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STRUCTURAL

Zoning, site characteristics,


occupancy, configuring structural
system and height
The procedures and limitations for the design of structures shall be
determined by the following factors.
14 Minimum number of stories recommended to be provided with at
least 3 approved recording accelerographs.
Owner Maintenance and service of accelorographs shall be provided by the
___
Occupant o the building Who shall be responsible for keeping the actual live load below the
allowable limits and shall be liable for any failure on the structure
due to overloading
Load duration The period of continuous application of a given load or the
aggregate of periods of intermittent application of the same load
14 sq. m Minimum area in square meters a member supports which the
design live load may be reduced
1.50 sq. m Minimum height of any wall requiring structural design to resist
loads onto which they are subjected
1/240 of wall span Maximum deflection of a brittle finished wall subjected to a load
of 250 Pascal applied. Perpendicular to said wall
1/120 of wall span Maximum deflection of flexible finished wall subjected to a load of
250 Pascal applied perpendicular to said wall
60 sq. m Maximum floor area for a low-cost housing unit
Base The level at which the earthquake motions are considered to be
imparted to the structure of the level at which the structure as a
dynamic vibrator is supported
Collector A member or an element provided to transfer lateral forces from a
portion of a structure to vertical elements of the lateral force
resisting system
Diaphragm A horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to transmit lateral
forces to the vertical resisting elements it includes horizontal bracing
system
Base Shear V The total designed lateral force or shear at the base of a structure
Boundary element An element at edge of opening or at perimeters of shear
walls or diaphragm
Brace Frame An essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or accentric
type which is provided to resist lateral forces
Building Frame System A essentially complete space frame which provides supports for
gravity loads
Dual System A combination of a Special or Intermediate Moment Resisting Space
Frame and Shear Walls or Braced Frame
Eccentric Brace Frame (EBF) The form of braced frame where at least one end of each brace
intersects a beam at a point away from the column girder joint
Joints The entire assemblage at the Intersection of the members
Girder The horizontal member in a frame system, a beam
-the major horizontal supporting member of the floor system
Diaphragm Strut An element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load,
which collects and transfers diaphragm shear to vertical
resisting elements of distributes loads within the diaphragm. Such
members may take axial tension or compression
Diaphragm Chord The boundary element of a diaphragm or a shear wall which is
assumed to take axial stresses analogous to the flanges of a
beam
Essential facilities Those structures which are necessary for emergency post
earthquake operations
Lateral Force Resisting System That part of the structural system assigned to resist lateral forces
Ordinary Moment Resisting Space Moment resisting space frame not meeting special detailing
Frame requirements for ductile behavior
Story Drift The displacement of one level relative to the level above or below
Strength The usable capacity of a structure or its members to resist loads
within the deformation limits prescribed in this document
Platform The lower rigid portion of a structure having a vertical combination
of structural system
Horizontal Bracing system Horizontal truss system that serves the same function as a
diaphragm
Structure An assemblage of framing members designed to support
gravity loads and resist lateral forces
Bearing Wall System A structural system without complete vertical load carrying
space frame. This system provides support for gravity loads.
Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced
frames
Building Frame system A structural system with essentially complete space frame
providing support for gravity loads. Resistance to lateral load is
provided by shear walls or braced frames
Moment Resisting Frame System A structural system with an essentially complete space frame
providing support for gravity loads. Moments resisting space frames
provide resistance to lateral load primarily by flexural action of
members.
Weak story Is one in which the story strength is less than 80% of that the
story above
Time History Analysis An elastic or inelastic dynamic analysis in which a mathematical
model of the structure is subjected to a ground motion time history.
The structures time dependant dynamic response to these motion is
obtained through numerical integration of its equations of motions.
Orthogonal Effect The effect on the structure due to earthquake motions acting in
directions other than parallel to the direction of resistance under
consideration
P-delta effect The secondary effect on shears and moments of frame members
induced by the vertical loads acting on the laterally displaced
building frame
Admixture Material other than water aggregate or hydraulic cement used as an
ingredient of concrete and added to concrete before or during its
mixing to modify its properties
Plain Concrete Concrete that doesnt not conform to definition of reinforced
concrete
Pedestal Upright compression member with a ratio of unsupported height to
average least lateral dimension of less than three (3 m)
Modulus of Elasticity Ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or
compressive stresses below proportional limit of material
-in the formula e=PL/AE, E stands for ___
Jacking Force In prestressed concrete, temporary force exerted by device that
introduces tension into prestressing tendons
Embedment Length Length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical
section
Effective Prestress Stress remaining in prestressing tendons after all losses have
occurred, excluding effects of dead load and superimposed loads
Development Length Length of embedded reinforcement required to develop the
design strength of reinforcement at a critical section
Curvature friction Friction resulting from bends or curves in the specified prestressing
tendon profile
Structural Lightweight Concrete Concrete containing lightweight aggregate
Bonded tendon Prestressing tendon that is bonded to concrete either directly or
through grouting
Structural Steel ASTM A36
ASTM A514 High Yield Strength Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Plate,
Suitable for Welding
TRUE True or False, bar larger than 32mm in diameter shall not be
bundled in beams
40 mm Minimum concrete cover for a Prestressed concrete for beams and
columns for primary reinforcement
Poissons Ratio In a material under tension or compression, the absolute value of
the ratio transverse strain to the corresponding longitudinal
strain
Slenderness Ratio In column, the ratio of its effective length to its least radius of
gyration
Torsion A quantity which measures the resistance of the mass to being
revolved about a line
Flat slab A type of concrete floor which has no beam
Shear The tendency for one part of a beam to move vertically with respect
to an adjacent part
Deformation A change in shape of a material when subjected to the action of
force
Yielding Stress The maximum value of tension, compression, or shear respectively
the material sustain without failure
Stress -It means that by which a body develops internal resistance to
stress
-Intensity of force per unit area
Allowable Stress The greatest stress which a material is capable of developing
without permanent deformation remaining upon the complete
release of stress
Tie / Stirrup Loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement
Stiffness Ration The measure of stiffness of a material
Punching Shear The failure in a base when a heavily loaded column strikes hole
through it
Deflection The deformation of a structural member as a result of loads acting
on it
6 inches Nominal thickness of a timber
Equilibrium The sum of forces in the orthogonal directions and the sum of all
moments about any points are zero
2 years The complete records of tests conducted (slump, compression test,
etc.) shall be preserved and made available for inspection during the
progress of construction and after completion of the project for a
period of not less than ___
Not less than 1x4 Wood board should have a thickness specification
Run The distance from the first to the last riser of a stair flight
Portable Hand router A high-speed rotary shaping hand power tool used to make smooth
cutting and curving on solid wood
Knots Wood defects are: heart shake, cup shake, star shake and ___
Smoothed and planed lumber Dressed lumber is referred to ___
Live load It refers to the occupancy load which is either partially or fully in
place or may not be present at all
Cross cut saw The other kind of handsaw other than rip cut saw
Effective Length The distance between inflection points in the column when it breaks
Volume The amount of space measured in cubic units
Contraction Joint An expansion joint of adjacent parts of a structure to permit
expected movements between them
Total Run The total of all tread widths in a stair
Bond stress The force adhesion per unit area of contact between two bonded
surfaces
Purlin A structural member spanning from truss to truss or supporting a
rafter
Size of dead load deflection Size of camber for a 25 meters steel truss
Shear connector A connector such as a welded strut, spiral bar, or short length of
channel which resists horizontal shear between elements
Shear Stress (Shearing Stress) The force per unit area of cross section which tend to produce shear
Hooks Law The law that relates the linear relationship between stresses and
strain
4 x diameter of bolt Minimum spacing of bolts in timber connection measured from
center of bolts parallel for parallel to grain loading is equal to ___

4 x diameter of bolt

According to the provision of the NSCP on timber connection and
fastening the loaded edge distance for perpendicular to grain loading
shall be at least

2.5

NSCP specifies spacing between rows of bolts for perpendicular to
grain loading shall be at least ___ times bolt diameter for L/d ratio
of 2
12 mm Minimum diameter of bolts to be used in timber connections and
fastening in accordance with NSCP specifications
50 Simple solid timber columns have slenderness ratio not exceeding
___
11 diameters Nails and spikes for which the wire gauges or lengths not set forth in
the NSCP specifications shall have a required penetration of not less
than __
1/6 depth of member Notches in sawn lumber bending members in accordance with the
NSCP specifications shall not exceed
Middle third span Notches in sawn lumber shall not be located in the
the depth Notches in the top and bottom of joist shall not exceed
.60 of specified yield strength Allowable stresses for tension in structural steel in terms of gross
area
.50 of specified minimum tensile
strength
Allowable tensile stress of structural steel based on effective area
0.45 Fy Allowable stress for tension on pin connected members based on net
area
0.40 Fy Allowable shear stress on structural steel on the cross sectional area
effective in resisting shear
100% For structures carrying live loads which induce impact, the assumed
live load shall be increased sufficiently to provide for same, for
supports of elevators the increase shall be
200 The slenderness ratio of compression members shall not exceed ___
240 The slenderness ratio main members in tension shall not exceed ___
40 mm Concrete cover for pipes, conduits, and fittings shall not be less than
___ for concrete exposed to earth or weather
20 mm Concrete cover for pipes, conduits, and fittings shall not be less than
___ for concrete not exposed to earth or weather
7 days Curing of concrete (other than high-early strength) shall be
maintained above 10 C and in moist condition for at least the first
___ days after placement
7 days If concrete in structure will dry under service conditions, cores shall
be air-dried for ___ days before test and shall be tested dry.
3 days Cutting for high early strength concrete shall be maintained above
10 C and in moist condition for at least the ___days after placement
25 mm The minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in layer shall be
db (diameter of bar) but not less than ___
180 deg. Bend +4db extension but
not less than 65 mm at the end of
bar
Standard hooks used in reinforced concrete beam shall mean
90 deg. Bend + 6db extension at
free end
Standard hooks for stirrups and tie hooks 16mm bar and smaller
90 deg. Bend + 12db extension at
free end
Standard hooks for stirrups and thie hooks 20-25 mm bar
-12 mm Allowable tolerance on minimum concrete cover for depth greater
than 200 mm
+-50 mm Allowable tolerance for longitudinal location of bends and ends of
reinforcement
40 db Individual bars with a bundle terminated within the span of flexural
members shall terminate at different points with a stagger of at
least
3 db Clear distance between pre-tensioning tendons at each end of
member shall not be less than ___ for strands
4 db Clear distance between pre-tensioning tendons at each of member
shall to be less than ___ for wire
75 mm Minimum concrete cover provided for reinforcement of cast in place
against permanently exposed earth or weather using bars larger
than 36 mm