
SPA units
Control 1,46a 0,07a 0,07a 21,7a
CT 3,92b 0,15b 0,42b 28,3b
VT 3,85b 0,15b 0,35b 28,8b

Table III. Suppression of Rhizoctonia solani, Phytopthora cactorum and Fusarium oxyosporum with
green/pruning compost (CT) and vermicompost (VT) extracts on tomato seedling
Diameter
(mm)
Dry weight
root (g)
Dry weight
shoot (g)
SPA
units
Number of dead
plants
Attack
severity
Rhizoctonia Control 0,66a 0,07a 0,07a 21,0a 6 5
R+CT 1,31b 0,07a 0,22b 34,9b 5 4
R+VT 2,27c 0,11a 0,23b 28,3ab 3 3
Phytophtora Control 1,65a 0,02a 0,02a 26,1a 0 2
P+CT 4,34b 0,19b 0,45b 37,0b 0 1
P+VT 3,80b 0,16b 0,30b 33,7b 0 1
Fusarium Control 3,10a 0,08a 0,12a 20,0a 0 2
F+CT 4,42b 0,22b 0,58b 31,1b 0 1
R+VT 4,04b 0,23b 0,47b 29,2b 0 1


4. Conclusions - The chemical composition of the extracts permit a support of nutrients for growing
seedlings. Also, the experiment shows that the applications of green/pruning wastes compost and
vermicompost extracts in tomato seedling production have both a positive influence in growth parameters
and produce a reduction of the pathogenic fungi effect.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[197]
Viability of using concrete residue to produce compacted soil blocks

F. X. R. F. Lima
(1)
, F. Arajo
(2)

(1)
Escola de Agronomia, Campus Samambaia, Rodovia Goinia/Nova Veneza, Goinia
GO, Brasil
+5562 99746456, fabiolla.lima@gmail.com

(2)
Departamento de Arquitetura, Av. Universitria, n 1.440, St.Universitrio, Goinia - GO

1. Introduction In search of solutions that could contribute with the preservation of the environment.
Since the construction of new housing, many natural resources have been extracted indiscriminately and
it generates meaningful waste. It is goal is to propose the incorporation of
cement residual mortar and sand, from the laying and covering of walls, in
the production of soil-cement blocks (1), called CSB (compacted soil block)
or SCR (soil-cement-residue). Shown in Image 1.

2. Experimental - Compositions with 12.5% cement and 0%, 20%, 40% and
60% of waste to replace the soil mass were studied (according Tabla 1). The
experimental procedures included the definition of dosages of the
compositions, preparation and characterization of soil samples, cement
residue, and the physical-mechanical CSB's-SCR by means of absorption and
durability, both at 7 days, and resistance to simple compression at 7 and 28
days of age.

3. Results and Discussion - The results show that all the compositions with residue, are indicated for
the manufacture of CSB, however, the compound with 20% residue showed the best result. In general, it
is considered the substitution of clay for concrete residue, an economic and sustainable alternative for
the production of building components that meet the criteria of modular coordination, mechanical
strength, absorbency of water (2) and durability (3).




4. Conclusions - The manufacturing of compacted soil blocks with concrete waste contributes in a
beneficial way in the discussion about construction processes using new modular components mainly,
when they are alternative to the use of discard materials that would otherwise be dumped inappropriately.
Therefore, it is concluded that replacing part of the soil residue of cement and sand, yielded a product
that met the criteria of absorption, strength and durability needed for the proper performance
characteristics of buildings, and they were proven conditions use, from the technical analysis and cost.


5. References
[1] NBR 10834: Soil-cement block without structural function Requirements. Rio de Janeiro, 2012.
[2] NBR 10836: Soil-cement block Dimensional analysis, compressive strength determination and
water absorption Test method. Rio de Janeiro, 2013.
[3] NBR 13554: Soil-cement Durability test by wetting and drying Test method. Rio de Janeiro,
2012.


Image 1. Soil cement block
produced with cement residue

Tabla I. Dosages of mixtures: soil, cement and waste
Compound
Soil (%) Cement (%) Residue (%)
1 SCR0
100 12,5 0
2 SCR20
80 12,5 20
3 SCR40
60 12,5 40
4 SCR60
40 12,5 60




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[198]
Olive mill wastewater treatment by Fenton's reagent and anaerobic
biological process

Carlos Amor
(1)
, Marco S. Lucas
(1)
, Antnio Pirra
(1)
, Juan Garcia
(2)
, Joaqun R.
Dominguez
(3)
, J. Beltrn de Heredia
(3)
, Jos A. Peres
(1)

(1)
Centro de Qumica - Vila Real, Universidade de Trs-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD,
5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal. (+351259350227, jperes@utad.pt)

(2)
Grupo de Catlisis y Procesos de Separacin (CyPS), Departamento de Ingeniera
Qumica, Facultad de Ciencias Qumicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040
Madrid, Spain

(3)
Departamento de Ingenieria Qumica y Qumica Fsica, Universidad de Extremadura,
Avda. de Elvas, s/n, 06071 Badajoz, Spain

1. Introduction - The disposal of olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a problematic issue in the countries
located in the edge of the Mediterranean Sea due to high organic load of these effluents with COD
between 40 000 to 100 000 mg O2/L [1]. This research work carried out the treatment of OMW by an
anaerobic process and by a combined process consisting of a first stage of oxidation by Fenton's reagent
followed by a second stage of anaerobic digestion.

2. Experimental Fenton experiments were carried out in batch reactors with OMW. The
biodegradation experiments were performed in an anaerobic discontinuous unit. The microorganisms
were supported on Sepiolite (magnesium silicate, Mg4Si6O15(OH)2.6H2O). The produced methane was
measured using a Boyle-Mariotte deposit type initially filled with water, coupled to the digester.

3. Results and Discussion Initially, it was promoted the OMW pre-treatment by chemical oxidation
in a batch reactor, with Fenton's reagent, using a fixed weight ratio R=H2O2/COD=0.20, with the initial
conditions: pH=3.5 and the molar ratio H2O2/Fe
2+
=15. It was obtained a reduction of 17.6% in COD and
82.5% in total polyphenol content. In a second phase, after carrying out the neutralization of the effluent,
were performed various tests of anaerobic biodegradation in a batch reactor, containing microorganisms
previously adapted to the substrate. The tests were carried out varying the substrate concentration
provided to biological reactor, measured as COD.
The COD concentration decreased continuously
with degradation time in all experiments until a
constant value was reached, corresponding to the
non-biodegradable substrate fraction. According to
the Monod model it is possible to establish an
empirical relation between (the specific growth
rate of biomass) and the concentration of substrate
(S). It is also possible to determine the overall kinetic
constant (KFN) of methane produced in an anaerobic
reactor in OMW anaerobic digestion process pre-
oxidized with Fenton's reagent (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Kinetic constant determination (KFN) in OMW anaerobic digestion process pre-oxidized with Fenton's reagent.

4. Conclusions - The results obtained with the combined treatment (Fenton's reagent and anaerobic
biological process) show reductions in COD ranging from 64 to 88% and allow to calculate the methane
generation yield, from 281 cm
3
to 322 cm
3
of CH4/g COD removed. The kinetic study for the rate of
methane generation was performed using the Monod model. The application of this model allowed
observing an increase in the kinetic constant of the combined process (KFN = 0.036 h
-1
) when compared
to the single anaerobic process (KF = 0.017 h
-1
).

5. References
[1] M.S.Lucas; J.A.Peres, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 168 (2009), p.1253-1259.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
-3,0
-2,5
-2,0
-1,5
-1,0
-0,5
0,0
Y = B * X
----------------------------------
B = -0,0359 0,0015


l
n
[
1
-
V
C
H
4
/
(
V
*
Y
C
H
4
*
S
'
0
)
]
Time (hour)

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[199]
Biodecolorization of melanoidins from bakery effluents by the
thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8
Tsiakiri E.P.
1
, Sombatzi E
1
., Lazaridis N.
2
, Pantazaki A.A.
1*

1
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-
54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.

phone number:+30-2310-997838, e-mal: natasa@chem.auth.gr
2
Division of Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,
GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece, e-mal:nlazar@ chem.auth.gr

1. Introduction- Melanoidins (MDs) are brown, high molecular weight heterogeneous polymers that are
formed when sugars and amino acids react (through the Maillard amino-carbonyl reaction) at high
temperatures and low water activity. MDs are toxic to many microorganisms including those generally
involved in wastewater treatment processes. Decolorization of MD spent wash prior to disposal is of
primary importance, and is considered as one of the criteria of safe disposal. So far, different studies have
been carried out for their decolorization using microorganisms either single or in combination, mostly in
presence of additional carbon source with limited success. MD commonly presented in foods that have
undergone some form of non-enzymatic browning, such as bread crust, coffee, bakery products, and also
in the wastewater of sugar refineries or industries of baker's yeast fermentation, necessitating treatment
to avoid contamination around the outflow of these refineries. The goal of this study is to bio-decolorize
melanoidin of the wastewaters from the baker's yeast fermentation by T. thermophilus.

2. Experimental-Synthetic MD was prepared from glucose and glycine. Various MD solutions (10-50%
v/v) were treated with T. thermophilus at 70
o
C. Bacterial growth and MD decolorization were monitored
spectometrically at 600 and the max of MD (at 475 nm), respectively. The decrease of the total color was
also checked by ADMI colorimetry based on the three properties, which characterize the color: the tint
(hue), color intensity (chroma) and the amount of color (value). Two groups of enzymes were considered
responsible for MD decolorization, peroxidases and laccases and their enzyme activity was monitored
by decolorization of ABTS
+
as substrate in the presence or absence of H2O2 respectively.

3. Results and discussion-Biodecolorization of synthetic MD by T. thermophilus reached 93, 94, 86, 86,
87% in MD concentrations ranging from 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively. Thus, the removal of total
color was almost 50% in high MD concentrations. Bioremoval of natural MDs from bakery effluents was
94, 87, 82, 80, 78% dependent from melanoidin concentrations from 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively.
Bacterial growth was assured in higher degree in solutions with low MD concentration. The induction of
decolorization-related enzymatic activities, like peroxidases and laccases were assayed in the medium.
In most cases, the decolorization rate of ABTS
+.
was up to 90% for both enzymes, suggesting that both
of this kind of enzymes are secreted in extracellular fluid in presence of MD.

Melanoidin
concentration
(%v/v)
Decolorization
(%) (A475)-
synthetic MD
Decolorization
(%) (ADMI)-
synthetic MD
Decolorization
(%) (A475)-
natural MD
Decolorization
(%) (ADMI)-
natural MD
Peroxidase
activity-
(%)
Laccase
activit
y-(%)
10% 93 51 94 42 54 74
20% 94 48 87 42 73 93
30% 86 42 82 29 99 91
40% 86 41 80 32 91 96
50% 87 40 78 24 96 92
Table 1. Melanoidin decolorization after bacterial treatment with T. thermophilus and enzymatic
activities secreted in the medium in the presence of various concentrations of MD.
4. Conclusions-T. thermophilus is a microorganism that can cause a very efficient decolorization in
bakery wastes containing melanoidins.

5. References
[1] Chandra R., Bharagava R.N., Rai V. Bioresour Technol. 99, (2008): p. 4648-60.
[2] Re R., Pellegrini N., Proteggente A., Pannala A., Yang M., Rice-Evans C. Free Radical Biology &
Medicine. 26, (1999) p. 1231-1237

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[200]
Ammonia adsorption capacity for natural materials to be used in
biofilters

R.F. Vieira, S.A. Figueiredo, O.M. Freitas, V.F. Domingues and C. Delerue-Matos

REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politcnico do Porto, Rua
Dr. Antnio Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto, PORTUGAL
(E-mail: rfmva@isep.ipp.pt, saf@isep.ipp.pt, omf@isep.ipp.pt, vfd@isep.ipp.pt,
cmm@isep.ipp.pt)

1. Introduction - Biofiltration has been an alternative to the treatment and control of gas emissions from
wastewater treatment plants and organic valorisation centrals, since this type of activities have a negative
impact on both economic and social level due to odour emissions (mainly due to the presence of
ammonia, sulphur compounds, volatile fatty acids, aldehydes and ketones) [1].

Biofiltration involves
adsorption, absorption and biodegradation processes [2].
The aim of this work is to exploit natural materials available in Portugal, some of them wastes from
agriculture activities. The selected materials, woodchips mixed with compost, almond bark, maize
production wastes, chestnut hedgehog and cuttlefish bone, were tested for ammonia adsorption capacity.

2. Experimental - All materials were dried at 50C for 24 hours. Tests were carried out in a closed
system at an average temperature of 24C. Preliminary tests have been developed for each material.
Kinetic and equilibrium studies were performed for the most interesting systems.

3. Results and Discussion - The best results were obtained for maize production wastes, followed by
hedgehog chestnut and the worst was obtained for cuttlefish bone. In figure 1 are presented the results of
preliminary tests.


Figure 1 - Ammonia removal capacity of the different studied materials

Pseudo-first and pseudo-second order models were adjusted to the kinetic experimental data. Langmuirs
and Freundlichs models were applied to describe equilibrium isotherms. Despite cuttlefish bone showed
the worst results, its constitution rich in calcium may provide a strong buffering capacity.

4. Conclusions - The selection of the most interesting systems for biofiltration application is based not
only in the adsorption capacity but also in the chemical and physical properties of the material, namely
buffer capacity, water holding capacity, water retentivity, density and porosity.


5. References
[1] Pagans, E. L., Font, X., Snchez, A. (2005). Biofiltration for ammonia removal from composting
exhaust gases. Chemical Engineering Journal, 113(2), 105-110.
[2] Pagans, E., Font, X., Snchez, A. (2007). Adsorption, absorption, and biological degradation of
ammonia in different biofilter organic media. Biotechnology and bioengineering, 97(3), 515-525.

Acknowledgment
The authors would like to express appreciation for the support of the sponsors Quadro de Referncia Estratgica
Nacional [Project ODORTECH - Ref.30204] and Fundao para Cincia e Tecnologia [PEst-C/EQB/LA0006/2013].

1,72
1,10
14,24
5,98
0,05
0,00
2,00
4,00
6,00
8,00
10,00
12,00
14,00
16,00
woodchips+compost Almond bark Maize production
wastes
Hedgehog chestnut Cuttlefish bone
R
e
m
o
v
a
l

C
a
p
a
c
u
t
y

(
m
g
/
g
)

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[201]
Investigation of olive mill wastewaters treatment by immobilized
microalgae.

E. Martins
(1)
, D. Monteiro
(1)
and C. Fernandes
(1)*


Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), ESA-Polytechnic Institute of Bragana. Campus de


Santa Apolnia 5301-855 Bragana, Portugal. (+351) 273 303 200.
* conceicao.fernandes@ipb.pt


1. Introduction Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by minimum levels of nitrogen
compounds and low pH, as well as very high organic load, due to high levels of phenolic compounds
and sugars [1,2]. OMW direct disposal may pollute both, land and aquatic environments [1], therefore is
one of the most serious environmental problems in producers countries. Although the two-phase method
is a most innovative technique, in Portugal still exist the three-phase process. In this work, immobilized
microalgae were tested to treat OMW, in order to reduce phyto-toxicity. From our knowledge it appears
that OMW treatment methods with microalgae is a pioneering technique.

2. Experimental Two-phase olive mill wastewaters (TPOMW) and three-phase olive mill wastewaters
(OMW) were collected in north-eastern Portugal. The treatments were performed with wastewaters
diluted from 20% to 60% (v/v), for each effluent. Essays were done in batch cultures with immobilized
Chlorella vulgaris (CBSC 15-2075) and incubated with aeration in a controlled chamber, as in image 1.
Polyphenols content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteau method, after a liquid-liquid extraction with
methanol. Germination assays were performed with lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds, incubated in a
growing chamber at 26C, for 7days. Results were expressed as germination index (GI%) and mean root
growth (cm/day)

3. Results and Discussion After 20 days of fermentation a reduction in polyphenols levels up to 50%
was observed, with the higher performance obtained for TPOMW, considered the lower polluting
wastewater. Others biological processes have been showed a greatly variation on phenolic compounds
reduction [3-8]. Treated wastewaters showed highest germination percentage and an increase in root
growth, than untreated ones, suggesting a decrease in toxicity. In fact, several authors attribute OMWW
toxicity to their phenolic compounds which inhibits germination of seeds of different plant species [9].

4. Conclusions The biotreatments tested in this work showed a potential
reduction in phenols content, which are responsible for toxicity. Also, an
increase in germination percentage and in the root growth of lettuce was
achieved, confirming a phyto-toxicity decrease. Incorporation of
microalgae processes on OMWW can be a viable option for effluent
treatment.

5. References: [1] McNamara, et al. International Biodeterioration &
Biodegradation, 61, (2008) p. 127. [2] Ruiz-Rodriguez, et al.
International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation , 64, (2010) p. 638. [3]
Di Gioia, et al. Research Microbiology, 152, (2001) p. 83. [4] Marques,
I.P. Desalination, 137, (2001) p. 233. [5] Ettayebi, et al. FEMS-
Microbiology Letters, 223(2), (2003) p. 215. [6] Chtourou, et al. J.
Chemical Technol. and Biotechnology, 79, (2004) p. 869.[7] Aggelis, et
al. Water Research, 37(16), (2003) p. 3897. [8] Matos, et al. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 45(3),
(2007) p. 270. [9] Niaounakis and Halvadakis. Olive Processing Waste Management: Literature review
and patent survey. Elsevier, UK, 2006.

Image 1. (a) Imobilized C. vulgaris
used in biotreatments; (b) Aspect of
batch cultures.
B
A

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[202]
Dehydrated peel potato waste: potential as an ingredient for the food
industry

M. S. Soares Jnior
(1)
, G. M. Bastos
(1)
, M. Caliari
(1)
, M. R. H. Campos
(2)

(1)
Escola de Agronomia, Universidade Federal de Gois, Goinia, GO Brasil.
Phone: 55623521161. E-mail: manoel@ufg.br

(2)
Faculdade de Nutrio, Universidade Federal de Gois, Goinia, GO Brasil.


1. Introduction Approximately 35% potatoes are discarded in the industrialization process.
Unfortunately, there are still few alternatives to the use of such waste, and they are discharged into the
environment, used as animal feed or as raw material for organic fertilizer.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical,
technological and microbiological characteristics of dehydrated potato peel
waste (DPPW) in order to meet its potential as an ingredient in the food
industry.

2. Experimental Six samples of potato peel waste (PPW) were collected in
an industry that processes fries, in the sieve after peeling and cutting the
tubers, during the second wash of the processing, directly from the disposal
tube. Soon thereafter, were dried in a forced air oven at 60C. Were
determined the moisture before drying [1], and water absorption index (WAI)
[2], water solubility index (WSI) [2], proximal composition [1] and the microbiological profile [3] after
drying, and also prepared scanning electron micrographs.

3. Results and Discussion High moisture in the PPW (83g 100g
-1
) can lead to a rapid deterioration of
this residue caused by natural fermentation by microorganisms present in the sample. With drying the
shelf life of this by-product can be extended, facilitating their handling and storage. The microscopic
analysis of DPPW showed the presence of numerous starch granules and fibers (Image 1) because this
residue is constituted by suberized epidermis (peel) and part of the parenchyma (pulp) of the tubers. It
was found that a large amount of starch was discarded along with the peel, which highlights the
importance of this use in the food industry. DPPW obtained expressive values of carbohydrates (74,2g
100g
-1
), protein (8,1g 100g
-1
), ash (2,1g 100g
-1
) and fiber (8,57g 100g
-1
), and low values of lipids (0,3g
100g
-1
) and moisture (6,7g 100g
-1
), therefore, the DPPW is not only composed of peels, but also of parts
of the cortex of the tuber, which vary in size and shape according to the degree of maturity of the potato,
which influence the peeling and cutting. The presence of high levels of protein and fiber in the DPPF
shows that it can enhance products including it and offer health benefits to consumers. The WAI and
WSI values obtained were (3.49 ggel (gdry matter)
-1
and 5.84 g (100 g)
-1
, respectively, which can be
explained by the high availability of the hydrophilic groups of the protein and fiber of the PPF to bind to
water molecules, therefore, possible use in food formulations such as pasta, bakery, confectionery and
sausage meat products. Salmonella was not identified in any of the flour samples analyzed, but the B.
cereus count 3,900% higher than allowed by Brazilian law.

4. Conclusions - It is concluded that the processing (drying and grind) and use of the peel potato waste
is important to reduce the environmental impact, food waste and provide greater economic gains for the
industry in order to foster the sustainability of potato chips industries. Thus, the use of peel potato waste
in food manufacturing requires further studies in order to understand and define strategies to prevent
microbial growth in this residue, such as acidification, sanitization, irradiation and others.

5. References
[1] A.O.A.C., Official methods of analysis, AOAC, Washington D.C., 2010.
[2] R. A. Anderson et al., Cereal Sci. Today, 14 (2), (1969) p. 4.
[3] U. S. Food And Drug Administration, Bacteriological analytical manual. FDA, Silver Spring,
2002.
Image 1.Potato peel waste (PPW),
magnification 330x

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[203]
Passion fruit waste: use in extruded breakfast cereal of broken rice

M. Caliari
(1)
, M. S. Soares Jnior
(1)
, P. A. dos Santos
(2)
, L. F. Viana
(2)

(1)
Escola de Agronomia, Universidade Federal de Gois, Goinia, GO Brasil.
Phone: 55623521161. E-mail: macaliari@itg.com.br

(2)
Instituto Federal Goiano Cmpus Rio Verde, CP 66, 75901-970, Rio Verde, GO, Brasil.

1. Introduction During rice processing, the breakage of grains is a common occurrence and generates
the broken rice grains (BRG). Peel passion fruit flour (PPF) is obtained during the juice processing, after
selection, sanitization, dehydration and grinding of the peels (waste). Extrusion technology may allow
the use of such co-product as raw material for the production of processed foods ready for consumption.
This study was designed to evaluate the physical, chemical and functional properties of extruded
breakfast cereal (EBC) to evaluate the technological viability of using these co-products in the food
industry.

2. Experimental The mixture of 97g 100g
-1
BRG and 3g 100g
-1
PPF with 13g 100g
-1
moisture was
processed in equipment with a simple screw (Inbramaq, PQ-30, Ribeiro Preto-SP, Brazil) using the
following fixed process parameters: motor rotation of 177rpm; circular matrix opening of 3.85mm in
diameter; pre-matrix with 22 orifices; screw with 300mm long and compression rate of 3:1; 335g min
-1
feed rate; and temperatures at first, second and third heating zones of 40, 60 and 80C, respectively. After
extrusion, the EBC were dried in an oven with circulating air at 80C for 1h. The dry product was kept
at 25C in flexible low density polyetilene packaging until the moment of analysis. The proximate
composition, expansion index (EI), water-absorption index (WAI), water-solubility index (WSI), and
hardness of five samples of the EBC were evaluated using official methods.

3. Results and Discussion The mean values and standard deviations of moisture content, ash, protein,
lipid, total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber, and carbohydrates obtained from
the EBC were 2.020.1, 0.600.02, 9.060.8, 0.400,05, 6.750.3, 2.830.08, 3,920,09, 81,17g 100g
-
1
, respectively. The lipid contents of the EBC were low, demonstrating the low energetic macronutrient
content, which is an important selection factor for a consumer worried about his health and who prefers
products with low lipids content to prevent obesity and chronic diseases, such as diabetes and
cardiovascular diseases. Dietary fiber belongs to the group of biologically active compounds, and their
consumption is of fundamental importance for human health. The total dietary fiber content of EBC in
this study was higher than reported to commercial breakfast cereals, as oat meal, almonds and honey
breakfast cereal (4.90g 100g
-1
), corn breakfast cereal (3.57g 100g
-1
), and corn, wheat and oatmeal
breakfast cereal (2.15g 100g
-1
) [1]. The mean values and standard deviations of EI, WAI, WSI, and
hardness of the EBC were 3.970.22, 9.530,15 ggel

gdry matter, 5.110.09g 100g
-1
, and 56623 N,
respectively. Trombini et al. [2] studying the physical, rheological and sensorial characteristics of
extruded products with passion fruit flour (10g 100 g
-1
) and manioc starch (90g 100 g
-1
) mixtures, found
EI values of 2.53 and 3.51, which were less than to the values observed for the EBC in the present study,
because they used a higher concentration of PPF. Breakfast cereals are generally consumed with milk,
and during their immersion in this liquid, cereal suffer hydration and undesirable changes in their textures
because of water absorption. Therefore, lower WAI values are more convenient for this type of product
to maintain crunchiness after its preparation and before consumption, as assessed in this study. The
incorporation of 3g 100g
-1
PPF (rich in dietary fiber) not caused problems in the EBC hardness, because
it was considered within the proper range for breakfast cereals.

4. Conclusions The use of passion fruit peel flour and broken rice grains in the production of extruded
breakfast cereal is feasible in both technological and nutritional aspect, and can contribute to improving
public health and reducing the environmental impact of these agricultural industries.

5. References
[1] Lalojo et al., Fibra Diettica em Iberoamerica: Tecnoliga y Salud, Varela, So Paulo, 2001.
[2] F.R.M., Trombini, M. Leonel,.y M.M Mischan. Cienc. Rural, 43(10), (1885) p. 1885-1891.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[204]
Obtention of biofertilizers/bioestimulants derived from tobacco
wastes
M. Tejada
(1)
, Rodriguez-Morgado, B
(2)
, Bautista, J.D
(2)
, Parrado, J
(2)
.
Dpto.Cristalografa, Mineraloga y QumicaAgrcola, E.T.S.I.A., Universidad de Sevilla, Crta. Utrera,
km 1, 41013 Sevilla,Spain, phone: 9545586469, mtmoral@us.es.
(1)
Dpto Bioqumica y Biologa Molecular, Universidad de Sevilla c/Prof. Garcia Gonzalez 2, 41012,
Sevilla.
1. Introduction In recent years, large quantities of tobacco wastes (about 20%) are generated during
cigarette making [1]. Consequently, these tobacco wastes can be used for obtaining concentrates or
protein hydrolysates, in order to obtain a protein source for use as biofertilizer/bioestimulant (BS) in
certain crops. These BS, basically constituted by peptides, amino acids, polysaccharides, peptides, humic
acids, phytohormones, etc., are directly absorbed by the plant, resulting in lower energy consumption
[2]. The objective of this study was described a biochemical process for the conversion of tobacco wastes
in a new soil BS.
2. Experimental - The tobacco wastes were byproducts of cigarettes manufacturing process and
consisted of tobacco sticks, tobacco dust and rejected cigarettes. Tobacco wastes were dried in an oven
at 50 C and ground to obtain tobacco leaf flour (TLF). Protein concentrates were obtained by enzymatic
hydrolysis process according to the pH-stat method [3], using a protease (LA-450) as the hydrolytic
agent. This process took place in a bioreactor operating under controlled temperature (60 C), and pH
(8) during 120 minutes. The substrate concentration used was 15% and the enzyme concentration was
38 UB b
-1
. The hydrolysed product was centrifuged obtaining the protein concentrate. Proteins, molecular
size of proteins, carbohydrates and aminoacids were analysed following the methodology described in
[2].
3. Results and Discussion
Table I. Chemical and amino acid composition
of protein concentrates (mean standard values)
obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. The data are
the means of three replicates
(*) Results are expressed as grams per 100 g of proteins

From a quantitative standpoint, proteins are the
main components of these BS (Table I). This
result suggested that enzymatic hydrolysis is a
very efficient process, carried out under mild
conditions of temperature, pH and pressure. The
size of the proteins obtained also has an
important significance, since most of the proteins in this BS are of low molecular weight. In this respect,
the smaller size of the proteins facilitates its absorption by the plants [2]. Also, the results suggest that
these protein hydrolysates are a good source of essential amino acids), very important for plant nutrition
[2].
4. Conclusions The enzymatic hydrolysis is a excellent biochemical process to obtain a protein
concentrate from the tobacco wastes. The protein concentrates obtained are composed mainly of peptides
and free amino acids. This BS can be used in agriculture because is a good organic-N source for plants.
5. References
[1] X.G. Li, Y. Lv, B.G. Ma, S.W. Jian and H.B. SW Tan, Biores. Technol. 102(20), (2011) 9783-9787.
[2] J. Parrado, J. Bautista, E.J. Romero, A.M. Garca-Martnez, V. Friaza and M. Tejada, Biores. Technol.
99(7), (2008) 2312-2318.
[3] J. Adler-Nissen, Process Biochem. 12, (1977) 18-23.


Moisture (g kg
-1
) 79 6 Cis (*) 0.9 0.1
Protein (g kg
-1
) 791 31 Glu (*) 22.3 2.0
Molecular weights

Gly (*) 3.9 0.8
> 10000 daltons 10.4 1.9 Pro (*) 8.3 1.7
10000-5000 daltons 2.8 0.8 Ser (*) 4.9 1.1
5000-1000 daltons 11.2 1.5 Trp (*) 0.5 0.1
1000-300 daltons 18.9 2.1 His (*) 2.0 0.7
< 300 daltons 56.7 4.9 Ile (*) 4.0 1.0
Carbohydrates (g kg
-1
) 80 13 Leu (*) 7.8 1.3
Arg (*) 2.9 0.4 Val (*) 4.5 1.3
Tyr (*) 2.9 0.5 Lys (*) 3.0 0.4
Ala (*) 6.1 0.9 Met (*) 1.0 0.2
Asp (*) 6.0 1.3


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[205]
Study of olive solid residue as an additive in bricks production
T. Cotes Palomino
(1)
, C. Martnez Garca
(1)
, D. Eliche Quesada
(1)
, F.J. Iglesias
Godino
(1)
, F.A. Corpas Iglesias
(1)
, M. Martn Lara
(2)
, M. Calero de Hoces
(2)


(1)
Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering. Higher Polytechnic
School of Linares, University of Jan. 23700 Linares (Jan). SPAIN +34 953 648515,
mtcotes@ujaen.es

(2)
Department of Chemical Engineering University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

1. Introduction The growing demand for olive oil in the market, motivated by the properties beneficial
to health and its presence in the Mediterranean diet, make the agroindustry of the olive grove of
enormous importance in Spain. first world power in the sector of olive oil, with an average production
of between 40 and 60 of the world's total. Andalusia, also shows clearly a strong implementation of the
sector, highlighting Jaen as the first olive oil-producing province in the world (the international olive oil
Council, 2010 data). Taking into account that around 80% of the processed olive to be a residue, the
generation can be considered of more than 4 million tons of residue a year. In recent years, this figure
has caused many research papers that allow its disposal or recovery [1, 2]. However the disponsal of
olive oil industrial waste is an environmental problem. Removal systems are insufficient to treat the
amount of waste are produced a year, hence the importance of alternatives for its comprehensive and
recovery treatment. [2]. In this sense, the ceramics industry or the cement industry are manufacturing
processes that make possible the recovery of waste [3, 4]. This is the case then where the characteristics
of the residue from the production of olive oil have been studied for possible use in the production of
ceramic Materials. Financial support for this research was obtained under Research of Excellence
Project Eco-Rujo (RNM-2390). Supported by Consejera de Economa, Ciencia y Empleo de la Junta
de Andaluca and el Ministerio de Economa y Competitividad.

2. Experimental The raw materials have been initially characterized by fluorescence of RX, and
elemental analysis. Thermal behaviour was determined by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and
differential thermal analysis (DTA)

3. Results and Discussion The elemental analysis show that, carbon
content is more than 50%, therefore it is an organic residue, which will mean
an energy intake in the combustion process and to facilitate the generation of
a porous matrix of material structure. The FRX analysis shows that the major
components are silica and potassium and aluminium oxides. A high
potassium content can encourage processes of fusion of the ceramic paste
during the sintering process.

Fig.1.Wet pomace TGA
The TGA-DTA curve of the waste is typical of a solid fuel.

4. Conclusions The use of olive solid residue as an additive in brick manufacture would provide
product added value in their technological properties and production costs. In addition due to the organic
nature of this type of waste, clay products may present a more porous microstructure, reducing their
weight and expected to improve thermal and acoustic insulation properties.

5. References
[1] A. Roig, M.L. Cayuela, M.A. Snchez- Monedero. Waste Manage. 26, (2006), p. 960-969.
[2] R. Borja, F. Raposo, B. Rincn. Grasas y Aceites 57 (1) (2006), p. 32-46.
[3] M.D. La Rubia-Garca et al. Contr. Buil. Mat. 36 (2012), p. 495-500
[4] J.A. de la Casa, M. Lorite, M. Jimnez, E. Castro. J. Hazard Mat. 169, (2009), p. 271-278.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[206]
Analysis of the biosolids management treated with vermicomposting
process for soil remediation

A. Chvez
(1)
, A. Rodrguez, F. Pinzn


(1)
Cra 11 N101-80, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Bogot D.C. - Colombia.
+57 3176399935 alvaro.chvez@unimilitar.edu.co, grupopit@unimilitar.edu.co

One of the environmental problems of the present is the handling of organic solid waste - OSW;
especially the sludge from treatment plants Wastewater - WWTP; which are known as biosolids
(primarily organic sold product produce by wastewater treatment process that can be beneficially
recycled) according to statements proposed by American Standard EPA 40 CFR 503 standard [1]. In
order to mitigate they generate, it has been proposed alternatives with technologies that transform them
into useful material, giving added value: because they have a high content of organic matter - OM (60
70%) and essential nutrients for plant growth; 1 t may contain 37 50 kg of N, 13 24 kg of P and 2
5 kg of K [2, 3].

In order to implement the strategy of the 3R's (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) was proposed to evaluate the
effect of the vermicomposting process using Eisenia foetida or Californian red worm with Salitre WWTP
biosolids, Bogot D.C. Colombia, on seed germination of Brassica oleraceae; making possible use as
organic fertilizer in the recovery processes of soils (soils compensation). Classified as type B according
to the regulations of the USEPA, therefore requiring a process of chemical and biological stabilization,
as it is in this case vermicomposting. For this, three treatments were made: T1 - biosolids without after
treatment (control); T2 - stabilized biosolids with vermicomposting process; T3 - commercial peat. The
percentage of germination was evaluated after 5 days of being planted
and the weight of the seedlings biomass.

The results obtained in the germination bioassay, it was observed that the
evaluated substrates allowed to carry out this process. T3 achieved 100%,
followed by T2 with 94%, 15% higher than T1 (75%); although the latter
percentage is within the stipulated minimum quality to commercial seed
of 80% for B. oleraceae. In relation to the biomass, 0.4 g is maintained
on average for T1 and T2; while for T3 was 0.7 g. according to this, it
can be infer that it is feasible the use of biosolids vermicomposted in soils
without affecting plans growth and development.

Based in the statistical analysis, no significant differences were seen in the percentage of germination
and biomass in treatments. It can be concluded that the humus related to the biosolids vermicomposted
can be used as an alternative substrate for plant growth; contributing to the recovery of soils to be used
as organic amendment and environmental conservation, avoiding the depletion of non-renewable
resources used as fertilizers by recycling industrial and / or urban organic materials.


References
[1] United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA, A guide to the biosolids risk assessments
for the EPA Part 503 rule, Washington: Office of Wastewater Management / EPA, 1994.
[2] M. Reiter. Environmental and Agronomic Evaluation of Value-Added Nitrogen Fortified Poultry
Litter and Biosolids Fertilizers. Arkansas University, United States, 2008.
[3] R. Stehouwer; A. Wolf y W. Dotty. Chemical monitoring of sewage sludge in Pennsylvania,
variability and application uncertainly. Journal of Environmental Quality. 29 (2000), pp. 1686 1695.


Image 1. Vermicomposting process
with E. fotida.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[207]
Classification and physico-chemical analysis of mortar residue and
soil for manufacture of building materials

F. Lima
(1)
, F. Arajo
(2)
, P. Scalize
(3)
, A. Albuquerque
(4)


(1)
Escola de Agronomia, Campus Samambaia, Rodovia Goinia/Nova Veneza, Goinia
GO, Brasil
+5562 99746456, fabiolla.lima@gmail.com

(2)
Sanitation Company of Gois, Av. Fued Sebba, N 1245, Jd. Gois, Goinia GO, Brazil
(3)
University Federal of Gois, Av. Universitria, 1488, Goinia, GO, Brazil
(4)
Calada Fonte do Lameiro, Edificio 2 das Engenharias, 6201-001 Covilh, Portugal

1. Introduction - The constructive model widely used throughout the
Brazilian territory is composed of buildings of concrete frame and walls
with ceramic bricks or concrete blocks, coated with mortar. During the
process of applying the coating, there has been a waste of large volumes of
these mortars, generating a lot of waste (1). Therefore, this paper is to
characterize cement mortar coat with the goal of generating alternatives for
its inclusion as a raw material in the production of building materials. Thus,
they would be reused in the same area where they were generated.

2. Experimental - The particle size analysis by screening and
sedimentation was performed with the aim to determine the particle size
distribution in the soil and residue under study, and density of the granules
of the soil was determined according to (2) NBR 6508 (ABNT, 1984). The
liquidity limits and plasticity were determined obeying (3) NBR 6459
(ABNT, 1984) and (4) NBR 7180 (ABNT, 1984). This study determined
the chemical properties of soil and residue, by chemical analysis.
3. Results and Discussion - The soil is classified as low compressibility
clay and fine-grained, with 37% clay, 9% silt and 53% sand, A4 class. The
residue is coarse-grained, classified as sand, A3 class. The particle size of
the ground and the residue shows no larger than 4.8 mm and the percentage
grains passing through a sieve of 0075 mm were within the range of 10% to
50%. The liquid limit soil was 28% and 24.2% for the plastic limit. The rate
of plasticity obtained was 3.8%, which corresponds to the numerical
difference between the values of liquid limit and plasticity. Table 1 shows
the results of analysis as to the chemical elements and compounds in the
soil. All compounds present in the soil are present in the residue too, except
titanium dioxide (TiO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3).

4. Conclusions - Physico-chemical analysis in soil and waste has properties
that allow their use, because they fit in accordance with standards, for use
as raw material for building materials.

5. References
[1] CORDEIRO, M. The dream of home ownership in the promised land:
housing policies in fields Goyatacazes (1989-2004). Masters dissertations.
RJ, 2004.
[2] NBR 7180: Soil - Determination of plasticity limit. RJ, 1984.
[3] NBR 6508: Grains of soil that pass through the sieve of 4,8mm -
Determination of specific mass. RJ, 1984.
[4] NBR 6459: Soil - Determination of liquidity limit. RJ, 1984.


Image 1. Building under construction
and the residue of mortar discarded.
Tabla I. Chemical analysis of soil
Determination Sample
Al2O3 5 13,50
Fe2O3 % 12,00
SiO2 % 5,80
TiO2 % 2,40
CaO % 0,10
MgO % 0,03
Na2O ppm 23,00
K2O ppm 140,00
SO3 ppm 80,00
Clay % 37,30
Silt % 9,10
Sand % 53,50
Cu(Mehl) mg/dm 1,10
Fe(Mehl) mg/dm 86,50
Mn(Mehl) mg/dm 15,50
Zn(Mehl) mg/dm 2,00
M.O. % 0,10
pH Ca2Cl2 6,80
P(Mehl) mg/dm 3,20
K mg/dm 30,00
Ca cmolc/dm 3,60
Mg cmolc/dm 0,20
H+Al cmolc/dm 1,10
CTC cmolc/dm 5,00
V % 77,90
Ca/Mg - 18,00
Mg/K - 2,60
Ca/K - 46,90
Ca/CTC % 72,30
Mg/CTC % 4,00
K/CTC % 1,50


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[208]
Osmotic dehydration of jaboticaba (Myrciaria jabuticaba V. B.) peel

L. G. C. Garcia
(1)
, C. Damiani
(2)
, F. Vendruscolo
(3)
, E. C. S. Vieira
(4)
, T. L. L. Silva
(5)
,
F. A. Silva
(6)


(6)
Federal University of Gois, School of Agronomy. P.O. Box: 131, Zip code:
74690-900, Goinia-GO, Brazil.
Phone number: +556284061473; flaviocamp@gmail.com.

1. Introduction The jaboticaba, although popular throughout the country, does not have high
commercial value, because it is very perishable, but has its assured sale. After harvest, the time for
consumption of jaboticaba fruit is limited. The fruit has a shelf life of up to three days, when changes are
observed on its appearance, due to the intense water loss, decay and pulp fermentation, which hinders its
commercialization. In order to avoid losses, jaboticabas can be industrialized, but generally this process
generates appreciable amounts of peel and seeds, which represent approximately 50% of the fruit.
The development of new products, from food processing by-products, such as peels, is a tendency, not
only for their rich nutritional value, but also to avoid the accumulation of residues. Among the techniques
employed for postharvest conservation of agricultural products is the osmotic dehydration process, also
called dehydration by immersion [1, 2].
Thus, the objective of this work was to study the osmotic dehydration of jaboticaba peel, in order to make
use of the by-product, and consequently generate new food products

2. Experimental - Jaboticaba fruits, from Myrciaria jabuticaba (Vell) Berg species, crop 2012, were
harvested at the farm Fazenda e Vincola Jaboticabal, in Nova Ftima, district of Hidrolndia, Gois
State, Brazil. Peels were obtained by electrical depulper. Different temperatures (35.86 64.14C) and
concentrations (45.86 74.14Brix) of total soluble solids (TSS) (crystal sugar) were used in the osmotic
dehydration of jaboticaba peels held in thermostatic bath, with 805 oscillations per minute with a 1:4
(w/w) peel:solution ratio. The experiments lasted 6 hours and moisture and total soluble solids
determinations were carried out hourly, according to AOAC [3]. Moisture and the concentration of total
soluble solids were used to calculate water loss (WL), solids gain (SG), mass loss (ML) and solid gain
rate (SGR)

3. Results and Discussion - In this work, the intention is to obtain, in addition to the water loss, a
significant incorporation of solids, since the raw material is only the peel. It was observed that for the
responses evaluated in osmotic dehydration (WL, SG, ML and SGR), the concentration (TSS) had greater
influence than the temperature. Temperature exerted an influence only on SGR. However, temperature
can play an indirect effect on osmotic dehydration process, since by using values above 60C, during the
osmotic treatment, structural characteristics are modified by increasing the permeability of the cell
membrane, which favors the impregnation of solids in plants [4]. Thus, the use of temperatures above
60C for the preparation of jaboticaba peel is desirable, aiming both impregnation of solids and tissue
softening.

4. Conclusions - During osmotic dehydration of jaboticaba peel, increasing the concentration of osmotic
solution favored the mass transfer between the fruit and the solution, leading to higher rates of water loss,
solids gain, mass loss rate of solids transfer. The temperature was less influential, favoring only the solid
gain rate. However temperatures close to 60C are desirable for providing tissue softening and the
incorporation of solids. Therefore, the concentration of osmotic solution of 70Brix and the temperature
of 60C were determined as the best condition for osmotic dehydration of jaboticaba peel.


5. References
[1] Lenart, A., Drying Technol., 14 (2), (1996) p. 391-413.
[2] Raoul-Wack, A. L., Rios, G., Saurel, R., Giroux, F., & Guilbert, S., Food Res. Int., 27 (2), (1994) p.
207-209.
[3] AOAC - ASSOCIATION OF OFFICIAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS. (2010).
[4] Torreggiani, D. Food Res. Int., 26 (1), (1993) p.59-68.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[209]
Valuation of oil extraction residue from moringa olefera seeds.

B. Amante
(1)
, V. Lpez
(1)
, A. Aguilera, T. Smith
(2)

(1)
Barcelona-TECH, ETSEIAT, Colom, 11,08221 Terrassa.
0034-937398686; beatriz.amante@upc.edu
(2)
Koom Consulting, Topete, 15, 08221, Terrassa, Spain.

1. Introduction This article presents the results of a study on the reuse of the residue generated by a
moringa oleifera oil extraction plant. The residual oil cake produced during the process of moringa
oleifera oil extraction maintains the positively charged protein of the
seed which enables the suspended particles in the water to be
captured. Such coagulant flocculant properties give rise to the
elimination of turbidity in the process of water purification [1].
In this article a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is presented in which a
natural coagulant, obtained through the reuse of a natural oil cake, is
compared with conventional chemical coagulants.

2. Experimental For the development of the LCAs, a series of experiments were performed. Primarily
for the elimination of water turbidity, suspended solids elimination tests were carried out using a turbidity
meter and both the natural and chemical coagulants. By way of such tests, the dosage of coagulant
required to eliminate turbidity in the different samples could be determined. Such dosages were, in turn,
applied to the LCA study. Moreover, the pH and conductivity of the samples were measured so as to be
able to assess the variation of such parameters based on the coagulant used.

3. Results and Discussion As a case study, a rural settlement in Burkina Faso (Western Africa) has
been selected. At this location, the construction of a water purification plant incorporating the above-
mentioned coagulants and filters has been proposed. In the table below a comparative analysis can be
observed between the coagulant obtained from the moringa oil cake, and the chemical coagulant
aluminium sulphate. As can be observed in the table below, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions
per kg of aluminium sulphate is almost double that of the natural coagulant.

Table I. Comparison of moringa and Al2(SO4)3 in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions.
Energy consumption (functional unit kWh/kg)
Scenario Raw material Production Transport Preparation
and use
Sludge
transport
TOTAL
1kg MO coag. 20kg seeds 0.182 1.471 2.926 7.350 11.929
1kg Al2(SO4)3
Al(OH)3 (456 g)
3.150 2.456 0.062 14.700 20.368
H2SO4 (492 ml)
CO2 emissions (functional unit Kg CO2/ kg)
Scenario Raw material Production Transport Preparation
and use
Sludge
transport
TOTAL
1kg MO coag. 20kg seeds 0.146 0.407 1.126 2.036 3.715
1kg Al2(SO4)3
Al(OH)3 (456 g)
1.210 1.445 0.024 4.072 6.751
H2SO4 (492 ml)

4. Conclusions As will be shown in detail in the full article, the use of natural, locally-based products
entails water treatment practices that are more environmentally-friendly, whilst at the same time reducing
the dependence of the affected regions on other nations, or reducing the need for imports from other
countries. Such factors are of special importance with an issue as vital as drinking water supply. In
addition to the elimination of turbidity, with lower energy consumption and reduced CO2 emissions, the
resultant coagulant from the residual oil cake does not entail any alternations of the water pH or
conductivity and, therefore, does not require any additional readjustments of these parameters.

5. References
[1] M. Pritchard et al. Phys. Chem. Earth 35 (13-14), (2010) 789-805.


Image 1. Diagram of the conventional
coagulant powder production process.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[210]

AREA 3
ENERGY


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[211]
Resource recovery from anaerobic digestate: struvite crystallisation
versus ammonia stripping

D. Hidalgo
(1)
, F. Corona
(1)
, J. del lamo
(1)
, A. Aguado
(1)

(1)
CARTIF Technology Centre, Parque Tecnolgico de Boecillo, 205, 47151 Boecillo,
Valladolid (Spain).
Tel.: +34 983 546504; e-mail: dolhid@cartif.es

1. Introduction - The wide application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of organic waste streams
results in the production of high quantities of anaerobic effluents. Such effluents are characterized by
high nutrient content. Consequently, adequate post-treatment is required in order to comply with the
existing land application and discharge legislation in the European Union countries.
Phosphorus and nitrogen are important elements, making a major contribution to agricultural and
industrial development, but their release to natural water bodies is one of the main causes of
eutrophication. On the other hand, P resource is considerably limited for the utilization of human society.
The current consumption of rock phosphorus (P) is over one million tons yearly as fertiliser and nitrogen
(N) fertiliser consumption might be three fold of this, this is why struvite crystallisation and ammonia
stripping have gained interest as routes to nitrogen and phosphorus recovery. Pros and cons of both
technologies have been analysed in this paper.

2. Experimental - Lab-scale experiments were carried out to study air stripping and struvite
crystallisation as methods for removing nutrients from anaerobic digestion effluents.
In the case of the ammonia stripping, two stripping towers were designed and constructed with the
following dimensions: 93 cm height x 11,4 cm internal diameter and 102 cm height x 4,2 cm internal
diameter, respectively. Both were packed with plastic rings (15 and 8 mm, respectively) to promote the
down flow of liquid in a thin and gentle stream. Air was supplied from near the bottom of the towers by
a forced air blower. The effects of pH, temperature, air to liquid ratio flow, packet rings size and liquid
recirculation flow were investigated. In the case of struvite crystallisation, and in order to investigate the
effects of pH value, magnesium dosage and calcium concentration on the process, lab-scale batch
experiments were carried out. Batch experiments were performed on a magnetic stirrer with a stirring
rate of 800-900 rpm at room temperature of 20 22 C. Referring to the components of the digestate, a
N/P molar ratio of 8 was adopted in all the experiments.

3. Results and Discussion - A summary of the results is presented in Table I.
4. Conclusions - Nitrogen and phosphorus in waste effluents are a burning environmental issue of the
present world since they are considered highly polluting when discharged into the environment.
However, effluents which contain a high amount of phosphorus and nitrogen would be a good source of
fertilisers if these elements are properly recovered.
Ammonia stripping coupled with absorption proved to be a suitable technical solution for the recovery
and valorisation of the nitrogen contained in waste streams. However, since the crystallization process
can simultaneously remove and recover N and P from waste streams, it is considered the preferred
technique. This process is environmentally friendly and cost effective in large-scale facilities. Struvite
contains 12.6% P, 5.7% N and 9.9% Mg, has slow release rate, and has less evaporative loss of N
compared with other N-rich fertilisers.
For both techniques it is essential to put attention on fertilising value of the end-products and marketing
value towards industrial end-users. To be economically profitable, the price allocated to the recovered
nutrients should be in accordance to the market price of N and P in mineral fertilisers.

Tabla I. Comparison of struvite crystallisation and ammonia stripping techniques

Products %recovery Operational problems Economical viability
Struvite
crystallisation
Struvite crystals
(slow-release fertiliser)
85-90% P
20-40% N
Crystallisation in piping / equipment
Interferences (Ca
+2
, CO3
-2
,)
Can be profitable in large-scale
facilities
Ammonia stripping
(NH4)2SO4 or (NH4)NO3
(fertiliser solutions)
0% P
80-90 % N
Fouling
Corrosion
Can replace nitrification-
denitrification




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[212]
Comparison of different treatment scenarios for mixtures of organic
waste streams in a centralised plant

D. Hidalgo
(1)
, J.M. Martn-Marroqun
(1)

(1)
CARTIF Technology Centre, Parque Tecnolgico de Boecillo, 205, 47151 Boecillo,
Valladolid (Spain).
Tel.: +34 983 546504; e-mail: dolhid@cartif.es

1. Introduction Agroindustrial activities generate large amounts of waste products that, when managed
improperly, have caused tremendous environmental impacts. Over the years, a range of ideas for the
utilization of these wastes has been put forward, however, anaerobic digestion of organic wastes to
produce energy in the form of biogas is the most likely option to be of commercial interest, provided that
the economics are favourable. As result, during recent years, anaerobic digestion of organic matter from
different sources has been presented as a suitable technology used for treatment of organic wastes and
production of energy from combustion of biogas.
In this study an inventory of agro-food industry organic waste streams with a high potential for biogas
transformation was performed in a logistically viable area of the central part of Castilla y Len (Spain).
Some of the industries studied included livestock, meat, dairy, feed, fruit, and used oil processing.
The main objective was to characterize the waste collected in that region with the aim of evaluating the
feasibility of converting the waste into biogas energy in a centralised plant.

2. Experimental - 23 different waste streams were chosen for this project: pig manure (PM), cattle
manure (CM), sheep manure (SM), poultry manure (PoM), potatoes waste (PW), waste sludge from a
potatoes residues treatment plant (WSP), waste sludge from a fruit residues treatment plant (WSF), oily
waste sludge (OWS), non-refine glycerine (G), diluted used vegetable oils (dUVO), waste sludge from
used vegetable oil processing (WS-UVO), used vegetable oil decanted fraction (DF-UVO), waste sludge
from an animal feed residues treatment plant (WSA), pet feed waste (PFW), fish feed waste (FFW), straw
(S), strawberry bed pruning waste (SBPW), leek waste (LW), FeCl coagulation sludge (CS), pasteurized
blood (PB), organic matter from animal intestine (OMAI), wafer waste (WW) and sewage sludge (SS).
The selection criteria relied upon aspects such as the geographical relative distance between each
producer and theoretical information related to biomethane generation/kg of organic waste.
Batch experiments were run in order to study the biodegradability and biomethane potential of different
waste mixtures.

3. Results and Discussion - Obtained methane yields ranged from 290-725 mLCH4 gVS
-1
waste, and the
methane content in biogas ranged from 46-72% for raw wastes. Taking into account all the wastes
generated in the area under study, their daily production accounts for 43 tons VS. Applying anaerobic
digestion for their treatment, one may obtain around 22,000 m
3
CH4 d
-1
which contain the equivalent of
220,000 kWh d
-1
of thermal energy or 72,500 kWh d
-1
of electrical energy. Although the results are
promising in terms of energy production a more in-depth study should be performed taking into account
aspects such as seasonality, synergies derived from co-digestion and pre-treatment needs for some of the
waste streams.

4. Conclusions - An inventory of agro-food industry organic waste streams with potential for biogas
transformation was studied in a logistically viable area of Castilla y Len (Spain). The potential for
methane production from 23 wastes and their mixtures was evaluated theoretically and in laboratory
batch assays. The estimation of the regional fluxes of waste and methane potentials suggests anaerobic
digestion as a sustainable solution for the valorisation of the organic wastes generated in this Region.




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[213]
Cereal waste in Alava: Is it worth considering for energy production?
M.A. Ortuzar-Iragorri
(1)
, A. Aizpurua
(2)
, A. Castelln
(2)
(1)
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering- UPV/EHU: Rafael Moreno
'Pitxitxi', 2-48013 Bilbao (Bizkaia).Spain.
(0034)679514369-arritxu.ortuzar@ehu.es
(2)
Neiker-Tecnalia.. Parque Tecnolgico de Zamudio, parcela 812. C/Berreaga 1. E-48160.
Derio (Bizkaia).Spain.
In order to put off the existence of fossil fuels and reduce the harmful effects derived
from their exploitation (climate change and the deterioration of the ozone layer), we
need to implement renewable energies that at least partially replace the use of fossil
fuels.
One of the many signs of this need is the fact that, according to the European law, the
property of a biomass boiler favors the mandatory energy certification of buildings
(Directive 2002/91/CE). It is thus expected that both the demand for biomass boilers
and for biomass to feed those boilers grow significantly in the coming years [1]
However, since we research on the cultivation of cereals, we have observed that, in
spite of part of the cereal straw is being sent to a nearby biomass plant for energy
production, other part of this straw, presumably the furthest from the biomass plant, is
treated as waste and burned at the field, thus contributing to the emission of greenhouse
gases [2] and ignoring a local and renewable source of energy.
The aim of the study we suggest is thus to determine a technologically, environmentally
and economically viable way to obtain energy through the waste-considered straw and
avoid its burning at the field. The following specific objectives will be considered: (1)
historical analysis of the production and use of cereal straw in the area of study, (2)
bibliographical research on technical requirements for straw-burning in boilers and
organization (district heating, individual boilers and biomass plants) (3) study of the
life cycle of the straw to choose the most environmentally and/or economically
profitable technical option (4) trial establishment for testing pelletization of the straw
left on the field after harvest with in situ pelletizing machine. Is the use of such
machine technically, environmentally and economically profitable?

[1]IDEA, 2011. Plan de Energas Renovables, 2011-20. Available in:
http://www.idae.es/index.php/mod.documentos/mem.descarga?file=/documentos_112
27_PER_2011-2020_def_93c624ab.pdf
[2]Ezcurra, A.T.; Ortiz de Zrate, I; Lacaux, J.P.; Pham-Van-Dhim., 1996.
Atmospheric Impact of Cereal-Waste Burning in Spain. In: Biomass Burning and
Global Change. Ed. Levine, J.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[214]
SEMA: multi-objective & multi-criterion
renewable energy planning model

F. Marcos Martn, L. Garca Benedicto, L. C. Domnguez Dafauce, E. Falcn Roque

(1)
Termodinmica y Motores. ETSI Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n 28040 Madrid
+34 913367120 francisco.marcos@upm.es

1.- Introduction The ever increasing energy demand and the limitations associated to the fossil fuel
are aiming energy planners to build more optimized and up-to-date models. These models must take
into account: vulnerability (energy protection & security), environmental impact, sustainability
problems, and limited resources, which will have to be optimized simultaneously accordingly.
Therefore, the energy systems multi-objective optimization has become a current major field of study
[2]. The different renewable energies are not
equally applicable, depending on the
corresponding scenario and actual geographical
site; so their use ought to be compared. Some
of the current models successfully use multi-
objective & multi-criterion tools [1].

This paper analyses the renewable energy
demand models as well as the way renewable
energy can be a substitute for conventional
energies through mathematical programming.
The goal is to build a renewable energy model,
using the multi-criterion decision making
mathematical techniques. As part of this
analysis, this model has been also specifically
applied to the Community of Madrid.
Image 1. General scheme planning energetic SEMA model.

2. Experimental The SEMA model was built based on the mathematical multi-criterion decision
theory, along with the vector analysis technics. Three linear objective functions have been developed:
1. Maximization of renewable energy potential. 2. Environmental impact minimization. 3. Cost
minimization of substitution of renewable for existing conventional energy. Compromise programming
was the mathematical tool used to carry out the optimization of the objective functions & their
constraints.

3. Results & Discussion SEMA model was applied to the Community of Madrid, and the results
were acceptable, similar to the ones obtained through monocriterial optimization.

4. Conclusions SEMA model enjoys several advantages vs the monocriterial and multi-criterion
models, as it enhances its performance combining vector analysis with multi-criterion decision making
theory, allowing having in mind the decision makers preferences.

5. References
[1] Marcos F. 1985. Aplicacin de las tcnicas multidimensionales a la planificacin energtica. Energa
Julio Agosto: 97104.
[2] Perera A.T.D., Attalage R.A., Perera K.K.C.K., Dassanayake V.P.C. 2013. A hybrid tool to combine
multi-objective optimization and multi-criterio decision making in designing standalone hybrid energy
systems. Applied Energy 107: 412425.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[215]
Domestic oven heated by a concentrating solar collector

Joaquim Lloveras


Dpt. of Engineering Projects. Engineering School of Barcelona. Technical University of
Catalonia (UPC)
+34 934016642. E-mail: j.lloveras@upc.edu

1. Introduction- Concentrating solar collectors can provide higher temperatures than flat-plate
collectors, but for the same surface the amount of energy collected is roughly the same. Cylindrical-
parabolic solar collectors track the sun by means of a rotation axis and concentrate the heat at the focal
axis.
The project consisted in the design of a system fitted with a concentrating solar collector which obtains
enough temperature and energy to run a domestic oven. Another aim was to find potential heat transfer
fluids and suitable constructive materials. This work was conducted by a student group [1] in the
Engineering Project course.

2. Project development The cylindrical-parabolic collector (1) of Image 1 concentrates the sun's heat
at the focal axis (19) where a tube carrying a fluid that absorbs the heat for later use is located. A solar
concentration factor of about 30 [2] enables the temperature to increase up to 250C. The average amount
of energy collected by a 3m-long cylindrical-parabolic
module with a 1.14m opening is approximately 2kW in the
central hours of the day. A conventional domestic oven
reaches 250C, with a power of about 2-3kW for food
cooking. Safe cooking requires a minimum of 80-90C.
Image 2 is a diagram of a system formed by a cylindrical-
parabolic collector (1) and a tube that carries the heat transfer
fluid to an exchanger coil (10) in a storage tank (9). From
there, the fluid passes through the exchanger coil (3) of the
oven (2), which transfers heat by means of a fan (4).

3. Discussion and Conclusions- The collector could be placed
away from the oven. A conventional oven (2) is modified to
include an exchanger coil (3). This oven uses solar energy
whenever possible and electricity without sun, leading to a
significant CO2 emission reduction.
The thermal storage tank (9) allows the usage time of the oven
to be modified according to the insolation peak. When the oven
is not used, the collector is placed outside the track of Sun.
This system must be very secure to prevent injury due to high
temperature of the fluid. With adequate temperature control,
this system can also power the household heating system,
provide hot water for bathing, etc.
A Spanish patent application was presented, and the project ended with an estimate of the costs and
period of return on investment (ROI) for a particular assumption.

4. References
[1] G2: Noem Fnez, Borja Gonzlez, Carles Pons, Tania Sola, Naiara Vzquez (2012). El forn
domstic que aprofita la energia solar (The household oven that uses solar energy). Final project of
Engineering Project Course. Second semester of academic year 2011-12. Degree in Materials
Engineering. Engineering School of Barcelona (ETSEIB). Technical University of Catalonia (UPC).
[2] A2 Smirro_300 Datenblatt_ES-EN. http://smirro.de/smirro/index.php/es/downloads-3, accessed (01,
09, 2014).


Image 1. Cylindrical-parabolic solar collector

Image 2. System formed by a cylindrical-parabolic
collector, a storage tank and an oven

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[216]
Degradation of vinasse in Microbial Fuel Cell

G. Clemente Silva

, R. Jos Marassi, N. Tiele Vieira, C. E. Souza Teodoro

, F. Soares
dos Santos

Federal Fluminense University (UFF) Av. Dos Trabalhadores, 420, CEP 27255-25
Volta Redonda RJ Brazil
+55 24 21073550 gilmarcs@id.uff.br

1. Introduction Vinasse is a by-product from ethanol production from sugarcane as feedstock. This
product is produced in large scale, particularly in Brazil, because for each liter of ethanol are produced
about 12 liter of vinasse. This means that Brazilian production of vinasse for the 2013/2014 harvest will
reach around 300 billion liters [1].
Nowadays the ethanol plant discharges the vinasse on soil as fertirrigation process. However this
procedure can lead to eutrophication of streams becoming an environmental problem. Therefore some
pre-treatment of the product is required before discharging it on soil, since this treatment be economically
viable.
In this scenario the Microbial Fuel Cells - MFCs can be an alternative, because its can joint waste
treatment with power generation [2]. MFCs are bioelectrochemical devices that utilize anaerobic
electrochemically active bacteria to converts chemicals directly into electric current.
Our previous study showed that the MFC based on carbon vitreous/Clostridium butyricum interface and
fuelled by vinasse has ability to power generation [3].
In this work we have studied the degradation of vinasse after used as substrate in MFC, by chemical and
biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD).

2. Experimental The vinasse was collected at Usina So Joo, Araras, So Paulo State. The inoculum
was prepared from a freeze-dried Clostridium butyricum reference 7470 from CCT (Tropical Cultures
Collection of Tropical Research Foundation Andr Tosello). The microorganism was grown in RCM
(reinforced clostridial medium) in anaerobe condition (chamber with 10 % of CO2) at 37
o
C. 1 mL of this
inoculum was injected into autoclaved vinasse solutions prepared in different percentages as 20, 30, 40
and 60 %. The COD and BOD were checked before and after electrochemical measurements.

3. Results and Discussion - The vinasse studied presented high concentration of nutrients, especially
nitrogen and organic matter, which reflects a high COD and BOD, 30 g/L and 17 g/L, respectively.
After 3 days of incubation it was observed a qualitative decolourization of vinasse, decrease of smell,
diminishes of suspended solids and a significant COD and BOD removal.

4. Conclusions - The results shown that the microbial fuel cell technology will provide a new dual
application as waste treatment and energy generation that will increase the power energy from sugarcane.


5. References
[1] Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento, Acompanhamento de safra brasileira : cana-de-acar,
segundo levantamento, agosto/2013 - Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento. Braslia : Conab 2013.
[2] J. Jia, Y. Tang, B. Liu, D. Wu, N. Ren, D. Xing, Bioresource Tech., 144, (2013), p. 94.
[3] R. J. Marassi, M. Gomes Silva, C. E. Souza Teodoro, F. Soares dos Santos, G. Clemente Silva,
Proceedings, 4
th
International Microbial Fuel Cell Conference, 1-4 September 2013 Cairns, Australia.



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[217]
THERMAL POLLUTION BY ALMARAZ NUCLEAR PLANT
(ARROCAMPO); IS IT ENVIRONMENTALLY HARMFUL AND
DETRIMENTAL FOR FLORA AND FAUNA POPULATIONS?
ESCUDERO-SALVADOR, P.R., FERNNDEZ-LOFASO, R., MARTN-
GALLARDO, J. y ESCUDERO J.C.

Nuclear plants need to refrigerate their reactors. In the case of Almaraz Nuclear Plant, which its two
reactors produce approximately 2.000 electric Mw, refrigeration is achieved through water storage in a
manufactured reservoir. This unconventional reservoir, even thou stores dammed water, counts with
unique characteristics at the international level, such as the following:
a) A permanent and static water-level. This allows the colonization of its banks by wetland species
such as Typha dominguensis, which offers two interesting uses: as a bioremediation tool
particularly of organic compounds and heavy metals and as refuge area, providing resting,
nesting or a feeding habitat for waterfowl (ducks, coots, purple swamphens, moorhens, etc).
b) A wall (screen) that emerges 2.5 m above the water-level and runs along the reservoir
longitudinal axis. Its role is to embank flow waters along a delimited path and create a cooling
water circuit. This circuit starts on the left bank side, promoting water to flow from the dam
towards the tail end of the reservoir. On its way, water flows through the nuclear reactors and
warms up, thus cooling down the reactors. Once the warm water reaches the tail end, it partially
cools down during its return path along the right side of the embankment, towards the dam and
the reservoir spillway.
c) A horizontal thermal gradient along the water circuit, regardless of the vertical one.
This thermal zoning allows organisms to select and establish at locations where their comfort is highest
(final preferendum). Besides, it has been known for over a century, that plankton and other invertebrate
arthropods (mosquitoes, etc), as well as many other organisms, breed, grow and mature faster at higher
temperatures. This is why their population densities at this reservoir are higher than at traditional ones,
as so is the case with fish populations that feed on this plankton, and bird populations that feed on both.
Therefore, this is an especially abundant food resources area. As a result, real and potential carrying
capacity for birds and bird diversity is higher than expected at Arrocampo. Thus, it has been imperative
to study the temporal variations shown by bird populations related to this thermally polluted reservoir.
Results over the past 30 years show a bird species average of 30.63 (D.S: 3.42) with 37 species max. and
26 min., piscivorous species constituting 34.3% total, insectivorous 28% and omnivorous 30% (feed on
fish, insects and/or bank seeds). This fauna thrives in response to the abundant food resources availability
which is promoted by the thermicity of waters.
To conclude, Arrocampo, once a former vast dryland, is now a wetland area of the Extremenian Campo
Arauelo region. Landscape diversity was increased by the artificial water body, which favors plant
communities, particularly those of wetland species. Under their cover proliferates a rich and diverse bird
community that exploits its food, refuge and habitat variability. This increased biodiversity is favored by
the thermal pollution of the reservoir waters, which facilitates these species development and growth.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[218]
Development of a simulator for an intermediate water depth wave
energy converter

P. Beiro
(1)
, C. Mala
(2)


IDMEC/LAETA/Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, ISEC, DEM Rua Pedro
Nunes, Quinta da Nora 3030-199 Coimbra


Phone Number: +351 239 790 200; e-mail: pbeirao@isec.pt

Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, ISEC, DEM


1. Introduction Wave energy should be considered as an alternative to the production of electricity in
order to deal with the growing energy demand. Wave energy converters (WECs) are devices that extract
energy from the sea waves and convert it into electricity. This paper focuses
the development of a mathematical model of a WEC with a hydraulic PTO
[1], as illustrated in Figure 1. The aim is to simulate the dynamic behaviour
of the device due to the action of sea waves. The simulator will be
implemented in Matlab/Simulink using expressions derived for intermediate
water depth instead of the usual deep water assumption. The first section
gives a general insight of the work. The second section briefly characterises
a floating point absorber WEC equipped with a hydraulic power take-off
(PTO). The following section describes the WEC dynamic model including
the derivation of several expressions for the considered forces, taking into
account the
deployment of the device in intermediate water depth. Results are presented at
Image 1.

Model of the WEC
[1]
an independent section. The last section outlines the principal conclusions.

2. WEC characterisation The WEC considered belongs to the point absorber category [2]. A floating
buoy, submitted to the sea waves, is connected to a hydraulic cylinder. The production of energy is based
in a hydraulic PTO since this kind of system has several favourable characteristics.

3. WEC dynamic model The aim is to develop a mathematical model of the WEC following [26].
The dynamic model, based on the second Newton's law, describes the buoy heave motion with respect
to its acceleration. Instead of considering the most common assumption of deep water, specific
expressions will be derived for intermediate water depth which is a more realistic approach for the WEC
used here.

4. Results and Discussion Several simulations were carried out in MatLab/Simulink. Several waves
with different wave amplitudes periods were used. Detailed results showing the evolution of the buoy
heave motion with time and of the forces acting upon the buoy will be presented in the full paper.

5. Conclusions Since the work is currently under way the conclusions will be drawn in the full paper.

6. References
[1] P. Beiro and C. Mala, Dynamic simulation in the time domain of a wave energy converter,
Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering ICEUBI 2013, Covilh, Portugal,
November 2729, 2013.
[2] J. Falnes, A review of wave-energy extraction, Mar. Struct. 20, (2007) pp. 185201.
[3] J. S da Costa, A. Sarmento, F. Gardner, P. Beiro, A. Brito-Melo, Time Domain Model of the AWS
Wave Energy Converter. Proceedings of the 6th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference
EWTEC, Glasgow, United Kingdom, August 30September 2, 2005.
[4] J. Falnes. Ocean Waves and Oscillating Systems. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom,
2004.
[5] A. Falco, Wave Energy Utilization: A Review of the Technologies, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.,
14, (2010) pp. 899918.
[6] H. Sarlak, M. Seif, M. Abbaspour, Experimental Investigation of Offshore Wave Buoy Performance,
J. Mar. Eng., 6, (2010) pp. 111.

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[219]

Numerical modelling and structural analysis of buoy geometries for a
wave energy converter

P.Beiro
(1)
, R. Felismina
(2)
, C. Mala
(2)


IDMEC/LAETA/Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, ISEC, DEM Rua Pedro
Nunes, Quinta da Nora 3030-199 Coimbra


Phone Number: +351 239 790 200; e-mail: pbeirao@isec.pt

Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, ISEC, DEM


1. Introduction This paper describes the design and analysis, from a structural point of view, of several
buoy geometries that could be applied to a floating point absorber Wave Energy Converter (WEC).
Figure 1 shows the three different buoy geometries under study: spherical, cylindrical and tulip. The
structural behaviour of the buoys was analysed using a finite element code, in order to conclude which
one would have the best behaviour when submitted to hydrodynamic forces [1]. For each buoy geometry
three different critical positions were considered and several buoy dimensions analysed.
The initial section gives a general insight of the work. The
second section briefly characterises a floating point absorber
WEC equipped with a hydraulic power take-off (PTO). It
includes the mathematical modelling of the WEC with the
expressions for the forces considered as inputs in a finite element
commercial code [2]. The following section refers to the design
and analysis, from a structural point of view, of three buoy
geometries. Results are presented in an independent section. The
last section draws the main conclusions.

2. WEC characterisation The working principle of the WEC is quite simple. When submitted to the
sea waves the buoy moves upwards under the influence of a wave crest and moves downwards under the
effect of a wave trough. The relative heave motion between the two main components of the WEC will
be converted into electrical energy by means of a hydraulic PTO [3].

3. Buoy characterisation Figure 1 shows the three different buoy geometries under study: spherical,
cylindrical and tulip (this later being a combination between a cone and a cylinder). They were analysed
using a software package based on finite element methods. The combination of several forces acting
upon the buoys was computed from the dynamic model derived in the previous section.

4. Results and Discussion Based on the numerical results obtained the optimal geometry and buoy
dimensions were established. In addition, modification to the WEC original design were suggested and
structurally analysed as for example the number of connecting cables that tie the floating buoy with the
hydraulic cylinder and the location and number of fixation points between the connecting cables and the
buoy.

5. Conclusions Since this work is currently under way main conclusions will be presented in the full
paper.

6. References
[1] H. Sarlak, M. Seif, M. Abbaspour, Experimental Investigation of Offshore Wave Buoy Performance,
J. Mar. Eng., 6, (2010) pp. 111.
[2] P. Beiro and C. Mala, Dynamic simulation in the time domain of a wave energy converter,
Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering ICEUBI 2013, Covilh, Portugal,
November 2729, 2013.
[3] A. Falco, Wave Energy Utilization: A Review of the Technologies, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.,
14, (2010) pp. 899918.

Image 1. Buoy geometries (spherical, cylindrical and tulip)

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[220]
Agronomic performance of five rapeseed varieties grown for
biodiesel in the northeast of Portugal

M. ngelo Rodrigues
(1)
, Margarida Arrobas
(1)
, Arlindo Almeida
(1)

(1)
Mountain Research Centre, Polytechnic Institute of Bragana
Phone: 273303260; Email: angelor@ipb.pt

1. Introduction Rapeseed is an important crop in several European countries and in many other parts
of the world such as in Canada and China. Rapeseed oil may have several industrial uses and shows
excellent properties for the manufacture of biodiesel [1]. In Europe the increase in acreage has been
remarkable. Portugal is one of the few European countries that do not cultivate rapeseed. However, field
trials carried out in the country [2, 3] have given good indications on its ecological potential to produce
rapeseed if cultivated in the autumn/winter growing season. In this paper, results are presented on the
agronomic performances of five rapeseed varieties grown in NE Portugal.

2. Experimental The varieties Es Hydromel, Es Alias, Es Artist, Es Mercure and Es Neptune were
grown in the autumn-winter season. Several agronomic parameters were recorded, such as plant density,
biomass in at the rosete phase, chronology of the phonological stages and yield components.

3. Results and Discussion By March, Es hydromel, Es Mercure and Es Neptune accumulated
significantly more dry matter (DM) than Es Artist and Es Alias (Table 1). At harvest, Es Artist and Es
Hydromel accumulated significantly more DM in the above-ground plant part (13.7 Mg ha
-1
) than the
other varieties. However, seed production was significantly higher in Es Hydromel (3827 kg ha
-1
) and Es
Neptune (2964 kg ha
-1
) in comparison to the other varieties. Nitrogen recovered by Es Hydromel was
significantly higher than that recovered by the other varieties, revealing the greatest nutrient use
efficiency. The phonological stage was similar among all the varieties over the growing season (data not
shown). It was not possible to register any difference between them even during the long flowering
period.

Table 1. Agronomic data at harvest (July 5
th
): dry matter (DM) in straw (Str); seed yield; N concentration
(Nc) in straw and seed; N recovered (Nrec) in straw, seed and total.
Variedades Str, DM
(Mg ha
-1
)
Seed
(kg ha
-1
)
Str, Nc
(g kg
-1
)
Seed, Nc
(g kg
-1
)
Str, Nrec
(kg/ha
-1
)
Seed Nrec
(kg/ha
-1
)
Tot Nrec
(kg/ha
-1
)
Es Alias 7,3 c 2318 c 1,3 c 21,3 c 9,3 b 49,4 b 58,7 c
Es Artist 13,7 a 2489 bc 1,6 a 24,5 b 22,2 a 61,1 b 83,3 b
Es Mercure 7,8 bc 2600 b 1,4 b 21,4 c 11,2 b 55,7 b 66,9 c
Es Neptune 8,7 b 2964 a 0,6 d 21,1 d 5,0 c 62,5 b 67,5 c
Es Hydromel 13,7 a 3837 a 1,7 a 25,9 a 23,0 a 99,4 a 122,4 a
Means followed by the same latter are not statistically different (Tukey HSD, < 0.05).

4. Conclusions The environmental conditions seem to have had a greater influence in plant
phenological development than genetic factors. Based on the results of this experiment, Es hydromel
emerges as that showing the greater potential to be grown in this region, due to the higher seed and total
biomass produced.

5. References
[1] Krbitz W 1995. Utilization of oil as a biodiesel fuel. In Kimber D, McGregor DI (eds.). Brassica
oilseeds. Production and utilization. Wallingford, UK: Cab. Intern., p 353-371.
[2] Rodrigues MA, Ferreira I, Arrobas M 2010. Ensaios com cultivares de colza de Inverno, doses de
azoto e profundidades de sementeira em Trs-os-Montes. Rev. Cinc. Agrr. XXXIII (2): 27-39.
[3] Rodrigues MA, Almeida A, Ferreira J., Ribeiro T., Arrobas M 2011. Response of rapeseed to nitrogen
fertilisation in a Mediterranean environment. Proc. 4
th
International congress on energy and
environment engineering and management 26/27 May. Mrida, Spain: 2011.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[221]
SPANISH ENERGY REFORM IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC
ASPECT OF SUSTAINABLE TREATMENT OF WASTED
NUCLEAR FUEL.

B. Yolanda Moratilla
(1)
, Juan Alcaraz, Carlos Torresano, Connor Skibeness

(1)
Universidad P. Comillas, ETSI-ICAI, Ctedra Rafael Mario de Nuevas
Tecnologas Energticas, Alberto Aguilera 25, 28015 Madrid, Spain
Phone Number:+34 91 542 28 00; e-mail: ymoratilla@upcomillas.es

1. Introduction This research is directed towards the Spanish Energy Reform and its impact on the
economic aspect of sustainable treatment of wasted nuclear fuel. Currently, Spanish nuclear waste is
being stored in cooling pools found in reactor facilities. A Temporary Storage Facility (ATC) is planned
to be built in order to postpone the final decision of whether to construct a Deep Geological Repository.
Taking into account Spains remaining reactors that are to be closed by 2028 and the fact that there are
no future plans for the construction of new reactors; Spain must come to a final decision on its nuclear
policy. Until recently, the open cycle was considered a stronger economic option. However, the
enforcement of new legislation on the treatment of Spanish nuclear waste creates a substantial difference
in the outcome of the economic analysis. This has led to comparable results from both cycles.

2. Results and Discussion - Two graphics were generated following the analysis of the main
international studies related to the inherent costs of the open and closed cycle. These graphics display a
common tendency regarding a reduction in the cost of the closed cycle and an increase in the price of
AGP, which is needed for the open cycle. These costs have been analyzed similarly for the Spanish case
and are labelled on the graphics as Study A & B.










Image 1. Reprocessing Costs. Image 2. AGP Costs.

3. Conclusions - The recent taxation for nuclear waste in Spain implies a substantial change in the cost
of the treatment of nuclear waste, given the fact that it opens the possibility of using reprocessing
technology instead of an open cycle model.

5. References
1. Moratilla, B.Y; Echevarria-Lopez, D. Economic Analysis of the Management of the Nuclear Spent
Fuel in Spain, Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2014, vol. 2014, Article ID 925932, 7
pages, doi:10.1155/2014/925932
2. Moratilla, B.Y; Villar, A. Influence of the new Spanish legislation concerning the management of
nuclear waste, Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2013, vol. 2013, Article ID 316414, 7
pages, 2013.
3. Moratilla, B.Y.; Uris, M; Estadieu, M; Villar, A; Echevarria-Lpez, D. Recycling versus long term
storage of nuclear fuel: economic factors, Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2013, vol.
2013, Article ID 417048, 7 pages
4. BCG. Economic Assessment of Used Nuclear Fuel Management in the United States; Boston
Consulting Group. 2006
5. MIT. The Future of Nuclear Power, An Interdisciplinary MIT study; Massachusetts Institute of
Technology: Cambridge, 2003.
6. OECD/NEA. The Economics of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle; OECD: Paris, 1994.


International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[222]
Landfill gas electric motor degradation: identifying causes

D. Silva
(1)
, R. Barbosa, V. Ferreira, R. Neto, R. Paiva, A. Teixeira


(1)
INEGI Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management. Rua Dr. Roberto
Frias, 400. 4200-465 Porto. Portugal
(+351) 229 578 710 dsilva@inegi.up.pt

Abstract Landfill gas valorisation, throughout electricity generation, has been proving to have
important environment and economic benefits. In Portugal, the number of landfills that implemented this
technic have been growing in last few years, allowing the use of an endogenous resource till then
neglected.
Nevertheless, the unpredictability of the amount of some compounds in landfill gas raises significant
corrosion and mechanic problems in some motor parts, which compromise the motor behaviour and
increase the maintenance, requiring longer stopping periods that give raise to high additional expenses
(by both, new not predicted motor parts and absence of electricity production).
Following a methodology that focus in the different parts of the landfill and that it based in different
technics, it possible to establish the causes to the macroscopic degradation and, afterwards, to propose
some methods that would be able to reduce the gas compounds impact in the motor parts.
The landfill gas composition analysis and its
relation with historical data immediately allows
to recognise some possible compounds that are
in the origin of the problem. This analysis is
complemented with an optical microscopy
(Images 1 and 2) that allows to verify the extent
of the problem and, finally, a scanning electron
microscopy (Images 3 and 4) specifies the
elements present in the deteriorated metal. This
technics combined with a thermodynamic
analysis make possible to identify the
chemical elements which are in the origin of
the mentioned problems.
With such outcomes is then possible to
identify preventive solutions with technic and
economic viability that would be able to
minimize the deterioration and, consequently,
to amplify the equipment durability.
The measures that can be proposed as a way
to decrease the influence of some landfill gas
trace compounds could be as simple as a more effective control of the amount of gas extracted in the
landfill itself, or more complex as units that use of pressure variations or membranes. An important
methodology that should be undertaken by the landfills is a regular measurement of several gas
parameters, such as moisture, sulphur, chloride, nitrogen, silanols or siloxanes.




International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[223]
Zn-Br flow batteries vs other types of energy storage systems

F. Marcos Martn
(1)
, L. Ruiz B
(2)
, M. Colera
(2)
, J. Chacn
(2)
L. C. Domnguez
Dafauce
(1)
, E. Falcn Roque
(1)
, M.I. Izquierdo Osado
(1)



(1)
Termodinmica y Motores. ETSI Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n 28040 Madrid
+34 913367120 francisco.marcos@upm.es

(2 )
Jofemar. Peralta. Navarra.

1. Introduction Renewable Energy is currently used in Spain for electricity production, and this use
will keep taking place in the future (Spain Renewable Energy Plan 2010-20) [1]. One of the main issues
concerning the energy obtained from solar, PV or wind
power systems is the potential storage, as energy
produced and demand sometimes dont match.
Therefore, storage becomes a main drive.

2. Experimental - Several electricity storage
alternatives are assessed and prioritized, using multi-
objective multi-criteria energy planning decision
making techniques [2,3]. The figure 1 describes the
working conditions regarding the above-mentioned
different types of electricity storage. Flow batteries
efficiency is 60-80%.
Figure 1.

3. Results and Discussion - Multi-objective multi-criteria techniques (distance from ideal point,
Newkirk waterfall model, precedence method, weighted sum and product models) conclude that the
best storage techniques for Renewable Energy are the batteries along with the Pumped-storage plants.

4. Conclusions - Zn-Br batteries electricity storage system is suitable for Renewable Energies, specially
for 0,2-3 MW.

5. References
[1] Instituto para la Diversificacin y Ahorro de la Energa. Plan de Energas Renovables 2011-2020.
I.D.A.E. Madrid. 2011.
[2] Perera A.T.D., Attalage R.A., Perera K.K.C.K., Dassanayake V.P.C. 2013. A hybrid tool to combine
multi-objective optimization and multi-criterio decision making in designing standalone hybrid energy
systems. Applied Energy 107: 412425.
[3] Sierra

M, Marcos F., Latorre B. Izquierdo I., Pascual C. Methodology for the installation of thermal
power biomass plants in the Iberian Peninsula: application to Salamanca. Actas del International Congress
on Water, waste and energy manegement. Salamanca. 23-25 mayo 2012. Versin digital.

Tabla I. Electricity storage comparison table

Systems
Comparison & Evaluation Criteria
Technological Environmental Economic Vehicles uses Stationary uses
Pumped-storage plants 4 4 4 1 4
Lithium-ion batteries 3 3 2 4 3
Zn-Br batteries 3 3 4 4 3
Ni-Cd batteries 3 2 3 4 3
Lead-Acid batteries 3 1 4 4 3
Fuel Cells 3 3 2 4 3
Compressed Air 3 3 3 1 4
Flywheels 3 3 3 1 4



International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[224]
Impacts of political decisions on subsidy system of renewable energy
production and accomplishment of 2020 national renewable targets
in Hungary

Balzs Kulcsr, Zsolt Radics, Kroly Teperics


Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen
H-4028 temet Str. 2-4., Debrecen, Hungary
Tel: +36 30 743 68 67, E-mail: kulcsarb@eng.unideb.hu

Department of Social Geography and Regional Development Planning, University of
Debrecen
H-4032 Egyetem tr 1., Debrecen, Hungary

1. Introduction From among the means of supporting energy production from renewable sources,
Hungary directly applies the feed-in tariff system (KT) with a distinction made between the rules of
feeding in the renewable energies generated by industrial
producers and private persons: Image 1.
The underlying goals include the improvement of the
efficiency and effectiveness of renewable energy production
towards the accomplishment of the Hungarian renewable
energy targets. In the light of the experience earned so far,
the KT system has been reviewed (Act XXIX of 2011), but
no positive changes have been implemented, the Feed-in
system for heat energy and electricity produced from
renewable and alternative energy sources (Metr) designed
to replace KT is in delay, which makes the accomplishment
of Hungarys renewable targets undertaken until 2020
doubtful.

2. Results and Discussion - With respect to electric power
generation with the use of household renewable sources
typically the application of solar panels , the Hungarian
feed-in tariff (KT) system does not encourage the installation of capacities that would be needed for
the accomplishment of the national renewable targets. The deferment of the introduction of Metr since
1 January 2013, the further increase of the country risk premium, as well as the massive drop in the
volume of disbursed credits primarily to medium-sized and small enterprises have aggravated the
lack of the necessary investments. Until 2013, the reason for the delay in reforming the subsidization
schemes was the serious insufficiency of funds, and thereafter the prioritization of specialized and social
political objectives: overhead reduction, general, municipal and European parliamentary elections in
2014 and in addition to the government's commitment to expand nuclear power capacity. The rate of the
increase of the feed-in tariffs in January 2013 remained under the 2012 inflation rate, which encourages
the improvement of efficiency, but the ratio of the utilization of renewables consequentially occurring
does not reach the results of the extensive expansion of capacities.

3. Conclusions In spite of all these, mostly inhibitory effects, the PV capacities of households have
been almost tripled from 2011 to 2012, purely because of the energy saving advantages. 81% percent of
the 11827 MWp solar capacities was produced by households in 2012. Introduction of the Metr system
would consequently indicate significant expansion in household capacities, and could trigger intense,
positive economic effects.

Acknowledgments
The work/publication is supported by the TMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0041 project. The project
is co-financed by the European Union and the European Social Fund

Image 1. RES-E subsidization system of the EU
member states (on the basis of EREF, 2012)

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[225]
Solar-thermal hybridization biomass in the west of the Iberian
Peninsula
F. Marcos Martn, L. C. Domnguez Dafauce, M.I. Izquierdo Osado, C. Pascual
Castao, E. Falcn Roque

(1)
Termodinmica y Motores. ETSI Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n 28040 Madrid
+34 913367120 francisco.marcos@upm.es

1. Introduction Each day it becomes more necessary hybridization of different energy systems to
generate heat and electricity energy [1]. This is essential if renewable energies such as solar energy is
used whose output is not constant throughout the day or wind which is discontinuous over time [2]. In
addition, the electrical energy storage is expensive. In the west of the Iberian Peninsula are developing
projects of solar thermal power plants of 50 MWe, to be hybridized with other types of power plants,
whose energy comes from species such as poplar, paulownia or eucalypts [3,4]. The objective is to
calculate the number of hectares needed to hybridize partially a electrosolar power plant of 50 MWe with
a power plant forest biomass lower power (40 MWe) and compared with results of previous work.

2. Experimental - Our calculations have been made in the West of the Iberian Peninsula, particularly in
the provinces of Salamanca ( Castilla y Len), Cceres and Badajoz ( Extremadura) , where aims to make
a partial hybridization of a solar thermal power plant of 50 MWe
with a power plant of 40 MWe fueled with biomass from crops.

To this, was collected forest biomass from energy crops a
differents shifts: 2-3 years for poplar and paulownia, and 8-9 years
for eucalyptus, in the provinces of Salamanca (poplar I-214 and
paulownia), Cceres (poplar Viriato and paulownia) and Badajoz
(red gum). We have characterized the energy of the biomass from
both clones genus Paulownia, both varieties of poplar and red gum
(Eucalyptus camaldulensis).

3. Results and Discussion - The results indicate that the three species, in different percentages,
depending on the proximity of the center to hybridize to the sites of energy crops, rainfall in the area and
soil characteristics could be used. For partial hybridization with a biomass power plant of 40 MWe are
required:
1. Are needed 4,168ha for poplar I-214, and 3,735 ha for poplar "Viriato".
2. Are needed 3.319ha for paulownia clones (COTEVISA and "U").
3. Are needed 3.319ha for red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis)
The paulownias require less watering than the poplars but are more demanding in soil and biomass is
less dense. Red gum requires less irrigation than paulownias and poplars, and their biomass is denser.

4. Conclusions - Partial hybridization, in this region, has some advantages on total hybridization. In the
case of low density biomass, as with the case of the paulownia and poplar I-214, hybridization should be
partially due to the high transport costs of the same.

5. References
[1] Marcos F., Izquierdo M.I., Latorre B. y Pascual C. 2012. Cultivos energticos leosos hibridados con
energa solar termoelctrica en Espaa. International Congress of Water, Waste and Energy manegement.
Salamanca. 23-25 mayo 2012.
[2] Torres Rodrguez. 2011. Operar una planta termosolarciencia o arte? Energtica XXI.111:82-84.
Madrid.
[3] Marcos F., Izquierdo M.I., Latorre B. y Pascual C. 2009. Uso energtico de la paulownia en
Espaa. Agricultura 917: 272-274.
[4] Sierra M, Marcos F., Latorre B. Izquierdo I., Pascual C. Methodology for the installation of thermal
power biomass plants in the Iberian Peninsula: application to Salamanca. International Congress on Water,
waste and energy manegement.Salamanca. 23-25 mayo 2012.


Image 1. Partial hybridization

International Congress on Water, Waste and Energy Management
Porto (Portugal), 16-18 July 2014
[226]
Model for the election of a forest energy crop in Spain

M.I. Izquierdo Osado
(1)
, F. Marcos Martn
(1)
, C. Pascual Castao
(1)
, E. Falcn
Roque
(1)
, L.C. Domnguez Defauce
(1)

(1)
U.D. Termodinmica y Motores. E.T.S.I. Montes. Ciudad Universitaria. 28040 Madrid.
+34 913367120; mi.izquierdo@upm.es

1. Introduction In view of the interest generated in recent years on renewable energy, assessing the
potential of these energy sources is important for the development of energy planning, and to support
energy policy decisions. Among them, biomass contributes the most of the world energy consumption;
its use is growing in the developed and developing countries. In Spain, the Renewable Energy Plan (PER)
2011-2020 [1] sets targets for biomass as a significant increase over the previous plan that covered the
period 2005-2010.

An important issue in the field of bioenergy is the need to provide stable biomass, in quantity, quality
and price. Biomass residues from plantations and agro industries have a limit that can be exceeded by
increased demand, to the development of new projects. Therefore one way investigated in recent years
for obtaining biomass is the use of crops whose sole purpose is to obtain biomass for energy production.

This paper tries to build a planning model based on a multi-criteria approach, whose purpose is to
evaluate suitable areas for the introduction of energy crops.

2. Experimental - Have been considered four forest species, paulownia, poplar, eucalyptus and willow
whose characteristics are appropriate for implantation as an energy crop. At the same time, have been
identified a number of relevant factors to assess the possibility of plantation of each species in a given
area. Not considered only phytoclimatic aspects for deciding upon the ability of a territory, also have
been considered environmental, socio-political and economic features. [2]

Phytoclimatic and environmental factors have allowed distinguishing large regions with similar
ecological conditions in Spain. According to the criteria used in physical planning and energy planning,
has been given a value (Ki) between 1 and 5, for each of the identified factors. Those exclusionary to
development of the activity, have the value 0. In addition, a weight (Li) is assigned to each factor based
on its importance for the development of the proposed activity, the implantation of the studied species.

To validate the model, have been used the results of several experimental plots where poplar, paulownia
and eucalyptus are cultivated. For the willow, it has been used values obtained from the literature, since
there are no test plantations.

3. Results and Discussion - Based on the values obtained in the methodology, a model has been
constructed based on multi-objective multi-model techniques. Using the weights assigned, have been
weighted each of the factors invol