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# EE221 BASIC ELECTRONICS

PRACTICAL NO. 4
D.C. VOLTAGE MULTIPLICATION USING JUNCTION DIODES
Abstract
Voltage multipliers are used to obtain high
values of d.c. voltages from low voltage a.c.
supplies. These circuits find application in
H.V. supplies of cathode ray tubes, particle
accelerators, flash units, Xray machines and
other small current high voltage power
supplies. In this lab principles behind diode
voltage multiplication circuits are developed.
2. THEORETICAL DERIVATIONS
To be completed beo!e com"#\$ to t%e L&b
2.1 If vin Vpsint, in !ig. 1
2.2 "btain e#pressions for the voltages across \$1 , \$2 ,
\$%, \$& and reverse voltage across diode '1 in !ig. &.
\$learly indicate your voltage directions in a circuit
diagram.
2.% If diode voltage drop was significant what would the
voltages in 2.2 be(
'. PRACTICAL E(ERCISE
'.) \$onnect the circuit shown in !ig 1 using small signal diodes )e.g. 1*&1&+,, 1- n!
capacitors and an input voltage of 1- V pea./to/pea. from a generator with 0ero
or no offset voltage. N.*. T%"+ c"!c,"t +%o,ld %&-e o#l. o#e \$!o,#d &+
"#d"c&ted/ #o ot%e! \$!o,#d +%o,ld be e+t&bl"+%ed ot%e!0"+e t%e c"!c,"t 0"ll
#ot ope!&te p!ope!l.. A d"\$"t&l mete! "+ol&ted !om \$!o,#d m&. %o0e-e! be
,+ed bet0ee# &#. t0o po"#t+.
'.2 1et the "scilloscope to d.c. coupled input and the ground reference of the \$2"
trace to .nown reference position. S1etc% the voltage across '1 relative to the
ground level and measure the pea. value of the trace on the \$2".
'.' 'iscuss and comment on the measurements you obtained above e#plaining for
e#ample3 why the oscilloscope should be set to d.c. coupled input, whether the
result consistent with your prediction and the effect of diode forward voltage drop
'.4 4easure the individual d.c. voltages across the capacitors \$1 to \$& using a '44
and the total voltage across \$2 and \$&, and across \$1 and \$2.
1
&*o. 1mall/signal 'iodes
&*o. 1- n! capacitors
1*o. 1ignal generator
1*o. '44
1*o. "scilloscope
F i g . 4
C4 D4
D3
C3
C1
+
-
D1
D2
C2
!ig. 1
'.2 \$omment on your measurement in relation to your predictions. Is there any effect
of diode forward voltage drop( If so 5uantify it.
'.3 \$onnect a loading resistor of 1- .6 and then another of 1 .6 to the output )ta.en
across \$2 and \$&, and in each case measure the &.c. &#d d.c. values of the output
using the oscilloscope. 7#plain the effect you observe of adding a load resistor.
4. CONCLUSIONS
4a.e conclusions as derived from your results and discussions.
T%e !epo!t .o, %&#d "# +%o,ld be !e&d&ble &#d ,#de!+t&#d&ble
to +ome bod. !e&d"#\$ "t t%&t %&+ #e-e! +ee# t%"+ l&b +%eet. All
4,e+t"o#+ &+1ed +%o,ld be &#+0e!ed "# .o,! !epo!t
2