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I am Megatron.

And I will discuss…

Indian Literature
EARLY CIVILIZATION
Their invasion of
Some historians
India is still highly
• The Aryans:
contested & remains
argue that the
original settlers of
a controversial topic.
India are the
• An Indo-European race. ‘Dravidians.’

• A group of semi-nomadic “Nordic Whites”


who have a warrior like culture & work as
herders.
• Allegedly brought language & religious
beliefs in India.
• Espouses a polytheistic belief in
several dieties. e.g. Durga, Vishnu, Ganesh,
Shiva…

• The most dominant religion in India


until today.
Major Beliefs:

PURUSATHRAS = 3 ends of man

Dharma = virtue, duty, & righteousnes


Artha = wealth
Kama = love
Social classes in Hindu society a.k.a.
CASTE SYSTEM
Brahmin = Priests (religious/holy ones)

Kshatriya = Warriors (soldiers)

Vaisya = Farmers (may also be interpreted as the working class)

Sudra = Slaves
Panchama = The Untouchables (i.e. lepers, sick people)
Major Hindu principles:
• Karma = The consequences of ones
actions.
• Reincarnation = In most Indian
philosophical traditions, it is an ongoing
cycle of birth, death, and rebirth which
are assumed as facts of nature.
(including the Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh and Jain systems)
Hindu Gods
Brahma = The Creator
Vishnu = The Preserver
Shiva = The Destroyer
Vedas
• The Vedas (Sanskrit वेद véda, "knowledge") are a large body of texts
originating in Ancient India. The texts are composed in Vedic Sanskrit and
form the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature, and the oldest sacred texts
of Hinduism.

• "Vedic text" is aggregated around the four canonical Saṃhitās or Vedas


proper (turīya), of which three (traya) are related to the performance of
yajna (sacrifice) in historical (Iron Age) Vedic religion:

1. the Rigveda, containing hymns to be recited by the hotṛ or chief


priest;
2. the Yajurveda, containing formulas to be recited by the adhvaryu or
officiating priest;
3. the Samaveda, containing formulas to be chanted by the udgātṛ.

• The fourth is the Atharvaveda, a collection of spells and incantations,


stories, predictions, apotropaic charms and some speculative hymns.
Major examples of Vedic Texts:
Buddhism:
Siddhartha Gautama = Founder
Buddha = “The Enlightened
One”
Major Principles of Buddhism:
• Self-awareness & enlightenment to
achieve ‘NIRVANA.’
• Symbol: Wheel (meaning the cycle of life)
The 2 Greatest Epics

• Mahabaratha = the longest epic about


a struggle for supremacy
• Ramayana = written by Valmiki & talks
about Hindu Values.
Kalidasa
= Karikulagum – the perceptor of all poets
= Shakuntala – Sanskrit Drama
Panchatantra
= a collection of Indian Books composed of Indian Books
= also serves as a textbook for worldly wisdom
Kama Sutra
= written via vatsadinya
= via recording to day…
• Medieval: with Islamic influence
• Modern: with British influence

• Rabindranath Tagore = the 1st Asian to win a


Nobel Peace Prize in Literature c.a. 1913
• Gitanjali = Song offerings (i.e. those that will
allow to check out my sthinks