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Academic Writing

Introduction:
Introduction to topic: Hook.
Interesting example.
Definition
Quote.
Provide background information, define key concepts.
Thesis Statement: State your Purpose.
Outline your Structure.

A thesis statement has a number of the common language features:
o An opening expression.
o Adverbs which introduce each section of the essay.
o Impersonal verb phrases which introduce each section of the essay.

Body paragraphs:
Transition Statements: Refer to the previous section.
Introduce the new section.
Paragraph Organisation: Paragraphs consist of 3 types of sentences:

1. Topic sentences.

2. Supporting sentences.

3. Concluding sentence.


i. Knowledge and Comprehension - Definition, Description, Discussion, Interpretation, Explication.
ii. Application, Analysis and Synthesis - Comparison, Classification, Illustration, Organization, Examination.
iii. Evaluation - Criticize, Support, Estimation, Strengths, Limitations, Impact, Answer the question.


o Paragraphs should have a clear structure.
o Sentences in a paragraph should have unity


Conclusion:
Signal the essay is finished.
Refer to the thesis.
Summarize the main ideas.
Draw a conclusion.
Make a concluding comment.


o An essay should have a clear structure which is set out in the thesis statement.
o The body of the essay should be divided into clear sections.



1. Use one book for the structure and then complete with different sources.
2. Use headlines when you are writing.
3. Take important ideas from many authors for each topic or subtopic.
4. Skimming
5. The introduction and the final of the each paragraph are the most important.
6. Analyse the title wording and decide what is required.
7. Brainstorm the topic to focus your ideas.
8. Brainstorm and extract key words from books.
9. Big important ideas/Bullet points more that is necessary
10. Outline the essay using your preferred method.
11. Vary your language with the help of a thesaurus and paraphrase.
12. Essay grammar checker.
13. Optical character recognition
14. Essay linking words and phrases.
15. Essay reporting verbs
16. Keep your views unbiased.
17. Use key words.
18. Be unconventional.
Introducing support ideas (reporting verbs)
Some verbs are neutral
describes
states
defines
Some verbs draw attention to the author's viewpoint
argues
disputed
conceded
Some verbs give information about the author's work
investigated
evaluated
estimated
Some verbs highlight the author's viewpoint
believes
recognised
predicted
Other useful reporting verbs (use present or past tense as appropriate)
analyse/analysed
compares/compared
comments/commented
concludes/concluded
criticises/criticised
demonstrates/demonstrated
discusses/discussed
illustrates/illustrated
indicates/indicated
notes/noted
observes/observed
points out/pointed out
reports/reported
shows/showed
suggests/suggested
validates/validated
verifies/verified


Try to follow a pattern of 'Claim', followed by 'Evidence' and then by 'Impact'. The claim is a
statement, which is then supported by the evidence such as a reference or a quotation in context and
then the impact is an intelligent review of how or why that claim is important in the context of the
essay. The 'impact' then becomes the claim of the following paragraph, and so on.