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LTE Uplink
Power control
Open-loop power control:
To constrain the dynamic range between signals received from different UEs
Unlike CDMA there is no intra-cell interference -> exploit fading by means of link
adaptation and scheduling
Classical PC:
all users achieve the same target SINR
Interior users transmit at reduced power spectral density
Fractional PC (more flexible):
Trade-off between spectral efficiency and cell edge rates
Target SINR increases with decreasing path loss
Others, e.g. aperiodic fast power control
Fractional PC
Interference over Thermal noise (loT) is a key performance criterion: open-loop PC
params can be adjusted to reach a target loT
-> crucial in reuse-1 deployment to guarantee coverage and stability
3 | Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008. XXXXX Alcatel-Lucent
Target
SINR
&
(
L
loT Control Mechanism (Inter-cell Power Control)
Setting of Target_SINR_dB determines the loT operating point
Especially in a reuse-1 deployment, it is critical to manage the uplink
interference level
In LTE, e-NBs can send uplink overload indications to neighbor e-NBs via the
X2 interface
Power control parameters (i.e. Target SINR) can be adapted based on
overload indicators
Allows control of the loT level to ensure coverage and system stability
Measure
Interference, emit
overload indicator
Based on overload
indicator from
neighbor cell,
adapt PC params
4 I Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved ; Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel-Lucent

c
( (
Fractional Power Control
While using the same target SINR for each user results in very
good fairness (as far as power allocation is concerned), it also
results in poor spectral efficiency
An improved power control scheme called Fractional Power
Control adjusts the target SINR in relation to the UE's path loss to
its serving sector
UE_TxPSD_dBm = ax PL_dB + Nominal_Target_SINR_dB +
ULJnterference_dBm
1a is called the fractional compensation factor, and is sent via cell broadcast; 0 <
a < 1
Target_SINR_dB = Nominal_Target_SINR_dB
- (1-a)xPL_dB
Target SINR increases with decreasing path loss
Flexible trade-off between cell edge rate and average
spectral efficiency
5 I Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved 5 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX
Target
SINR
Alcatel-Lucent^
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Scheduler
As we have seen, LTE makes heavy use of the uplink and downlink shared
channel (DL-SCH and UL-SCH) for user data, system broadcast, and paging
LTE provides several mechanism to allow for high performance user
scheduling and resource allocation algorithms
users and their queues
present delays
QoS requirements
last scheduled TTI
radio qualities
power restrictions
buffer filling status
Resources assigned to the data streams
c
8 I Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved 0 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel-Lucent

i. (
UL Scheduling mechanism
L2 message carried
via a MAC control
element: indicates
buffer status
L2 message carried
via a MAC control
element: indicates
available power
V^ headroom
Carried on PUCCH for
synchronized UEs; carried
on PRACH when
synchronization is lost
Carried on
downlink L1/L2
control channel
Allows channel
state information
to be obtained by
eNB
Channel dependent scheduling in both time and frequency enabled through the
use of the sounding reference signal (SRS)
Scheduler selects bandwidth, modulation, use of MU-MIMO, and PC parameters
PRBs assigned for a particular UE must be contiguous in the uplink (SC-FDMA)
To reduce UE complexity, restriction placed on # of PRBs that can be assigned
Number of allocated subcarriers must have largest prime factor less than or equal to 5
-> can use radix-2.3.5 FFTfor DFT-precoding (i.e.. cannot assign 7. 11. 13. 17.... PRBs)
9 | Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved C Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX
c
Alcatel Lucent

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DL Scheduling mechanism
Carries DL resource
assignment on L1/L2
control channel (PDCCH)
UE
Reported on PUCCHor
PUSCH: provides channel
state info and info to
select MIMO mode
Channel dependent scheduling is supported in both time and frequency domain ->
enables two dimensional flexibility
CQI feedback can provide both wideband and frequency selective feedback
P/v'.l and Rl feedback allow for MIMO mode selection
Scheduler chooses bandwidth allocation, modulation, MIMO mode, and power allocation
HARQ. operation is asynchronous and adaptive
Assigned PRBs need not be contiguous for a given user in the downlink
10 | Presentation Title | Month 2008 All Rights Reserved C Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX
(
Alcatel Lucent
@
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Channel Quality Indicator, Pre-coding Matrix Indicator, Rank
Indicator
Less Detailed More Detailed
Periodic Reporting Aperiodic Reporting
Physical Channel for
Report
PUCCH' PUSCH
Trigger for Report None Indication in scheduling grant
PMI feedback
(for closed-loop SM)
Single PMI Single PMI and Multiple PMI
CQI feedback
(computed assuming
calculated PMI)
(1) Wideband
(2) UE-selected subband
(coarse subband sizes, one CQI
report per codev/ord)
(1) Wideband
(2) UE-selected best-M subband
(granular subband sizes, one CQI report
per codeword)
(3) Higher-layer configured subband
(one CQI report per subband per
codev/ord)
Rl feedback
Sent in separate subframe from
CQI /PMI
Sent together with CQI/PMI
' PUSCH is used here only when UL data is sent, in order to maintain single carrier transmission
11 I Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved 0 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel-Lucent
@
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Scheduler proportional fair principles
The SINR per PRB on the UL or per resource block group (RBG) on the DL for the traffic
channel is estimated from the SRS (for the UL) and the CQI report (for the DL)
Note that the RBG size is bandwidth dependent; for 10 MHz it is 3 PRBs resulting in 17 RBGs
The priority metric per user is formed by mapping the SINR to an achievable rate per
PRB (or RBG) using a look up table, and dividing by the average user rate and
multiplying by the QoS and GoS weight
13 I Presentation Title | Month 2008
This is RBG index for
the downlink
All Rights Reserved O Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX
Priority
lit trie
'2
LEI
1
QLE2
-0
LE3
Alcatel-Lucent
&
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Scheduler proportional fair principles
For each PRB (UL) or RBG (DL) we find the user with the highest priority metric
In the downlink we are pretty much done here, as the OFDM nature of the downlink lets
us simply assign each RBG to the user with the highest priority metric, which maximizes
the original sum rate metric (a user is allowed to be assigned discontiguous PRBs)
- There are additional points to account for such as CCE search space constraints on the PDCCH
^
This is RBG index for
the downlink
w
(
14 | Presentation Title | Month 2008
All Rights Reserved 2 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel-Lucent u
(

Scheduler proportional fair principles
For the uplink v/e have to account for the SC-FDMA constraint of contiguous PRBs, as well as the fact
that there are UE power headroom (PH) constraints
The UE PH limits the max number of PRBs which can be assigned while the UE maintains its current
transmit power spectral density (Tx PSD) as set by power control
MaxToralPower
NumPRB
UaxPm
TxPSD
Finding the optimal solution which maximizes the desired sum rate metric is not feasible with the
SC-FDMA constraint, and hence the Maximum Priority Envelope (MPE) algorithm has been developed
for uplink user scheduling and resource allocation which accounts for UE power headroom
constraints and the contiguous PRB restriction
UE1
UE2
UE3
In this oxamplo,
UE2has
"umPRB^xPwr=3
(
15 | Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved ; Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel-Lucent
@
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Scheduler proportional fair principles
We then go through an iterative procoss of assigning contiguous sets of winning user PRBs (called
envelope groups), oach time taking into account CCE soarch space constraints on the PDCCH
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m L1J1 Example: Assume S5 has
9 w highest priority metric,
make assignment for
UE2, update PRBs not f
allocated to UE2 in $
which it was the winner
CS tit;
-.->
16 I Presentation Title | Month 2008
c
>
\7
S, gets assigned to UE3 and
S~. gets assigned to UE1
All Rights Reserved 0 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel-Lucent

(
Frequency Non-Selective Scheme
Resource Unit Index
(
Single priority metric formed and used in
the first stage of the MPE algorithm
Then MPE algorithm continues as in FSS
scheme
(
The SRS SYNC SINR is a scalar quantity per user that is formed by averaging the SRS SINR across
PRBs and then filtered in time; used to form a single priority metric, which is replicated and used
for all PRBs
To support a large number of UEs, the SRS period needs to be reduced given the multiplexing capabilities
(max of 8 UEs per SRS transmission per frequency comb)
The regular MPE algorithm as in the FSS algorithm is then utilized, which minimizes
testing/verification to just the new code introduced
Currently also investigating an intermediate solution where the resolution of the frequency
selective scheduler is reduced by a certain factor in order to retain some frequency selectivenessin
the scheduling while reducing complexity (study in progress)
17 | Presentation Title | Month 2008 All Rights Reserved o Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel LUCent UU
1
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DL MCS table
Along with the # of PRBs allocated, an MCS
level is sent in the scheduling grant,
corresponding to 29 different possibilities
The MCS index corresponds to a modulation
format and transport block size index
Transport block size table gives the block size to
use based on the # of PRBs allocated
The code rates given in the table are for 50
PRBs assuming the RS pattern for 1 antenna
port and for 3 OFDM symbols used for L1 /L2
control
Precise code rate will depend on the exact # of
PRBs allocated as well as # of Tx antenna ports and
# of OFDM symbols reserved for L1 /L2 control
Note: 3GPP allows the UE to skip decoding if
the code rate on the initial transmission
exceeds 0.93
(
MCS Index Modulation
TBS
Index
TBS for 50
PRBs
Approx.
Code Rate
0 QPSK 0 1384 0.11
1 QPSK 1 1800 0.14
2 QPSK 2 2216 0.18
3 QPSK 3 2856 0.23
4 QPSK 4 3624 0.29
5 QPSK 5 4392 0.35
6 QPSK 6 5160 0.41
7 QPSK 7 6200 0.49
8 QPSK 8 6968 0.55
9 QPSK 9 7992 0.64
10 16QAM 9 7992 0.32
11 16QAM 10 8760 0.35
12 16QAM 11 9912 0.39
13 16QAM 12 11448 0.46
14 16QAM 13 12960 0.52
15 16QAM 14 14112 0.56
16 16QAM 15 15264 0.61
17 64QAM 15 15264 0.40
18 64QAM 16 16416 0.43
19 64QAM 17 18336 0.49
20 64QAM 18 19848 0.53
21 64QAM 19 21384 0.57
22 64QAM 20 22920 0.61
23 64QAM 21 25456 0.67
24 64QAM 22 27376 0.72
25 64QAM 23 28336 0.75
26 B4QAM 24 30576 0.81
27 .25
26
31704 0,84
I
64QAM 36696^1 0.97
(
22 I Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved O Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX
Alcatel Lucent ^L
(
UL MCS table
Along with the # of PRBs allocated, an MCS
level is sent in the scheduling grant,
corresponding to 29 different possibilities
The MCS index corresponds to a modulation
format and transport block size index
Transport block size table givos the block size to
use based on the # of PRBs allocated
The code rates given in the table are for 50
PRBs assuming no SRS allocation
Precise code rate will depend on SRS allocation,
UCI puncturing, as well as precise # of PRBs
allocated and the UE category
Mote: UEs which are not capable of 64-QAM
can continue to use 16-QAM for MCS Indices
21 and higher, in which case the code rate
will be higher than that shown in the table
(
c
MCS Index Modulation
TBS
Index
TBS for 50
PRBs
Approx.
Code Rate
0 QPSK 0 1384 0.10
1 QPSK 1 1800 0.13
2 QPSK 2 2216 0.16
3 QPSK 3 2856 0.20
4 QPSK 4 3624 0.25
5 QPSK 5 4392 0.31
6 QPSK 6 5160 0.36
7 QPSK 7 6200 0.43
8 QPSK 8 6968 0.49
9 QPSK 9 7992 0.56
10 QPSK 10 8760 0.61
11 16QAM 10 8760 0.31
12 16QAM 11 9912 0.35
13 16QAM 12 11448 0.40
14 16QAM 13 12960 0.45
15 16QAM 14 14112 0.49
16 16QAM 15 15264 0.53
17 16QAM 16 16416 0.57
18 16QAM 17 18336 0.64
19 16QAM 18 19848 0.69
20 16QAM 19 21384 0.74
21 64QAM 19 21384 0.50
22 64QAM 20 22920 0.53
23 64QAM 21 25456 0.59
24 64QAM 22 27376 0.63
25 64QAM 23 28336 0.66
26 64QAM 24 30576 0.71
27 64QAM 25 31704 013
28 64QAM 26 36696 0.85
23 I Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved : Alcatel-Lucent 2008. XXXXX
Alcatel Lucent ^L
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MIMO in LTE
RF Hardware
c c
To support MIMO 2x2, the RF hardware products must have 2 RF transmit paths
the product name should end with 2x such as RRH2y, TRDU2x.
LTE Baseband Unit RRH2x
CPRI
MC-RRH is MIMO ready with a singl
however, 2 MC-TRX are required to s
MC-RRH
supporting
LTE 2x2 MIMO
LTE BBU module
LTE 2x2 MIMO
i. .i -
2 Antennas
u
X
F-
e
F*
Power
Supply
Power
Feeding
Optical
interface
Fibre
CPRI I outiti
or
Ethernet
26 | Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved 0 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel-Lucent

_J
MIMO in LTE
Antenna Design
c
Xpol
2 uncorrelated outputs: good diversity gains
algorithms supported
- TxDiv/SFBC
- CL & OL SM up to 2 streams
- UL MU-MIMO with 2 users
XXpoi closely spaced
correlation between elements with equal polarisation: array and diversity gains
algorithms supported:
TxDiv/sfbc. ,-ecommended for balanced UL &DL performances
- CL & OL SM up to 2 streams
- UL MU-MIMO with 4 users
UL performance +++
DL performance +++
Suitable radio environments: large/outdoor cell/cell border, LOS environments
XXpol widely spaced
4 uncorrelated outputs: good diversity gains
algorithms supported:
- TxDiv/SFBC
- CL & OL SM up to 4 streams
27 | Presentation Title I Month 20
MU-MIMO with 4 users
All Rights Reserved 0 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX
X
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MIMO in LTE
Reminder
Reminder on some definitions
c
i i
.
U user 2
U user 1
SISO channel
SIMOchannel, i.e.
RxDiv
MIMO channel MU-MIMO channel
SU-MIMO (Single User MIMO)
Spatial Multiplexing (SM): increase peak rate by 2 in MIMO 2x2
Transmit Diversity (TxDiv): improve reliability of a single data stream
MU-MIMO (Multiuser MIMO)
Multiple data streams from /to different users sent on the same resource
Works even with single antenna/PA mobile
^'iTTthe'sc^OTquent slides, the fdC^efsetrrtcth^ntdr3wfllink as uplink doesAITrb1:Lu<:ent@
_J I c_
Generalities
Terminology
The relationship between codewords, rank and layers is not unique and depends on the
MIMO scheme to be considered.
Afew important definitions:
Codeword: an independently encoded data block, corresponding to a single transport
block with one CRC
a codeword is directly related to the channel coding operation
Codewords < #layers
Rank: number of non-redundant data streams that can be transmitted
coded data streams may be split into different layers and howthe data stream is split depends on
the antenna scheme and the rank of the channel:
- if rank = 1, only one codeword can be transmitted - if multiple coded data streams, they
carry the same information
- if rank = 2, either one or two codewords can be transmitted while offering a spatial
multiplexing gain of 2 -> 2 unique coded data streams
- if rank = k, up to k codewords while offering a SM gain of k -> k unique coded data streams
Layer: number of streams (including redundant ones) to be transmitted
-#tayers-<-#antennas
29 I Presentation Title | Month 2008. ntation Title | Month 2008. . , All Rights Reserved : Alcatel-Lucent 2008, X.XXXX Alcatel LUCent Gn
a layer containing data symbols is mapped onto the transmit antenna ports: **
c (
Generalities
Examples
Spatial multiplexing can be achieved with either 1 or multiple codewords
transmission
SU-MIMO 2x2 offers 2 possibilities: 1 or 2 codewords for rank-2 transmission
3GPP LTE
V
2 codewords
WiMAX
1 codeword
(
Advantage: permit Successive Interference
Cancellation decoding at the receiver
Advantage: save signaling overhead as the
HARQ associated signaling is rather expensive
30 I Presentation Title I Momh 2008 All Rights Reserved 0 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel Lucent^
_J
Generalities
Examples
c
Spatial multiplexing can be achieved with either 1 or multiple codewords
transmission
SU-MIMO 2x2 offers 2 possibilities: 1 or 2 codewords for rank-2 transmission
2 layers
1 codeword
(
2 codewords
\
x'2x',
Y
2 layers
x'2x'i
X2 X,
Layer
mapping
i i
i i
i i
' / >
precoder
Advantage: permit Successive Interference
Cancellation decoding at the receiver
=> SIC allows significant gains
x4 x3 x2 x1
>
Layer
mapping
tV-N
-n51
precoder
x'4x'3
Advantage: save signaling overhead as the
HARQ. associated signaling is rather expensive
31 I Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved 3 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel-Lucent

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Downlink Signal Structure
The LTE downlink signal structure is general and applicable to both transmit
diversity and spatial multiplexing. LTE Rel'8 can support:
up to 4 layers with 4 transmit antennas
both open-loop and closed-loop spatial multiplexing for 2 and 4 transmit
antennas
up to rank-4 transmission with 4x4 MIMO
Rank Indicator (Rl) and Precoding Matrix Indicator (PMI) are used to permit closed-loop
- the precoding codebook is defined in TS36.211
Codewords Layers eNB antenna ports
Channel
coding
u w
Srrnmhling

Modulation
mapper

Layer
mapper
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RE
mapper

CFDM signal
generation
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CFDM signal
generation
\J
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Rl, CQI PMI
33 ! Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved 0 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel Lucent Ui
A
Codeword to layer mapping
2 Transmit Antennas
c (
With 2 transmit antennas, TxDiv may be used. In LTE, SFBC is implemented
which is a frequency-domain version of the Alamouti code.
the transmitted diversity streams are orthogonal
SFBC/Alamouti code (2x2):
1 single possibility:
- transmission relies on 1 single codeword
- the codeword is duplicated on 2 layers (redundancy)
rank = #symbols / #subcarriers
the single codeword is sent- t-wirp over 2
1 codeword
=> 2 unique symbols on 2 suucdii ieis = rar
ci ihrarn'gjrs (SC)
2 layers
X2 X,
bK.-iMbi
34 | Presentation Title I Month 2008
Modulation
+ coding
x2 x,
K- I LltillM
Layer
mapping
li
i
--
iission
SFBC
precoder
All Rights Reserved 0 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX
*v *
1 At
Alcatel Lucent

_J ( (__
Codeword to layer mapping
2 Transmit Antennas
With 2 transmit antennas, uses 2 codewords (see Fig. 2)
1 codeword corresponds to 1 Transport Block Size (TBS)
C
Rank-1 transmission is often seen as a special case of SU-MIMO spatial multiplexing. In
LIIU V-CJJ\_ , I LVJULfVUlU U UJV.U
=> tfcoueworas = rariK ot transmission
The codeword to layer mapping is trivial: the codeword n is mapped to the layer n.
^codewords = ttlayers
The mapping between codewords and layers is shown below:
layer 1
CW#1
Precoding
(1x4)
Rank-1
Fig. 1: Rank-1 transmission
Rank-2
CW#1
CW#2
layer #1
w
layer #2
V
Precoding
(2x4)
Fig. 2: Rank-2 transmission
35 | Presentation Title | Month 2008 All Rights Reserved 0 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel-Lucent

(
Codeword to layer mapping
4 Transmit Antennas
(
(
Transmit diversity schemes with 4 transmit antennas results in a combination of
two SFBC 2x2
Frequency Shift Transmit Diversity (FSTD)
tr?n-rm> rwmjp0^Sbf^m each antenna on a different subcarrier
X\ 0 0 0
antennas
\r
SFB
x2 0 0
0 v., 0
0 0 xA
vi
i
.V-
x2
:.
^> SFBC + FSTD
vi X2
U 0
x*
xl
0 0
0 0
v.! X4
0 0
"*4
SFBC + FSTD is a suitable transmit diversity as no orthogonal full-rate diversity
code exists beyond 2x2 configuration
Usage in either 4x2 or 4x4 antenna configuration
?word
36 I Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved 3 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX
=> 4 I mini IP Symbols nn A c:iihrarripr<; = rank-1 trancmiccinn
Alcatel-Lucent

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Codeword to layer mapping
4 Transmit Antennas
(
Looking into the details of rank-3 transmission:
codeword #1 is mapped on a single layer
1 codeword per layer: the layer size equal to the
codeword length (i.e. TBS)
codeword #2 is mapped on 2 layers (layers #2 &#3)
1 codeword for two layers:
- if Nprb ^ 55, the codeword is equally split on the two layers
(
- if A/we > b5. the 2 layers have^ttf^same order of magnitude (almost equal); a
" *"'"' /~*'*'*:' " " ^ *-- "i c Ir> I" jf) n fr~> t"> I*~i -= ^- *- -^ ~ ~i ~ ': r\ in "3(""*pp
codeword #2: TBS
< >
layer #2
' < >
layer #3
< >
S/P converter
38 I Presentation Title I Month 2008 All Rights Reserved 5 Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX Alcatel-Lucent