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Chapter # 27

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

SOLVED EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 27.1 0.32 g of oxygen is kept a rigid container and is heated. Find the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature from 25 0 C to 35 0 C. The molar heat capacity of oxygen at constant volume is 20 J/mol–K.

Sol.

The moleculer weight of oxygen = 32 g/mol.

0.32 g

n = 32 g/mol

= 0.01 mol .

The amount of heat needed is Q = n C v T

= ( 0.01 mol ) ( 20 J/mol–K ) (10 K) = 2.0 J.

EXAMPLE 27.2 A tank of volume 0.2 m 3 contains helium gas at a temperature of 300 K and pressure 1.0 × 10 5 N/m 2 . Find the amount of heat required to raise the temperature to 400 K. The molar heat capacity of helium at constant volume is 3.0 cal/mol–K. Neglect any expansion in the volume of the tank.

Sol.

The amount of the gas in moles is

n

=

=

pV

RT

(1.0

10

5

N/m

2

) (0.2 m

3

)

(8.31

J

/

mol K

)(300 K)

The amount of heat required is Q = n C v T

= 8.0 mol.

= ( 8.0 mol ) ( 3.0 cal/mol–K ) (100 K ) = 2400 cal.

EXAMPLE 27.3 The molar heat capacity of a gas at constant volume is found to be 5 cal/mol–K. Find the ratio = C P – C V for the gas. The gas constant R = 2 cal/mol–K.

Sol.

We have C v = 5 cal/mol–K. Thus, C P = C v + R = 5 cal/mol – K

= 7 cal/mol– K

or,

C

p

7

C

v

=

5

= 1.4 .

EXAMPLE 27.4 Dry air at 15 0 C and 10 atm is suddenly released at atmosphere pressure. Find the final temperature of the air [ C P / C v = 1.4 ].

Sol.

As the air is suddenly released, it does not get time to exchange heat with the surrounding. Thus the process is adiabatic. Assuming the process to be reversible,

or ,

or,

or,

T

constant

p 1

T 1

p

1

1

T

 

 

2

=

=

=

T

2

p

2

1

p

 

 

2

T 1

p

1

1

T 2 = T 1

p

2

p

1

1

1

Talking p 1 = 10 atm, p 2 = 1 atm, = 1.41 and T 1 = ( 273 + 15 ) K = 288 K, the final temperature is T 2 = 148

K.

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Chapter # 27

EXAMPLE 27.5 Calculate the internal energy of 1 g of oxygen at STP.

Sol.

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

Oxygen is a diatomic gas. The average energy per molecules is, therefore,

5

2

kT and the average energy per

mole is

5

2

RT. As the molecular weight of oxygen is 32 g/mol, 1 g of oxygen has

1g

1

n = 32 g/mol

=

32

mol.

The temperature of oxygen is 273 K. Thus, the internal energy is

U =

=

=

5

2

RT

n

1

177 J.

32

mol     5

 

2

( 8.31 J/mol–K) ( 273 K )

1. Does a gas have just two specific heat capacities or more than two? Is the number of specific heat capacities of a gas countable?

2. Can we define specific heat capacity at constant temperature?

3. Can we define specific heat capacity for an adiabatic process?

4. Does a solid also have two kinds of molar heat capacities C p and C v ? If yes, do we have C p > C v ? C p – C v = R

?

5. In a real gas the internal energy depends on temperature and also on volume. The energy increases when the gas expands isothermally. Looking into the derivation of C p – C v = R, find whether C p – C v will be more than R, less than R or equal to R for a real gas.

6. Can a process on an ideal gas be both adiabatic and isothermal?

7. Show that the slope of p–V diagram is greater for an adiabatic process as compared to an isothermal process.

8. Is a slow process always isothermal? Is a quick process always adiabatic?

9. Can two states of an ideal gas be connected by an isothermal process as well as an adiabatic process?

10. The ratio C p /C v for a gas is 1.29. What is the degree of freedom of the molecules of this gas?

Objective - I

1. Work done by a sample of an ideal gas in a process A is double the work done in another process B. The temperature rises through the same amount in the two processes. If C A and C B be the molar heat capacities for the two processes.

fdlh izØe A eas ,d vkn'kZ xSl }kjk fd;k x;k dk;Z fdlh nwljs izØe B eas fd;s x;s dk;Z dk nqxquk gSA nksukas izØeksa esa rki leku ek=kk eas c<+k;k tkrk gS ;fn nksuksa izØeksa ds fy;s eksyj Å"ek /kkfjrk;sa Øe'k% C A o C B gkas rks

 (A) C A = C B (B) C A < C B (C*) C A > C B (D) C A and C B cannot be defined

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Chapter # 27

2. For a solid with a small expansion coefficient,

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

(A) C p - C v = R

(D) C p

(B) C p - C v = R

is slightly less than C v

vYi izlkj xq.kkad okys ,d Bksl ds fy;s]

(A) C p - C v = R

(D) C p , C v ls FkksMk de gksrk gSA

(B) C p - C v = R

(C*) C p is slightly greater than C v

(C*) C p ]C v ls FkksM+k vf/kd gksrk gS

3. The value of C p - C v is 1.00 R for a gas sample in state A and is 1.08 R in state B. Let p A , p B denote the pressure and T A and T B donote the temperature of the states A and B respectively. Most likely

fdlh xalS ds uewus dh voLFkk A ds fy;s C - C v dk eku 1.00 R rFkk voLFkk B ds fy;s 1.08 R gSA ekuk p A , p B rFkk T A

p

o T B Øe'k% voLFkkvkas A o B ds nkc rFkk rki gaAS rc

(A*) p A < p B and T A >T B (A*) p A < p B o T A >T B

(B) p A > p B and T A <T B (B) p A > p B o T A <T B

(C) p A = p B and T A <T B (C) p A = p B o T A <T B

(D) p A > p B and T A =T B (D) p A > p B o T A =T B

4. Let C v and C p denote the molar heat capacities of an ideal gas at constant volume and constant pressure respectively. Which of the following is a universal constant ?

ekuk C v o C p fdlh vkn'kZ xalSs dh] Øe'k% fu;r vk;ru o fu;r nkc ij eksyj Å"ek /kkfjrk;as gSA fuEu eas ls dkSu lkoZf=kd fu;rkad gSA

(A)

C p /C v

(B) C p C v

(C*) C p - C v

(D) C p + C v

5. 70 calories of heat is required to raise the temperautre of 2 mole of an ideal gas at constant pressure from

30 o C to 35 o C. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the same gas through the same range at constant volume is -

(A) 30 Calories

(B*) 50 Calories

(C) 70 Calories

(D) 90 Calories

fdlh vkn'kZ xSla dk rki] fu;r nkc ij 30 o C ls 35 o C c<+kus ds fy;s 70 dSyksjh Å"ek dh vko';drk gksrh gSA mlh xalS

dk dk rki fu;r vk;ru ij leku ijkl (30 o C ls 35 o C) esa c<+kus ds fy;s vko';d Å"ek dh ek=kk gksrh gS &

(A) 30 dSykjh

(B*) 50 dSykjh

(C) 70 dSykjh

(D) 90 dSykjh

6. Fig shows a process on a gas in which pressure and volume both change. The molar heat capacity for this process is C.

fn;k x;k vkjs[k fdlh xSl ij ,d izØe dks n'kkZrk gS ftleas nkc o vk;ru nksukas ifjofrZr gksrs gSA bl izØe ds fy;s eksyj Å"ek /kkfjrk C gSA

(A) C = 0 (B) C = C v

(C*) C > C v

(D) C < C v

7. The molar heat capacity for the process shown in fig. is

fp=k esa n'kkZ;s x;s izØe ds fy;s eksyj Å"ek /kkfjrk gS &

(A) C = C p (B) C = C v

(C) C > C v

(D*) C = 0

8. In an isothermal process on an ideal gas, the pressure increases by 0.5%. The volume decreases by about

fdlh vkn'kZ xSal ij ,d lerkih izØe eas nkc 0.5% ls c<+k;k tkrk gS vk;ru ?kVsxk ¼yxHkx½

(A) 0.25%

(B*) 0.5%

(C) 0.7%

(D) 1%

9. In an adiabatic process on a gas with = 1.4, the pressure is increased by 0.5%. The volume decreases by about

fdlh vkn'kZ xSal (= 1.4) ij ,d :nzks"e izØe esa nkc 0.5% ls c<k;k tkrk gS vk;ru ?kVsxk ¼yxHkx½

(A*) 0.36%

(B) 0.5%

(C) 0.7&

manishkumarphysics.in

(D) 1%

Page # 3

Chapter # 27

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

 10. Two sample A and B are initially kept in the same state. The sample A is expanded through an adiabatic process and the sampleAis expanded through an adiabatic process and the sample B through an isothermal process. The final volumes in A and B are p A and p B respectively. nks uewus A o B izkjEHk eas leku voLFkk eas j[ks gq;s gSA uewus A dks :nzks"e izØe ds vuqlkj izlkfjr fd;k tkrk gS rFkk uewus B dks ,d lerkih izØe ls A A o B esa uewuksa ds vfUre vk;ru leku gSA A o B esa vfUre nkc Øe'k% p A o p B gSA (A) p A > p B (B) p A = p B (C*) p A < p B (D) The relation between p A and p B cannot be deduced. (D) p A o p B ds chp lEcU/k fuxZfer ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA 11. Let T a and T b be the final temperature of the samples A and B respectively in the previous question then : ekuk Åij fn;s x;s iz'u esa nksuksa uequksa A o B ds vfUre rki Øe'k% T a o T b gSA (A) T a < T b (B) T a = T b (C*) T a >T b (D) The relation between T a and T b cannot be deduced. (D) T a o T b ds chp lEcU/k fuxZfer ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA 12. Let W a and W b be the work done by the systems A and B respectively in the previous question then : ekuk Åij fn;s x;s iz'u esa fudk;ksa A o B }kjk fd;k x;k dk;Z Øe'k% W a oW b gSA (A) W a > W b (B) W a = W b (C*) W a < W b (D) The relation between W a and W b cannot be deduced. (D) W a oW b ds chp lEcU/k izkIr ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA 13. The molar heat capacity of oxygen gas at STP is nearly 2.5 R. As the temperature is increased, it gradually increases and approaches 3.5 R. The most appropriate reason for this behaviour is that at high temperatures (A) oxygen does not behave as an ideal gas the molecules collides more frequently (B) oxygen molecules dissociate in atoms (C) (D*) molecular vibration graduallybecome effective ekud rki ,oa nkc (STP) ij vkWDlhtu xalS dh eksyj Å"ek /kkfjrk yxHkx 2.5 R. gSA tc rki c

fp=k eas iznf'kZr izØekas A o B ij fopkj dhft;sA ;g laHko gS fd -

manishkumarphysics.in Page # 4

Chapter # 27

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases (B) both the processes are adiabatic (D) A is adiabatic and B is isothermal

(A) both the processes are isothermal

(C*) A is isothermal and B is adiabatic

(A) nksuksa gh izØe lerkih; gSA (C*) A lerkih; gS rFkk B :nks"e gSA

(B) nksuksa gh izØe :nks"e gSA (D) A :nks"e gS rFkk B lerkih; gSA

 5. Three identical adiabatic containers A, B and C contain helium, neon and oxygen respectively at equal pressure. The gases are pushed to half their original volumes. ,d leku nkc ij rhu ,d tSls :)ks"e ik=k A, B rFkk C eas Øe'k% ghfy;e] fuvkWu rFkk vkWDlhtu mifLFkr gaAS xSlks dks muds izkjfEHkd vk;ru ds vk/ks vk;ru rd nck;k tkrk gSa (A) The final temperature in the three containers will be the same. (B) The final pressures in the three containers will be the same. (C*) The pressure of helium and neon will be the same but that of oxygen will be different. (D*) The temperature of helium and neon will be the same but that of oxygen will be different (A) rhuks ik=kksa esa vfUre rkieku ,d leku gskxkA (B) rhuks ik=kksa esa vfUre rkieku ,d leku gksxkA (C*) ghfy;e rFkk fuvkWu dk nkc ,d tSlk gksxk ijUrq vkWDlhtu dk fHkUu gksxkA (D*) ghfy;e rFkk fuvkWu dk rki ,d tSlk gskxk ijUrq vkWDlhtu dk fHkUu gksxkA 6. A rigid container of neligible heat capacity contains one mole of an ideal gas. The temperature of the gas increases by 1 0 C if 3.0 cal of heat is added to it. The gas may be ux.; Å"ek /kkfjrk okys ,d n`<+ ik=k eas ,d eksy vkn'kZ xSl mifLFkr gaAS vxj xSl eas 3.0 cal Å"ek tksM+h tkrh gS rks xSl dk rkieku 1ºC ls c<+ tkrk gaAS ;g xSl gks ldrh gS \ [4 min.] [M.Bank(07-08)_HCV_Ch.27_Ob.2_6] (A*) helium (B*) argon (C) oxygen (D) carbon dioxide (A*) ghfy;e (B*) vkWxZu (C) vkWDlhtu (D) dkcZu MkbZ vkWDlkbM 7. Four cylinders contain equal number of moles of argon, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide at the same temperature. The energy is minimum in pkj csyuksa esa vkxZu] gkbMªkstu] ukbVªkstu rFkk dkcZu MkbZ vkWDlkbM ds ,d leku rkieku ij ,d leku eksy mifLFkr gSaA (A*) argon (B) hydrogen (C) nitrogen (D) carbon dioxide (A*) vkxZu (B) gkbMªkstu (C) ukbVªkstu (D) dkcZu MkbZ vkWDlkbM+ WORKED OUT EXAMPLES 1. Calculate the value of mechanical equialent of heat from the following data. Specific heat capacity of air at constant volume = 170 cal/kg-K, =C p /C v = 1.4 and the density of air at STP is 1.29 kg/m 3 . Gas consant R = 8.3 J/mol-K. fuEufyf[kr vk¡dM+ks dh lgk;rk ls Å"ek ds ;kaf=kd rqY;kad dh x.kuk dhft,A fu;r vk;ru ij ok;q dh fof'k"V Å"ek = 170 cal/kg-K, =C p /C v = 1.4 vkSj ekud rki ,oa nkc (STP) ij ok;q dk ?kuro 1.29 kg/m 3 xSl fu;rkad R = 8.3 Sol. J/mol-K Using pV = nRT, the volume of 1 mole of air at STP is

nRT

p

(1mol)

(8.3 J / mol

K)

(273K)

V

=

5

10 N/ m

2

1.0

The mass of 1 mole is, therefore, (1.29 kg/m 3 ) × (0.0224 m 3 ) = 0.029 kg.

= 0.0224m 3 .

1

The number of moles in 1 kg is 0.029 . The molar heat capacity at constant volume is

C v

170 cal

(1/ 0.029) mol

K

= 4.93 cal/mol-K.

 Hence, Cp = C v = 1.4 × 4.93 cal/mol-K or, C p – C v = 0.4 × 4.93 cal/mol-K Also, = 1.97 cal/mol-K. C p – C v = R = 8.3 J/mol-K. Thus, 8.3 J = 1.97 cal.

The mechanical equivalent of heat is

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Chapter # 27

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

gy

8.3 J

1.97 cal

=4.2 J/cal.

lehdj.k pV = nRT, dk mi;ksx djus ij STP ij 1 eksy ok;q dk vk;ru

V

nRT

p

(1mol)

(8.3 J / mol

K)

(273K)

=

1.0

5

10 N/ m

2

vr% 1 eksy dk nzO;eku

= 0.0224m 3 .

(1.29 kg/m 3 ) × (0.0224 m 3 ) = 0.029 kg.

1

1 fdxzk0 esa eksyksa djh la[;k = 0.029 fu;r vk;ru ij eksyj fof'k"V Å"ek

Hence,

;k

C v

170 cal

(1/ 0.029) mol

K

= 4.93 cal/mol-K.

Cp = C v = 1.4 × 4.93 cal/mol-K

C p – C v = 0.4 × 4.93 cal/mol-K = 1.97 cal/mol-K.

 Also, C p – C v = R = 8.3 J/mol-K. Thus, 8.3 J = 1.97 cal.

8.3 J

1.97 cal

=4.2 J/cal.

 2. An ideal gas has a molar heat capacity at constant pressure C p = 2.5 R. The gas is kept in a closed vessel of volume 0.0083 m 3 , at a temperature of 300 K and a pressure of 1.6 × 10 6 N/m 2 . An amount 2.49 × 10 4 J of heat energy is supplied to the gas. Calculate thefinal temperature and pressure of the gas. ,d vkn'kZ xSl dh fu;r nkc ij eksyj fof'k"V Å"ek C p = 2.5 R gSA xSl dks 0.0083 m 3 vk;ru okys vk;ru okys cUn ik=k esa 300 K rki vkSj 1.6 × 10 6 N/m 2 nkc ij j[kk x;k gSA xSl dks Å"ek dks 2.49 × 10 4 J twy ek=kk çnku dh tkrh gSA xSl ds vfUre rki ,oa nkc dh x.kuk dhft,A Sol. We have (ge tkurs gS fd )

Cv = Cp – R = 2.5 R – R = 1.5 R.

The amount of the gas (in moles) is [xSl dh ek=kk (eksy esa)]

(1.6

(8.3J / mol

N / m

10

6

2

)

3

(0.0083m )

K)(300K)

5.3mol.

n

pV

RT

As the gas is kept in a closed vessel, its volume is constant. Thus, we have

xSl cUn ik=k esa gS vr% bldk vk;ru fu;r jgsxkA vFkkZr~

or,

Q = nC v T

T =

Q

nC

v

2.49

10

4

J

=

(5.3mol)(1.5

8.3 J / mol

K)

377 K.

The final temperature is (vafre rki ) 300 K + 377 K = 677 K. We have,

p V

1

1

p

2

V

2

T 1 T

2

Here (;gka) V 1 = V 2 . Thus (bl çdkj),

p

2

T

2

T

1

p

1

677

= 300

× 1.6 × 10 6 Nm 2 = 3.6 × 10 6 N/m 2 .

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Chapter # 27

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

 3. A sample of ideal gas ( = 1.4) is heated at constant pressure. If an amount 140 J of heat is supplied to the gas, find (a) the change in internal energy of the gas (b) the work done by the gas. vkn'kZ xSl ( = 1.4) ds ,d çfrn'kZ dks fu;r nkc ij xeZ fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn xSl dks Å"ek dh 140 J ek=kk çnku dh tkrh gSA Kkr dhft,A (a) xSl dh vkUrfjd tkZ esa ifjorZu (b) xSl }kjk fd;k x;k dk;ZA Sol. Suppose the sample contasins n moles.Also suppose the volume changes from V 1 to V 2 and the temperature changes from T 1 to T 2 . The heat supplied is Q = nC p (T 2 – T 1 )
 (a) The change is internal energy is C v U = nC v (T 2 – T 1 ) = C p nC p (T 2 – T 1 ) C v DQ = 140J = 100 J. = C p 1.4 (b) The work done by the gas is W = Q – U = 140 J – 100 J = 40 J.

gy

ekukfd çfrn'kZ esa n eksy gSA lkFk gh vk;ru V 1 ls V 2 rd vkSj rki T 1 ls T 2 rd ifjofrZr gSA çnÙk Å"ek

Q = nC (T 2 – T 1 )

p

(a) vkUrfjd ÅtkZ eas ifjorZu

U = nC v (T 2 – T 1 ) =

C

v

C

p

nC p (T 2 – T 1 )

C

v

= C

p

DQ =

140J 1.4 = 100 J.

(b) xSl }kjk fd;k x;k dk;Z

W = Q – U = 140 J – 100 J = 40 J.

4. An experiment is performed to measure the molar heat capacityof a gas at constant pressure using Regnault’s method. The gas is initially contained in a cubical reservoir of size 40cm × 40 cm × 40 cm at 600 kPa at 27ºC. A part of the gas is brought out, heated to 100ºC and is passed through a calorimeter at constant pressure. The water equivalent of the calorimeter and its contents is 100g. The temperature of the calorimeter and its contents increases from 20ºC to 30ºC during the experiment and the pressure in the reservoir decreases to 525 kPa. Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J/kg–K. Calculate the molar heat capacity C p from these data.

fjXukWYV fof/k }kjk fu;r nkc ij xSl dh eksyj fof'k"V Å"ek ekius dk ç;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA çkjEHk esa 600 kPa nkc ,oa 27ºC rki ij 40 lseh0 × 40 lseh0 × 40 lseh0 vkdkj ds ?kukdkj ik=k esa Hkjh gqbZ gSA xSl dk dqN va'k ckgj fudkydj 100ºC rki rd xeZ djds fu;r nkc ij ,d dSyksjhekih ls xqtkjk tkrk gSA dSyksjhekih vkSj bldh lkexzh dk ty rqY;kad 100 xzke gSA ç;ksx ds nkSjku dSyksjhekih ,oa bldh lkexzh dk rki 20ºC ls c<+dj 30ºC gks tkrk gS rFkk ik=k dk nkc 525 kPa rd de gks tkrk gSA ikuh dh eksyj fof'k"V Å"ek = 4200 J/kg–K gSA bu vk¡dM+ks dh lgk;rk ls eksyj fof'k"V Å"ek C p dh x.kuk dhft,A

Sol.

pV

p V

1

We have pV = nRT or, n = RT . The amount of the gas in the reservoir is n 1 = RT before the gas is taken out

and

n

2

p

2 V

RT

after the gas is taken out. The amount taken out is

V

n = n 1 – n 2 = (p 1 – p 2 ) RT

=

(600

525)

10

3

N / m

2

(40

10

2

m)

3

(8.3J / mol

K)

(300K)

= 1.925 mol. The gas is heated to 100ºC and cools down as it passes through the calorimeter. The average final temperature

manishkumarphysics.in

Page # 7

Chapter # 27

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

20º C 30º C =25ºC. Thus, the average decrease in temperature of the gas is

2

of the gas is

T = (100ºC – 25ºC) = 75ºC or, T = 75 K. The heat lost by the gas is Q = n C p T. The heat gained by the calorimeter and its contents is (100 g) (4200 J/kg–K) (30 – 20)ºC = 4200 J. Thus, n C p T = 4200 J

or,

C p 4200J

(1.925 mol)(75K) = 29 J/mol-K.

gy

pV = nRT ;k n =

pV

RT

p V

xSl fudkyus ls iwoZ ik=k esa xSl dh ek=kk n 1 = RT rFkk xSl fudkyus ds i'pkr~ ik=k esa

1

xSl dh ek=kk

n

2 p

RT

2 V

xSl dh ckgj fudkyh xbZ ek=kk

V

n = n 1 – n 2 = (p 1 – p 2 ) RT

(600

525)

10

3

N / m

2

(40

10

2

m)

3

 = (8.3J / mol  K)  (300K) = 1.925 eksy

xSl dks 100ºC rd xeZ fd;k gS rFkk tc bldks dSyksjhekih ls xqtkjk tkrk gS ;g B.Mh gks tkrh gSA xSl dk vkSlr

5.

Sol.

gy

vfUre rki 20º C 30º C =25ºC gksxkA vr% xSl ds rki esa vkSlr deh

2

T = (100ºC – 25ºC) = 75ºC

T = 75 K.

;k

xSl }kjk [kks;h xbZ Å"ek

Q = n C T.

p

dSyksjh ehVj ,oa bldh lkexzh }kjk çkIr dh xbZ Å"ek

(100 g) (4200 J/kg–K) (30 – 20)ºC = 4200 J. bl çdkj n C p T = 4200 J

;k

C p

4200J

(1.925 mol)(75K)

= 29 J/mol-K.

A quantity of air is kept in a container having walls which are slightly conducting. The initial temperature and volume are 27ºC (equal to the temperature of the surrounding) and 800cm 3 respectively. Find the rise in the temparture if the gas is compressed to 200cm 3 (a) in a short time (b) in a long time. Take = 1.4.

ok;q dh dqN ek=kk ,d ,sls ik=k esa j[kh x;h gS ftldh nhokjsa FkksM+h lh pkyd gSA çkjfEHkd rki ,oa vk;ru Øe'k 27ºC (okrkoj.k ds rki ds cjkcj) vkSj 800cm 3 gSA xSl dks 200cm 3 rd lEihfM+r djus ij rki esa o`f) Kkr dhft,] ;fn xSl dks lEihfM+r fd;k tk;sA (a) vYi vUrjky esa (b) yEcs vUrjky esaA = 1.4 eku yhft,A

(a) When the gas is compressed in a short time, the process is abiabatic. Thus,

or

T 2 V 2 1 = T 1 V 1

T

2

–1

V

T

1

1

V

2

 1

= (300 K) ×

800

200

0.4

=522 K.

Rise in temperature = T 2 – T 1 = 222 K. (b) When the gas is compressed in a long time, the process is isothermal. Thus, the temperature remains equal to the temperature of the surrounding that is 27ºC. The rise in temperature = 0.

(a) tc xSl dks vYi le; esa lEihfM+r fd;k tk;s rks çØe :)ks"e gksxkA vr%

manishkumarphysics.in

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Chapter # 27

;k

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

T 2 V 2 1 = T 1 V 1

T

2

–1

V

T

1

1

V

2

 1

= (300 K) ×

800

200

0.4

=522 K.

rki esa o`f) = T 2 – T 1 = 222 K. (b) tc xSl dks yEcs le;kUrjky esa lEihfM+r fd;k tkrk gS rks çØe lerkih; gksrk gSA vr% fudk; dk rki okrkoj.k ds rki ds cjkcj gh jgrk gS tks 27ºC gSA vr% rki esa o`f) = 0

 6. A sample of gas ( = 1.5) is taken through an adiabatics process in which the volume is compressed from 1600 cm 3 to 400 cm 3 . If the initial pressure is 150 kPa, (a) what is the final pressure and (b) how much work is done by the gas in the process? xSl ( = 1.5) ds ,d çfrn'kZ ij :}ks"e çØe fd;k tkrk gSA ftlesa vk;ru 1600 cm 3 ls 400 cm 3 rd lEihfM+r gks tkrk gSA ;fn çkjfEHkd nkc 150 kPa, (a) vfUre nkc fdruk gS vkSj (b) bl çØe esa xSl }kjk fdruk dk;Z fd;k x;k ? Sol. (a) For an adiabatic process, p 1 V 1  = p 2 V 2  .

Thus,

p

2

= (150 kPa)

p

1

V

1

V

2

1600 cm

3

400 cm

3

3/2

= 1200 kPa.

(b) Work done by the gas in an adiabatic process is

gy

W =

p

1

V

1

p

2

V

2

 1

=

3

(150kPa)(1600cm )

3

(1200kPa)(400cm )

1.5

I

=

240J

480J

0.5

480J.

(a) :}ks"e çØe ds fy,

vr%

p 1 V 1 = p 2 V 2 .

p

2

p

1

V

 

1

V

2

= (150 kPa)

  1600 cm

  400 cm

3  

3  

3/2

= 1200 kPa.

(b) :)ks"e çØe esa fd;k x;k dk;Z

W =

p

1

V

1

p

2

V

2

 1

=

3

(150kPa)(1600cm )

3

(1200kPa)(400cm )

1.5

I

=

240J

480J

0.5

480J.

7. Two moles of helium gas (= 5/3) are initially at 27ºC and occupy a volume of 20 litres. The gas is first expanded at constant pressure until the volume is doubled. Then it undergoes an adiabatic change unitil the temperature returns to its initial value. (a) Sketch the process in a p-V diagram. (b) What is the final volume

manishkumarphysics.in

Page # 9

Chapter # 27

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

and pressure of the gas? (c) What is the work done by the gas?

ghfy;e xSl (= 5/3) ds nks eksy çkjEHk eas 27ºC rki ij gSa rFkk 20 yhVj vk;ru ?ksjrs gSaA xSl dks igys fLFkj nkc ij] vk;ru nqxquk gksus rd çlkfjr fd;k tkrk gSaA rc bls ,d :}ks"e ifjorZu ls gksdj xqtkjk tkrk gS ftlls rki izkjfEHkd

Sol.

eku

x;k dk;Z D;k gS ?

ij vk tkrk gaAS (a) çØe dks p-V vkjs[k eas n'kkZb;sA (b) xSl ds vfUre vk;ru o nkc D;k gS ? (c) xSl }kjk fd;k

(a) The process is shown in figure. During the part ab, the pressure is constant. We have

or,

p

a V

a

p

b V

b

T

a

T b

a

T

b

T

a

V

b

V

2T

a

600 k.

During the part bc, the gas is adiabatically returned to the temperature T a . The point a and the point c are on the same iotherm. Thus, we draw an adiabatic curve from b and an isotherm from a and look for the point of intersection c. That is the final state.

gy (b) From the isotherm ac,

p a V a = p c V c and from the adiabatic curve bc

or,

p

p a (2V a ) =

b

V

p

c

b

V

c

p

c

V

c

Dividing (ii) by (i),

2 (V a ) 1 = (V c ) 1

or,

V c = 2 /(1) V a = 4 2

V a = 113 litres.

From (i),

 p a V a nRT a p c  V c  V c 2 mol  (8.3J / mol  K)  (300K) = 113  10  3 m 3 = 4.4 × 10 4 Pa.

(c) Work done by the gas in the part ab

= p a (V b – V a )

= p b V b – p a V a

= nRT 2 – nRT 1

= 2 mol × (8.3 J/mol-K) × (600 K – 300 K)

= 4980 J. The work done in the adiabatic part bc

p

b

V

b

p

c

V

c

=

 1

nR(T

2

T )

1

=

 1

The net work done by the gas

= 4980J + 7470 J = 12450 J.

=

4980J

5/3

1

(i)

(ii)

7470J.

(a) çØe dks fp=k esa n'kkZ;k x;k gS Hkkx ab ds nkSjku nkc fu;r gSA

p

a

V

a

T

a

p

b

V

b

T

b

V

b

V

a

;k

Hkkc bc ds nkSjku xSl :}ks"e rjhds ls rki T a rd ykSVrh gSA fcUnq a o c ,d gh lerkih oØ ij gaSA bl çdkj ge b ls ,d :}ks"e oØ o a ls ,d lerkih oØ cukrs gaS rFkk çfrPNsn fcUnq c dh ryk'k djrs gaSA ;g vfUre voLFkk gSA

T b

T

a

2T

a

600 k.

manishkumarphysics.in

Page # 10

Chapter # 27

(b) lerkih oØ ac l,s

p a V a = p c V c

rFkk :}ks"e oØ bc ls

;k

p

p a (2V a ) =

b

V

p

c

b

V

c

p

c

V

c

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

P a
b
l
er ki h
: ) ks"e
c
20 litre
40 litre

V

(ii) esa (i) dk Hkkx nsus ij

;k

2 (V a ) 1 = (V c ) 1

V c = 2 /(1) V a = 4 2 V a = 113 litres.

(i) ls

p

c

p

a

V

a

nRT

a

  V c 2 mol  (8.3J / mol  K)  (300K)

V

c

= 3

113

= 4.4 × 10 4 Pa.

10

m

3

(c)

Hkkx ab esa xSl }kjk fd;k x;k dk;Z

= p a (V b – V a )

= p b V b – p a V a

= nRT 2 – nRT 1

= 2 mol × (8.3 J/mol-K) × (600 K – 300 K)

= 4980 J.

Hkkx bc eas fd;k x;k dk;Z

p

b

V

b

p

c

V

c

=

 1

nR(T

2

T )

1

=

 1

xSl }kjk fd;k x;k dqy dk;Z

= 4980J + 7470 J = 12450 J.

=

4980J

5/3

1

(i)

(ii)

7470J.

8. An ideal gas enclosed in a vertical cylindrical container supports a freely moving piston of mass M. The piston and the cylinder have equal cross-sectional area A. When the piston is in equilibrium, the volume of the gas is V 0 and its pressure is p 0 . The piston is slightly displaced from the equilibrium position and released.Assuming that the system is completely isolated from its surrounding, show that the piston executes simple harmonic motion and find the frequency of oscillations.

,d m/okZ/kj csyukdkj ik=k eas Hkjh ,d vkn'kZ xSl] LorU=k :i ls xfr dj ldus okys M nzO;eku ds ,d fiLVu dks vk/ kkj iznku djrh gSA fiLVu o ik=k dk vuqizLFk dkV {ks=kQy A leku gSA tc fiLVu lkE;koLFkk eas gS rks xSl dk vk;ru V 0 rFkk nkc p 0 gSA fiLVu dks bldh lkE;koLFkk ls FkksM+k foLFkkfir djds NksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA fudk; dks çfros'k ls iw.kZr;k foyfxr ekurs gq, n'kkZb;s fd fiLVu ljy vkorZ xfr djrk gS vkSj nksyukas dh vko`fÙk Kkr dhft,A

Sol. Suppose the piston is displaced through a distance x above the equilibrium position. The volume of the gas increases by V = Ax. As the system is completely isolated from its surrounding, the process is adiabatic. Thus,

or,

or,

pV = constant In p + In V = constant

p

p



V

V

0

p

or,

As the piston is only slightly pushed, we can write

V

 

p

V

.

manishkumarphysics.in

Page # 11

Chapter # 27

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

 

p

p

0 V

V

0

.

The resultant force acting on the piston in this position is

where k =

F = Ap = –

0

.

A

2

p

V

0

A

p

0

V

0

V

= –

A

2

p

0

V

0

x



kx

Thus, the motion of the piston is simple harmonic. The angular frequency is given by

gy

 k A
2  p
0
M MV
0

and the frequency is v =  1 A
2 p
0
.
2 
2 
MV
0

ekuk fiLVu lkE;koLFkk ls x nwjh Åij foLFkkfir fd;k tkrk gSA xSl dk vk;ru V =Ax ls c<+ tkrk gSA pwafd fudk; ] çfros'k ls iw.kZr;k foyfxr gSA blfy, çØe :}ks"e gSA bl çdkj pV = fu;r

;k

In p + In V = fu;r

p

V

V

p

;k



0

V

.

p

 

p

V

;k

pafdw fiLVu dks dsoy FkksM+k gh foLFkkfir fd;k x;k gSA blfy, ge fy[k ldrs gSAa

 

p

p

0 V

V

0

.

bl fLFkfr esa fiLVu ij yxus okyk

F = Ap = –

A

p

0

V

0

V

A

2 p

0

= –

V

0

x



kx

A

2

p

0

V

0

.

;gk¡ k =

bl çdkj fiLVu dh xfr ljy vkorZ xfr gSA dks.kh; vko`fÙk

o vko`fÙk v = 2
k
A
p
0

M
MV
0
 1 A
2 p
0
.
2 
2 
MV
0
 9. Two vessels of volumes V 1 and V 2 contain the same ideal gas. The pressures in the vessels are p 1 and p 2 and the temperatures are T 1 and T 2 respectively. The two vessels are now connected to each other through a narrow tube.Assuming that no heat is exchanged between the surrounding and the vessels, find the common pressure and temperatures attained after the connection. V 1 o V 2 vk;rukas ds nks ik=kkas es leku vkn'kZ xSl Hkjh gSA ik=kkas es nkc rFkk rki Øe'k% p 1 o p 2 rFkk T 1 o T 2 gSAa vc nksukas ik=kkas dks ,d ladjh uyh }kjk ,d nwljs ls tksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA ik=kkas o çfros'k ds chp Å"ek ds vknku&çnku dks ux.; ekurs gq, la;kstu ds ckn mHk;fu"B nkc o rki Kkr dhft,A Sol.  manishkumarphysics.in

Page # 12

Chapter # 27

The amount of the gas in vessel 1 is

and that in vessel 2 is

n

2

p

2

V

2

RT

2

.

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

n

1

p V

1

1

RT

1

If pand T’ be the common pressure and temperature after the connection is made, the amounts are

n

1

p

V

1

= RT

and

n 2 =

We have n 1 + n 2 =

or,

p V

1

1

p

2

n

V

1

2

n

2

p V

1

p

V 2

RT

RT

1

RT

2

RT

p

V 2

RT

or,

p

1

p V

1

1

p

2

V

2

T

V

1

V

2

T

1

T

2

or,

T

T T (V

1

2

1

V

2

)

p

p V T

1

1

2

p

2

V T

2

1

 

(i)

As the vessels have fixed volume, no work is done by the gas plus the vessels system. Also, no heat is exchanged with the surrounding. Thus, the internal energy of the total system remains constant. The internal energy of an ideal gas is U = nC v T

pV .

R

= C v

The internal energy of the gases before the connection

=

C p V

v

1

1

R

and after the connection

+

C p

v

2

V

2

R

=

C

v

p (V

1

V

2

)

R

.

Neglecting the change in internal energyof the vessels (the heat capacityof the vessels is assumed negligible),

gy C p V
C p
V
p .(V
 V
)
v
1
1
v
2
2
C v
1
2
+
=
R
R R
p
 p
V
1 V
1
2
2
p 
or,
V
 V
1
2
T 1 T (p V
 p
V
)
2
1
1
2
2
T 
From (i),
V T
 p
V T
p 1
1
2
2
2
1
p V
1
1
ik=k 1 eas xSl dh ek=kk
n
1 
RT
1
p
V
2
2
rFkk ik=k 2 esa
n
2 
.
RT
2

;fn po T’ la;kstu ds ckn mHk;fu"B nkc o rki gS rks

n 1 + n 2 =

n

1

n

1

p

V

1

= RT

n

2

vkSj

n

2

=

p

V 2

RT

manishkumarphysics.in

Page # 13

Chapter # 27

;k

;k

Specific Heat Capacities of Gases

p V

1

1

p

2

V

2

p V

1

p

V

2

RT

1

RT

2

RT

RT

p

1

p V

1

1

p V

2

2

T

V

1

V

2

T

1

T

2

T

T T (V

1

2

1

V

2

)

;k

pafdw ik=kkas dk vk;ru fLFkj gSA blfy, xSl + ik=kkas ds fudk; }kjk dksbZ dk;Z ugha fd;k tkrk gSA çfros'k ds lkFk Å"ek dk vknku&çnku Hkh ugha gksrk gSA bl çdkj dqy fudk; dh vkUrfjd ÅtkZ fu;r jgrh gSA ,d vkn'kZ xSl dh vkUrfjd ÅtkZ gS &

p

p V T

1

1

2

p

2

V T

2

1

(i)

U = nC v T

= C v

pV .

R

la;kstu ls iwoZ xSalksa dh vkUrfjd ÅtkZ

C p V

v

1

1

C

v

R

p (V

C p

v

2

V

2

=

=

1

V

2

)

R

+

o la;kstu ds ckn

ik=kksa dh vkUrfjd ÅtkZ es ifjorZu ux.; ekurs gq, (ik=kksa dh Å"ek/kkfjrk ux.; ekuh gS),

R

.

;k

(i) ls

C v

p V

1

1

C p

v

2

V

2

C v

p .(V

1

V

2

)

=

R

R R

p V

p 

1

1

p

2

V

2

1

1

V

1

p

V

2

2

V

2

)

T T (p V

1

2

+

T 

p V T

1

1

2

p

2

V T

2

1

 10. 4 moles of an ideal gas having  = 1.67 are mixed with 2 moles of another ideal gas having  = 1.4. F i n d the equivalent value of  for the mixture. ,d vkn'kZ xSl  = 1.67 ds 4 eksyksa dks nwljh vkn'kZ xSl  = 1.4 ds 2 eksyksa ds lkFk feyk;k tkrk gSA feJ.k ds fy,  dk rqY; eku Kkr dhft,A Sol. Let, C v ’ = molar heat capacity of the first gas,

C = molar heat capacityof the second gas, C v = molar heat capacity of the mixture and similar symbols for other quantities. Then,

p

v

C



C

v

1.67

and

C

 C 

p

v

R .

This gives

C  

v

3

2