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Fundamentals of Modern Aviation

Outline Chapter 1, section 1 and 2


Chapter 1
Overview: Airports are busy places with many interesting activities.
A. Type of Planes
1. Airlines
2. Business Jets
B. Workers
1. Ramp personnel
2. Pilots
3. Mechanics
4. Engineers
C. Many exciting careers
1. FAA has many careers to do

1. Section #1
A. Beginnings of Flight
1. Thousands of years man has dreamed of controlled flight
2. 13
th
Century, Roger Bacon invented a wing flapping machine and
saying that it needed to be a machine to fly
3. 15
th
Century, Leonardo da Vinci designed a Helix forerunner to a
helicopter. Employed the direct lift principles of flight
4. Balloon Flights, 1783 the Montgolfier brothers inflated a linen
globe over a fire.
5. First passengers were a sheep, duck, and a rooster.
6. Glider Enthusiasts in the 19
th
century: Octave Chanute and Otto
Lilienthal. Lilienthal went as far as building his own hill to test
his glider over some 2,000 flights. In 1896 he was putting the
finishing touches on a motorized version.

B. First Powered Flight Attempts
1. In 1896 Samuel Pierpont Langley few a steam powered model
airplane. U.S. Congress gave him $50,000 to build a one-man
flyer.
2. He completed it in 1903, one thousand square feet of wing area
supported 850 pounds of airplane and pilot.
3. Less than a pound per square foot. He used a rudder to steer it
right or left and elevators to raise or lower the nose, but the pilot
had to shift his weight from side to side to keep it stable.
4. He used gasoline engine, he launched it by catapult from the top
of a houseboat on the Potomac River. In the second trial he
crashed into the Potomac River.
5. Glen Curtiss: He took Langley airplane from the Smithsonian
Institution, made a few modifications and flew it.
6. Octave Chanute, who was the over 60 years of age was designing
and building guilders in America. Clement Ader was working
with a steam-engine airplane in France.

C. Control Flight
1. The Wright Brothers approach to flight was first to develop an
aircraft that would fly and could be controlled in flight and then
to add powerplant.
2. They did many test with small gliders and kites to wind tunnel
test until making a man-sized glider. They picked windy Kill
Devil Hills in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. They continue
working during the windy seasons of 1901 and 1902.
3. They proved their theories that added control surfaces (elevators)
would give more aircraft stability and that flexing or warping the
leading edges of the wings (up and down) would tend to keep the
airplane from rolling.
4. The Wright Brothers plane was the first powered Wright plane
was a biplane with a wingspan of 40 feet, 4 inches, a length of 21
feet and a height of 8 feet. It weighed 605 pounds. The wings
were constructed of spars and ribs covered top and bottoms with
unbleached and untreated fabric.
5. The Wright brother constructed their own engine: Charles E.
Taylor was in charge of the project. Took 6-weeks, a four
cylinder, water cooled, gasoline engine, that produced about 12
horsepower.
6. September 1903, the engine has been installed and the Wrights
returned to Kitty Hawk to attempt flight.
7. Wilbur flied first but it climbed at too great an angle, stalled and
fell back into the sand, breaking a skid but leaving Wilbur unhurt.
8. 3 days after the repair, on December 17
th
, 1903, at 10:35 A.M,
Orville in control after traveling 40 feet, it rose and traveled 120
feet against a 22 to 27 mph wind. Remanded in air for 12 seconds
then slow back down.
9. Orville was the first man to achieve flight in a power driven
heavier than air machine.
10. Wilbur did 59 seconds covering a distance of 852 feet.

D. New types of machines
1. Baldwins airship, with its Curtiss engine, became the first
powered dirigible in the U.S.
2. Glenn Curtiss asked Graham Bell to build several aircraft
including the first American aircraft to be equipped with ailerons
and the first seaplane to be flown in the U.S.
3. November 1910 Eugene Ely made the first flight from the deck of
a ship at Hampton Roads, Virginia in a Curtiss biplane.

E. European Developments
1. Robert Esnault- Pelterie: Frenchman build a Wright-style glider
in 1904 and used aileron to replace the wing warping technique.
First built the fully enclosed fuselage airplane.
2. Louis Bleriot: After experimenting with high-winged gliders,
built and flew the worlds first powered monoplane in 1907.
3. After 11 tries he build a plane that would be good enough to
cross the English Channel.
4. The Seguin Brothers: An important development in aircraft
engines was made in Europe during the period from
approximately 1903-1910. Early aircraft engines were
manufactured out of steel, cast iron and brass and were water-
cooled. Makes them 10 pounds for every horsepower.
5. French brothers Lament and Gustav Seguin developed an engine
they called the Gnome. The Gnome was an air-cooled engine
with cylinder arranged in a radical fashion.
6. Rotary engines like the Gnome were an instant success and
weighted only about three pounds for each horsepower produced.
7. The Short Brothers: First multi-engine aircraft, one more engine
would increase the aircrafts power and to improve reliability and
safety.
8. They formed an aircraft manufacture in 1908. In 1911, they built,
the Triple Twin which was the worlds first multi-engine aircraft.
Flew September 18, 1911. Had two complete sets of flying
controls, many years the Short brothers were known for their
seaplanes.
9. Igor Sikorsky: Russian born aircraft designer constructed two
unsuccessful helicopter like machines in 1909-1910. Le Grand
first flight took place on May 13, 1913. He moved from Russia to
Paris (1917) then to U.S. (1919) where he established the
Sikorsky Aero Engineering Corporation in 1923.
F. Women in Early Aviation
1. Blanche Stuart Betty Scott: She accidentally started the plane
by removing a small piece of wood wedged beneath the throttle
lever. She solo in a fixed wing, heavier than air machine. She
soloed in Hammondsport, New York.
2. First woman to go aloft, Miss Lucretia Baradley, of Phillipsburg,
N.J., who flew in a balloon in 1854.
3. Bessica Medlar Raiche: Soloed without a moment of instruction
or a trial glide. First Woman Aviator of America in October 13,
1910.
4. Harriet Quimby: One of the most popular figures in early
aviation, Quimby saw her first airplane when she was 35. John
Moisant flew from Belmont Park to the Statue of Liberty and
back, 36 miles in 34 minutes. John Moisant won the Statue of
Liberty Race and the event inspired Harriets interest in flying.
First American woman to earn her pilots license on August 1,
1911. She was the second in the world, the first was Raymonde
de la Roche of France, in 1910. September 4, 1911, Harriet
became the first woman to make a night flight.
5. Matilde Moisant: Received her pilots license just before twelve
days after Harriet Quimby. She won the Rodman Wanamaker
Trophy for the womans altitude record (reported to be 2,500).
April 13, 1912 that she would make her last flight the following
day. Her aircraft developed a fuel tank leak as she came in for a
landing leaving her severely injured, she gave up flying.
II: Section #2
A. Beginnings of Air Transportation
1. The Wright Brothers first flight in 1903 marked the dawn of a
new era in transportation. First international air races were
started in Rheims, France. By 1911, there were 353 licensed
pilots in France, 57 in Great Britain, 46 in German, 32 in Italy,
and 27 in Belgium. In that year there was only 27 pilots in the
United Sates. During the decade from 1903-1912, the Wrights
sold their Military Flyer to the U.S. in 1906.

2. The first U.S. transcontinental flight from Long Island to
California took 49 days, including 82 hours, 2 minutes flying
time and 70 ladings. The year 1912 saw the first parachute jump
from an airplane the aircraft speed record was 108.17 mph.
3. The first regularly scheduled airline in America began operation
in 1914. Passenger and cargo potential were being recognized.
4. By 1914, the U.S. was behind most other major nations in the
field of flying. Since oceans safely surrounded the U.S., until
then American military leaders saw little reason to compete with
Europeans in building military flight capabilities.
5. Army aviation finally became recognized in 1914. It was made a
permanent part of the military and given a small budget. The
Army Aviation Act of 1914 created the Aviation Section of the
Signal Corps. It authorized 60 officers and 240 enlisted men.
6. In 1911, Calbraith Perry Rogers made the first transcontinental
flight. He flew from Long Island to Pasadena, California in 49
days. Series of short flights, he covered a distance of 4251 miles
and average 52 miles per hour on the journey. He slowed down
to repair the plane, if not he would had finished in 30 days.
7. By 1911, airplanes had taken on the basic features of modern
planes. The fuselage was enclosed, landing wheels were added
and more efficient engines were installed. Let pilots climb to
altitudes above 26,000 feet.
8. In March 1915 Congress created the National Advisory
Committee for Aeronautics (NACA).
B. World War I and After
1. Americas air resources were truly scare in April 1917. We had
less than 150 pilots and 250 airplanes. The U.S. entered the war
on April 6, 1917. The French wanted us to build 16,500
airplanes during the first 6 months of 1918.
2. From 1913 to 1916 we hadnt even made 1,000. Now the Army
is asking for 22,000 military planes in one year. America
eventually built 11,000 planes from British design.
3. America made significant contribution to aviation during the war
with the development of the 420 horsepower Liberty engine.
When the war end, almost 9,500 men were in the new Air
Service.
4. Nearly 95% of them returned to civilian life. Many former
Army Air Service pilots became what were known as
barnstormers.
C. Early Airmail Service
1. In 1917, Congress granted the Post Office Department $110,00
for this purpose.
2. With the help of Army pilots, the Post Office opened the first
airmail route on May 15, 1918.The route ran between
Washington D.C and New York.
3. The Post Office put beacon lights along the route at ten mile
intervals and built emergency landing fields ever 30 miles.
Worlds first lighted airway. Regular night service was begun on
July 1, 1924 between Cheyenne, Wyoming and Chicago.
Transcontinental service was then available with scheduled time
of less than 35 hours westbound and 30 hours eastbound.
4. Many problems occurred, aircraft radios, weather reporting and
bad weather flying capability were all in need of improvement.
D. Government Involvement
1. The Federal government became involved by passing legislation
aimed at providing the incentives that boosted aviation into the
business it has become.
2. Kelly Air Mail Act: By 1925, the government was considering
hiring commercial carriers to fly the mail. Congress passed the
Kelly Air Mail. This act provided an economic framework for
the air transport business. It stated that airmail service would be
contracted to private operators for four years.
3. Air Commerce Act: In 1926, Congress went a step further in
advancing aviation. This law stated that the Federal government
was responsible for building, maintain and controlling the
airways.
E. Flights that changed the World
1. Lindberghs flight: In 1927, the event that sparked mass public
interest in flying, probably more than other event in history. That
was the transatlantic solo flight of Charles Lindbergh. The event
made a boom which brought 44 airlines into being 1929.
2. Many improvements had made since 1925. The biggest concern
was trying to make an airplane that would fly economically.
Some major improvements included increased wing loading,
multi engine aircraft, enclosed engine nacelles and high octane
gasoline. The first airplanes to have all these features where the
Boeing 247 and Douglas DC-3.
3. Amelia Earhart: Best woman pilot in the 1930s who showed
skills and endurance equal to that of any male pilot. She earned
her pilots license in 1923, and on June 17, 1928 she became the
first women passenger to fly across the Atlantic. In May of 1932
she was the first woman to make a solo transatlantic flight. In
1935 she became the first person to fly solo from Honolulu,
Hawaii to Oakland, California. Best known woman pilot in the
history of aviation.
4. Flight around the world, they planned to fly from west to east
and left Oakland, California in March, 1937 with three other
people, Fred Noonan, Harry Manning and Paul Mantz, as
navigators and advisors. They were aboard a Lockheed Electra
twin engine aircraft.
5. Everything went good until the remaining 7,000 miles, leaving
Lae on June 2
nd
for a stop at Howland Island they disappeared.
6. The International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery
(TIGHAR) has done extensive archeological research to find
what happened. Finding actual, verifiable proof becomes harder
and harder as time elapse.