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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER PILOT TRAINING MANUAL


Record of Revision No. 2.01

This is a complete reprint of the Beech 1900 Airliner Pilot Training Manual.
The portion of the text or figure affected by the current revision is indicated by a
solid vertical line in the margin. A vertical line adjacent to blank space means that
material has been deleted. In addition, each revised page is marked
Revision 2.01 in the lower left or right corner.
The changes made in this revision will be further explained at the appropriate
time in the training course.

the best safety device in any aircraft is a well-trained crew...

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER


PILOT TRAINING MANUAL
VOLUME 2
AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS
SECOND EDITION

FlightSafety International, Inc.


Marine Air Terminal, LaGuardia Airport
Flushing, New York 11371
(718) 565-4100
www.flightsafety.com

Courses for the Beech 1900 Airliner and other Beech aircraft are taught at the
following FlightSafety learning centers:
Hawker Beechcraft Learning Center
9720 East Central Avenue
Wichita, KS 67206
Phone: (316) 612-5300
(800) 488-3747
Fax: (316) 612-5399
Toronto Learning Center
95 Garratt Boulevard
Downsview, Ontario
Canada M3K 2A5
(416) 638-9313
(877) 359-3274
Fax: (416) 638-3348
LaGuardia Learning Center
Marine Air Terminal
LaGuardia Airport
Flushing, NY 11371-1061
(718) 565-4170
(800) 749-8818
Fax: (718) 565-4174

Copyright 2000 by FlightSafety International, Inc.


All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.

F O R T R A I N I N G P U R P O S E S O N LY

NOTICE
The material contained in this training manual is based on information obtained from the
aircraft manufacturers pilot manuals and maintenance manuals. It is to be used for
familiarization and training purposes only.
At the time of printing it contained then-current information. In the event of conflict between
data provided herein and that in publications issued by the manufacturer or the FAA, that of
the manufacturer or the FAA shall take precedence.
We at FlightSafety want you to have the best training possible. We welcome any
suggestions you might have for improving this manual or any other aspect of our training
program.

F O R T R A I N I N G P U R P O S E S O N LY

CONTENTS
SYLLABUS
Chapter 1
AIRCRAFT GENERAL
Chapter 2
ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
Chapter 3
LIGHTING
Chapter 4
MASTER WARNING SYSTEM
Chapter 5
FUEL SYSTEM
Chapter 6
AUXILIARY POWER UNIT
Chapter 7
POWERPLANT
Chapter 8
FIRE PROTECTION
Chapter 9
PNEUMATICS
Chapter 10
ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION
Chapter 11
AIR CONDITIONING
Chapter 12
PRESSURIZATION
Chapter 13
HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEMS
Chapter 14
LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES
Chapter 15
FLIGHT CONTROLS
Chapter 16
AVIONICS
Chapter 17
MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS
WALKAROUND
APPENDIX
ANNUNCIATOR PANEL
INSTRUMENT PANEL POSTER

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
AIRCRAFT GENERAL
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 1-1
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................. 1-1
AIRPLANE SYSTEMS .......................................................................................................... 1-2
General ............................................................................................................................ 1-2
Chapters........................................................................................................................... 1-2
STRUCTURES ....................................................................................................................... 1-4
Beechcraft 1900 Airliner Description ............................................................................. 1-4
Beechcraft 1900 Airliner Configurations ........................................................................ 1-6
STANDARD EQUIPMENT................................................................................................... 1-7
DIMENSIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................................. 1-8
Airplane Dimensions ....................................................................................................... 1-8
Specifications .................................................................................................................. 1-8
DOORS AND INTERIORS.................................................................................................. 1-14
Cabin Entry and Exits.................................................................................................... 1-14
Airstair Locking Mechanism......................................................................................... 1-14
Airstair Door Operation................................................................................................. 1-15
Emergency Exits............................................................................................................ 1-16
Cargo Door .................................................................................................................... 1-16
Cabin Compartments..................................................................................................... 1-17
Flight Deck .................................................................................................................... 1-19
Control Surfaces ............................................................................................................ 1-32

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

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TIEDOWN AND SECURING............................................................................................. 1-33


TAXIING.............................................................................................................................. 1-34
SERVICING DATA............................................................................................................. 1-34
PRODUCT SUPPORT ......................................................................................................... 1-36
EXTERIOR INSPECTION .................................................................................................. 1-38

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

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ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

1-1

1900 Airliner General ArrangementSeries UE.................................................... 1-4

1-2

1900 Airliner General ArrangementSeries UB.................................................... 1-5

1-3

Stabilons and Tailets................................................................................................ 1-6

1-4

1900 Airliner Three-View DiagramSeries UB and UC....................................... 1-9

1-5

1900 Airliner Three-View DiagramSeries UE .................................................. 1-10

1-6

Rear Three-Quarters View..................................................................................... 1-12

1-7

Cabin Pressure Vessel............................................................................................ 1-12

1-8

Cabin Altitude Chart.............................................................................................. 1-14

1-9

Entrance and Exit ProvisionsSeries UB and UC ............................................... 1-15

1-10

Cargo Door ............................................................................................................ 1-16

1-11

Cabin Areas ........................................................................................................... 1-17

1-12

Cabin Seating Layouts........................................................................................... 1-18

1-13

Flight Deck ............................................................................................................ 1-19

1-14

Control Wheels ...................................................................................................... 1-20

1-15

Right Side PanelSeries UA, UB, UC................................................................. 1-21

1-16

Fuel Control Panel ................................................................................................. 1-21

1-17

Instrument Panel .................................................................................................... 1-22

1-18

Instrument Panel Diagram ..................................................................................... 1-23

1-19

Engine InstrumentsSeries UA, UB, UC ............................................................ 1-24

1-20

Engine InstrumentsSeries UE-1 through UE-92................................................ 1-25

1-21

Engine InstrumentsSeries UE-93 and Subsequent ............................................ 1-26

1-22

InstrumentationSeries UA, UB, UC .................................................................. 1-27

1-23

InstrumentationSeries UE .................................................................................. 1-28

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

1-24

Power Control Quadrant and Pedestal .................................................................. 1-29

1-25

Pilots and Copilots SubpanelsSeries UA, UB, UC......................................... 1-29

1-26

Pilots and Copilots SubpanelsSeries UE ........................................................ 1-30

1-27

AnnunciatorsSeries UA, UB, UC...................................................................... 1-31

1-28

Lighting ControlsSeries UA, UB, UC............................................................... 1-31

1-30

Flight Control Locks ............................................................................................. 1-32

1-29

T-Tail Configuration ............................................................................................. 1-32

1-31

Airplane Secured ................................................................................................... 1-33

1-32

Ground Turning ClearanceSeries UA, UB, UC ................................................ 1-34

1-33

Ground Turning ClearanceSeries UE................................................................ 1-35

1-34

Danger Areas......................................................................................................... 1-36

1-35

Servicing Data ....................................................................................................... 1-37

1-36

Exterior Inspection ................................................................................................ 1-38

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 1
AIRCRAFT GENERAL

INTRODUCTION
A good, basic understanding of the airplane will help in studying individual systems and their
operations. This chapter provides preliminary background information related to airplane
systems, operational considerations, and performance, which are presented in other chapters of
this training manual. Also, this chapter presents an overall view of the airplane, including
external familiarization, cabin arrangements, and cockpit layout. In this chapter, you will find
diagrams and data describing the airplane in general, including systems not found in the
POH/AFM.

GENERAL
There are four series of the Beech 1900 Airliners
and several cabin configurations. The primary
difference between the UA and UB serial numbered airplanes and the UC and UE series is in
the fuel system and the caution/advisory annunciator panel arrangement. The UC and UE series
have a wet-wing fuel system, while UA and UB
series have a series of bladder tanks. The UB,
UC, and UE series have cargo doors, while the

UA series airplanes have an airstair door in the


rear. This training manual covers all four series
of the 1900 Airliners.
Reference material in this training manual is
organized into 15 chapters (with two unused
tabs) covering all airplane systems. Each chapter
is complete and independent and can be referred
to in any sequence.

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

Following are brief descriptions of the subject


matter in each chapter. All material is discrete to
the Beechcraft 1900, 1900C, and 1900D
Airliners.

AIRPLANE SYSTEMS
General
The POH/POM Systems Description section
briefly summarizes all 1900 Airliner systems.
Additional descriptions and details are included
in separate chapters of this training manual.
POH/POM information is updated as required
and always supersedes any information in the
training manual.

CHAPTERS

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Master Warning System


Chapter 4, Master Warning System, presents a
description and discussion of the warning, caution, and advisory annunciator panels. Each
annunciator is described in detail, including its
purpose and associated cause for illumination.
Emphasis is on corrective action required by the
pilot if an annunciator is illuminated.

Fuel System
Chapter 5, Fuel System, presents a description
and discussion of the fuel system. The physical
layout of fuel cells and normal/abnormal fuel
system operations are described. Correct use of
the boost pumps, fuel transfer system, and firewall shutoff valves are discussed. Locations and
types of fuel drains and correct procedures for
taking and inspecting fuel samples are detailed.
This chapter includes a list of approved fuels and
procedures for fuel servicing.

Aircraft General
Chapter 1, Aircraft General, presents an overall
view of the airplane. This includes external
familiarization, cabin arrangement, and cockpit
layout. In this chapter you will find additional
general descriptions, diagrams, and data which
may not be found in the Pilot or Airplane
manuals.

Electrical Power System


Chapter 2, Electrical Power System, describes
the airplane electrical system and its components. The electrical system is discussed to the
extent necessary for pilot management of all normal and emergency operations. The location and
purpose of switches, indicators, lights, and circuit breakers are noted. DC and AC generation
and distribution are described. This chapter also
includes electrical system limitations and a discussion of potential electrical system faults.

Lighting

Powerplant
Chapter 7, Powerplant, presents a discussion of
the Pratt & Whitney PT6A-65B and -67D turboprop engines. Engine theory and operating
limitations are described, and normal pilot procedures are detailed. Crewmembers must have
sufficient knowledge of the PT6A series engines
to understand all normal and emergency
procedures.
This chapter also describes propeller construction and system components. Location and use of
propeller controls, governor operation, overspeed
protection, reversing, manual feathering, and
autofeather are discussed.

Fire Protection
Chapter 8, Fire Protection, describes the fire
warning and protection systems. Operation and
testing information for the fire detection and fireextinguishing systems is included.

Chapter 3, Lighting, discusses cockpit lighting,


cabin lighting, and exterior lighting. All lights are
identified and located. The location and use of
controls for the lighting system are also included.
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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Pneumatics

Landing Gear and Brakes

Chapter 9, Pneumatics, presents a discussion of


pneumatic and vacuum systems. Sources and
operation of pneumatic and vacuum air are
described. Acceptable gage readings and normal
and abnormal system indications are outlined.
The bleed-air warning system is described as an
integral function of the pneumatic system.

Chapter 14, Landing Gear and Brakes, outlines


control and operating limitations of the hydraulic
landing gear system. Normal and abnormal indications are discussed. Procedures are described
for use of the alternate landing gear extension
s y s t e m i n t h e ev e n t o f n o r m a l s y s t e m
malfunction.

Ice and Rain Protection

This chapter also details the power steering system and includes procedures for normal and
abnormal indications.

Chapter 10, Ice and Rain Protection, describes


theory and operation of anti-ice and deice systems. Each ice protection device in the aircraft is
described individually, showing each component
and control location. Normal and abnormal operations of each anti-ice and deice system are
considered. The purpose of this section is to
acquaint the pilot with all systems used for flight
into icing conditions or heavy rain. Information
concerning preflight deicing and defrosting
includes a discussion of appropriate fluids
approved for these procedures.

Air Conditioning
Chapter 11, Air Conditioning, presents a
description of air-conditioning, bleed-air heating,
and fresh air ventilation systems. The air cycle
machine is discussed in detail as an integral function of the entire system. Each environmental
subsystem description includes general operating
practices, control of the system, and emergency
procedures.

Pressurization System
Chapter 12, Pressurization, presents a description of the pressurization system components.
Component locations and system operational
controls are discussed. The importance of airstair
and cargo compartment door security is noted,
and emergency procedures are described. Where
necessary, references are made to the environmental system as it affects pressurization.

Correct use of the wheel brakes and parking


brakes are described in this chapter. System components and brake wear indications are also
detailed. Safety procedures related to system
operation are considered.

Flight Controls
Chapter 15, Flight Controls, describes the foursegment Fowler-type flap system. System controls and limitations are considered, and
operations are outlined as referenced in the
POH/AFM. All normal and abnormal operating
procedures are discussed.

Avionics
Chapter 16, Avionics, describes the standard
avionics installation for the 1900 Airliner. Communication and navigation radio equipment and
audio panel layout are detailed. Non-standard
avionics are not covered here; however, for airc r a f t e q u i p p e d w i t h o p t i o n a l av i o n i c s
installations, supplements are available to
describe equipment operation. A glossary of avionics terminology is included in an Appendix at
the back of this training manual.
This chapter also presents a discussion of the
dual pitot-static system. Pitot-static system input
to flight instruments and related safety features
are described. Operational principles, pitot-static
air sources, and component locations are given
for the system. Pilot and copilot alternate static
air systems are also covered.

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

Miscellaneous Systems
Chapter 17, Miscellaneous Systems, presents a
summary of the oxygen system and its components. General descriptions, operating principles,
system controls, and emergency procedures are
included. Use of the oxygen duration chart is outlined, and oxygen availability is determined,
using practice problems to illustrate various
flight situations. FAR requirements are discussed
as they relate to crew and passenger oxygen
needs, including types and availability of oxygen
masks. The Pilots Operating Handbook and
Pilots Operating Manual are referred to for
descriptions of system servicing procedures.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

STRUCTURES
BEECHCRAFT 1900 AIRLINER
DESCRIPTION
The Beechcraft 1900 Airliner (Figures 1-1 and
1-2) is a high-performance, pressurized, twinengine, turboprop airplane designed and
equipped for day or night flight in IFR conditions, high-density air traffic zones, and known
icing conditions. It is also capable of operating in
and out of small, unimproved airports within
POH/AFM operating limits.
The 1900 Airliner design blends a highly efficient airframe with proven high-technology
components to provide a reliable, economical,

Figure 1-1 1900 Airliner General ArrangementSeries UE

1-4

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

and versatile airplane. The 1900 Airliner is a


growth version of the Beechcraft Super King Air
B200 corporate aircraft. Many King Air features
were retained, including the flight deck design,
wing airfoil section, classic T-tail, and PT6 freeturbine engine.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The structure is an all-metal, low-wing monoplane. It has fully cantilevered wings and a T-tail
empennage. Efficient, high aspect ratio wings
provide an excellent combination of low drag for
cruise conditions and easy handling at slow
speeds for airport operations.

Figure 1-2 1900 Airliner General ArrangementSeries UB


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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

BEECHCRAFT 1900 AIRLINER


CONFIGURATIONS
The Beechcraft 1900 Airliner is certified to carry
up to 19 passengers. In addition to standard airplane configurations, Beechcraft offers optional
items at additional cost and weight. Basic configurations, dimensions, weights, and specifications
are summarized later in the chapter. Refer to the
current airplane POH/AFM for detailed, up-todate information.
The wing is fabricated as a one-piece unit consisting of a one-piece spar, center wing, and two
outboard wing assemblies. The center wing
forms an integral part, providing structural support for engine nacelles and outboard wing
assemblies. The UE Series has incorporated
winglet design based on NASA research. This
enhances climb performance and extends the
effective wing span to improve range.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

effective horizontal surface, which is able to control greater excursions in CG loading. In free
air, trim changes resulting from changes in power
settings or flap positions are minimized or eliminated entirely. Material fatigue, present when a
surface is embedded in the high-energy propeller
slipstream, is also eliminated.
Small horizontal surfaces called stabilons (Figure
1-3) are mounted on both sides of the fuselage
just aft of the cargo door. Two smaller vertical
fins, called tailets, are mounted on the lower horizontal stabilizer tips.

Faired, oval nacelles of minimum frontal area are


installed on the center wing to house the engine
and landing gear. Nacelle location and design
maximize propeller-to-ground clearance, minim i z e c a b i n n o i s e , a n d p r ov i d e l ow d r a g
powerplant cowlings. The upper nacelle surface
fairs into the upper surface of the wing near the
rear spar. The lower nacelle surface extends aft
below the wing to house the retracted main landing gear. Nacelle surfaces are flush-riveted for
aerodynamic smoothness.
The T-tail on the Beechcraft 1900 Airliner was
designed to improve aerodynamics, lighten control forces, and increase CG range. Extensive
wind tunnel and flight tests and the experience of
thousands of pilots have confirmed that the combination of T-tail and straight wing provides
excellent control characteristics in all flight
regimes.
The T-tail configuration was chosen for the 1900
Airliner for several reasons. Although distinctive
appearance and excellent handling qualities were
important objectives, the operator of the 1900
Airliner needs flexibility in overall airplane usage
and loading. By putting the horizontal tail at the
top of the vertical fin, the tail surface flies in
less disturbed air than it would if located lower
on the fin, or on the fuselage. The result is a more
1-6

Figure 1-3 Stabilons and Tailets

Stabilons were added to improve pitch stability


for the unusually wide CG range (4 to 40%
MAC). They provide exceptionally positive
recovery characteristics from the deep stall flight
regime. For additional directional stability, tailets
are teamed with a pair of vortex generators,
ahead of the wing-fuselage junction. Vortex generators reduce stall speeds and interference drag
to increase directional stability. This package of
small aerodynamic surfacesstabilons, tailets,
and vortex generatorsprovides the 1900 Airliner with highly desirable stability
characteristics without using artificial and expensive electronic stability augmentation systems.

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

The fuselage is a conventional monocoque structure of high-strength aluminum alloys. The basic
cabin shape is a favorable compromise between
passenger comfort and efficient cruise performance. The cabin profile is squared-oval, not
round. Passengers can sit upright comfortably
without leaning to accommodate sloping walls.
The floors are flat from side to side for passenger
ease in entering and leaving the cabin. In the UE
Series, the cabin height has been raised to 71
inches.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The basic King Air B200 fuselage was retained,


adding windows to accommodate the increase in
passenger seats. The cabin is pressurized for
operation at its most efficient cruise altitude.
These design characteristics result in a structure
that is optimized for pressure loads, is lightweight, and will carry 19 passengers
comfortably.
Principal differences between UA/UB Series, UC
Series, and UE Series Airliners are as follows:

Has PT6A-67D engines rated at


1,279 shp.

Maximum Ramp Weight


increased to 17,230 pounds.

Maximum Takeoff Weight has increased to 17,120 pounds.

Maximum Landing Weight has increased to 16,765 pounds.

Maximum Zero Fuel Weight has increased to 15,165 pounds.

Cockpit has changed to Collins EFIS


84 system with flight directors as
standard equipment.

has

Other improvements and differences are included


in the various chapters of this training manual.

UC Series:

UE Series:

Has wet-wing fuel system with


capacity increased to 667 gallons
usable fuel.
Has new style ENGINE FIRE TEST
switches. The UA/UB series airplanes have a mod kit available to
change the rotary switch with the
new style arrangement.

UC/UE Series:

Fuel control panel on the pilots left


side has added auxiliary fuel pump
switches and MAIN or AUX fuel
quantity selection switch.

STANDARD EQUIPMENT
The following is standard equipment on the
Beech 1900 Airliner:

Reversible pitch propellers

Propeller synchrophaser and


synchroscope

Autofeather propeller system

Complete anti-ice and deice systems:

Has additional caution/advisory


annunciators in a slightly modified
panel.
Has a modified switch panel arrangement on the control pedestal.

Revision 1

Surface deice boots

Electric propeller anti-ice

Engine anti-ice

Dual heated windshields

Brake deice

Heated pitot tubes

Dual bleed-air heat

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

1-8

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Air-conditioning system:

No-smoking sign with chime

Air cycle machine

Forward baggage compartment

Freon air conditioner

EFIS 84 system (UE Series)

Aft cabin blower

NOTE

Dual-pane cabin windows

Fire protection system:

Cabin fire extinguisher

Cockpit fire extinguisher

Engine fire detection

Engine fire extinguishers

Rear cargo door 52 x 52 inches is standard on 1900C configuration.

DIMENSIONS AND
SPECIFICATIONS
AIRPLANE DIMENSIONS

19 removable, track-mounted, high-back


seats

Figure 1-4 shows airplane dimensions for Series


UB and UC, while Figure 1-5 shows airplane
dimensions for Series UE.

Fixed-step forward airstair door with


entrance step lights

SPECIFICATIONS

Oxygen systemDual 76.5-cubic-foot


cylinders and 21 oxygen outlets

Minimum crewFAA certificated:


Series UA, UB, UC ................................ One
Series UE................................................ One

Exterior lighting:

Maximum passengersFAA certificated:


Series UA, UB, UC ................................... 19
Series UE................................................... 19

Wing deice lights

Tail logo lights

Strobe lights

Wing-mounted landing lights

Nosewheel single taxi light

Recognition lights (UE Series)

Engine:
Series UA, UB, UC ................... 2PT6A-65B
Series UE................................... 2PT6A-67D
PropellersFour-blade, reversible:
Series UA, UB, UC .................. Two Hartzell
Series UE.................................. Two Hartzell

Control wheel-mounted clocksPilot


and copilot

Dual instantaneous
indicators

Flight hour recorder

Electric and manual elevator trim system

vertical

speed

Landing gearRetractable, tricycle, dual main


wheels:
Series UA, UB, UC ....................... Hydraulic
Series UE....................................... Hydraulic
Wing area:
Series UA, UB, UC ........... 303.0 square feet
Series UE........................... 310.0 square feet

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 1-4 1900 Airliner Three-View DiagramSeries UB and UC

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 1-5 1900 Airliner Three-View DiagramSeries UE

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

Maximum Certificated Weights


Maximum ramp weight:
Series UA, UB, UC................ 16,710 pounds
Series UE ............................... 17,230 pounds

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Cargo door height aft:


Series UE .................................... 53.8 inches

Maximum Weight in Baggage


Compartments

Maximum takeoff weight:


Series UA, UB, UC................ 16,600 pounds
Series UE ............................... 17,120 pounds

Nose:
Series UA, UB, UC..................... 150 pounds

Maximum landing weight:


Series UA, UB, UC................ 16,100 pounds
Series UE ............................... 16,765 pounds

Forward cabin compartment:


Series UA, UB, UC..................... 250 pounds
Series UE .................................... 250 pounds

Maximum zero fuel weight:


Series UA, UB, UC................ 14,000 pounds
Series UE ............................... 15,165 pounds

HangerForward cabin compartment:


Series UA, UB, UC..................... 100 pounds
Series UE .................................... 100 pounds

Typical operating weight:


Series UE ............................... 10,550 pounds

Aft baggage compartmentForward Section:


Series UA, UB, UC..................... 250 pounds
Series UE ................................. 1,000 pounds
1900C.......................................... 880 pounds

Cabin and Entry Dimensions


Cabin width (maximum):
Series UA, UB, UC........................ 54 inches
Series UE ....................................... 54 inches
Cabin length (maximum between pressure bulkheads):
Series UA, UB, UC................... 473.5 inches
Series UE .................................. 473.5 inches
Cabin height (maximum):
Series UA, UB, UC........................ 57 inches
Series UE ....................................... 71 inches
Airstair entrance door width (minimum):
Series UA, UB, UC................... 26.75 inches
Series UE .................................. 26.75 inches
Airstair entrance door height (minimum):
Series UA, UB, UC........................ 51 inches
Series UE ....................................... 62 inches
Cargo door width (minimum):
Series UA, UB, UC........................ 52 inches
Series UE ....................................... 52 inches

Aft baggage compartmentAft Section:


Series UA, UB, UC..................... 565 pounds
Series UE .................................... 630 pounds
1900C.......................................... 630 pounds

Specific Loadings
Wing loading (pounds per square foot):
Series UA, UB, UC.................... 54.8 pounds
Series UE ................................... 54.7 pounds
Power loading (pounds per shaft horsepower):
Series UA, UB, UC...................... 7.5 pounds
Series UE ................................... 6.62 pounds

Loading
Wing loading
at gross weight .............. 54.7 pounds/square feet
Power loading
at gross weight ......... 6.6 pounds per horsepower

Cargo door height forward (minimum):


Series UA, UB, UC........................ 52 inches
Series UE ....................................... 57 inches

Revision 2

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Baggage Compartment
Volumes
Under seat stowage......................... 32 cubic feet
(capacity 190 pounds)
Forward cabin baggage .................. 17 cubic feet
(capacity 250 pounds)
Aft cabin baggage......................... 175 cubic feet
(capacity 1,630 pounds)
TOTAL ................................ 213.3 cubic feet
(capacity 2,340 pounds)

Cabin Compartment Volumes


Crew station.................................. 103 cubic feet
Forward entrance
and baggage area ............................ 56 cubic feet
Main cabin.................................... 584 cubic feet
Rear baggage area ........................ 175 cubic feet
TOTAL ................................... 918 cubic feet

Pressurization
5.1 psi pressure differential provides a sea level
cabin up to 11,000 feet and a 9,000-foot cabin at
25,000 feet (Figures 1-6 and 1-7).

Oxygen System
High-pressure continuous flow with 152-cubicfoot capacity with outlets for all cabin occupants.

Figure 1-6 Rear Three-Quarters View

1-12

Figure 1-7 Cabin Pressure Vessel

Cabin Equipment
Dual bleed-air heat system 64,000 BTU capacity,
with environmental air provided through floor
registers and individual air outlets for all
occupants.
Cooling39,000 BTU (ground) and 46,000
BTU (flight)is provided by a combination of
air cycle and vapor cycle systems.

All-Weather Equipment

Flush fuel vents

Engine fuel heaters

Engine inlet screen anti-ice protection


system

Exhaust heated engine inlet lips

Fuel vent heaters

Electric propeller deicing, wing ice lights

Radar

Windshield, electric heat and surface


deicer boots

Brake deice (optional)

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

Fuel and Oil Capacity


Main tank capacity............................ 481 gallons
Auxiliary tank capacity..................... 184 gallons
Total fuel capacity
(wing tanks, usable) .......................... 665 gallons
Oil capacity (each engine) ................. 3.6 gallons

Fuel and Oil Specifications


Fuel .......... JP-4, JP-5, JP-8, Jet A, Jet A-1, Jet B
Hydraulics (brakes, struts,
and landing gear retract system...... MIL-H-5606

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Series UA, UB, UC .................


Series UE.................................
Retraction:
Series UA, UB, UC .................
Series UE.................................

180 KIAS
180 KIAS
180 KIAS
180 KIAS

Maximum flap extension speed (VFE):


Takeoff:
Series UA, UB, UC ................. 198 KIAS
Series UE.......................................... N/A
Approach:
Series UA, UB, UC ................. 168 KIAS
Series UE............... 188 KIAS (flaps 17)
Landing:
Series UA, UB, UC ................. 153 KIAS
Series UE............... 143 KIAS (flaps 35)
(154 KIAS for UE-79 and after)
Stall (100% flaps, power off):
Series UA, UB, UC......................... 88 KIAS
Series UE ........................................ 84 KIAS

Landing Gear
Wheels and brakes ................ Lorol multiple disc
(each main wheel)
Main wheel tire size........................ 22 x 6.75-10
(tubeless 10-ply rating)
Nosewheel tire size ...................... 19.5 x 6.75-10
(tubeless 10-ply rating)

Operating Speeds
The 1900 Airliner qualifies as one of the most
maneuverable airliners of its size in the world.
Insistence on handling ease in all flight regimes
and tough construction techniques contribute to
the following figures (calculated at maximum
takeoff weight of 16,600 pounds for UA, UB, UC
Series and 16,950 pounds for UE Series):

Air minimum control speed (VMCA):


Flaps up:
Series UA, UB, UC ................... 96 KIAS
Series UE................................... 92 KIAS
Flaps takeoff:
Series UA, UB, UC .................... 91KIAS
Series UE.......................................... N/A
Flaps approach:
Series UA, UB, UC ................... 89 KIAS
Series UE................. 92 KIAS (flaps 17)

Rates of Climb
The 1900 Airliner delivers an extra margin of
reliability with its powerful PT6A series jetprop
engines. The following figures are calculated at
maximum takeoff weight:

Maximum operating speed (VMO):


Series UA, UB, UC ....................... 247 KIAS
Series UE................................ 17,120 pounds
To 13,200 feet.......................... 248 KIAS
13,200 to 25,000 feet.... 248 to 195 KIAS

Two engines
(sea level, standard day)...................... 2,350 fpm

Maneuvering speed (VA) (16,600 pounds):


Series UA, UB, UC....................... 188 KIAS
Series UE ...................................... 178 KIAS

One engine
(5,000 feet elevation, standard day) ....... 390 fpm

One engine
(sea level, standard day)......................... 500 fpm

Maximum landing gear operating speed (VLO):


Extension:
Revision 1

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Service Ceiling

DOORS AND INTERIORS

At maximum takeoff weight, over-the-weather


capabilities and greater mission dependability are
possible with the 1900 Airliner (Figure 1-8):

CABIN ENTRY AND EXITS

Two-engine maximum
operating altitude............................... 25,000 feet
Cabin pressurization:
Series UA, UB, UC ............................ 4.8 psi
Series UE............................................ 5.1 psi

A fixed-step cabin airstair door is installed forward of the propeller plane on the left side of the
fuselage (Figure 1-9). The door opening is 26.75
inches wide by 51 inches high (UC Series). The
door opening is 26.21 inches wide by 62.64
inches high in the UE Series.
The 1900C is configured with a 52-inch by 52inch cargo door (52 inches wide, 57 inches high
in the UE Series) aft of the passenger cabin on
the left side of the airplane. The cargo door is
hinged at the top and can be opened from inside
or outside. A partition separates the cargo compartment from the cabin area.
The pressure vessel is sealed with inflatable rubber strips, installed around each doorframe,
which allow pressurized cabin air to seep through
small holes in the sides of the seal. The higher
the differential pressure, the tighter the seal.

Figure 1-8 Cabin Altitude Chart

AIRSTAIR LOCKING
MECHANISM

Range
A typical stage length for regional airline flights
is approximately 200 nautical miles. A 1900 Airliner, with 19 passengers on board, can handle
three such stage lengths at maximum cruise
power without refueling. You may never need the
maximum range of the 1900 Airliner, but using
this capability will help save time between stages
by reducing turn-around time to only minutes.

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The 1900C and 1900D have three emergency exit


hatches. Two are on the right side of the fuselage
at the leading and trailing edges of the wing, and
one is on the left side of the fuselage at the trailing edge of the wing. The 1900 configuration
without a cargo door has two emergency exit
doors on the right side only. The aft passenger
airstair door serves as the second emergency exit
on the left side.

The door-locking mechanism is operated by


either of two vertically staggered handles, one
inside and the other outside the door. The inside
and outside handles are mechanically interconnected. When either handle is rotated, three (four
on UE Series) rotating camlock latches on either
side of the door capture posts mounted on the
fuselage side of the opening. The door can be
locked with a key to secure the aircraft when
parked.

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AIRSTAIR DOOR OPERATION


A release button adjacent to the door handle must
be depressed before the handle can be rotated to
unlock the door. As an additional safety measure,
a differential-pressure-sensitive diaphragm is
incorporated into the release button mechanism
to prevent inadvertent opening of the door when
the aircraft is pressurized.
To close the door from outside the airplane, lift
the free end of the airstair door, and push it up
against the doorframe as far as possible. Next,
rotate the handle clockwise as far as it will go;
this will allow the airstair door to move into the

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

closed position. Then rotate the handle counterclockwise until the release button pops out; the
handle should be pointing aft. Check airstair door
security by attempting to rotate the handle clockwise without depressing the release button; the
handle should not move.
For the UA, UB, and UC Series, to close the door
from inside the airplane, grasp the handrail cable,
and pull the airstair door up against the doorframe; then rotate the handle counterclockwise as
far as possible, continuing to pull inward on the
door. Next, rotate the handle clockwise until the
release button pops out; the handle should now
be pointing down.

Figure 1-9 Entrance and Exit ProvisionsSeries UB and UC

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For the UE Series, to close the door from the


inside, grasp the rear handrail cables, and pull the
airstair door up against the airframe; then rotate
the handle up as far as possible, continuing to
pull inward on the door. Next, rotate the handle
down until the release button pops out; the handle should now be pointing down.
To check airstair door security, attempt to rotate
the handle counterclockwise, or UP in the UE
Series, without depressing the release button; the
handle should not move. Next, ensure the red
safety lock is in position around the diaphragm
shaft when the handle is in the locked position.
The safety lock can be observed by depressing a
red switch near the small viewing window to illuminate a lamp inside the door. The final check is
to ensure that each orange stripe on each of the
six (eight in the UE Series) rotary camlocks is
aligned with its corresponding notch on the doorplate. If any condition specified in this doorlocking procedure is not met, DO NOT TAKE
OFF.
The Cabin/Cargo Door Annunciator Circuitry
Check in the Normal Procedures section should
be performed prior to the first flight of the day. In
addition, a security check of the airstair door
should be performed by a qualified crewmember
before each flight.
Never attempt to unlock the door or even to
check door security in flight. If the FWD CABIN
DOOR annunciator illuminates in flight, or if the
pilot has any reason to suspect the door may not
be securely locked, the cabin should be depressurized slowly (considering altitude first), and all
occupants should be instructed to remain seated
with their seat belts fastened. After the airplane
has made a full-stop landing, only a crewmember
should check the security of the airstair door.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

UA, UB, UC Series


To prevent entry from outside when the aircraft is
secured, the exit can be locked with a flushmounted, pull-out handle near the inside exit
release. When locked, with the inside lock-lever
down, a red placard is visible to warn that the exit
is not accessible from outside. Removing the
hatch from inside with the EXIT-PULL handle is
possible at any time, since the handle is not
locked by the lock-lever. However, the lock-lever
should be up, in the unlocked position, prior to
flight.

UE Series
To prevent entry from outside when the aircraft is
secured, the exit can be locked by inserting a
locking pin in the hole next to the release handle.
In this condition, the exit cannot be opened from
the inside or outside until the pin and flag are
removed.

CARGO DOOR
The 1900C and D models are equipped with a
cargo door to provide access for loading large or
bulky items. The swing-up cargo door is hinged
at the top and is equipped with latching mechanisms at the bottom (Figure 1-10).

EMERGENCY EXITS
The emergency exit hatches (Figure 1-9) can be
released from inside with a pull-down handle
placarded EXIT-PULL. From outside, the
doors are released with a flush-mounted pull-out
handle. The nonhinged, plug-type hatches
remove completely from the frame into the cabin
when the latches are released.
1-16

Figure 1-10 Cargo Door

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After initial opening force is applied, gas-operated springs open the door automatically. The
door is counterbalanced to remain open, and two
support rods secure the door open. Once closed,
the gas springs apply a closing force to assist in
latching the door. A rubber seal around the door
is inflated with cabin air to seal the pressure vessel in flight.
To open the door from outside the airplane,
depress the release button adjacent to the door
handle, and rotate the handle clockwise. Pull out
at the bottom of the door until the gas springs
take over to lift it to the fully open position.
To close the cargo door from outside the airplane,
pull down the free end of the cargo door, and
push it against the doorframe as far as possible.
Next, rotate the handle counterclockwise until
the release button pops out and the handle points
aft. Check cargo door security by attempting to
rotate the handle clockwise without pressing the
release button; the handle should not move.
Finally, note alignment of the orange stripe and
pointer by looking through a small inspection
window in the lower right (lower left in UE
Series) corner of the door.
Although normal access is from outside, the
cargo door can also be opened or closed from
inside; however, never attempt to unlock or check
door security in flight. If the AFT CABIN DOOR
annunciator illuminates, observe the same cautions noted in procedures for illumination of the
FWD CABIN DOOR annunciator.

CABIN COMPARTMENTS
The main cabin carries 19 passengers. Standard
lightweight commuter seats are arranged in a single row along each cabin wall, with three
passenger seats across the aft cabin partition
(Figures 1-11 and 1-12). The center aisle provides easy access to all seats. Carry-on baggage
space is available under each seat.
An unpressurized, 13-cubic-foot nose baggage
compartment accommodates 150 pounds of baggage. Access is through an upward-opening door
on the forward left side of the fuselage. This
compartment has been deleted in the UE Series.

Figure 1-11 Cabin Areas

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Figure 1-12 Cabin Seating Layouts

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To accommodate additional carry-on baggage, a


15-cubic-foot baggage compartment is installed
opposite the forward door, aft of the crew compartment. Its total 250-pound structural capacity
includes a coat rack allowance of 100 pounds for
hanging clothing.
A pressurized baggage compartment at the
extreme rear of the 1900C cabin is separated
from the passenger compartment by a solid bulkhead. Nylon webbing provides restraint for loose
items and divides the aft compartment into two
sections. Baggage or cargo space totals 154 cubic
feet, distributed as 880 pounds (1,000 pounds in
UE Series) forward and 630 pounds aft of the
nylon webbing.

FLIGHT DECK
The efficient, comfortable flight deck is arranged
for convenient use by a single pilot or a two-pilot
crew (Figure 1-13). Pilot and copilot sit side-byside in individual chairs, separated by a control
pedestal. Seats are adjustable fore and aft, as well

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

as vertically. Seat belts and inertial-reel shoulder


harnesses are provided for each seat. Conventional dual controls allow the airplane to be flown
by either pilot (Figure 1-14).
Most aircraft system circuit breakers are located
on the main circuit-breaker panel at the copilots
right side (Figure 1-15). The fuel control panel
(Figure 1-16), located on the pilots left sidewall,
includes fuel quantity gages, switches, and a single row of circuit breakers.
The instrument panel (Figures 1-17 and 1-18)
contains flight instruments, engine instruments,
and the avionics panel. Engine instruments (Figures 1-19, 1-20, and 1-21) are mounted in a
vertical double row next to the avionics panel.
Other instrumentation is shown in Figures 1-22
and 1-23. The center avionics panel contains
nav/comm controls and a weather radar unit. Two
static air source selector switches are mounted
outboard of the pilots and copilots flight instruments in the UA, UB, UC Series and in the lower
side wall in the UE Series aircraft.

Figure 1-13 Flight Deck


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Figure 1-14 Control Wheels

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Figure 1-15 Right Side PanelSeries UA, UB, UC

Figure 1-16 Fuel Control Panel


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Figure 1-17 Instrument Panel

The power control quadrant and pedestal extends


back from the center subpanel (Figure 1-24).
Controls for powerplant operation, flap system,
trim tabs, yaw damp, parking brake, pressurization, and stall warning test are mounted on the
pedestal. Optional systems on the lower pedestal,
if installed, include flight director, autopilot, antiskid, and power steering.
Just below the instrument panel are the pilots
subpanel on the left and the copilots subpanel on
the right (Figures 1-25 and 1-26). Aircraft system
controls, engine switches, master switch, and
landing gear controls are located on these
subpanels.
The UA, UB, UC Series annunciator system
(Figure 1-27) consists of a warning annunciator
panel (red display) in the center glareshield and a
caution/advisory annunciator panel (yellow for
caution, green for advisory) on the center sub-

1-22

panel. The UE Series annunciator system


consists of a warning panel (red display), a caution panel (yellow display), and an advisory
panel (green and white display). Conditions covered by the annunciator system generate signals
which illuminate the appropriate annunciator in a
given situation.
The lighting control panel is in the overhead area,
between the pilot and copilot (Figure 1-28).
Rheostat controls for flight deck and instrument
lighting are mounted on this panel, convenient to
both the pilot and copilot. Also mounted on this
panel are the windshield wiper control, generator
load and voltage gauges, and inverter monitoring
gauge. Airspeed and operating limitations are
also placarded on this panel. In the UE Series, all
external lighting control switches have been relocated from the pilots right subpanel to the
overhead panel.

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Figure 1-18 Instrument Panel Diagram

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Figure 1-19 Engine InstrumentsSeries UA, UB, UC

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Figure 1-20 Engine InstrumentsSeries UE-1 through UE-92

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Figure 1-21 Engine InstrumentsSeries UE-93 and Subsequent

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Figure 1-22 InstrumentationSeries UA, UB, UC

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Figure 1-23 InstrumentationSeries UE

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Figure 1-24 Power Control Quadrant and Pedestal

Figure 1-25 Pilots and Copilots SubpanelsSeries UA, UB, UC


Revision 1

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Figure 1-26 Pilots and Copilots SubpanelsSeries UE

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Figure 1-27 AnnunciatorsSeries UA, UB, UC

Figure 1-28 Lighting ControlsSeries UA, UB, UC


Revision 1

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CONTROL SURFACES
Ailerons, rudder, and elevators are cable-operated by conventional dual control wheels. The Ttail horizontal stabilizer and elevator are mounted
at the extreme top of the vertical stabilizer (Figure 1-29).
Control surfaces are cable-operated by conventional dual controls in the flight deck. Control
locks (Figure 1-30) should be installed to prevent
potential wind damage to controls or control surfaces whenever the airplane is parked.

Figure 1-29 T-Tail Configuration

Figure 1-30 Flight Control Locks

1-32

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TIEDOWN AND
SECURING

and the propeller gearbox. Engine inlet covers


provide additional protection, especially during
blowing dust or rain conditions.

For overnight parking, or during high winds, tie


the airplane with suitable chain or rope at the
mooring points, and install protective covers
(Figure 1-31). Place wheel chocks fore and aft of
the main gear wheels and nosewheel. Except in
severe conditions, or for temporary parking, do
not set the parking brake. Be sure flaps are up
and control locks are installed. Since propellers
rotate freely even when the engine is shut down,
they should be secured with restraints. Allowing
propellers to windmill without lubrication for
extended periods can damage engine bearings

Securing procedures require particular attention


to use of the parking brake and the rudder gust
lockpin. Before towing the airplane, the parking
brake must be released (brake handle pushed in).
The rudder gust lockpin must be removed on aircraft equipped with manual steering. On aircraft
equipped with power steering, removing the lock
is unnecessary, since the nosewheel is free to turn
when power steering is off.

Figure 1-31 Airplane Secured

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

TAXIING

SERVICING DATA

Partial braking and differential power are used to


achieve maximum ground turning radius during
taxi (Figures 1-32 and 1-33). Use caution, however, since locking the inside brake can cause tire
or strut damage. When taxiing, turning, and starting engines, be aware that propeller windstream
and exhaust can be hazardous to persons or
parked airplanes in areas directly behind the
engines (Figure 1-34). Although velocities and
temperatures cannot be accurately measured, reasonable care should be taken to prevent incidents
within these danger areas.

The Handling, Servicing, and Maintenance section of the POH/AFM outlines procedures for
maintaining the 1900 Airliner in its originally
manufactured condition. This information sets
time intervals for periodic servicing or preventive
maintenance. All limits, procedures, safety practices, time limits, servicing, and maintenance
requirements contained in the POH/AFM are
mandatory. This section of the POH/AFM
includes a Consumable Materials chart, which
lists approved and recommended servicing materials. Figure 1-35 illustrates servicing points and
materials required. This chart is for reference
only and is always superseded by the POH/AFM.

Figure 1-32 Ground Turning ClearanceSeries UA, UB, UC

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Figure 1-33 Ground Turning ClearanceSeries UE

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 1-34 Danger Areas

PRODUCT SUPPORT

contact the appropriate specialist to return your


call.

The Beechcraft Commercial Service Department


maintains a staff of service engineers to provide
technical assistance whenever required.

At Beechcraft, the Commercial Service Department (CSD) is the single focal point for airline
service requirements. When necessary, the CSD
will involve other factory departments (Engineering, Quality Control, etc.) for assistance. Product
support is truly a team effort.

Airframe, engine, avionics, and electrical specialists are just a phone call away. During normal
working hours, phone (316) 676-7016 for access
to our Airliner Service Group. The specialist
most familiar with your particular question will
be assigned to handle your request immediately.
After hours and on weekends or holidays, our
service engineers may be reached through the
Service Hot-Line, (316) 676-7111. This number will reach a Beech dispatcher, who will

1-36

Beechcraft currently offers start-up service during the delivery process. This program provides
technical assistance and spare parts when
advance notice of customer requirements is furnished. Complete details are available from your
sales representative.

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Figure 1-35 Servicing Data

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EXTERIOR INSPECTION
1. Cockpit Check
2. Nose Section
3. Right Wing, Landing Gear, Engine, Nacelle,
and Propeller
4. Empennage and Tail

NOTE
The preflight inspection has been
divided into five areas as shown (Figure 1-36). The inspection procedure in
the POH/AFM begins in the flight
compartment, proceeds aft, then
moves clockwise around the aircraft,
discussing the left wing, landing gear,
left engine and propeller, nose section, etc.

5. Left Wing, Landing Gear, Engine, Nacelle,


and Propeller

Figure 1-36 Exterior Inspection

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CHAPTER 2
ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 2-1
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................. 2-1
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ....................................................................................................... 2-1
DC Power Distribution.................................................................................................... 2-7
Battery ........................................................................................................................... 2-12
Starter/Generators.......................................................................................................... 2-13
AC Power Distribution (Series UA, UB, UC)............................................................... 2-15
AC Power Distribution (Series UE) .............................................................................. 2-20
EXTERNAL POWER........................................................................................................... 2-39
AVIONICS MASTER POWER ........................................................................................... 2-40
CIRCUIT BREAKERS......................................................................................................... 2-41
ABNORMAL INDICATIONS ............................................................................................. 2-42
Generator Inoperative.................................................................................................... 2-42
Battery Charge Annunciator Illuminated ...................................................................... 2-42
Circuit Breaker Tripped................................................................................................. 2-42
Triple Fed Bus Fault...................................................................................................... 2-42

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ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

2-1

Electrical System Schematic Symbols..................................................................... 2-2

2-2

Electrical System Component Locations................................................................. 2-3

2-3

Pilots Subpanel and Overhead PanelUA, UB, UC ............................................. 2-4

2-4

Electrical System Buses and FeedersUA/UB ...................................................... 2-6

2-5

Right Circuit Breaker PanelUA, UB, UC .......................................................... 2-10

2-6

Battery.................................................................................................................... 2-12

2-7

Starter Generator.................................................................................................... 2-13

2-8

Inverter Schematic ................................................................................................. 2-16

2-9

Inverter SchematicCondition 1 .......................................................................... 2-17

2-10

Inverter SchematicCondition 2 .......................................................................... 2-18

2-11

Inverter SchematicCondition 3 .......................................................................... 2-19

2-12

AC SchematicInverters ON (Series UE) ........................................................... 2-21

2-13

AC SchematicNo. 1 Inverter Transfer (Series UE) ........................................... 2-22

2-14

AC SchematicLoad Shed (Series UE) ............................................................... 2-23

2-15

DC Electrical System Diagram.............................................................................. 2-24

2-16

DC SystemBattery OFF..................................................................................... 2-25

2-17

DC SystemBattery ON ...................................................................................... 2-26

2-18

DC SystemGenerator Ties Man Closed............................................................. 2-27

2-19

DC SystemRH Engine Start............................................................................... 2-28

2-20

DC SystemRH Generator ON............................................................................ 2-29

2-21

DC SystemLH Engine Cross Start..................................................................... 2-30

2-22

DC SystemBoth Generators ON ........................................................................ 2-31

2-23

DC SystemGenerator Ties OPEN...................................................................... 2-32

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2-24

DC SystemBus Sense Test ................................................................................ 2-33

2-25

DC SystemBoth Generators Failed ................................................................... 2-34

2-26

DC SystemRH Generator Bus Short ................................................................. 2-35

2-27

DC SystemCenter Bus Short ............................................................................. 2-36

2-28

DC SystemTFB Short ....................................................................................... 2-37

2-29

DC SystemExternal Power Applied.................................................................. 2-38

2-30

Avionics Master Power Schematic ....................................................................... 2-40

2-31

Fuel Panel Circuit Breakers................................................................................... 2-41

2-32

Right Circuit Breaker Panel .................................................................................. 2-41

2-33

Generator Annunciator Lights............................................................................... 2-42

2-34

Battery Charge Annunciator Light........................................................................ 2-42

2-iv

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CHAPTER 2
ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

G
EN PL
#1 IL
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#1 EN
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# SY
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FF

ACEN
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INTRODUCTION
Understanding the airplane electrical system will ease pilot workload for normal operations and
during an electrical system or component failure. The pilot should be able to locate and identify
switches and circuit breakers quickly, and should also be familiar with appropriate corrective
actions in emergency situations.

GENERAL
The Electrical System section of the workbook
presents a description and discussion of the airplane electrical system and components. The
electrical system is discussed to the extent necessary for the pilot to cope with normal and
emergency operations. The location and purpose
of switches, indicators, lights, and circuit breakers are described. DC and AC generation and
distribution is detailed. This section includes
electrical system limits and descriptions of system and component faults. Figure 2-1 shows
symbols used in the electrical system schematics.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
The airplane electrical system is a 28 VDC (nominal) system with the negative lead of each power
source grounded to the main airplane structure.
Direct Current (DC) electrical power is provided
by one 24 VDC, 34-amp-hour nickel-cadmium
battery, and two 28 VDC, 300-amp starter/generators connected in parallel. This system is
capable of supplying power to all subsystems
necessary for normal airplane operation. Figure
2-2 shows the location of the electrical system

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components. The Master Switch on the pilot's


left subpanel controls battery and generator
power to the airplane electrical system (Figure
2-3).
The battery is connected to the hot battery bus.
Both are located in the right center wing. Operation of equipment on the hot battery bus does not
depend upon battery switch position. The battery
switch closes a battery bus tie and a battery relay,
connecting the battery to the rest of the electrical
system. A circuit containing isolation diodes permits the battery relay to be energized by external
power or by generator power from the center bus
if battery voltage is insufficient to activate the
relay.
Individual generator control units regulate output
to supply constant voltage to the buses, compensating for variations in engine speed and
electrical loads. The load on each generator is
indicated by left and right loadmeters on the
overhead meter panel. A normal system voltage
of 28.25 (0.25) volts maintains the battery at
full charge.
The 1900 Airliner utilizes a multi-bus system.
The main buses are left and right generator buses,
center bus, triple-fed bus and hot battery bus. All
switches in the cockpit that receive power from
the center OR triple-fed buses are identified by a
white ring around the switch. Electrical loads are
divided among the buses as noted on the Electrical System Buses and Feeders Chart (Figure
2-4). Equipment is arranged so that all items with
duplicate functions (such as right and left landing
lights) are connected to different buses.
During normal operation, all buses are automatically tied together, supplying power through
individual protective devices. The hot battery bus
is always connected directly to the battery. The
triple-fed bus is powered by the battery and by
both generator buses. Left and right generators
supply power to their respective left and right
generator buses. The center bus is fed by two
generator buses and by the battery. All three
buses automatically connect whenever the bus
ties are closed. These are shown in the DC Electrical System Diagram (Figure 2-15).

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Figure 2-1 Electrical System


Schematic Symbols

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Figure 2-2 Electrical System Component Locations

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Figure 2-3 Pilots Subpanel and Overhead PanelUA, UB, UC (1 of 2)

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Figure 2-3 Pilots Subpanel and Overhead PanelUE (2 of 2)

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Bus volts may be individually monitored on the


voltmeter by selecting the appropriate bus with
the VOLTMETER BUS SELECT switch located
in the overhead panel (Figure 2-3).
The electrical system provides maximum protection against electrical power loss should a ground
fault occur. High current (Hall Effect) sensors,
bus tie relays, and current limiters are provided to
isolate a fault from its power source. The electri-

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

cal system bus arrangement provides multiple


power sources for all circuits.

NOTE
Figures 2-15 through 2-29 (Pages 2-24
through 2-38) represent electrical system power distribution schematics for
various conditions. These illustrations
will be referred to throughout this
discussion.

Figure 2-4 Electrical System Buses and FeedersUA/UB (1 of 3)

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DC POWER DISTRIBUTION
The DC power distribution system is commonly
called a triple-fed system since most buses
receive power from three sources. For this reason, a back-up power source is available to most
of the aircraft electrical systems.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Three in-flight DC power sources are available:

One 24 VDC, 34-amp-hour Nickel-Cadmium Battery

Two 28 VDC Starter/Generators

When the battery switch is turned ON, both the


battery relay and the battery bus tie relay close
(Figure 2-17). Battery power is routed through
the battery relay to the triple-fed bus, and through

Figure 2-4 Electrical System Buses and FeedersUC (2 of 3)

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Figure 2-4 Electrical System Buses and FeedersUE (3 of 3)

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the battery bus tie relay to the center bus and to


both starter relays. Battery power is now available for starting either engine. Neither generator
bus is yet powered since the generator bus ties
are normally open until a generator is brought on
line. Power can be provided to generator buses, if
desired, by manually closing the GEN TIE
switch. However, generator bus power is not
required for engine start.
After either engine has been started, and a generator switch has been moved to RESET, the
Generator Control Unit (voltage regulator) will
bring the generator up to voltage. Releasing the
springloaded switch to the center ON position
closes the generator line contactor and both generator ties, automatically supplying power
through two 250-amp current limiters (UA, UB,
UC to both generator buses. Generator output
will then be routed through the center bus and
through the battery bus tie to permit battery
charging. As soon as one generator is providing
power to the electrical system, the opposite generator bus and the triple-fed bus are also
powered, supplying 28 VDC power to all airplane systems (Figure 2-20).
When both generators are operating, each generator directly feeds its respective generator bus.
The generator buses, hot battery bus, and battery
are tied to the center bus. The triple-fed bus
receives power from the battery and from each
generator bus. Three 60-amp current limiters and
three diodes provide fault isolation protection for
the triple-fed bus.

Bus Tie System


The electrical system is protected from excessively high current flow by the bus tie system.
Three current sensors and their associated bus tie
relays are electrically connected through a solidstate control circuit board. The current sensors
(known as Hall Effect Devices) are located
between both generator buses and the center bus,
and between the battery and the center bus. The
current sensors serve only to isolate a bus from
the rest of the electrical system without any
action by the pilot. The control circuit board also
permits a functional check of the current sensor

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

system by checking their ability to sense a


ground fault and open their respective bus tie
relays.
A current flow of at least 275 (5) (325 UE)
amps instantly activates an internal solid-state
switch within the sensors, causing them to open
their associated bus tie relays. Once activated, the
sensors prevent the bus tie relays from closing
until the circuit is reset. When a bus tie opens, the
control relay will illuminate the appropriate GEN
TIE or BAT TIE OPEN annunciator. After a bus
tie relay is activated by a fault, it may be reset by
momentarily pressing the BUS SENSE-RESET
switch on the pilot's left subpanel.
Two switches on the pilot's left subpanel control
the bus tie system. One switch, placarded BUS
SENSE-TEST-RESET, is spring loaded to the
center NORM position. Pressing the switch to
TEST connects bus voltage to each current sensor test circuit (Figure 2-24), causing test current
to travel directly through the Hall Effect sensing
device. The solid-state sensor switch energizes
the control relay and opens the bus tie relays,
illuminating GEN TIE OPEN and BAT TIE
OPEN annunciators. The reaction time of the
sensor modules is approximately 0.010 seconds
for generator current sensors and 0.120 seconds
for the battery current sensor. Only momentary
activation of the TEST switch is required. Voltage is continuously applied to the test circuit
when the switch is held in TEST; therefore, prolonged application of test voltage will damage or
destroy the sensor module.
Momentarily activating the switch to RESET
deenergizes the control relays, closes the bus tie
relays, and extinguishes the annunciators.
Located adjacent to the bus sense switch, the
generator bus tie control switch is placarded
GEN TIES-MAN CLOSE-OPEN. The GEN
TIES control switch must be lifted out of the
lever-locked NORM position to either OPEN or
MAN CLOSE. The switch locks in OPEN, but
springs back to NORM from MAN CLOSE, and
manually controls only the generator bus tie
relays. Manually closing the generator bus tie
relays connects generator buses to the center bus,

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and permits battery power to feed the entire electrical system (Figure 2-18).

Bus Isolation

Momentarily placing the GEN TIES switch in


CLOSE completes a latching circuit, closing
both generator bus ties, and illuminating the
MAN TIES CLOSE annunciator. The generator
bus tie relays cannot be manually closed if the tie
opened due to a ground fault; however, reset may
be attempted with the BUS TIES-TEST-RESET
switch by momentarily placing the switch to
RESET.

Automatic bus isolation capability is provided by


high current sensing devices (Hall Effect
Devices) which protect generator and center
buses. If excessive current flow is sensed, the
HED opens its associated bus tie, isolating that
particular bus from its power source. The two
remaining buses continue to operate as a system.
Current sensors are deactivated during engine
starts to prevent high current flow from opening
the bus ties when the starter is energized.

When the generator ties are already closed, the


GEN TIES switch can be used to open the generator bus ties. When the GEN TIES switch is
positioned to OPEN, power is removed from the
generator bus tie relay circuit.

Series UA, UB, UC


A 250-amp current limiter (large slow-blow fuse)
is located in the circuitry between the center bus
and each of the generator buses. Since HED's
sense high current in only one direction, current
limiters are needed to provide protection for current flow in the opposite direction. If an
overcurrent situation causes a current limiter to
open, it also will cause bus isolation.

Figure 2-5 Right Circuit Breaker PanelUA, UB, UC (1 of 2)

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Series UE
In the UE Series, the 250-amp current limiters
have been removed and the HED's in the generator circuits have been changed to bidirectional
325-amp units. If an overcurrent situation occurs,
one or both of the generator ties will be opened

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

causing bus isolation. The operation of the battery tie HED remains the same as earlier models.
Current protection for the triple-fed bus is provided exclusively by 60-amp current limiters.
Triple-fed bus isolation will occur only if all
three of these limiters open (Figure 2-26).

Figure 2-5 Right Circuit Breaker PanelUE (2 of 2)

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Load Shedding

BATTERY

The electrical system features automatic load


shedding capability. When the battery is the only
power source, the system automatically isolates
both generator buses. If both generators are
secured (or fail), both generator bus ties open,
shedding all electrical loads on the generator
buses (Figure 2-25). The battery will continue to
power the center, triple-fed, and hot battery
buses.

The 20-cell, nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cad) battery is


located in the right center wing in an air-cooled
box (Figure 2-6). The battery relay and charge
monitor shunt are mounted in the battery compartment immediately forward of the battery.
Power to the main electrical buses is routed from
the battery through the battery relay and battery
bus tie, both controlled by the BAT-ON-OFF
switch on the pilot's left subpanel.

If necessary, power to the generator buses can be


restored by manually closing the generator ties.
However, if both generators have failed in flight,
manually closing the generator bus ties will
cause the battery to discharge at a much faster
rate. If, for any reason, it becomes necessary to
close the generator ties, they should be opened
again as soon as practical to conserve battery
power. Without an operating generator, the battery cannot be recharged in flight.

Some aircraft systems are powered directly from


the hot battery bus, and can be operated without
turning the battery switch on; however, when
generators are not on line, these systems should
be used sparingly to prevent excessive battery
discharge.
A battery charge monitor system advises the pilot
of battery charge/discharge status. A charge rate
of more than 7 amps, for 6 or more seconds, will
trigger the yellow BATTERY CHARGE annunciator light.

Figure 2-6 Battery

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The BATTERY CHARGE annunciator may be


illuminated for short intervals when heavy electrical draw items are cycled. For example,
following a battery-powered engine start, normal
r a p i d c h a rg e r a t e s c a u s e t h e BAT T E RY
CHARGE annunciator to be illuminated, providing automatic self-test of the battery charge
monitor system. As the battery approaches its
fully-charged level, and charge current decreases
to a preset level, the annunciator will be extinguished. This will normally occur within a few
minutes after engine start; however, longer charging times may be required if the battery has a low
state of charge, low charge voltage per cell, or
low temperature. On UC-59 and after, and UE-1
and after, a battery ammeter is fitted in the overhead panel.
Procedures for monitoring battery condition with
the battery charge monitoring system are outlined in the POH/AFM Normal Procedures
section.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

STARTER/GENERATORS
The starter/generators are dual-purpose, enginedriven units (Figure 2-7). The same unit functions as a starter during engine starting and as a
generator when supplying electrical power. A
series starter winding is used during starter operation, and a shunt field winding is used during
generator operation. Regulated generator output
is 28.25 (0.25) volts, and 300 amps maximum
continuous load.
Starter power to each individual starter/generator
is provided from the center bus through a starter
relay. During engine starts, the battery is connected to the starter/generator by the starter relay.
With one engine running and its generator on
line, the operating generator can be used to assist
the battery in starting the opposite engine. This is
called a generator cross-start. Normally the first
engine is started on battery power alone, and the
second engine is started using a generatorassisted cross-start.

Figure 2-7 Starter Generator

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The starter turns the engine compressor through


accessory gearing, and is controlled by left or
right engine ignition switches. Both switches,
located on the pilot's left subpanel are placarded
IGNITION AND ENGINE START, ON-OFFSTARTER ONLY. Actuating the switch to either
position energizes the starter through the start
relay. The generator control relays disable the
field shunt and prevent generator operation during the start cycle.
During a cross-start (Figure 2-21) the operating
Generator Control Unit will control generator
output to approximately 400 amps, preventing
transient surges from opening the 250-amp current limiter (UA, UB, UC). In addition, whenever
a starter is selected, all bus tie sensors are deactivated to prevent bus tie relays from opening.
To prevent damage to starter motors, starter operation time limitations must be observed. Consult
the POH/AFM for starter cycle limitation applicable to the model being operated.

DC Generation
The generator system consists of the starter/generator units, generator control switches,
generator control units (GCUs), line contactors
and loadmeters.
Generator switches, labeled OFF, ON, and
RESET, are located on the pilot's left subpanel
next to the battery switch. The generating system
is self-exciting and does not require electrical
power from the aircraft electrical system for
operation. The system uses generator residual
voltage for initial generator buildup.
Two generator control units, mounted below the
center aisle floor, regulate generator output and
provide constant bus voltage during variations in
engine speed and electrical load requirements.
When both generators are operating, generator
control panels should balance electrical loads
between the two generators within 10 percent.
Generators are manually connected to voltage
regulating circuits by GEN 1 and GEN 2 control
switches on the pilot's left subpanel. Each gener-

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ator's load is indicated separately on its


respective loadmeter in the overhead meter panel.
The generator control units (GCU) provide the
following functions:
1. Voltage regulation and line contactor control
2. Overvoltage and overexcitation protection
3. Paralleling/load sharing
4. Reverse-current protection
5. Line contactor control
6. Cross-start current limiting

Voltage Regulation and Line


Contactor Control
The generators are normally regulated to 28.25
(0.25) VDC. When the generator control switch
is held in RESET, generator residual voltage is
applied through the GCU to the generator shunt
field causing the generator output voltage to rise.
As generator output approaches the 28 VDC regulator setting, the voltage regulator circuit begins
controlling the generator shunt field to maintain a
constant output voltage. The voltage regulator
circuit varies shunt field excitation, as required,
to maintain a constant 28 VDC generator output
for all rated conditions of generator speed, load
and temperature.
Releasing the generator control switch from reset
to ON applies generator voltage to the GCU, and
closes the line contactor control circuit. The
GCU compares generator output voltage to aircraft bus voltage. If generator output voltage has
risen to within 0.5 volts of the aircraft bus, the
GCU will output a signal to the line contactor
which will close and connect the generator to the
aircraft bus (Figure 2-20). In addition, the line
contactor control signal closes both generator bus
ties, connecting the center bus and the generator
buses. With the bus ties closed, the generator can
recharge the aircraft battery and provide power to
all aircraft electrical loads.

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During single-generator operation, the GCU


opens the line contactor and isolates the inoperative generator from its bus.

The GCU's cross-start current limiting circuit


reduces operating generator output to protect the
250-amp current limiter (Series UA, UB, UC.

Overvoltage and Overexcitation


Protection

AC POWER DISTRIBUTION
(SERIES UA, UB, UC)

The GCU provides overvoltage protection to prevent excessive generator voltage from being
applied to aircraft electrical equipment. If either
generator output exceeds the maximum allowable 32 volts, that generator will attempt to
absorb all aircraft electrical loads. The overexcitation circuits of the GCU will detect which
generator is producing excessive voltage, and
will disconnect that generator from the electrical
system.

Two solid state inverters (Figure 2-8) supply AC


power for avionics and for AC-powered engine
instruments. Only one inverter is in use at a time
in Series UA, UB, UC aircraft, and either inverter
will provide both 115 volts, 400 Hz for avionics
equipment and 26 volts, 400 Hz for applicable
engine instruments and some avionics. Output of
the standard inverter is 250 volt-amps. Optional
inverters with higher volt-amp ratings are
available.

Paralleling/Load Sharing
The paralleling circuit averages the output of
both generators to equalize load levels. The paralleling circuits of both GCU's become operative
when both generators are brought on line. The
paralleling circuits sense generator field voltages
to compare the loads of both generators. The
voltage regulator circuits then increase or
decrease individual generator loads until both
generators share the load equally. The GCU's are
designed to balance loads to within 10 percent
when above 25% on the load meters.

The inverters are installed in the upper aft area of


each nacelle. Inverter operation is controlled by
the INVERTER NO. 1-OFF-NO. 2 select switch
on the pilot's left subpanel. The switch actuates
an inverter power relay, supplying the selected
inverter with DC power. When DC power is supplied, an inverter select relay provides the
necessary switching to permit the operating
inverter to supply 26 VAC avionics and instrument power, and 115 VAC avionics and test jack
power. The inverter select relay is energized
when the number one inverter is selected (Figure
2-9). It is deenergized when the inverter switch
selects inverter number two or off.

Reverse-Current Protection
If, for any reason, a generator is unable to supply
at least 28.25 (.25) volts to its bus, it will begin
to draw current from the aircraft electrical system. The generator with higher output voltage
will attempt to feed the underexcited generator
(reverse current). If the GCU senses reverse current in the generator field, it will protect that
generator by opening its line contactor.

Cross-Start Current Limiting


During cross-start, when the starter motor is
engaged, a signal from the starter control switch
is applied to the GCU of the operating generator.

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Dual sources of DC input power are available to


each inverter. The power select relay for each
inverter automatically selects inverter power
from its respective generator bus, or from the
center bus if the generator bus is not powered.
When battery power is applied to the center bus
prior to engine start (Figure 2-11) inverter power
is available to the power relay of each inverter
through the normally closed contacts of an
inverter power select relay.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

A failure of one inverter power source will not


cause loss of the selected inverter. During normal
operation, the inverter power select relay is energized, supplying power from the generator bus
through a circuit breaker on the copilot's circuit
breaker panel. If a fault interrupts power to that
bus, the power select relay will deenergize, automatically supplying inverter input power from
the center bus.

Figure 2-8 Inverter Schematic

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Figure 2-9 Inverter SchematicCondition 1

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Figure 2-10 Inverter SchematicCondition 2

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Figure 2-11 Inverter SchematicCondition 3

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AC POWER DISTRIBUTION
(SERIES UE)
The solid state inverters (Figure 2-12) supply AC
power for the EFIS System, selected avionics and
the Engine Torque gauges (UE-1 thru UE-92).
Both inverters are utilized at all times during normal operations.
The standard inverters are rated at 250 volt-amp,
115 volt, 400 Hz for avionics equipment and 26
volt, 400 Hz for applicable engine instruments
and some avionics. Optional inverters with
higher volt-amp ratings are available.
In the case of an inverter failure, action can be
taken by the pilot to transfer all of the items on
the failed bus to the operational inverter without
loss of any operational capability (Figure 2-13).
Dual sources of DC input power are available to
each inverter. The power-select relay for each
inverter automatically selects inverter power
from its respective generator bus, or from the
center bus if the generator bus is not powered.
When battery power is applied to the center bus
prior to engine start, inverter power is available
to the power relay of each inverter through the
normally closed contacts of the inverter powerselect relays.
A failure of one inverter power source will not
cause loss of the inverter. During normal operation, the inverter power-select relay is energized,
supplying power from the generator bus through
a circuit breaker on the copilot's circuit breaker
panel. If a fault interrupts power to that bus, the
power-select relay will deenergize, automatically
supplying inverter input power from the center
bus.
In the case of a dual generator failure, both
inverters will receive DC power from the center
bus and the AC SHED buses will be activated
(Figure 2-14). This reduction in AC power
requirements, along with AC bus transfer action
taken by the pilot, will result in reducing the DC
power requirement. The AFM should be consulted for equipment lost during AC SHED bus
operation.

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NICAD BATTERY CONDITION


CHECK USING LOADMETER
(GROUND OPERATION ONLY)
Following an engine start, battery recharge current is very high causing normal illumination of
the BATTERY CHARGE annunciator. The
annunciator should extinguish within five minutes. If it does not extinguish, or if it should
reappear, battery charge current should be monitored until the annunciator does extinguish. For
those aircraft without a battery ammeter, use the
following procedure to determine the battery
charge current. Do not use this procedure if the
Battery Charge Annunciator has illuminated in
flight, but refer to the POH/AFM Abnormal
Checklist for in-flight procedures.
1. One GeneratorOFF
2. Voltmeter Bus Select SwitchBATT (Read
28 volts)
3. Momentarily turn the battery switch OFF,
noting change in loadmeter indication.
4. The change in loadmeter indication is the
battery charge current and should be no more
than 2.5 percent (only perceivable needle
movement). If the results are unsatisfactory,
repeat the check until the charge current
decreases to less than 2.5 percent.
Battery condition can also be checked on the
ground before engine shutdown. With the volt
select switch in BATT, the voltmeter should indicate 28 volts. Momentarily turn the battery
switch off, noting the change in loadmeter indication. If the change value exceeds 2.5 percent,
allow the battery to charge, repeating the check
every 90 seconds. The change in loadmeter indication (the amount of needle deflection) is
directly proportional to battery charging current.
A change value of 2.5 percent is indicated by
very little needle movement, since full-scale
deflection represents a relative load value of 100
percent. If the change value is not less then 2.5
percent within three minutes, remove the battery
and have it checked by a qualified nickel cadmium battery shop.

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Figure 2-12 AC SchematicInverters ON (Series UE)

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Figure 2-13 AC SchematicNo. 1 Inverter Transfer (Series UE)

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Figure 2-14 AC SchematicLoad Shed (Series UE)

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The following figures represent various configurations of the electrical system.

Figure 2-15 DC Electrical System Diagram

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Figure 2-16 DC SystemBattery OFF

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Figure 2-17 DC SystemBattery ON

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Figure 2-18 DC SystemGenerator Ties Man Closed

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Figure 2-19 DC SystemRH Engine Start

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Figure 2-20 DC SystemRH Generator ON

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Figure 2-21 DC SystemLH Engine Cross Start

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Figure 2-22 DC SystemBoth Generators ON

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Figure 2-23 DC SystemGenerator Ties OPEN

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Figure 2-24 DC SystemBus Sense Test

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 2-25 DC SystemBoth Generators Failed

2-34

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Figure 2-26 DC SystemRH Generator Bus Short

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Figure 2-27 DC SystemCenter Bus Short

2-36

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Figure 2-28 DC SystemTFB Short

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 2-29 DC SystemExternal Power Applied

2-38

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

EXTERNAL POWER
External power can be supplied to the aircraft
electrical system through an external power
receptacle, located under the aft portion of the
left nacelle. When external power is connected, a
relay in the external power sensor will close only
if correct polarity is sensed (Figure 2-29).
Whenever an external power plug is connected to
the receptacle the green (white - UE) EXTERNAL POWER annunciator will illuminate,
whether or not the external power unit is ON.
The external power switch on the pilot's left subpanel closes the external power relay. A highvoltage sensor prevents the external power relay
from closing if external power is above 32 (0.5)
volts DC. When the switch (placarded EXT PWR
- OFF) is moved to EXT PWR, external power
enters the aircraft electrical system, and closes
both generator bus tie relays. The entire electrical
system, including the starters, is then powered.
When the external power plug is connected to the
aircraft, voltage can be monitored by rotating the
VOLTMETER SELECT switch in the overhead
panel to the EXT PWR position. External power
voltage can be monitored with the external power
switch in any position.
The external power source should be capable of
delivering adequate power for aircraft starts.
Using an inadequate ground power unit can
cause voltage drop, which may cause the starter
to intermittently drop off-line resulting in relay
chatter and possible welded contacts. Prior to
attempting an external power start, aircraft electrical loads should be reduced to the minimum
level practical.
Observe the following precautions when using an
external power source:
1. When an external power source is used,
ascertain that the auxiliary power unit has a
minimum capacity of 1000 amps (intermittent) and 300 amps (continuous) output at
28.0 to 28.4 VDC. Never connect an external
power source to the airplane unless the air-

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

craft battery indicates a charge of at least 20


volts.
2. Use only an auxiliary power source that has a
negative ground. If the polarity of the power
source is unknown, use a voltmeter to determine polarity before connecting the unit to
the airplane. If the ground power unit is not
fitted with a standard AN-type plug, the
polarity of the plug must be checked. The
positive lead from the ground power unit
must be connected to the center post of the
external power receptacle; the negative lead
must be connected to the front post, and a
positive voltage of 24 to 28 VDC must be
applied to the small polarizing pin.
3. Be sure the external power unit is turned off
before connecting it to the aircraft. In addition, all radio equipment, the battery switch,
the external power switch and the generator
switches should be off. Generators should
remain off until auxiliary power has been
disconnected.
Because avionics master power relays must
be energized to remove power from avionics
equipment, the battery should be on before
external power is used for engine starts. In
addition to protecting avionics from transient
electrical surges, the battery will provide a
backup source of power during the start
cycle. If the battery is removed from the airplane, or if the battery switch is off, a battery
should be connected in parallel to the external power unit prior to energizing ground
power.
4. If battery voltage indicates less than 20 volts,
the battery must be recharged or replaced
before using external power.
5. External power voltage must be regulated to
28.0 to 28.4 volts before it is plugged in to
the external power receptacle. Voltages
higher than 30 volts over extended time periods can damage the battery. The overvoltage
sensor will prevent external power from feeding the electrical system if voltage is greater
than 32 (.5) volts.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

The following list outlines basic procedures for


using external power for engine starts. These procedures are detailed further in the Normal
Procedures section of the POH/AFM.
1. Turn the battery switch ON.
2. Connect external power; check EXT PWR
annunciator illuminated.
3. Turn the external power unit ON; check voltmeter reading in EXT PWR position.
4. Turn the external power switch ON.
5. Monitor external power voltage on the overhead panel voltmeter.
6. Observe BAT TIE OPEN and GEN TIES
OPEN annunciators extinguished. Use the voltmeter selector switch to check that external
power is supplied to all buses.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

AVIONICS MASTER
POWER
Each navigation and communication radio unit
has its own on-off switch; however, for pilot convenience and to prevent wear on individual
switches, an avionics master power switch is
installed on the pilot's left subpanel.
The switch is powered through the Avionics
Master circuit breaker on the copilot's circuit
breaker panel (Figure 7-34). If all avionics drop
off-line, but the circuit breaker does not trip, the
trouble could be in the Avionics Master switch.
Radios can be returned to service by pulling the
Avionics Master circuit breaker. An Avionics
Master Power schematic is shown in (Figure
2-30).
Avionics are available in a variety of packages
specific to each airplane installation. Refer to
vendor supplements and to the Avionics Section
of this workbook for details of the avionics
system.

Figure 2-30 Avionics Master Power Schematic

2-40

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

CIRCUIT BREAKERS
Both AC and DC power are distributed to aircraft
systems through two separate circuit breaker
panels which protect most components in the airplane. Each circuit breaker is stamped with its
amperage rating. The small circuit breaker panel,
below the fuel management gages, contains circuit breakers for the fuel system (Figure 2-31).
The main circuit breaker panel is located to the
right of the copilot (Figure 2-32).

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The copilots circuit breaker panel contains


breakers for major engine-related systems, all
avionics components, environmental system,
lights, annunciator warning systems, and some
low current draw systems. Circuit breakers for
the electrical distribution system are also on this
panel.
Detailed procedures for tripped circuit breakers,
and other electrical system malfunctions are
found in the POH Abnormal Procedures section.

Figure 2-31 Fuel Panel Circuit Breakers

Figure 2-32 Right Circuit Breaker Panel

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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ABNORMAL
INDICATIONS

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

BATTERY CHARGE
ANNUNCIATOR ILLUMINATED

Electrical fires are covered in the POH/AFM


Emergency Procedures section. Abnormal electrical system situations are described in the
POH/AFM Abnormal Procedures section. For all
authorized procedures refer to the POH/AFM.
However, the following descriptions illustrate
some representative situations.

I n - fl i g h t i l l u m i n a t i o n o f t h e BAT T E RY
CHARGE annunciator indicates an above-normal charge current and a possible battery
malfunction. See POH/AFM Normal Procedures
for complete battery condition check procedures.
An amperage of 7 amps or more for six seconds
will activate this light.

GENERATOR INOPERATIVE
If an L DC GEN or R DC GEN caution annunciator illuminates flight, turn that generator OFF.
Wait one second, then move the switch to
RESET for one second, then ON. If the generator
will not reset, turn it off and rely on the other
operating generator. Monitor the loadmeter to
ensure generator loads remain below 100
percent.

Figure 2-34 Battery Charge


Annunciator Light

CIRCUIT BREAKER TRIPPED


If a system draws excessive current through its
circuit breaker, the circuit breaker will trip.
Resetting a tripped circuit breaker can cause further damage to a component or system. If a nonessential circuit breaker on either circuit breaker
panel trips during flight, do not reset it. If the
tripped breaker protects an essential system, such
as avionics, wait a few seconds and reset it. If it
fails to reset, DO NOT attempt to reset it again.

TRIPLE FED BUS FAULT


Figure 2-33 Generator Annunciator Lights

If either loadmeter exceeds the 100 percent maximum limit, turn the battery switch off and
monitor the loadmeters. If either loadmeter continues to indicate more than 100 percent, turn off
all nonessential electrical equipment. If the readings then fall below 100 percent, turn the battery
switch back on. Continue to monitor the loadmeters for the remainder of the flight.

2-42

There is no annunciation for a triple fed bus fault,


but can be determined by using the voltmeter
selector switch. If a triple-fed bus fault exists, the
voltmeter will indicate zero volts when TPL BUS
is selected with the volt select switch. Reset
capability is not provided for this situation, however, the pilot can determine inoperative
components by referring to the Power Distribution Schematic.

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 3
LIGHTING
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 3-1
DESCRIPTION....................................................................................................................... 3-1
COCKPIT LIGHTING ........................................................................................................... 3-3
CABIN LIGHTING ................................................................................................................ 3-3
EXTERIOR LIGHTING......................................................................................................... 3-3
Series UA, UB, and UC................................................................................................... 3-3
Series UE......................................................................................................................... 3-3

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

3-1

Overhead Light Control Panel (Series UA, UB, and UC) ....................................... 3-2

3-2

Exterior Lights Group (Series UA, UB, and UC).................................................... 3-2

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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CHAPTER 3
LIGHTING

EXIT
INTRODUCTION
The Beech 1900 Airliner lighting system consists of cockpit-controlled interior and exterior
lights. Interior lights are in the cockpit and passenger cabin. Exterior lighting consists of navigation lights, entry and exit threshold lights, and cargo area lights.

DESCRIPTION
The lighting system contains independently operated circuits that light the following areas of the
aircraft:

Cockpit

Passenger compartment

Entrance and exit areas

Cargo area

Aircraft exterior

Interior lights in the cockpit illuminate the ight


instruments. Reading lights and exit lights are in
the passenger cabin. Exterior entrance, exit, and
cargo area lights illuminate the airstair and cargo
area. The exterior lights improve aircraft visibility, both on the ground and in ight, to enhance
trafc avoidance.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

PILOT
MIC
OXYGEN
MASK

CO-PILOT
MIC
OXYGEN
MASK
DO NOT OPERATE
ON DRY GLASS
WINDSHEILD WIPER
OFF
PARK
SLOW

NORMAL

NORMAL

FAST

MASTER
PANEL
LIGHTS
ON

PILOT
FLIGHT
LIGHTS

ENGINE
INSTRUMENT
LIGHTS

BRT

OFF

BRT

AVIONICS
PANEL
LIGHTS

OFF

BRT

INCR

INCR

OVERHEAD
FLOOD
LIGHTS
OFF

BRT

INCR

OFF

INSTRUMENT
INDIRECT
LIGHTS
BRT

INCR

EDGELIGHT
PANEL
LIGHTS

OFF

BRT

INCR

OFF

OVERHEAD
SIDEPANEL
SUBPANEL
& CONSOLE IND
LIGHTS
OFF

BRT

CO-PILOT
FLIGHT
LIGHTS
BRT

INCR

INCR

OFF

INCR

OFF

CABIN LIGHTS

EXTERIOR LIGHTS
LANDING

TAXI

ICE

ANTI COLLISION
BEACON STROBE
FLT

NAV

RECOG

CABIN
FULL

TAIL
FLOOD

OFF

NORM

OFF
MAXIMUM AIRSPEEDS KIAS

THIS AIRPLANE MUST BE OPERATED AS A COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANE IN COMPLIANCE


WITH THE OPERATING LIMITATIONS STATED IN THE FORM OF PLACARDS MARKINGS AND
MANUALS. NO ACROBATIC MANUEVERS INCLUDING SPINS ARE APPROVED.
THIS AIRPLANE APPROVED FOR VFR, IFR, DAY & NIGHT OPERATION & IN ICING CONDITIONS.

GEAR EXTENSION

180

17 DEGR FLAPS

188

GEAR RETRACT

180

35 DEGR FLAPS

154

CAUTION

GEAR EXTENDED

180

MANEUVERING

178

STALL WARNING IS INOPERATIVE WHEN MASTER SWITCH IS OFF.


STANDBY COMPASS IS ERRATIC WHEN WINDSHIELD ANTI-ICE OR
SOME COMBINATION OF EXTERIOR LIGHTS ARE ON. SEE AFM.

L GEN

20

EMERGENCY EXIT
TEST
ON

RIGHT

OPERATIONS LIMITATIONS

FSB
ON
ARM

PARTIAL

GND
LEFT

READING
ON

40

60

20

80

DC % LOAD 100

40

60

DC
80

DC % LOAD 100

30
20
VOLT
10

60
+
BATT
0
AMP

60

CTR
BUS
EXT
PWR

TPL
BUS
BATT

LH
INV

FREQ
390 400 410
380
110 120
100 AC VOLTS

PROP AMPS
420
130

PUSH
FOR VOLTS

RH
INV

VOLT

SERIES UA, UB AND UC

R GEN

40
30
20
10
0

40
30
20
10
0

INSTRUMENT

OFF
EMERGENCY
LIGHTS

SELECT

SERIES UE

Figure 3-1 Overhead Light Control Panel (Series UA, UB ,UC AND UE)

Figure 3-2 Exterior Lights Group (Series UA, UB, and UC)

3-2

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

COCKPIT LIGHTING
An overhead light control panel, easily accessible
to both pilot and copilot, controls all cockpit
lighting systems (Figure 3-1). Each light group
has its own rheostat switch placarded BRT
OFF. Although each light group has its own rheostat to control light intensity, the master panel
light switch, placarded ON OFF, can be used to
simultaneously control the following: pilot and
copilot ight lights, subpanel, sidepanel, overhead ood, avionics panel and instrument
indirect.

CABIN LIGHTING
Cabin lighting is controlled by three switches in
the overhead panel placarded CABIN LIGHTS.
Cabin incandescent lighting is controlled by a
three-position switch placarded CABIN FULL
PARTIAL OFF. In the partial position, only
four of the cabin lights illuminate (this switch
position receives power from the HOT BATT
BUS).
Passenger reading lights are controlled by a twoposition switch placarded READING ON
OFF. When the reading light switch is on, individual reading lights can be controlled by each
passenger. However, if necessary, the pilot can
use the switch to extinguish all passenger lights
from the cockpit. A switch to the right of the
reading light switch activates the NO SMOKI N G / FA S T E N S E AT B E LT s i g n s a n d
accompanying chimes. This three-position
switch is placarded NO SMOKE & FSB FSB
OFF (UA, UB, UC).

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Cargo compartment lights are controlled by a


two-position switch just inside the cargo door at
oor level. The three cargo compartment lights
are also connected to the hot battery bus, and the
lights will extinguish when the cargo door is
closed.

EXTERIOR LIGHTING
SERIES UA, UB, AND UC
Switches for the landing lights, taxi lights, wing
ice lights, navigation lights, recognition lights,
rotating beacons, and wingtip and tail strobe
lights are located on the pilots right subpanel
(Figure 3-2). They are appropriately placarded.
Tail oodlights are incorporated into the horizontal stabilizers to illuminate both sides of the
vertical stabilizer. A switch for these lights placarded LIGHTS TAIL FLOOD OFF, is on the
pilots right subpanel (Figure 3-2).

SERIES UE
Switches for the landing lights, taxi light, wing
ice lights, navigation lights, anti-collision (beacon and strobe) lights and tail ood lights are
located in the overhead center panel.

The threshold lights at the passenger entryway


are controlled by a two-position switch on the
side of the third step of the airstair door. The control switch is connected to the hot battery bus and
is usable whether or not the battery switch is
turned on. When the door is closed, a
microswitch in the locking mechanism will
extinguish the lights. However, care should be
taken not to leave the door open with the light
switch on, since it will cause the battery to be
discharged.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 4
MASTER WARNING SYSTEM
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 4-1
GENERAL .............................................................................................................................. 4-1
ANNUNCIATOR SYSTEM................................................................................................... 4-2
Master Warning Flashers................................................................................................. 4-3
Master Caution Flashers .................................................................................................. 4-3
Caution/Advisory Panel (Series UE)............................................................................... 4-5
Dimming.......................................................................................................................... 4-5
Testing and Lamp Replacement ...................................................................................... 4-6
WARNING AND CAUTION/ADVISORY PANEL DESCRIPTIONS................................ 4-6

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

4-1

Annunciator System................................................................................................. 4-2

4-2

Master Warning and Caution Flashers .................................................................... 4-3

4-3

Warning Annunciator PanelSeries UA, UB, UC................................................. 4-3

4-4

Warning Annunciator PanelSeries UE ................................................................ 4-4

4-5

Caution/Advisory Annunciator PanelSeries UA, UB, UC .................................. 4-4

4-6

Caution/Advisory Annunciator PanelSeries UE.................................................. 4-5

4-7

Annunciator Bulb Replacement............................................................................... 4-6

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

TABLES
Table

Title

Page

4-1

Warning AnnunciatorsSeries UA, UB, UC.......................................................... 4-7

4-2

Caution AnnunciatorsSeries UA, UB, UC........................................................... 4-8

4-3

Advisory AnnunciatorsSeries UA, UB, UC....................................................... 4-10

4-4

Warning AnnunciatorsSeries UE ....................................................................... 4-11

4-5

Caution AnnunciatorsSeries UE ........................................................................ 4-12

4-6

Advisory AnnunciatorsSeries UE ...................................................................... 4-15

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 4
MASTER WARNING SYSTEM

TEST

INTRODUCTION
Warning and caution annunciators may be the first indication of malfunction in an airplane
system or component. Crewmembers should be completely familiar with annunciator indications and with pilot actions required to continue flight until a safe landing can be made. If a
malfunction occurs before takeoff, as indicated by the annunciator system, potentially
dangerous flight situations could be averted by correcting the problem while still in a safe
ground environment.

GENERAL
This chapter provides detailed information covering warning, caution, and advisory
annunciator panels.
Descriptions of the system include purpose and
associated cause of illumination for each

annunciator. Appropriate pilot action, if


required, is outlined.
Also, test functions and procedures for the master warning system are described.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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ANNUNCIATOR SYSTEM
The annunciator system (Figure 4-1) consists of a
warning annunciator panel (red) in the center
glareshield and a caution/advisory annunciator
panel (yellow/green for UA, UB, UC; yellow/green and white for UE) located on the
center subpanel.
A pair of master flashers are positioned on each
side of the glareshield in front of each pilot. The
outboard flasher on each side is the red MASTER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

WARNING flasher. The other is the yellow


MASTER CAUTION flasher. A PRESS TO
TEST switch is located immediately to the right
of the warning annunciator panel.
In addition to color coding, annunciators incorporate word-readouts to facilitate interpretation
of annunciator indications. If covered by the
annunciator system, an aircraft system fault generates a signal which illuminates the appropriate
warning light.

Figure 4-1 Annunciator System

4-2

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

MASTER WARNING FLASHERS


When a red warning annunciator illuminates,
both MASTER WARNING flashers (Figure 4-2)
begin flashing. A red warning annunciator indicates a system fault has occurred which requires
immediate pilot attention and appropriate
response (Figures 4-3 and 4-4). The warning
annunciator will remain illuminated until the
fault is corrected.
Pressing the face of either pilots MASTER
WARNING flasher will extinguish the flasher
even if the fault is not corrected. If the MASTER
WARNING flashers have been canceled, they
will again be activated when an additional warning annunciator illuminates. When the fault that
tripped the annunciator is corrected, the affected
warning annunciator will extinguish, but the
MASTER WARNING annunciators will continue to flash until canceled.

MASTER CAUTION FLASHERS


Whenever a system fault occurs that requires the
pilots attention but not his immediate reaction,
the appropriate yellow caution annunciator in the
caution/advisory panel illuminates (Figures 4-5
and 4-6), and both MASTER CAUTION flashers
(Figure 4-2) begin flashing. The flashing MASTER CAUTION lights can be extinguished by
pressing the face of either MASTER CAUTION

MASTER
WARNING

MASTER
CAUTION

PRESS TO RESET

PRESS TO RESET

Figure 4-2 Master Warning and Caution


Flashers

flasher to reset the circuit. If any caution annunciator again illuminates, the MASTER
CAUTION flashers will be reactivated. A caution
annunciator will remain on until the fault that
tripped it is corrected. MASTER CAUTION
flashers will continue to flash until canceled.
The caution/advisory annunciator panel also contains green advisory annunciators. There are no
master flashers associated with these annunciators, since they are advisory only. Advisory lights
indicate functional situations which do not
demand immediate attention or reaction, but simply advise the pilot that a system has been armed
or activated. An advisory annunciator can be
extinguished only by changing the condition
indicated by the illuminated green lens.

L FUEL PRESS

CABIN ALTITUDE

BAGGAGE DOOR

INVERTER

R FUEL PRESS

L OIL PRESS

L ENVIR FAIL

FWD CABIN DOOR

R ENVIR FAIL

R OIL PRESS

A/P DISC

R BL AIR FAIL

AFT CABIN DOOR


L BL AIR FAIL

A/P TRIM FAIL

Figure 4-3 Warning Annunciator PanelSeries UA, UB, UC

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

CABIN DIFF HI

R FUEL PRES LO

CABIN DOOR

R ENVIR FAIL

R OIL PRES LO

L AC BUS

CARGO DOOR

R AC BUS

A/P TRIM FAIL

ARM EMER LITES

A/P FAIL

L FUEL PRES LO

CABIN ALT HI

L OIL PRES LO

L ENVIR FAIL

L BL AIR FAIL

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

R BL AIR FAIL

Figure 4-4 Warning Annunciator PanelSeries UE

L DC GEN

L FUEL QTY

L FW VALVE

L FUEL FEED

L GEN TIE OPEN

L ENG ICE FAIL

L BK DI OVHT

L AUTOFEATHER

L CHIP DETECT

L IGNITION ON
L ENG ANTI-ICE

L BK DEICE ON

L ENVIR OFF

FUEL TRANSFER

BATTERY CHARGE BATT TIE OPEN

R FUEL QTY

R DC GEN

R GEN TIE OPEN

R FUEL FEED

R FW VALVE

HYD FLUID LOW

MAN STEER FAIL

R BK DI OVHT

R ENG ICE FAIL

ANTI SKID FAIL

PWR STEER FAIL

R CHIP DETECT

R AUTOFEATHER

TAXI LIGHT

EXTERNAL POWER

ELEC TRIM OFF

MAN TIES CLOSE

R IGNITION ON
R BK DEICE ON

R ENG ANTI-ICE

AIR COND N1 LOW

R ENVIR OFF

R FUEL QTY

R DC GEN

SERIES UA, UB
BATTERY CHARGE BATT TIE OPEN

L DC GEN

L FUEL QTY

L FW VALVE

L FUEL FEED

L GEN TIE OPEN

R GEN TIE OPEN

R FUEL FEED

R FW VALVE

L ENG ICE FAIL

L BK DI OVHT

HYD FLUID LOW

MAN STEER FAIL

R BK DI OVHT

R ENG ICE FAIL

ANTI SKID FAIL

PWR STEER FAIL ANN PWR SOURCE

L NO FUEL XFR

R NO FUEL XFR
PWR STEER ENGA

L AUTOFEATHER

L IGNITION ON

TAXI LIGHT

EXTERNAL POWER

R IGNITION ON

R AUTOFEATHER

L ENG ANTI-ICE

L BK DEICE ON

ELEC TRIM OFF

MAN TIES CLOSE

R BK DEICE ON

R ENG ANTI-ICE

L ENVIR OFF

FUEL TRANSFER AIR COND N1 LOW

R ENVIR OFF

SERIES UC

Figure 4-5 Caution/Advisory Annunciator PanelSeries UA, UB, UC

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CAUTION/ADVISORY PANEL
(SERIES UE)

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

DIM mode is automatically selected whenever all


of the following conditions are met:

The caution/advisory annunciator panel on Series


UE airplanes also contains the green and white
advisory annunciators (Figure 4-6). There are no
master flashers associated with these annunciators. An advisory annunciator can be
extinguished only by changing the condition
indicated on the illuminated lens.

DIMMING
The automatic annunciator BRIGHT and DIM
functions affect the following annunciators:

Warning annunciators

Caution annunciators

Advisory annunciators

Yellow MASTER CAUTION flashers

Landing gear handle lights

Landing gear position lights

L DC GEN
L FW VALVE

L FUEL QTY

STALL HEAT

At least one generator is on line.

Cockpit OVERHEAD FLOOD LIGHTS


are OFF.

MASTER PANEL LIGHTS switch is


ON.

PILOT FLIGHT LIGHTS are ON.

Ambient light level in the cockpit is


below a preset value.

Cockpit ambient light level is sensed by a photoelectric cell in the overhead lighting control
panel. Unless all of the above conditions are met,
the BRIGHT mode will be selected automatically. The red MASTER WARNING flasher and
the fire T-handles are not affected by the DIM
mode; they are always set to BRIGHT.

BATTERY CHARGE PROP GND SOL

R FUEL QTY

R DC GEN

L COL TANK LOW L GEN TIE OPEN

BATT TIE OPEN

R GEN TIE OPEN R COL TANK LOW

ANTI SKID FAIL

ANN PWR SOURCE

R BK DI OVHT

R ENG ICE FAIL

PWR STEER FAIL MAN STEER FAIL

R PITOT HEAT

R FIRE LOOP

AFX DISABLE

R NO AUX XFR

R FW VALVE

L ENG ICE FAIL

L BK DI OVHT

HYD FLUID LOW

L FIRE LOOP

L PITOT HEAT

XFR VALVE
FAIL

L NO AUX XFR

AUTOFTHER
OFF

PITCH TRIM OFF

INBD WG DEICE

YD/RB FAIL

TAIL DEICE

L AUTOFEATHER

L IGNITION ON

PWR STEER ENGA

R IGNITION ON

R AUTOFEATHER

L ENG ANTI-ICE

L BK DEICE ON

MAN TIES CLOSE

R BK DEICE ON

R ENG ANTI-ICE

L ENVIR OFF

RDR PWR ON

TAXI LIGHT

EXTERNAL POWER

R ENVIR OFF

FUEL TRANSFER

RUD BOOST OFF OUTBD WG DEICE

Figure 4-6 Caution/Advisory Annunciator PanelSeries UE

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

4-5

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

TESTING AND LAMP


REPLACEMENT
The lamps in the annunciator system should be
tested before every flight, and any time the integrity of a lamp is in question. Depressing the
PRESS TO TEST button illuminates all annunciator lights, MASTER WARNING flashers, and
MASTER CAUTION flashers. Any lamp that
fails to illuminate when tested should be
replaced. All annunciator lamps, including landing gear warning and position indicators, are
interchangeable. Except on D models, where
position lights are not pilot servicable.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Replacement bulbs are conveniently located


within the panels, and are indicated by dashed
lines on the face of each annunciator which contains spare lamps. To replace any annunciator
lamp (Figure 4-7), first depress the center of the
annunciator with your finger. Release, and the
annunciator will pop out slightly. Remove the
annunciator from the panel, and pull the lamp
from the back of the annunciator. Replace the
failed bulb with a spare lamp, and return the
annunciator to the panel, depressing it until
locked back into place.

WARNING AND
CAUTION/ADVISORY
PANEL DESCRIPTIONS
Tables 4-1 through 4-6 list all the warning, caution, and advisory annunciators on the Beech
1900 Airliner. The cause for illumination is
included beside each annunciator.

Figure 4-7 Annunciator Bulb Replacement

4-6

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

Revision 1

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Table 4-1 WARNING ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UA, UB, UC


ANNUNCIATOR

L FUEL PRESS

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION


Loss of fuel boost pressure on left side.

CABIN ALTITUDE

Cabin pressure altitude exceeds 12,500 feet.

BAGGAGE DOOR

Nose baggage door is open or not secure.

INVERTER
R FUEL PRESS

The inverter selected is inoperative.

Loss of fuel boost pressure on right side.

L OIL PRESS

Loss of oil pressure in the left engine.

L ENVIR FAIL

Left environmental system bleed-air overtemp or overpressure.

FWD CABIN DOOR

Forward cabin door is open or not secure.

R ENVIR FAIL

Right environmental system bleed-air overtemp or overpressure.

R OIL PRESS

Loss of oil pressure in the right engine.

AFT CABIN DOOR


L BL AIR FAIL
A/P TRIM FAIL*
A/P DISC*
R BL AIR FAIL

Aft cabin door is open or not secure.

Melted or ruptured left bleed-air failure warning line.

Improper trim or no trim from autopilot trim command.

Autopilot is disconnected by means other than pilots disconnect


switch.

Melted or ruptured right bleed-air failure warning line.

* Optional equipment

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

4-7

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Table 4-2 CAUTION ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UA, UB, UC


ANNUNCIATORS

L DC GEN
L FUEL QTY
BATTERY CHARGE
BATT TIE OPEN
R FUEL QTY
R DC GEN

Left generator is off line.

Left fuel quantityLess than 30 minutes remaining at maximum


continuous power.

Excessive charge rate on battery.

Battery isolated from generator buses.

Right fuel quantityLess than 30 minutes remaining at maximum continuous power.

Right generator is off line.

L FW VALVE

Left fuel firewall valve has not reached its selected position.

L FUEL FEED

Low fuel level in left fuel system holding tankLess than 2 minutes remaining at maximum continuous power.

L GEN TIE OPEN

Left generator bus is isolated from center bus.

R GEN TIE OPEN

Right generator bus is isolated from center bus.

R FUEL FEED

Low fuel level in right fuel system holding tankLess than 2 minutes remaining at maximum continuous power.

R FW VALVE

Right fuel firewall valve has not reached its selected position.

L ENG ICE FAIL

Ice vane has not attained proper position.

L BK DI OVHT*

Melted or ruptured left brake deice plumbing failure warning line.

HYD FLUID LOW

4-8

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION

Landing gear hydraulic fluid is low.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Table 4-2 CAUTION ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UA, UB, UC (Cont)


ANNUNCIATORS

MAN STEER FAIL*

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION


Nose gear will not trail with power steering not engaged.

R BK DI OVHT*

Melted or ruptured right brake deice plumbing failure warning


line.

R ENG ICE FAIL

Ice vane has not attained proper position.

ANTI-SKID FAIL*

Loss of electrical or low hydraulic oil pressure in antiskid brake


system.

R CHIP DETECT**

Contamination in right engine oil is detected.

L CHIP DETECT**

Contamination in left engine oil is detected.

PWR STEER FAIL*

Loss of electrical or low hydraulic oil pressure in power steering


system.

ANN PWR SOURCE**

Partial power loss to some annunciator lights.

L NO FUEL XFR

No fuel transfer from left auxiliary to main tank.

R NO FUEL XFR

No fuel transfer from right auxiliary to main tank.

* Optional equipment
** UB 54 and after; UC 1 and after

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

4-9

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Table 4-3 ADVISORY ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UA, UB, UC


ANNUNCIATOR

PWR STEER ENGA*


L AUTOFEATHER
L IGNITION ON
TAXI LIGHT
EXTERNAL POWER
R IGNITION ON
R AUTOFEATHER

Power steering is operating.

Left autofeather system is armed, with the power levers


advanced above 90% N1.
Left engine igniter is powered.

Taxi light is on with landing gear up.

External power connector is plugged in.

Right engine igniter is powered.

Right autofeather system is armed, with the power levers


advanced above 90% N1.

L ENG ANTI-ICE

Left ice vane is extended.

L BK DEICE ON*

Left brake deice bleed-air valve is in the open position.

ELEC TRIM OFF*

Electric trim is deenergized by control wheel trim disconnect


switch with pedestal power switch on.

MAN TIES CLOSE

Manually closed generator bus ties.

R BK DEICE ON*

Right brake deice bleed-air valve is in the open position.

R ENG ANTI-ICE

Right ice vane is extended.

L ENVIR OFF
FUEL TRANSFER

4-10

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION

Left environmental bleed-air valve is closed.

Transfer valve is open.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Table 4-3 ADVISORY ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UA, UB, UC (Cont)


ANNUNCIATOR

AIR COND N1 LOW


R ENVIR OFF

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION


Right engine rpm is too low for air conditioner to engage.

Right environmental bleed-air valve is closed.

* Optional equipment

Table 4-4 WARNING ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UE


ANNUNCIATOR

L FUEL PRES LO

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION


Fuel pressure is low on left side.

CABIN ALT HI

Cabin altitude exceeds 10,000 feet.

CAB DIFF HI

Cabin pressure differential is high.

R FUEL PRES LO

Fuel pressure is low on right side.

L OIL PRES LO

Oil pressure failure in left engine.

L ENVIR FAIL

Left environmental air duct overtemp or overpressure.

CABIN DOOR

Cabin door is open or not secure.

R ENVIR FAIL

Right environmental air duct overtemp or overpressure.

R OIL PRES LO
L AC BUS

Oil pressure failure in right engine.

Left AC bus has inoperative inverter.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

4-11

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Table 4-4 WARNING ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UE (Cont)


ANNUNCIATOR

CARGO DOOR
R AC BUS
L BL AIR FAIL
A/P TRIM FAIL*
ARM EMER LITES*
A/P FAIL*
R BL AIR FAIL

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION


Cargo door is open or not secure.

Right AC bus has inoperative inverter.

Melted or failed left bleed-air failure warning line, or system is off.

Improper trim or no trim from autopilot trim command.

Emergency light controls are disarmed.

A failure has occurred in the selected APC-65 computer.

Melted or failed right bleed-air failure warning line, or system is


off.

* Optional equipment

Table 4-5 CAUTION ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UE


ANNUNCIATORS

L DC GEN

Left generator is off line.

L FUEL QTY

Fuel quantity is below 324 pounds of usable fuel.

STALL HEAT

Insufficient current to provide heat on stall warning transducer to


prevent icing.

BATTERY CHARGE
PROP GND SOL

4-12

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION

Excessive charge rate on battery.

One or both ground idle low-pitch-stop solenoids are malfunctioning.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Table 4-5 CAUTION ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UE (Cont)


ANNUNCIATORS

R FUEL QTY
R DC GEN
L FW VALVE
L COL TANK LOW
L GEN TIE OPEN
BAT TIE OPEN
R GEN TIE OPEN

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION


Fuel quantity is below 324 pounds of usable fuel.

Right generator is off line.

Left fuel firewall valve has not reached its selected position.

Left fuel system collector tank is below 53 pounds of usable fuel


(eight minutes cruise at 400 pounds per hour).

Left generator bus is isolated from the center bus.

Battery is isolated from the generator buses.

Right generator bus is isolated from the center bus.

R COL TANK LOW

Right fuel system collector tank is below 53 pounds of usable


fuel (eight minutes cruise at 400 pounds per hour).

R FW VALVE

Right fuel firewall valve has not reached its selected position.

L ENG ICE FAIL

Left ice vane malfunction. Ice vane has not attained the proper
position.

L BK DI OVHT*

Melted or failed left brake deice plumbing failure warning line.

HYD FLUID LOW

Landing gear hydraulic fluid level is low.

ANTI SKID FAIL*

Electrical failure or low hydraulic oil pressure in the antiskid


brake system.

ANN PWR SOURCE


R BK DI OVHT*

Partial power loss to some annunciator lights.

Melted or failed right brake deice plumbing failure warning line.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

4-13

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Table 4-5 CAUTION ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UE (Cont)


ANNUNCIATORS

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION

R ENG ICE FAIL

Right ice vane malfunction. Ice vane has not attained the proper
position.

L FIRE LOOP

4-14

Left engine fire detection sense loop is open.

L PITOT HEAT

Insufficient current to provide heat on left pitot to prevent icing.

XFR VALVE FAIL

Fuel cross-transfer valve is not fully open or fully closed for two
seconds or more.

PWR STEER FAIL*

Electrical failure or low hydraulic oil pressure in power steering


system.

MAN STEER FAIL*

Nose gear will not free-caster with power steering not engaged.

R PITOT HEAT

Insufficient current to provide heat on right pitot to prevent icing.

R FIRE LOOP

Right engine fire detector sense loop is open.

L NO AUX XFR

No fuel transfer from left auxiliary to main tank.

AUTOFTHER OFF

Autofeather system is turned off with landing gear extended.

PITCH TRIM OFF*

Electric trim is deenergized by a trim disconnect switch on the


control wheel, with the system power switch on the pedestal
turned on.

AFX DISABLE

Autofeather system is not capable of feathering the propellers.

R NO AUX XFR

No fuel transfer from right auxiliary to main tank.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Table 4-5 CAUTION ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UE (Cont)


ANNUNCIATORS

YD/RB FAIL**
RUD BOOST OFF

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION


A failure has occurred in the selected FYD-65 computer.

Rudder boost system is turned off.

* Optional equipment
** On airplanes without an autopilot

Table 4-6 ADVISORY ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UE


ANNUNCIATOR

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION

INBD WG DEICE

Pressure in left and right inboard wing deice boots is sufficient to


deice.

TAIL DEICE

Pressure in tail deice boots is sufficient to deice.

OUTBD WG DEICE

Pressure in left and right outboard wing deice boots is sufficient


to deice.

L AUTOFEATHER

Left autofeather system is armed, with the power levers


advanced above approximately 89 to 91% N1.

L IGNITION ON
PWR STEER ENGA
R IGNITION ON
R AUTOFEATHER

Left engine igniter is powered.

Power steering is operating.

Right engine igniter is powered.

Right autofeather system is armed, with the power levers


advanced above approximately 89 to 91% N1.

L ENG ANTI-ICE

Left ice vane is extended.

L BK DEICE ON*

Left brake deice bleed-air valve is in the open position.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

4-15

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Table 4-6 ADVISORY ANNUNCIATORSSERIES UE (Cont)


ANNUNCIATOR

MAN TIES CLOSE

CAUSE FOR ILLUMINATION


Manually closed generator bus ties.

R BK DEICE ON*

Right brake deice bleed-air valve is in the open position.

R ENG ANTI-ICE

Right ice vane is extended.

L ENVIR OFF
RDR PWR ON*
FUEL TRANSFER
TAXI LIGHT
EXTERNAL POWER
R ENVIR OFF

Left environmental bleed-air valves are closed.

Radar is selected to a position other than off (on ground).

Fuel cross-transfer valve is open.

Taxi light is on with landing gear up.

External power is plugged into aircraft.

Right environmental bleed-air valves are closed.

* Optional equipment

4-16

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 5
FUEL SYSTEM
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 5-1
DESCRIPTION....................................................................................................................... 5-1
FUEL SYSTEM (SERIES UA/UB) ....................................................................................... 5-2
Main Fuel Tank System .................................................................................................. 5-2
Fuel Tank Vents .............................................................................................................. 5-5
Fuel System Operation .................................................................................................... 5-6
Firewall Shutoff Valves................................................................................................... 5-8
Fuel Transfer Motive-Flow System ................................................................................ 5-8
Cross-Transfer Operation ............................................................................................... 5-8
Fuel Purge System......................................................................................................... 5-10
Fuel Gaging System ...................................................................................................... 5-10
Fuel Drains .................................................................................................................... 5-12
FUEL SYSTEM (SERIES UC/UE) ...................................................................................... 5-13
Fuel Tank System.......................................................................................................... 5-13
Fuel Capacity................................................................................................................. 5-17
Fuel Tank Vents ............................................................................................................ 5-17
Fuel System Operation .................................................................................................. 5-18
Low-Fuel Warning System (Series UC) ....................................................................... 5-19
Low-Fuel Warning System (Series UE)........................................................................ 5-19
Firewall Shutoff Valves................................................................................................. 5-19
Fuel Transfer Motive-Flow System .............................................................................. 5-20

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5-i

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Cross-Transfer Operation.............................................................................................. 5-20


Fuel Purge System ........................................................................................................ 5-21
Fuel Control Panel ........................................................................................................ 5-22
Fuel Gaging System...................................................................................................... 5-22
Standby Pump Operation .............................................................................................. 5-22
Auxiliary Tank Operation ............................................................................................. 5-23
Visual Fuel Quantity Sensors (Series UE).................................................................... 5-23
Fuel Drains.................................................................................................................... 5-24
Fuel Drain Locations..................................................................................................... 5-24
Fuel Handling Practices (Series UA/UB and UC/UE) ................................................. 5-25
Fuel Grades and Types (Series UA/UB and UC/UE) ................................................... 5-27
Filling the Tanks (Series UA/UB and UC/UE)............................................................. 5-27
Draining the Fuel System (Series UA/UB and UC/UE)............................................... 5-28

5-ii

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

5-1

Main Fuel Tank SystemSeries UA/UB................................................................ 5-2

5-2

Fuel System Schematic DiagramSeries UA/UB Only......................................... 5-3

5-3

Fuel Control PanelSeries UA/UB ........................................................................ 5-4

5-4

Fuel Vent SystemSeries UA/UB ......................................................................... 5-5

5-5

Fuel Flow DiagramSeries UA/UB....................................................................... 5-6

5-7

FIRE PULL HandlesSeries UA/UB .................................................................... 5-8

5-6

Firewall Shutoff ValveSeries UA/UB ................................................................. 5-8

5-8

Fuel Transfer Motive-Flow SystemSeries UA/UB.............................................. 5-9

5-9

Cross-Transfer SystemSeries UA/UB ................................................................. 5-9

5-10

Fuel Drain Purge System SchematicSeries UA/UB .......................................... 5-10

5-11

Fuel ProbeSeries UA/UB................................................................................... 5-11

5-12

Fuel Gaging SystemSeries UA/UB ................................................................... 5-11

5-13

Fuel DrainsSeries UA/UB ................................................................................. 5-12

5-14

Fuel Tank SystemSeries UC/UE ....................................................................... 5-13

5-15

Fuel System DiagramSeries UC and After ........................................................ 5-14

5-16

Fuel System SchematicSeries UE...................................................................... 5-15

5-17

Fuel Control PanelSeries UC/UE ...................................................................... 5-16

5-18

Fuel Tank Vent SystemSeries UC/UE............................................................... 5-16

5-19

Fuel Flow DiagramSeries UC/UE ..................................................................... 5-18

5-20

Firewall Shutoff ValveSeries UC/UE................................................................ 5-19

5-21

FIRE PULL HandlesSeries UC/UE................................................................... 5-20

5-22

Cross-Transfer SchematicSeries UC/UE ........................................................... 5-21

5-23

Fuel Drain Purge System SchematicSeries UC/UE........................................... 5-21

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5-iii

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

5-24

Fuel Control PanelSeries UE ............................................................................ 5-22

5-25

Fuel DrainsSeries UC/UE ................................................................................. 5-24

5-26

Fuel Temperature Graph ....................................................................................... 5-26

5-iv

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

TABLES
Table

Title

Page

5-1

Usable Fuel ............................................................................................................ 5-13

5-2

Fuel Drain Locations ............................................................................................. 5-24

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5-v

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 5
FUEL SYSTEM

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6

MAIN
FUEL

LBS X 100

10

INTRODUCTION
A complete understanding of the fuel system is essential to competent and confident operation
of the aircraft. Management of aircraft fuel and fuel system components is a major concern.
This section provides the pilot with information needed for safe, efficient fuel management of
the UA/UB and UC/UE series of 1900 Airliners.

DESCRIPTION
The Fuel System section of the workbook
presents a description and discussion of the fuel
system. The physical layout of the fuel system
and fuel cells are described in this section.
Correct use of boost pumps, transfer pumps,
cross-transfer, and firewall shutoff valves are

discussed. Locations and types of fuel drains are


also described along with correct procedures for
taking and inspecting fuel samples. A list of
approved fuels and a discussion of the tank filling
sequence are included.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5-1

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

FUEL SYSTEM
(SERIES UA/UB)
The Beechcraft 1900 Airliner fuel system (Figure
5-2) simplifies cockpit flight procedures and provides easy servicing access on the ground. The
two separate wing fuel systems, one for each
engine, are connected by a valve-controlled
cross-transfer system.

MAIN FUEL TANK SYSTEM


The main fuel system (Figure 5-1) consists of a
series of rubber bladder fuel cells and one
integral (wet wing) tank in each wing. Total fuel
capacity is approximately 216 gallons per side
including unusable fuel. Total usable fuel
capacity of the main fuel system is 212.5 gallons
per side. One fuel filler cap per side is located on
the outboard leading edge of each wing near the

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

wing tip. The main fuel system in each wing


consists of two wing leading edge tanks, two box
section tanks, an integral (wet wing) tank, and
one center wing tank, all interconnected to
gravity-flow into a fuel supply collector tank.
The fuel supply collector tank, located within the
center wing fuel tank, is equipped with an
electric fuel pump, primary jet pump, and two
transfer jet pumps. Fuel feeds the engines
directly from the fuel supply collector tank.
The collector tank drain is located under the center wing, adjacent to the fuselage. The inboard
leading edge tank drain is under the wing just
outboard of the nacelle. The integral (wet wing)
fuel tank sump drain is located approximately
midway on the underside of the wing, aft of the
main spar. The collector tanks are connected by a
cross-transfer line which makes fuel available
from either wing system. Cross-transfer operation is automatic when cross-transfer is selected.

Figure 5-1 Main Fuel Tank SystemSeries UA/UB

5-2

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

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5-3

Figure 5-2 Fuel System Schematic DiagramSeries UA/UB Only

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 5-3 Fuel Control PanelSeries UA/UB

FUEL CAPACITY
The fuel quantity indicating system is a capacitance type that compensates for differences in
specific gravity and reads in pounds on a linear
scale (Figure 5-3).
Each wing has an independent fuel gaging
system, consisting of a fuel quantity
(capacitance) probe in the collector tank, one
probe in the aft inboard fuel cell, two probes in
the integral (wet wing) fuel cell, two probes in

5-4

the inboard leading-edge fuel cell, and two


probes in the center wing fuel cell. Electronic
circuits process the signals from the capacitance
probes to provide an accurate readout on fuel
quantity indicators. The fuel quantity gages and
the engine fuel flow indicators are read in
pounds. At 6.74 pounds per gallon, total usable
fuel is 425 gallons, or approximately 2864.5
pounds. Maximum allowable imbalance between
left and right fuel systems is 300 pounds, and
maximum zero fuel weight of the 1900 Airliner is
14,000 pounds.

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

FUEL TANK VENTS


The fuel system is vented through a recessed vent
coupled to a static vent on the underside of the
wing, adjacent to the nacelle (Figure 5-4). One
vent is recessed to prevent icing. The second
vent, which is heated to prevent icing, also serves
as a backup should the other vent become
plugged. The wing tanks are cross-vented with
one another. The wing tanks are then vented
through a float-operated vent valve installed on
the forward outboard side of the integral fuel
tank. A line just aft of the float-operated vent

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

valve extends from the integral fuel tank through


a suction relief valve and aft to an air inlet on the
underside of the wing.
The line from the float-operated vent valve is
routed forward along the leading edge of the
wing inboard to the nacelle, and aft through a
check valve to the recessed vent just outboard of
the nacelle. Another line tees off from the vent
line and extends through a flame arrester to a
heated ram vent immediately outboard and aft of
the recessed vent.

Figure 5-4 Fuel Vent SystemSeries UA/UB

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5-5

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

FUEL SYSTEM OPERATION


Fuel flow from each wing main tank system is
automatic without pilot action (Figure 5-5). The
interconnected wing tanks gravity feed into the
center wing tank and then to the collector tank
through a line extending from the aft inboard
wing tank to the outboard side of the center wing
tank. A flapper-type check valve in the end of the
gravity feed line prevents any backflow of fuel
into the wing tanks.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The fuel pressure required to operate the engine


is provided by an engine-driven fuel pump immediately upstream of the fuel control unit on the
accessory case. An engine-driven boost pump
(also on the accessory case) provides lubrication
for the high-pressure fuel pump and starts the
motive flow for operation of the primary jet
pump in the collector tank. The primary jet pump
assists the engine-driven pumps in removing fuel
from the collector tank.

Figure 5-5 Fuel Flow DiagramSeries UA/UB

5-6

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

The supply line from the collector tank is routed


from the aft side of the center wing tank, forward
to the engine-driven boost pump through a
motor-driven firewall shutoff valve. The valve is
installed in the fuel line immediately aft of the
engine firewall.
From the firewall shutoff valve, fuel is routed to
the main fuel filter, firewall valve, and then to the
engine boost pump. A bypass valve in the filter
permits fuel flow even if the filter is plugged. A
filter drain valve allows any impurities in the fuel
system, which may have collected at the fuel filter, to be drained prior to each flight. A pressure
switch at the fuel filter senses boost pump fuel
pressure. Below one psi of pressure, the switch
closes, actuating a red L or R FUEL PRESS
warning light in the annunciator panel.
If a fuel pressure warning annunciator illuminates, the pilot can turn on the standby boost
pump. Once the standby boost pump is energized, the warning light should be extinguished
as fuel pressure increases above one psi. If the
FUEL PRESS annunciator remains illuminated,
continued engine operation is limited to 10 hours
between overhaul or replacement of that engines
high-pressure fuel pump. If either of the two
standby pumps is inoperative, the use of aviation
gasoline is prohibited.
Before reaching the high-pressure fuel pump,
fuel is routed through the fuel heater, which uses
heat from the engine oil to warm the fuel. The
high-pressure fuel pump then supplies fuel to the
FCU which meters the flow of fuel to the engine
fuel nozzles.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The engine-driven high-pressure fuel pump,


rated at 800 psi, is mounted on the accessory case
in conjunction with the fuel control unit. The
high-pressure pump is protected against fuel
contamination by an internal strainer. The
engine-driven boost pump, also mounted on a
drive pad on the aft accessory section of the
engine, develops a maximum pressure of 45 psi.
The engine-driven fuel boost pump is backed up
by an electric standby fuel boost pump located in
the bottom of each collector tank. The standby
boost pump is rated to a maximum pressure of 11
psi. Either the engine-driven boost pump or its
backup unit, the standby boost pump, is capable
of supplying fuel to the engine-driven highpressure fuel pump at the minimum pressure
required by the engine manufacturer.
In addition to serving as a backup unit in the
event of an engine-driven boost pump malfunction, the electric standby pump provides the
additional pressure required for the cross-transfer
of fuel from one side of the aircraft to the other.
Standby boost pump operation is controlled by
lever-lock switches on the fuel control panel.
Electrical power for the pumps is supplied from
the center bus, and the circuit is protected by 15ampere circuit breakers located below the fuel
control panel. The battery switch must be on to
provide electrical power to the standby pumps.
If all fuel boost pressure were to fail, fuel would
be suction-lifted out of the collector tank by the
high-pressure pump. The engine would continue
to run, but engine operation would be restricted
to 10 hours total time before engine high-pressure pump overhaul or replacement. If the pump
is operated on suction lift beyond the 10-hour
limit, overhaul or replacement of the pump is
necessary.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5-7

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

FIREWALL SHUTOFF VALVES


The 1900 Airliner fuel system incorporates two
firewall fuel valves, one for each engine (Figure
5-6). The firewall shutoff valves are motor-driven
and require electrical power for opening and
closing. The firewall shutoff valves are actuated
by two FIRE PULL handles located in the upper
center instrument panel (Figure 5-7). When the
handle is pulled, its respective firewall shutoff
valve closes, and fuel flow to that engine is discontinued (Figure 5-5). Pulling the handle also
arms the fire extinguisher on that side.

FUEL TRANSFER MOTIVEFLOW SYSTEM


Fuel pressure from the engine-driven boost pump
provides the motive flow to operate the primary
jet pump (Figure 5-8). If the engine-driven boost
pump fails, the standby boost pump provides fuel
pressure for motive flow. During start, motive
flow is initiated by the engine start and ignition
switch which automatically energizes the
standby boost pump. The 1900 Airliner is
approved for takeoff with one standby boost
pump inoperative; however, cross-transfer will
not be possible from the side of the inoperative
standby pump.
The primary jet pump assists the engine-driven
pumps in removing fuel from the collector tank.
The motive-flow fuel supply line is routed along
the outboard side of the nacelle, and continues
into the primary jet pump installed into the collector tank sump. A check valve in the motiveflow line prevents the fuel system from ingesting
air when the boost pump is not operating.
The transfer jet pumps are also activated by
motive flow. Their function is to ensure sufficient
fuel supply during extreme aircraft attitude
conditions.

Figure 5-6 Firewall Shutoff Valve


Series UA/UB

CROSS-TRANSFER
OPERATION
The two collector tanks are interconnected by a
cross-transfer line (Figure 5-9). A cross-transfer
valve is externally connected into the line at the
forward outboard corner of the left center wing
fuel cell. When the valve is in its normally-closed
position, each engine draws fuel from its
respective fuel tank system. A manually operated

Figure 5-7 FIRE PULL HandlesSeries UA/UB

5-8

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 5-8 Fuel Transfer Motive-Flow SystemSeries UA/UB

Figure 5-9 Cross-Transfer SystemSeries UA/UB

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5-9

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

cross-transfer control switch (labeled


TRANSFER FLOW) is mounted on the upper
fuel control panel, just above the fuel quantity
gages. When the cross-transfer control switch is
actuated, power is drawn through a circuit
breaker on the lower fuel control panel to the
solenoid of the cross-transfer valve. The crosstransfer valve then opens to allow fuel to transfer
to either the left wing or right wing fuel system.
The electric standby pump on the transferring
side is automatically energized during all crosstransfer operations. Before turning on the transfer flow switch, both standby pump switches
should be in the OFF position since a standby
pump in operation on the receiving side will not
allow cross-transfer to occur. In the event of an
inoperative electric boost pump, cross-transfer
can only be accomplished from the side of the
operative pump.
Cross-transfer can be used to balance fuel loads
between left and right fuel systems, and for
single-engine operations. Procedures are detailed
in the POH Normal Procedures section.

FUEL PURGE SYSTEM


This airplane is equipped with a fuel purge system (Figure 5-10). The purge system is designed
to assure that any residual fuel in the fuel manifolds is consumed during engine shutdown.
During normal engine operation, compressor discharge air (P3 air) is routed through a filter and
two check valves, pressurizing a small air tank on
the engine truss mount. Upon engine shutdown
the pressure differential between the air tank and
fuel manifold causes air to be discharged from
the air tank into the fuel manifold system. The air
forces all residual fuel out through the nozzles
and into the combustion chamber where it is consumed. A momentary surge in N1 may be noticed
as fuel is burned. The entire operation is automatic and requires no crew action. During engine
starting, fuel manifold pressure closes the fuel
manifold valve, allowing P3 air to pressurize the
purge tank.

5-10

Figure 5-10 Fuel Drain Purge System


SchematicSeries UA/UB

FUEL GAGING SYSTEM


The airplane is equipped with a capacitance-type
fuel quantity indication system (Figure 5-11). A
maximum indication error of 3% may be encount e r e d i n t h e s y s t e m . T h e ga g i n g s y s t e m
compensates for changes in fuel density, which
result from differences in ambient temperatures.
A Density Variation of Aviation Fuel graph is
provided in the Weight and Balance section of
the POH to allow more accurate readings for all
approved fuels.
The LEFT fuel quantity indicator on the fuel control panel indicates the amount of fuel remaining
in the left-wing fuel system tanks. The RIGHT
fuel quantity indicator provides the same information for the right-wing fuel systems. Both
gages are marked in pounds.
Each side of the airplane has an independent gaging system, consisting of a capacitance probe in
the collector tank, one in the aft inboard fuel cell,
two in the integral (wet wing) fuel cell, two in the
inboard leading edge fuel cell, and two in the
center wing fuel cell (Figure 5-12).

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The fuel quantity indicating system is also compensated for specific gravity and reads in pounds
on a linear scale. An electronic circuit in the system processes signals from the fuel capacitance
probes in the fuel cells for an accurate readout by
the fuel quantity indicators. Power to the fuel
quantity indicators is supplied from the capacitance probes through a 5 ampere circuit breaker
on the fuel system circuit breaker panel.
The fuel quantity probe is simply a variable
capacitor comprised of two concentric tubes. The
inner tube is profiled by changing the diameter as
a function of height so that the capacitance
between the inner and outer tube is proportional
to the tank volume. The tubes serve as fixed electrodes and the fuel of the tank in the space
between the tubes acts as the dielectric of the fuel
quantity probe.

Figure 5-11 Fuel ProbeSeries UA/UB

The capacitance of the fuel quantity probe varies


with respect to the change in the dielectric that
results from the ratio of fuel to air in the fuel cell.
As the fuel level between the inner and outer
tubes rises, air with a dielectric constant of one is
replaced by fuel with a dielectric constant of
approximately two, thus increasing the capacitance of the fuel quantity probe. This variation in
the volume of fuel contained in the fuel cell produces a capacitance variation that is a linear

Figure 5-12 Fuel Gaging SystemSeries UA/UB

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5-11

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

function of that volume. This function is converted to linear current that actuates the fuel
quantity indicator. Fuel density and electrical
dielectric constant vary with respect to temperature, fuel type, and fuel batch. The capacitance
gaging system is designed to sense and compensate for these variables.

Low-fuel quantity in the center wing tanks is


sensed by photoelectric cells which transmit energizing current for the L or R FUEL QTY caution
annunciators. Illumination of a FUEL QTY
annunciator indicates that enough fuel remains to
sustain maximum continuous power on that
engine for approximately 30 minutes (computed
for sea level fuel requirements). Photoelectric
sensors in the collector tanks provide the signals
for L or R FUEL FEED caution annunciators. A
FUEL FEED annunciator indicates that less than
two minutes of fuel remains in that fuel system.
The fuel quantity annunciators and sensors can be
functionally tested by pressing the annunciator
test switch on the glareshield.
Takeoff is prohibited when the fuel quantity indicator needles are in the yellow arc. Maximum
fuel remaining in this range (top of the yellow
arc) is 363 pounds.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

FUEL DRAINS
During preflight, the fuel sumps on the tanks,
pumps and filters should be drained to check for
fuel contamination. There are three sump drains
in each wing (Figure 5-13).
The collector tank sump drain is located in the
center wing adjacent to the fuselage; the inboard
leading-edge tank sump drain is on the underside
of the wing just outboard of the nacelle; and the
integral (wet wing) fuel tank sump drain is
located approximately midway on the underside
of the wing aft of the main spar. Other drains are
the fuel filter drain, in the main landing gear
wheelwell, and the center wing tank drain at the
wing root forward of the flap.
Since jet fuel and water are of similar densities,
water does not settle out of jet fuel as easily as
from aviation gasoline. For this reason, the airplane must sit perfectly still, with no fuel being
added, for approximately three hours prior to
draining the sumps if water is to be removed.
Although water ingestion is not as critical for turbine engines as it is for reciprocating engines,
water should still be removed periodically to prevent formations of fungus and contaminationinduced inaccuracies in the fuel gaging system.

When draining flush-mounted drains, do not turn


the draining tool. Turning or twisting the tool will
unseat the O-ring seal and may cause a leak.

Figure 5-13 Fuel DrainsSeries UA/UB

5-12

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

FUEL SYSTEM
(SERIES UC/UE)

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

FUEL TANK SYSTEM

The Beechcraft 1900 Airliner fuel system (Figures 5-15 and 5-16) is designed with the pilot in
mind; simple to use in normal and emergency
conditions with one or more failures. Simple,
quick (over-the-wing) refueling is also incorporated to minimize ground turnaround time
requirements. In the Series UC/UE and after, the
1900 Airliner differs from previous series in the
completely integral wetwing design. Range has
been increased approximately 55% without
increasing the basic airplane weight. This combination increases the usefulness of the Series
UC/UE airliners considerably.
The wet wing fuel system is quite different from
the previous series airliners, although pilot operation of the two systems is very similar. The fuel
system used in previous series is covered in a
separate section of this manual, and of course by
a different Pilots Operating Handbook. This
Section will discuss the Series UC/UE airliner
fuel program, including the wet-wing fuel tank
arrangement, fuel system components, controls,
operation of the system and the associated
annunciators.

The wet-wing fuel system consists of two integral fuel tanks in each wing (Figure 5-14). A
main tank extends from engine nacelle to wing
tip. An auxiliary tank is located between the
engine nacelle and the fuselage. The usable fuel
in the airliner and the maximum zero fuel weight
for UC and UE Series Airliners are shown in
Table 5-1. The maximum allowable fuel imbalance between the wings is 200 pounds.
Table 5-1 USABLE FUEL
UC

UE

Maximum usable
fuel (gallons)

667.2

665.4

Each main tank


(gallons)

241.3

240.5

Each auxiliary
tank (gallons)

92.3

92.2

14,000

15,165

Maximum zero
fuel weight (lbs.)

Figure 5-14 Fuel Tank SystemSeries UC/UE

Revision 1

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5-13

5-14

BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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Figure 5-15 Fuel System DiagramSeries UC and After

BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5-15

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Figure 5-16 Fuel System SchematicSeries UE

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 5-17 Fuel Control PanelSeries UC/UE

Figure 5-18 Fuel Tank Vent SystemSeries UC/UE

5-16

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

FUEL CAPACITY
The main tanks are filled through fill ports
located near the wing tips. A collector tank is
contained within each main tank immediately
outboard of the nacelle. Each collector tank is
filled from its main tank by gravity feed and two
jet transfer pumps, which maintain the fuel level
in the collector tank at normal flight attitudes.
Each auxiliary tank is filled through its own fill
port located just inboard of the engine nacelle.
When auxiliary tank fuel is required for a
planned flight, the main tanks should be full and
the additional fuel to complete the flight placed
in the auxiliary tanks. The auxiliary tank fuel
should be used first. There is no gravity flow
between the main and auxiliary tanks, therefore,
each must be filled separately.

FUEL TANK VENTS


Under certain conditions, the fuel vent system
will allow fuel to flow from the main tank to the
auxiliary tank (Figure 5-18). These conditions
occur at lower power settings when the auxiliary
tank transfer pump is supplying fuel to the collector tank, and the high-pressure pump purge
line is directing fuel back to a full main tank.
Since the main tank is already full, any excess
fuel flows through the vent system back to the
auxiliary tank. This condition can continue until
the auxiliary tank is empty. The second condition
which will allow fuel to flow from the main tank
to the auxiliary tank is thermal expansion. Fuel
will not vent outside from the wing unless the
auxiliary tank is full.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The fuel system is vented through a float operated valve near each wing tip. The system
contains a flush vent with flame arrester, a heated
ram-air vent, to maintain a slight positive tank
pressure during flight, and a recessed ram vent.
The recessed ram vent is coupled to the protruding ram vent on the underside of the wing tip.
The recessed vent is naturally ice resistant, while
the protruding vent is heated to prevent icing.
The fuel vent heat switch is located on the pilots
subpanel in the ice protection group.
The check valves in the vent tubes allow the air
to flow one way through the vents. The flame
arrestors, on the flush vent and incoming line,
prevent a flame front produced by a lightning
strike or static discharge from traveling up the
vent line into the tank system. The vent system
also incorporates a pressure-activated relief tube
which prevents an overpressure condition in the
tank. A valve in the tube opens when the pressure
exceeds a set amount. Vent lines connect the
main tank and auxiliary tank as we have discussed earlier.
As fuel is used from the main tank, it is gravityfed and also pumped through motive flow to the
collector tank. The cross vents to the auxiliary
tank then are open and equalize the pressure in
all tanks. An anti-siphon valve is installed in each
tank filler port to prevent loss of fuel through
siphoning in the event of improper securing or
loss of the filler cap.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

FUEL SYSTEM OPERATION


This fuel system operation is designed to be fully
automatic. Power for the aux transfer pumps is
supplied through their respective generator busses. All other fuel system functions on the control
panel require only battery power.
During normal operation, fuel flow to each
engine is provided by the engine-driven fuel
pumps (high pressure and boost) which draw fuel
from the collector tank in the same wing (Figure
5-19). The collector tank draws from its respective main tank unless fuel is being supplied from
the auxiliary tank. Any fuel contained in the auxiliary tanks is to be used prior to using fuel from
the main tanks.
The auxiliary tank fuel will be used first. A loss
of electrical power or failure of the transfer pump
will prevent the use of auxiliary tank fuel. The
auxiliary tank will not gravity feed into the main
tank fuel system.
The auxiliary tank transfer pump uses fuel for
cooling. A thermal cutout switch has been incor-

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

porated within the pump should the automatic


features fail to turn off the pump when the auxiliary tank fuel has been used. The auxiliary
transfer pump can also be turned ON or OFF by
placing the AUX pump switch in the desired
position to bypass the automatic features.
Engine fuel is supplied from the collector tank
through the motive-flow system operated by
either the engine-driven boost pump, or the
standby pump within the collector tank. The
motive-flow system is supported by a series of
three transfer jet pumps (main, forward, and aft).
The main jet pump is located within the collector
tank. It picks up fuel from the collector tank and
sends fuel to the engine. The aft jet pump is also
located within the collector tank but it draws fuel
from the main tank and fills the collector tank.
The forward jet pump draws fuel from the main
tank, forward of the wing spar, and sends it to the
collector. There are also three flapper valves and
three upper wing stringer cutouts that will allow
the collector to be gravity fed from the main
tank.

Figure 5-19 Fuel Flow DiagramSeries UC/UE

5-18

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

The engine-driven boost pump draws fuel from


the collector tank using the jet pump principle.
The components we are concerned with are the
motive-flow line, the primary jet pump, two
transfer jet pumps, the standby electric boost
pump, and the fuel supply line. The transfer jet
pumps function is to keep the collector tank full
by transferring fuel from the main fuel tank to the
collector tank by means of the venturi effect.
Fuel from the motive-flow line passes through
the primary jet pump, which is actually a venturi.
In order to pull fuel from the collector tank, a
venturi effect is used. As a mass of fuel is accelerated through a small opening or venturi, it
causes a drop in pressure. At this low-pressure
point, fuel from the collector tank enters the fuelsupply line through a filter and low-pressure fuel
is supplied as needed. The transfer jet pumps
draw fuel into the collector tank from the main
tank in the same manner.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

LOW-FUEL WARNING SYSTEM


(SERIES UE)
The low-fuel warning system operation and components are the same as the Series UC system,
however, specific quantities have been established for each sensor. The FUEL QUANTITY
annunciator units will be activated by the fuel
level sensors if the main tank quantity drops
below 324 pounds. If the fuel in the collector
tank drops below 53 pounds, the COL TANK
LOW annunciator will be activated.

FIREWALL SHUTOFF VALVES


The 1900 Airliner fuel system incorporates two
firewall fuel valves, one for each engine. The
firewall shutoff valves are motor-driven and

If the primary engine-driven boost pump fails,


fuel can be supplied to the system by the standby
electric boost pump. This pump draws fuel
directly from the collector tank and passes it to
the fuel supply line. As fuel is drawn from the
collector tank, it flows through the manual shutoff valve, a fuel filter and through the firewall
shut-off valve.

LOW-FUEL WARNING SYSTEM


(SERIES UC)
The low-fuel warning system provides bilevel
warning to the flight crew when the fuel level in
each tank reaches a predetermined level, and
again when the fuel in the collector tank area is
nearly exhausted. When fuel in the main tanks
reaches a level allowing approximately 30 minutes of flight time at maximum continuous
power, the right, or left, or both FUEL QTY
annunciators will be actuated by fuel level sensors mounted on the forward side of the tank. If
the fuel in the collector tank area drops to a
reserve of two minutes flight time at maximum
continuous power, the right, left or both, FUEL
FEED annunciators will light up.
Figure 5-20 Firewall Shutoff Valve
Series UC/UE

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 5-21 FIRE PULL HandlesSeries UC/UE

require electrical power for opening and closing.


The firewall shutoff valves are actuated by two
FIRE PULL handles located in the upper center
instrument panel (Figure 5-21). When the handle
is pulled, its respective firewall shutoff valve
closes, and fuel flow to that engine is discontinued (Figure 5-20). Pulling the handle also arms
the fire extinguisher on that side.

FUEL TRANSFER MOTIVEFLOW SYSTEM


Fuel pressure from the engine-driven boost pump
provides the motive flow to operate the primary
jet pump. If the engine-driven boost pump fails,
the standby boost pump provides fuel pressure
for motive flow. During start, motive flow is initiated by the engine start and ignition switch which
automatically energizes the standby boost pump.
The 1900 Airliner is approved for takeoff with
one standby boost pump inoperative; however,
cross-transfer will not be possible from the side
of the inoperative standby pump.
The primary jet pump assists the engine-driven
pumps in removing fuel from the collector tank.
The motive-flow fuel supply line is routed along
the outboard side of the nacelle, and continues
into the primary jet pump installed into the collector tank sump. A check valve in the motiveflow line prevents the fuel system from ingesting
air when the boost pump is not operating.
The transfer jet pumps are also activated by
motive flow. Their function is to ensure sufficient
fuel supply during extreme aircraft attitude
conditions.

5-20

CROSS-TRANSFER
OPERATION
A cross-transfer line connects the collector tanks
in each wing (Figure 5-22). A switch-controlled
cross-transfer valve in the left wing is externally
connected into the line. When the valve is in its
normally-closed position, each engine draws fuel
from its respective fuel tank system.
A manually operated cross-transfer control
switch is mounted on the upper fuel control
panel, just above the fuel quantity gages. When
the cross-transfer control switch is actuated, the
cross-transfer valve opens to allow the standby
fuel boost pump to transfer fuel to the opposite
collector tank. In addition to the cross-transfer
function, the electric boost pump can provide
fuel to the engine should the engine-driven boost
pump fail. Power for the switches is drawn
through the circuit breakers at the bottom of the
fuel panel.
During single-engine operation, it may become
necessary to supply fuel to the operative engine
from the fuel system on the opposite side. The
simplified cross-transfer system is placarded for
fuel selection with a diagram on the upper fuel
control panel. The STANDBY PUMP switches
are placed in the OFF position when cross transf e r r i n g . A l eve r- l o c k s w i t c h , p l a c a r d e d
TRANSFER FLOW OFF, is moved from the
center OFF position to the left or to the right,
depending on direction of flow. This opens the
cross-transfer valve, energizing the standby
pump on the side from which cross transfer is
desired. In the event one of the electric boost
pumps fail, cross-transfer can only be accomplished from the side of the operative pump.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 5-22 Cross-Transfer SchematicSeries UC/UE

On the Caution advisory panel, a green FUEL


TRANSFER indicator will illuminate to indicate
that the cross-transfer is selected (Series UC). In
t h e U E S e r i e s , t wo l i g h t s i n t h e C AU TION/ADVISORY panel indicate the condition
of the fuel transfer system. The yellow XFR
VALVE FAIL annunciator is activated if the
transfer valve fails to move to its assigned posit i o n w i t h i n t wo s e c o n d s . A w h i t e F U E L
TRANSFER annunciator is activated if the fuel
transfer valve is in full open position. To discontinue fuel transfer operations, the transfer flow
switch need only be placed in the center OFF
position.

starting, fuel manifold pressure closes the fuel


manifold valve, allowing P3 air to pressurize the
purge tank.

FUEL PURGE SYSTEM


This airplane is equipped with a fuel purge system (Figure 5-23). The purge system is designed
to assure that any residual fuel in the fuel manifolds is consumed during engine shutdown.
During normal engine operation, compressor discharge air (P3 air) is routed through a filter and
two check valves, pressurizing a small air tank on
the engine truss mount. Upon engine shutdown
the pressure differential between the air tank and
fuel manifold causes air to be discharged from
the air tank into the fuel manifold system. The air
forces all residual fuel out through the nozzles
and into the combustion chamber where it is consumed. A momentary surge in N1 may be noticed
as fuel is burned. The entire operation is automatic and requires no crew action. During engine

Figure 5-23 Fuel Drain Purge System


SchematicSeries UC/UE

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5-21

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 5-24 Fuel Control PanelSeries UE

FUEL CONTROL PANEL


The left and right fuel quantity indicators on the
fuel control panel indicate the amount of fuel
remaining in their respective main fuel tanks
(Figures 5-17 and 5-24). Deflecting the springloaded FUEL QTY switch on the fuel control
panel to the AUX position will cause the indicators to indicate the fuel quantity in the
auxiliary tanks. The indicators are marked in
pounds. The pilot must hold the spring-loaded
fuel quantity selector switch in the AUX position to verify the quantity remaining in each
auxiliary tank. Once the switch is released, the
fuel indicator will return to read only the main
tank quantity.

FUEL GAGING SYSTEM


The airplane is equipped with a capacitance-type
fuel quantity indication system (Figure 5-24). A
maximum indication error of 3% may be encount e r e d i n t h e s y s t e m . T h e ga g i n g s y s t e m
compensates for changes in fuel density, which
result from differences in ambient temperatures.
A Density Variation of Aviation Fuel graph is
provided in the Weight and Balance section of

5-22

the POH to allow more accurate readings for all


approved fuels.
Fuel quantity probes, which are part of the fuel
gaging system, are capacitance-type probes.
These probes measure the density of fuel on
board, and are calibrated to read pounds of fuel.
This system is necessary on this airplane because
the engines operate on weight flow of fuel rather
than gallons. The gages in the cockpit therefore
read in pounds of fuel flow and pounds of fuel
remaining in the tanks. To provide the pilot with
such a readout, it is necessary to use a system
which compensates for changes in the specific
gravity of the fuel in use. Therefore, each probe
is designed to compensate for differences in specific gravity. Each main tank contains six fuel
quantity probes, and each auxiliary tank two
probes. Information from these probes is relayed
to the fuel panel in the cockpit to show fuel
remaining in each tank.

STANDBY PUMP OPERATION


The electrically driven, standby pumps are activated by individual On/Off switches on the
pilots left side panel. These pumps are activated

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

if problems arise with the primary engine-driven


boost pumps. The standby pumps are automatically activated during engine start by the START
and IGNITION switches. The standby pumps are
also used for all cross-transfer operations. In the
event one of the electric pumps fail, cross-transfer can only be accomplished from the side of the
operative pump.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

With fuel in the auxiliary tank and the transfer


switch in AUTO, the auxiliary tank transfer pump
will run once the 10 psi low-pressure switch is
activated. It will continue to run until the boost
pressure falls below 10 psi, or the float switch
and transfer line low-pressure switches open; in
either case the auxiliary tank transfer pump will
shut down.

AUXILIARY TANK OPERATION


To use fuel from the auxiliary tanks, position the
Aux Pump switches on the fuel control panel in
the Auto position. This activates the electric
transfer pump in each auxiliary tank and pumps
fuel to the collector tank of the same wing. Fuel
will continue to be transferred until the auxiliary
tank is empty, at which time the pump will automatically shut off. In the event of a transfer
system failure, it is permissible to temporarily
operate the airplane with fuel in the auxiliary
tanks providing fuel imbalance and fuel reserve
requirements can be met.
The auxiliary tank transfer pump is controlled by
a three-position switch located on the fuel control
panel, labeled, ON-AUTO-OFF. Normal
procedures call for the pump to be left in the
AUTO position. In AUTO, there are four
additional non-pilot operated control features.
There is a float switch within the auxiliary tank, a
five PSI low-pressure switch in the transfer line
between the auxiliary and main tank operates
LEFT or RIGHT NO-FUEL transfer (L or R NO
AUX XFR - UE) annunciator lights), a 10 psi
low-pressure switch located after the enginedriven fuel boost pump, and a thermal cut-out
switch on the pump.

WARNING
Takeoff is prohibited when the fuel
quantity indicator needles are in the
yellow arc. Maximum fuel remaining
in this range (top of the yellow arc) is
363 pounds.

VISUAL FUEL QUANTITY


SENSORS (SERIES UE)
Two visual fuel quantity gauges are located on
the lower surface of each wing to provide the
ground crew and pilots an alternate method of
fuel gauging in the event of a failure in the capacitance system. The gauges, when not submerged
in fuel, are red with a black dot; when they are
submerged they are totally black. The outboard
probe, when red, indicates less than 1,150
pounds of fuel, the inboard probe, when red,
indicates less than 745 pounds of fuel.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

5-23

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 5-25 Fuel DrainsSeries UC/UE

FUEL DRAINS

prevent formations of fungus and contaminationinduced inaccuracies in the fuel gaging system.

During preflight, the fuel sumps on the tanks,


pumps and filters should be drained to check for
fuel contamination. There are six (five in Series
UE) sump drains in each wing (Figure 5-25).
The two (one in Series UE) collector tank sump
drains are located below the wing on the outboard side of the nacelle; the two main tank
drains are located on the underside of the wing,
outboard of the nacelle, one forward and one aft
of the main wing spar: the other drains are the
fuel filter drain located on the underside of the
wing, outboard of the nacelle under a springloaded access panel and the auxiliary tank drain
at the wing root forward of the flap.
Since jet fuel and water are of similar densities,
water does not settle out of jet fuel as easily as
from aviation gasoline. For this reason, the
airplane must sit perfectly still, with no fuel
being added, for approximately three hours prior
to draining the sumps if water is to be removed.
Although water ingestion is not as critical for
turbine engines as it is for reciprocating engines,
water should still be removed periodically to

5-24

When draining flush-mounted drains, do not turn


the draining tool. Turning or twisting the tool
will unseat the O-ring seal and may cause a
leak.

FUEL DRAIN LOCATIONS


Table 5-2 FUEL DRAIN LOCATIONS
DRAINS
Auxiliary tank (1)

LOCATION
Underside of wing, inboard of
nacelle

Collector tank (2) UC Outboard side of nacelle


(1) UE
Main tank (2)

Underside of wing, outboard of


nacelle

Fuel filter (1)

Underside of wing, outboard of


nacelle

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FUEL HANDLING PRACTICES


(SERIES UA/UB AND UC/UE)
All hydrocarbon fuels contain some dissolved
and some suspended water. The quantity of water
contained in the fuel depends on its type and temperature. Kerosene, with its higher aromatic
content, tends to absorb and suspend more water
than aviation gasoline. Along with water, kerosene will suspend rust, lint and other foreign
materials longer. Given sufficient time, suspended contaminants will settle to the bottom of
the tank.
The settling time for kerosene is five times that of
aviation gasoline; therefore, jet fuels require
good fuel handling practices to ensure servicing
with clean fuel. If recommended ground procedures are carefully followed, solid contaminants
will settle, and free water can be reduced to 30
parts per million (ppm), a value considered
acceptable by the major airlines.
Dissolved water has been found to be the major
potential fuel contaminant. Its effects are multiplied in aircraft that operate primarily in humid
regions and in warm climates. Since most suspended matter, including water, can be removed
from the fuel by allowing sufficient settling time
and by proper filtration, fuel contamination is
usually not a major problem.
Dissolved water cannot be filtered from the fuel
by micronic-type filters used in the fuel system;
however, water in the fuel can be released by
lowering fuel temperature, which occurs in flight.
For example, a kerosene fuel may contain
65 ppm (8 ounces per 1,000 gallons) of dissolved
water at 80 F. When fuel temperature is lowered
to 15 F, only about 25 ppm will remain in solution. The difference of 40 ppm will have been
released as super-cooled water droplets which
need only a piece of solid contaminant or an
impact shock to convert them into ice crystals.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Tests indicate that released, super-cooled water


droplets will not settle during flight. Droplets are
pumped freely through the system. If they
become ice crystals in the tank, they will not
settle since the specific gravity of ice is
approximately equal to that of kerosene. 40 ppm
of suspended water seems like a very small
quantity, but when added to water suspended in
the fuel at the time of delivery, that amount is
sufficient to ice a filter. Although severe fuel
system icing can occur at fuel temperatures from
0 to -20F, water droplets can freeze at any
temperature below 32 F.
Water in jet fuel also creates an environment
favorable to the growth of a microbiological
sludge in settlement areas of the fuel cells.
Sludge and other fuel contaminants can cause
corrosion of metal parts in the fuel system and
clogging of the fuel filters. Although the 1900
Airliner uses integral (wet wing) fuel cells in
each wing, and all metal parts (except the
standby boost pumps and jet transfer pumps) are
mounted above the settlement areas, consistently
using contaminated fuels can cause filters to clog
and fuel pumps to corrode.
The primary means of fuel contamination control
is good housekeeping practices by the
owner/operator. This applies not only to maintaining a clean fuel supply, but to keeping the
aircraft system clean. The following is a list of
steps that may be taken to recognize and prevent
contamination problems.
a. Know your supplier. It is impractical to
assume that contaminant-free fuel will
always be available. But, it is feasible to
exercise caution and be watchful for signs
of fuel contamination.
b. Be sure, as much as possible, that fuel has
been properly stored. Fuel should be filtered as it is pumped to the truck, and
again as it is pumped from the truck to the
aircraft.
c. Perform filter inspections to determine if
sludge is present.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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Figure 5-26 Fuel Temperature Graph

d. Maintain good housekeeping by periodically flushing the fuel tankage system. The
frequency of flushing will be determined
by the climate and the presence of sludge.
e. Aviation gas is an emergency fuel. If
avgas has been used, observe the requirement for 150 hours maximum operation
on aviation gasoline before engine overhaul. The time should be logged in the
aircraft engine operation records as gallons of avgas added to the fuel system.
f. Use only clean fuel servicing equipment.
g. After refueling, allow a settling period of
at least three hours, whenever possible;
then drain a small amount of fuel from
each drain.
h. Fuel spills on airplane tires have a deteriorating effect. Be sure to remove spilled
fuel from the ramp area immediately to
prevent tire damage.

5-26

Even if the fuel does not contain water, or if


water has been drained, the possibility of fuel
icing still exists at some very low temperatures.
The oil-to-fuel heat exchanger prevents fuel icing
during most normal operating conditions; however, in extremely cold temperatures at some
cruise altitudes, anti-icing fuel additives must be
used.
The Minimum Oil Temperature Required for
Operation Without Anti-Icing Additive chart is
found in the POH Limitations section. This chart
is used as a guide in preflight planning to determine operating temperatures where icing at the
fuel control unit could occur (Figure 5-26). Enter
the graph with the known or forecast outside air
temperature at cruise, and plot vertically to the
expected cruise pressure altitude. Since no fuel
temperature measurement is available prior to the
heat exchanger, fuel temperature must be
assumed to be the same as outside air
temperature.

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Follow the graph using this example: enter outside air temperature at -30 C and vertically
follow the graph to a cruise pressure altitude of
5,000 feet. Next, plot horizontally to determine
the minimum oil temperature required to prevent
icing. In this example, the minimum oil temperature required is 31 C.
The 1900 Airliner maintains a constant oil temperature, although the exact temperature varies
from one airplane to another. For most, the oil
temperature maintains a constant 50 to 60 C.
Compare the minimum oil temperature obtained
in the preceding example with the normal oil
temperature of the airplane to be used for the
flight to determine if anti-icing additive is
needed. When required, anti-icing additive conforming to specification MIL-I-27686 should be
added during fueling.

FUEL GRADES AND TYPES


(SERIES UA/UB AND UC/UE)
Jet A, Jet A-1, Jet B, and JP-4 fuels may be
mixed in any ratio in the 1900 Airliner fuel system. Aviation gasoline grades 80/87, 100LL,
100/130, and 115/145 are emergency fuels and
may be mixed in any ratio with jet fuels.
If the 1900 Airliner is fueled with aviation gasoline, some operational limitations must be
observed. If use of aviation gasoline is necessary,
operation is limited to 150 hours before engine
overhaul, and is prohibited if either of the two
standby pumps is inoperative or if flight is conducted above 15,000 feet (18,000 feet in Series
UE). When avgas is used, lead deposits form on
the turbine wheels causing power degradation;
therefore, when operating on avgas, the lowest
octane rating available should be used because its
lead content is lowest.
Since the aviation gas will probably be mixed
with jet fuel already in the tanks, it is easier to
record the number of gallons of avgas added than
to note hours of operation. If an engine has an
average fuel consumption of 55 gallons per hour,
each time 55 gallons of aviation gasoline are
added, one hour of the 150 hour limitation is
being used.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

A chart in the POH/POM Weight and Balance


section shows the density of avgas to be considerably less than that of jet fuel. Because it is less
dense, aviation gas delivery is much more critical
than jet fuel delivery; therefore, operation on
avgas is prohibited if above 15,000 feet (18,000
feet in Series UE). Aviation gas feeds well under
pressure but cannot suction feed as well, particularly at high altitudes. For this reason, two
alternate means of pressure feed must be available. Standby pumps provide alternate pressure
feed capability, and both are required to be operational when avgas is used.
The Fuel Brands and Type Designations Chart in
the Handling, Servicing and Maintenance section
of the POH/POM gives fuel refiners brand
names, and the corresponding type designations
established by the American Petroleum Institute
(API) and the American Society of Testing Material (ASTM). Brand names are listed for easy
reference and are not specifically recommended
by Beech Aircraft Corporation. Any product conforming to the recommended specification may
be used.

FILLING THE TANKS (SERIES


UA/UB AND UC/UE)
When filling the aircraft fuel tanks, always
observe the following:
a. Make sure the aircraft and the servicing
unit are both grounded to the ground, and
that the aircraft is statically grounded to
the serving unit.
b. The filler caps are located in the main fuel
tank on the leading edge of each wing
near the wing tip and the auxiliary tank
fuel caps are just inboard of each nacelle.
Do not rest fuel nozzle in tank fillers
because this may damage the filler neck.
c. Allow a three-hour settling period whenever possible, then drain a sufficient
amount of fuel from each drain point to
remove water or contaminants.

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DRAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM


(SERIES UA/UB AND UC/UE)
A defueling adapter is located inboard of the
standby pump in the center wing tank. The
adapter contains a check valve to prevent fuel
drainage when the plug is removed. Each wing
fuel system may be drained as follows:
a. Cut the safety wire and remove the plug.
This will seat the check valve.
b. Thread an AN832-12 adapter into the
drain, unseating the check valve to start
the flow of fuel. Fuel will gravity drain.

5-28

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The material normally covered in this chapter is not applicable to this airplane.

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6-1

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CHAPTER 7
POWERPLANT
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 7-1
DESCRIPTION....................................................................................................................... 7-1
1900 AIRLINER POWERPLANT ......................................................................................... 7-3
Engine Stations................................................................................................................ 7-7
Engine Terms .................................................................................................................. 7-7
Engine Airflow ................................................................................................................ 7-8
Compressor Bleed Valve............................................................................................... 7-10
Jet-Flap Intake System .................................................................................................. 7-11
Swing Check Valve (Series UA through UB-40) ......................................................... 7-11
Igniters........................................................................................................................... 7-11
Accessory Section ......................................................................................................... 7-12
Lubrication System........................................................................................................ 7-13
Magnetic Chip Detector (Series UA, UB)..................................................................... 7-16
ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM .................................................................................................... 7-16
Fuel Manifold Purge System ......................................................................................... 7-17
Fuel Control Unit (FCU) ............................................................................................... 7-18
FCU Operation .............................................................................................................. 7-18
Fuel Flow Indicators...................................................................................................... 7-19
Fuel Pressure Indicators ................................................................................................ 7-20
Anti-icing Fuel Additive ............................................................................................... 7-20
Fuel Biocide Additive ................................................................................................... 7-20

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CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS..................................................................................... 7-20


Control Pedestal ............................................................................................................ 7-20
Engine Power Control................................................................................................... 7-20
Power Levers ................................................................................................................ 7-21
Propeller Levers ............................................................................................................ 7-21
Condition Levers........................................................................................................... 7-21
Condition Lever Operation (Series UA, UB, UC)........................................................ 7-21
Condition Lever Operation (Series UE) ....................................................................... 7-22
ITT and Torquemeters .................................................................................................. 7-22
ITT Gage....................................................................................................................... 7-22
Torquemeter (Series UA, UB, UC)............................................................................... 7-23
Torquemeter (Series UE) .............................................................................................. 7-23
Gas Generator (N1) Tachometer (Series UA, UB, UC)................................................ 7-23
Gas Generator (N1) Tachometer (Series UE) ............................................................... 7-23
ENGINE LIMITATIONS..................................................................................................... 7-27
STARTER OPERATING TIME LIMITS............................................................................ 7-29
TREND MONITORING ...................................................................................................... 7-29
DATA COLLECTION ......................................................................................................... 7-30
PROPELLER SYSTEM ....................................................................................................... 7-31
General.......................................................................................................................... 7-31
Blade Angle .................................................................................................................. 7-33
Primary Governor ......................................................................................................... 7-33
Low Pitch Stop.............................................................................................................. 7-38
Beta and Reverse Control ............................................................................................. 7-38
Flight and Ground Low Pitch Stops ............................................................................. 7-41

7-ii

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Overspeed Governor...................................................................................................... 7-44


Fuel Topping Governor ................................................................................................. 7-45
Power Levers................................................................................................................. 7-45
Propeller Control Levers ............................................................................................... 7-46
Propeller Feathering ...................................................................................................... 7-46
Before Taxi and Before Takeoff Checks....................................................................... 7-46
Autofeather System (Series UA, UB, UC).................................................................... 7-47
Autofeather System (Series UE) ................................................................................... 7-49
Propeller Synchrophaser Systems ................................................................................. 7-49

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ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

7-1

PT6A-65B Powerplant Installation.......................................................................... 7-2

7-2

Engine Installation ................................................................................................... 7-3

7-3

Engine Cutaway....................................................................................................... 7-5

7-4

Engine Gas Flow...................................................................................................... 7-6

7-5

Free-Turbine Reverse Flow Principle...................................................................... 7-7

7-6

Engine Modular Concept ......................................................................................... 7-8

7-7

Jet-Flap, Compressor Bleed Valve, Swing Check Valve ...................................... 7-10

7-8

Engine Start and Ignition Switches........................................................................ 7-12

7-9

Typical PT6A Engine ............................................................................................ 7-13

7-10

Engine Lubrication Diagram ................................................................................. 7-14

7-11

Engine Oil Dipstick ............................................................................................... 7-15

7-12

Magnetic Chip Detector......................................................................................... 7-16

7-13

Simplified Fuel System Diagram........................................................................... 7-17

7-14

Simplified Fuel Control System ............................................................................ 7-19

7-15

Fuel Flow Gages .................................................................................................... 7-19

7-16

Fuel Pressure Annunciator..................................................................................... 7-20

7-17

Control Pedestal..................................................................................................... 7-21

7-18

Control Levers ....................................................................................................... 7-22

7-19

Engine Instrument Markings (Series UA, UB, and UC) ....................................... 7-24

7-20

Engine Instruments (Series UE-1 through UE-92) ................................................ 7-25

7-21

Engine Instruments (Series UE-93 and After)....................................................... 7-26

7-22

Engine Limits ChartPT6A-65B ......................................................................... 7-27

7-23

Engine Limits ChartPT6A-67D ......................................................................... 7-28

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7-24

Overtemperature Limits (Starting) ........................................................................ 7-28

7-25

View through Exhaust Duct .................................................................................. 7-29

7-26

In-Flight Engine Data Log .................................................................................... 7-30

7-27

Hartzell Propeller .................................................................................................. 7-31

7-28

Propeller Tiedown Boot Installed ......................................................................... 7-31

7-29

Propeller Blade Angle Diagram ............................................................................ 7-32

7-30

Primary Governor Diagram................................................................................... 7-34

7-31

Propeller Onspeed Diagram .................................................................................. 7-35

7-32

Propeller Overspeed Diagram ............................................................................... 7-36

7-33

Propeller Underspeed Diagram ............................................................................. 7-37

7-34

Beta and Reverse Control...................................................................................... 7-39

7-35

Beta Range and Reverse Diagram......................................................................... 7-40

7-36

Propeller Postioning Diagram ............................................................................... 7-42

7-37

Overspeed Governor Diagram .............................................................................. 7-44

7-38

Power Levers......................................................................................................... 7-45

7-39

Propeller Control Levers ....................................................................................... 7-46

7-40

Autofeather Test DiagramSeries UA, UB, UC ................................................. 7-47

7-41

Autofeather System Diagram (Armed)Series UA, UB, UC.............................. 7-48

7-42

Autofeather System Diagram (Armed, Left Engine Failure)


Series UA, UB, UC ............................................................................................... 7-48

7-43

Autofeather System DiagramSeries UE............................................................ 7-50

7-44

Propeller Synchrophaser ....................................................................................... 7-51

7-vi

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TABLES
Table

Title

Page

7-1

PT6A-65B Specifications
(Sea Level Static ICAO Standard Atmosphere Conditions) .................................... 7-4

7-2

PT6A-67D Specifications
(Sea Level Static ICAO Standard Atmosphere Conditions) .................................... 7-4

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CHAPTER 7
POWERPLANT
#1 DC
GEN

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INTRODUCTION
In-depth knowledge of powerplants is essential to the pilots ability to operate the engines.
Performance within the normal parameters of powerplant and propeller systems extends engine
life and ensures safety. This chapter describes basic engine components, limitations, and system
checks. In-depth knowledge of the propeller system is essential to proper operation of the
engine power system. Operating within safe parameters of the powerplant and propeller
systems extends engine life and ensures safety. This chapter also describes the propeller system
and its operational limits and preflight checks.

DESCRIPTION
This chapter describes and discusses the Pratt &
Whitney PT6A-65B and -67D turboprop engines.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide pilots
with sufficient engine operating details to further
understand normal, abnormal, and emergency
procedures.

of propeller controls, principles of operation,


reversing systems, and propeller feathering are
detailed. Descriptions include primary and overspeed governors, autofeather system, and
synchrophaser. Propeller system checks, as outlined in the POH/AFM Before Taxi and Before
Takeoff (runup) checklists, are discussed.

This chapter also presents a description and discussion of the propeller system. Location and use

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Figure 7-1 PT6A-65B Powerplant Installation

7-2

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

1900 AIRLINER
POWERPLANT
Beech designers chose the Pratt and Whitney
PT6A-65B (UA, UB, UC) and -67D (UE) powerplants for the 1900 Airliner (Figure 7-1). The
PT6A-65B reverse flow, free-turbine, turboprop
engine (Figure 7-2) is flat-rated to 1,100 shaft
horsepower. The PT6A-67D is flat-rated to 1,279
shaft horsepower.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The engines are equipped with composite fourblade, full-feathering, reversing, constant-speed
propellers mounted on the output shaft of the
engine reduction gearbox. Engine oil supply and
single-action, engine-driven governors control
propeller pitch and speed. When the engines are
shut down, propellers automatically feather, and
will unfeather when engines are started as engine
oil is pumped into the propeller dome. Reference
to the right or to the left side of the aircraft, propellers, or engines always assumes the pilot is
looking from the rear of the aircraft forward (Figure 7-3).

Figure 7-2 Engine Installation

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7-3

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Turboprop engine power is measured in equival e n t s h a f t h o r s e p ow e r ( E S H P ) a n d s h a f t


horsepower (SHP). SHP is determined by propeller rpm and torque applied to turn the propeller
shaft. Hot exhaust gases leaving the engine also
develop some kinetic energy similar to a turbojet
engine. Jet thrust (approximately 10% of total

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

engine power), combined with SHP, is equal to


ESHP. Turboprop engine specifications usually
show ESHP, SHP, and limiting ambient temperatures. The engine specification tables show
engine ratings and temperatures (Tables 7-1 and
7-2).

Table 7-1 PT6A-65B SPECIFICATIONS


(SEA LEVEL STATIC ICAO STANDARD ATMOSPHERE CONDITIONS)
ESHP

SHP

PROPELLER
RPM (A)

JET THRUST
(LBS)

SPECIFIC FUEL
CONSUMPTION
(LB./ESHP/HR.)

Takeoff

1174

1100

1700

181 x 2

0.536

Max. Continuous

1174

1100

1700

181

0.536

Max. Climb +

1069

1000*

1700

171

0.550

Normal Cruise +

1069

1000*

1700

171

0.550

OPERATING
CONDITION

* Available to 21.1C (70F)


+ For information only; not certification ratings
(a) Corresponding Speed: Power Turbine - 29,920 rpm

Table 7-2 PT6A-67D SPECIFICATIONS


(SEA LEVEL STATIC ICAO STANDARD ATMOSPHERE CONDITIONS)
OPERATING
CONDITION
Takeoff

ESHP

SHP

PROPELLER
RPM (A)

JET THRUST
(LBS)

SPECIFIC FUEL
CONSUMPTION
(LB./ESHP/HR.)

1353

1279*

1700

186 x 2

0.530

Max. Continuous

1285

1214**

1700

178

0.539

Max. Climb +

1172

1106***

1700

165

0.557

Normal Cruise +

1172

1106***

1700

165

0.557

*
**
***
+
(a)

Available to 48C
Available to 46.5C
Available to 45C
For information only; not certification ratings
Corresponding Speed: Power Turbine - 29,920 rpm

Engine Type............................................................................................................... Free Turbine


Type of Combustion Chamber...........................................................................................Annular
Compression Ratio ..................................................................................................................12:1
Compressor Shaft Rotation (looking forward) ..................................................Counterclockwise
Propeller Shaft Rotation (looking forward)...................................................................Clockwise
Propeller Shaft Gear Ratio....................................................................................................17.6:1
Oil Consumption, Maximum Average......................(0.316 lb./hr. UE) 0.2 lb./hr. (0.0907 kg./hr.)
Gas Generator Speed 100% N1 ................................................................................... 37,468 rpm
Max. Continuous Gas Generator Speed 104% N1 ...................................................... 39,000 rpm

7-4

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7-5

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Figure 7-3 Engine Cutaway

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Figure 7-4 Engine Gas Flow

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ENGINE STATIONS

NFPower turbine rpm (not indicated on engine


instruments).

To identify locations in the engine, it is common


practice to establish engine station numbers at
various points (Figure 7-3). To refer to pressure
or temperature at a specific point in engine airflow path, the appropriate station number is used,
such as P3 for Station 3 pressure or T5 for gas
temperature at Station 5. For instance, airflow
temperature measured between the compressor
and first-stage power turbine at Engine Station 5,
is called interstage turbine temperature (ITT) or
T5. Bleed air, located after the centrifugal compressor stage and prior to entering the
combustion chamber, is commonly referred to as
P3 or bleed air. Bleed air is used for cabin heat,
pressurization, and the pneumatic system.

ENGINE TERMS
To properly understand the operation of the
PT6A series engines, you should know the following basic definitions. These terms should be
memorized since they are used often when
describing PT6A engines.
N1 or NgGas generator rpm in percent of turbine speed.
NpPropeller rpm.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

P2.5Air pressure between Engine Stations 2


and 3. Also referred to as axial stage air or compressor interstage air.
P3Air pressure at Engine Station 3, the source
of bleed air used for some aircraft systems.
ITT or T5Interstage Turbine Temperature in
degrees centigrade at Engine Station 5.

Free-Turbine Reverse-Flow
Principle
The free-turbine design of the PT6A series
engines refers to turbine sections which rotate
freely, having no physical connection between
them (Figure 7-5). The compressor turbine drives
the engine compressor and accessories. Dual
power turbines drive the power section and propeller through the planetary reduction gearbox.
Compressor and power turbines are mounted on
separate shafts and are driven in opposite directions by gas flow across them. The term reverse
flow refers to airflow through the engine. Inlet
air enters the compressor at the aft end of the
engine, moves forward through the combustion
section and the turbines, and is exhausted at the
front of the engine.

Figure 7-5 Free-Turbine Reverse Flow Principle

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Engine Modular Free-Turbine


Design
The modular concept is an important feature of
the PT6A engines. As a modular free-turbine
design, the engine is basically divided into two
sectionsa gas generator module and a power
module (Figure 7-6). The gas generator module
includes the compressor and the combustion section. Its function is to draw air into the engine,
add energy to it in the form of burning fuel, and
produce the gases necessary to drive the compressor and power turbines. The power module
converts the gas flow from the gas generator into
mechanical action to drive the propeller. This is
done through an integral planetary gearbox,
which converts the high-speed, low torque of the
power turbine to low-speed, high torque required
at the propeller. The reduction ratio from power
turbine shaft rpm to propeller rpm is approximately 17.6:1.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

occurring at mid-TBO, involves splitting the


engine between the compressor and power turbines. Since it is not necessary to remove the
engine from the airplane to accomplish the HSI,
inspection is both simple and fast. Because of
modular design, the gas generator section or the
combustion section can be completely replaced
independently of each other. This feature permits
easy maintenance, modular overhaul, and onwing HSI.

ENGINE AIRFLOW
Another important feature of the PT6A engines is
reverse-flow design. Inlet air enters the rear of
the engine through an annular plenum chamber,
formed by the compressor inlet case, where it is
directed forward to the compressor (see Figure
7-4). The compressor consists of four axial stages
and a single centrifugal stage assembled as a single unit on a common shaft.

The modular engine requires minimum maintenance. A hot section inspection (HSI), usually

Figure 7-6 Engine Modular Concept

7-8

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Rows of stator vanes between each stage of compression diffuse the air, raise its static pressure,
and direct it to the next stage of compression.
After the final compression stage, compressed air
passes through diffuser tubes which turn it 90 in
direction, and convert its velocity back to static
pressure. Now diffused, the air passes through
straightening vanes to the annulus surrounding
the combustion chamber liner.
The flow of air changes direction 180 as it enters
and mixes with fuel in the combustion chamber.
The combustion chamber liner contains perforations of varying size that allow entry of
compressor delivery air. Approximately 25% of
the air mixes with fuel to support combustion.
The remaining 75% is used to center the flame in
the combustion can and for internal engine cooling. The fuel/air mixture is ignited and the
resultant expanding gases are directed to the turbines. The unique location of the combustion
chamber liner, utilizing flow reversal, eliminates
the need for a long shaft between the compressor
and the compressor turbine, thus reducing the
engines overall length and weight.
For smoother engine starts, the PT6A-65B fuel is
introduced into the combustion chamber liner in
two stages through 14 simplex fuel nozzles. The
nozzles are supplied by a dual fuel manifold consisting of primary and secondary transfer tubes
and adapters. The seven primary nozzles inject
fuel into the combustion chamber during initial
start, and the remaining secondary nozzles are
activated as N1 increases to approximately 36%.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

In the PT6A-67D engine, fuel is introduced


through 14 duplex nozzles. The nozzles are supplied by a dual fuel manifold consisting of
primary and secondary transfer tubes and adapters. The 14 primary nozzles inject fuel into the
combustion chamber during initial start, and the
14 secondary nozzles are activated as N 1
increases to approximately 40 to 45%. The
fuel/air mixture is ignited by two spark igniters
which protrude into the liner.
After combustion, expanding gases reverse
direction in the exit duct zone, and pass through
compressor turbine inlet guide vanes to the
s i n g l e - s t a g e c o m p r e s s o r d r iv e t u r b i n e .
Expanding gases are then directed forward
through power turbine inlet guide vanes to drive
the power turbine section. The guide vanes
ensure that expanding gases impinge on the
turbine blades at the correct angle with minimum
energy loss. Approximately 60% of the energy
from combustion gases is extracted by the
compressor turbine, and the balance is used by
the power turbines. Exhaust gas from the power
turbines is then directed to the atmosphere
through abifurcated exhaust plenum to twin
opposed-exhaust ports.
Compressor and power turbines are located in the
approximate center of the engine, with their
respective shafts extending in opposite directions. This feature simplifies installation and
inspection procedures.

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7-9

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COMPRESSOR BLEED VALVE


At low N1 rpm, compressor axial stages produce
more compressed air than the centrifugal stage
can use. A compressor bleed valve compensates
for excess air flow at low rpm by bleeding axial
stage air (P2.5) to reduce back pressure on axial
stages (Figure 7-7). Pressure relief helps prevent
axial stage compressor stall.
The compressor bleed valve is a pneumatic piston that references pressure differential between
axial and centrifugal stages. Looking forward,
the valve is located at the 3 oclock position on
the gas generator case. The valve helps prevent

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

compressor stalls and provides smoother compressor operation in the low N1 rpm range.
At low N1 rpm, the compressor bleed valve is
open. As power is increased beyond approximately 72% N 1 , the valve begins to close
progressively. At takeoff and cruise, above
approximately 90% N1 rpm, the bleed valve is
closed. If the compressor bleed valve were to
stick closed at low N1 speeds, compressor stall
could result from an attempt to accelerate the
engine to higher power. If the valve were to stick
open at high N1 speeds, power output would be
considerably reduced. With the valve open, and

Figure 7-7 Jet-Flap, Compressor Bleed Valve, Swing Check Valve

7-10

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at a given N1 rpm, ITT will increase slightly and


torque will decrease.

NOTE
On UB-40 and after, the following
changes have been made:

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

SWING CHECK VALVE (SERIES


UA THROUGH UB-40)
A swing check valve is located on the left side of
the compressor at the 9 oclock position. It is a
plate valve, hinged at the upper edge, capable of
pivoting approximately 45. The valve relieves
excess P2.5 pressure that is trapped in the compressor case when the compressor bleed valve
closes.

Improved pre-swirl design supersedes jet


flap.

Swing check valve is eliminated.

IGNITERS

Rolling diaphragm is eliminated.

Two spark-type igniters in the combustion chamber provide positive ignition during engine start.
Although the engine is equipped with two igniters, it needs only one for start. The system is
designed so that if one igniter malfunctions, the
remaining igniter will continue to operate. Igniters are activated by the IGNITION AND
ENGINE START switch, and are turned off after
engine start when combustion becomes selfsustaining.

JET-FLAP INTAKE SYSTEM


A unique feature of the PT6A-65B engine is its
efficient utilization of P2.5 air. In the 65B, air is
ported into a jet flap system. A jet flap slot,
which secures the accessory section to the engine
compressor section, is machined into one side of
each hollow strut. A jet flap intake system (Figure 7-7) functions as a variable inlet guide vane
without variable geometry. Compressor interstage air (P 2.5 ) enters and exits through the
narrow slot, passing into the intake to provide a
swirl effect on inlet air entering the compressor.
This pre-swirl effect improves low-speed compressor characteristics and eliminates the
requirement for an additional compressor bleed
valve.

Spark ignition is effective for quick engine starting throughout a wide temperature range. The
system consists of an airframe-mounted ignition
exciter, two individual high-tension cable assemblies, and two spark igniters. It is energized from
the aircraft nominal 28-volt DC supply, and will
operate in the 9 to 30-volt range. The igniter system can produce up to 3,000 volts.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 7-8 Engine Start and Ignition Switches

Engine start switches on the pilots left subpanel


(Figure 7-8) are placarded IGNITION AND
ENGINE START. The three switch positions are
ON, OFF, and STARTER ONLY. The leverlocked ON position activates the starter and both
igniters. STARTER ONLY is a momentary holddown position of the spring-loaded center (OFF)
position. STARTER ONLY provides a motoringonly function sometimes used to clear the engine
of unburned fuel. Igniters are not energized in
this position.
The ignition system features automatic
capability. When the ENG AUTO IGNITION
switches are in the lever-locked ARM position,
igniters will automatically operate if engine
torque falls below 500 to 550 foot-pounds, and
IGNITION ON annunciators will illuminate. The
auto-ignition system should be armed in
turbulence, precipitation, and icing conditions. In

7-12

the PT6A-67D engine, actuation will occur if the


torque falls below 700 to 750 foot-pounds.

ACCESSORY SECTION
All engine-driven accessories, except the propeller tachometer and propeller governors, are
mounted on the accessory gearbox at the rear of
the engine (Figure 7-9). Accessories are driven
by the compressor shaft (N1) through a coupling
shaft. One lubricating oil pressure pump and two
scavenge oil pumps are mounted inside the
accessory gearbox. Two additional oil scavenge
pumps are externally mounted. The starter/generator, high-pressure fuel pump, N1 tachometer
generator, and other optional accessories are
mounted on pads on the rear of the accessory
drive case. Each mounting pad has its own specific gear ratio.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 7-9 Typical PT6A Engine

LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The PT6A engine lubrication system functions
primarily to cool and lubricate engine bearings
and bushings (Figure 7-10). It also provides oil to
the propeller governor and propeller reversing
control system. The main oil tank houses a geartype engine-driven pressure pump, an oil pressure regulator, a cold pressure relief valve, and an
oil filter. The engine oil tank, an integral part of
the compressor inlet case, is located in front of
the accessory gearbox.

As oil is pumped from the tank, it passes through


pressure- and temperature-sensing bulbs
mounted on the rear accessory case. At gas generator speeds above 72% N1, normal oil pressure
is between 90 and 135 psi. Oil is then delivered
through an external oil transfer line below the
engine to bearing compartments and to the nose
case. Gear-type scavenge pumps return the oil
through external oil transfer lines and through an
external oil cooler below the engine.

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7-13

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Figure 7-10 Engine Lubrication Diagram

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The oil cooler is thermostatically controlled to


maintain desired oil temperature. When scavenge
oil temperature reaches 71 C, a thermostatically
controlled diverter valve opens to route oil
through the cooler. Another externally mounted
unit, the oil-to-fuel heat exchanger, uses hot
engine oil to heat fuel before it enters the engine
fuel system.
Total oil system capacity is 3.9 U.S. gallons,
including the 2.3 gallon oil tank. Maximum oil
consumption is 1 quart every 10 hours; however,
normal oil consumption may be as little as 1
quart per 50 hours. Most PT6A engines normally
seek an oil level of one to two quarts low. When
adding oil between oil changes, do not overfill,
and do not mix types or brands of oil due to the
possibility of chemical incompatibility.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

A placard inside the engine cover shows the


brand and type of oil used in that particular
engine. Although the preflight checklist calls for
checking oil level, the best time to check oil
quantity is shortly after shutdown, since oil levels
are most accurately indicated at that time. Oil
level checks during preflight may require motoring the engine to obtain an accurate level
indication.
The oil tank is provided with a filler neck and
integral quantity dipstick housing. The cap and
dipstick are secured to the filler neck, which
passes through the gearbox housing and accessory diaphragm into the tank. Dipstick markings
indicate the number of U.S. quarts of oil less than
full (Figure 7-11).

Figure 7-11 Engine Oil Dipstick

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MAGNETIC CHIP DETECTOR


(SERIES UA, UB)
A magnetic chip detector (Figure 7-12) is
installed in the bottom of each engine nose gearbox to indicate the presence of ferrous particles
in the lubrication system. The detector activates a
yellow light on the annunciator panel, L CHIP
DETECT or R CHIP DETECT, to alert the pilot
to possible oil contamination.
Illumination of the CHIP DETECT annunciator
is not in itself cause for an engine to be shut
down. Engine parameters should be monitored
for abnormal indications. If parameters are

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

abnormal a precautionary shutdown may be


made at the pilots discretion.

ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM


The engine fuel control system for PT6A-65B
and -67D engines consists of the basic
components shown in the block diagram (Figure
7-13). They are the primary low-pressure boost
pump, oil-to-fuel heat exchanger, high-pressure
fuel pump, fuel control unit, fuel cutoff valve,
flow divider, and dual fuel manifold with 14
simplex nozzles, 14 duplex nozzles in the -67D.
The low-pressure boost pump is engine driven,
and operates when the gas generator shaft (N1) is
turning. It provides sufficient fuel head pressure
(approximately 45 psi maximum) for proper
cooling and lubrication of the high-pressure
pump. The oil-to-fuel heat exchanger regulates
fuel temperature at the fuel pump inlet to prevent
icing at the pump filter. This is done automatically and requires no action by the pilot.
After fuel passes through the oil-to-fuel heat
exchanger, it flows into the high-pressure,
engine-driven fuel pump and into the fuel control
unit (FCU). Prior to entering the FCU, a fuel
purge line constantly directs a small amount of
fuel back to wing fuel tanks to clear vapors and
bubbles from the fuel control system.
The high-pressure fuel pump is an engine-driven,
gear-type pump that can supply fuel at 850 psi
maximum pressure to the fuel side of the FCU.
Its primary purpose is to supply sufficient pressure to fuel nozzles for adequate spray pattern
during all modes of engine operation. Flow rates
and pressures will vary with changes in gas generator (N1) rpm.

Figure 7-12 Magnetic Chip Detector

7-16

The fuel cutoff valve is internal in the FCU. The


valve is controlled by the condition lever, and is
either open or closed; it has no intermediate position. When the fuel cutoff valve is open, fuel
flows to the minimum pressurizing valve, which
blocks fuel flow during start until fuel pressure is
sufficient for proper spray pattern in the combustion chamber. As high-pressure fuel pump output

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Figure 7-13 Simplified Fuel System Diagram

increases to at least 100 psi, the minimum pressurizing valve opens, delivering fuel to the flow
divider. If the high-pressure pump fails, the valve
will close and combustion will cease.
During start, fuel flows initially through the flow
divider to seven primary fuel spray nozzles in the
combustion chamber. As the engine accelerates
through approximately 36% N1 , fuel pressure
increases sufficiently to supply secondary fuel
nozzles. All 14 nozzles then deliver atomized
fuel to the combustion chamber. The progressive
sequence of primary and secondary fuel nozzle
operation provides cooler starts. Increased acceleration in N 1 speed may be noticed when
secondary fuel nozzles activate.

FUEL MANIFOLD PURGE


SYSTEM
The fuel manifold purge system is designed to
eliminate residual fuel which remains in the flow
divider and fuel manifold when the fuel cutoff
valve is closed during engine shutdown. The system consists of a P3 accumulator purge tank with
P3 air input at one end and P3 discharge to the
flow divider at the other end.
D u r i n g n o r m a l e n g i n e o p e r a t i o n , P3 a i r
constantly pressurizes the purge tank. As long as
the engine is running, fuel pressure keeps the
flow divider purge port closed. As fuel pressure
drops to zero during engine shutdown, P 3 air
escapes through a check valve into the flow

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divider, pushing residual fuel into the combustion


chamber where it is burned. As a result, the pilot
may notice a one- or two-second delay in initial
engine spooldown after the condition levers are
moved into fuel cutoff.

FUEL CONTROL UNIT (FCU)


The fuel control unit (Figure 7-14) meters proper
fuel amount for all modes of engine operation.
Flow rates are calibrated for starting, acceleration, and maximum power. The FCU compares
gas generator speed (N1) with power lever setting
and regulates fuel to engine fuel nozzles. The
FCU also senses compressor discharge pressure
and compares it to N1 rpm to establish acceleration and deceleration fuel flow limits. A
minimum flow stop, set to approximately
90 pounds per hour per engine, guarantees sufficient fuel flow at all operating altitudes to sustain
engine operation at minimum power.

FCU OPERATION
The fuel control unit (Figure 7-14) is mounted on
the rear flange of the fuel pump. A splined coupling between the pump and the FCU transmits a
speed signal to the governing section in the FCU.
The FCU determines the amount of fuel scheduled to the combustion chamber by controlling
gas generator speed. Engine power output is
directly dependent upon gas generator speed.
Compressor discharge pressure (P3), sensed by
the fuel control unit, is used to establish acceleration fuel flow limits. This fuel limiting function
prevents overtemperature conditions in the
engine during start and acceleration.
The fuel control unit receives input from the condition lever, the power lever, the N1 flyweight
governor, and a pneumatic bellows. FCU operation is complex, but it will be simplified and
described briefly in this section. For more detail
refer to the Pratt & Whitney Maintenance Manual for the PT6A-65B or PT6A-67D engines.
Power control levers position a 3-D cam in the
FCU that, through a cam follower and lever,
determines fuel flow corresponding to selected
N1 speed. The condition lever selects LOW IDLE

7-18

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

to HIGH IDLE N1 speeds when the power lever


is at idle. The power lever selects speeds between
idle and maximum.
Engine speed is controlled by the gas generator
(N1 ) governor, which contains two flyweights
mounted on a ballhead driven by the engine. The
flyweight governor is the feedback element of the
speed-select system. It controls on-speed condition by positioning the 3-D cam as required in
response to speed variations in the gas generator.
As N1 speed increases or decreases, resulting flyweight action changes the 3-D cam setting,
which changes fuel flow valve setting to maintain
selected N1 speed.
The cam follower and arm transmit 3-D cam
motion to the fuel metering valve. As the 3-D
cam moves upward, fuel flow to the engine is
increased and N1 speed increases. Downward
movement of the 3-D cam decreases fuel flow
and N1 speed. N1 speed is therefore maintained
continuously by the N1 governor in response to
variations in gas generator speed.
In an overspeed condition, increasing pressure by
the governor flyweights moves the 3-D cam
downward, resulting in decreased fuel flow
through the fuel metering valve. Balance occurs
when N1 speed is reduced to selected speed, and
the cam is stationary at the new speed position.
In an underspeed condition, decreasing pressure
by the governor flyweights moves the 3-D cam
upward, resulting in increased fuel flow through
the fuel metering valve until the system reaches
equilibrium.

Compressor discharge pressure (P3 air) also affects


fuel metering valve position during acceleration or
deceleration. Increase in P3 causes the fuel metering valve to increase fuel flow in response to
increased P3 pressure until N1 speed is stabilized.
A decrease in P3 causes the fuel metering valve to
decrease fuel flow until N1 speed is stabilized at
the lower selected valve. In the event of power turbine overspeed, a decrease in P3 air pressure at the
fuel metering valve allows the fuel control unit to
reduce fuel flow to the gas generator. Overspeed
protection is discussed in greater detail in the Propeller System section at the end of this chapter.

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FUEL FLOW INDICATORS


Fuel flow information is sensed by a transmitter in
the engine fuel supply line between the fuel cutoff
valve and the flow divider. Flow rate is indicated
on the fuel flow gage on the instrument panel
(Figure 7-15). Indications are in pounds-per-hour
units times 100; therefore, when the needle indicates 2 on the dial, fuel flow is 200 pounds per
hour. Fuel flow gages are DC-powered.

Figure 7-15 Fuel Flow Gages

Figure 7-14 Simplified Fuel Control System

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FUEL PRESSURE INDICATORS


If the engine-driven, high-pressure fuel pump
fails, combustion will cease since high-pressure
fuel is required to open the minimum pressurizing valve.
If the primary engine-driven boost pump fails, a
FUEL PRESS red light in the warning annunciator panel will illuminate (Figure 7-16), and the
master warning lights will flash. The FUEL
PRESS light illuminates when outlet pressure at
the engine-driven boost pump decreases below
one psi (10 psi Series UC & after). Switching on
the standby fuel boost pump should increase fuel
pressure to more than 11 2 psi, extinguishing
the warning light. Engine operation with the
FUEL PRESS light on is limited to 10 hours
between overhaul or replacement of the enginedriven, high-pressure fuel pump.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

graph is based on known or forecast operating


conditions, and shows operating temperatures
where icing at the FCU could occur. Refer to the
1900 Airliner Maintenance Manual for procedures to be followed when blending anti-icing
additive with airplane fuel. Use anti-icing additive conforming to Specification MIL-I-27686.

FUEL BIOCIDE ADDITIVE


Fuel biocide-fungicide BIOBOR JF in concentrations of 135 or 270 parts per million may be
used in the fuel. BIOBOR JF may be used as the
only fuel additive, or it may be used with MIL-I27686 anti-icing additive. Used together, additives have no detrimental effect on fuel system
components. Refer to 1900 Airliner Maintenance
Manual for concentrations and detailed procedures for adding BIOBOR JF to airplane fuel.

CONTROLS AND
INDICATIONS
CONTROL PEDESTAL
The control pedestal extends between the pilot
and copilot (Figure 7-17). The three sets of powerplant control levers, from left to right, are
power levers, propeller rpm and feather levers,
and condition levers.
Figure 7-16 Fuel Pressure Annunciator

ANTI-ICING FUEL ADDITIVE


Anti-icing fuel additives are not normally
required since engine oil heats fuel before it
enters the FCU; however, if oil temperature versus OAT indicates ice formation could occur
during takeoff or in flight, anti-icing additive
should be mixed with the fuel to ensure safe
operation. For preflight planning purposes, use
the Minimum Oil Temperature Required for
Operation without Anti-Icing Additive graph.
This graph can be found in the POH or in the Ice
and Rain Protection section of this manual. The

7-20

ENGINE POWER CONTROL


Engine power is controlled by power levers
which set N 1 speed, and by propeller levers
which adjust propeller speed (Figure 7-18). The
propeller maintains set speed by varying blade
angle as requested by the propeller governor in
response to changes in torque. Torque changes
result from power lever input to the N1 governor.
When power lever position calls for more torque,
N1 governor settings prevent bleed-off of internal
fuel pressures and of P3 air in the FCU. The governor then signals the fuel metering valve to
allow more fuel flow into the spray nozzles to
meet requested power conditions.

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detent. All ground operation should be conducted


with the propeller levers in this position.
Although the 1900 Airliner is equipped with an
automatic propeller feathering system, the propeller can be manually feathered by pulling the
propeller lever back past the friction detent into
the red and white striped section of the quadrant.
To unfeather, push the lever back into the governing range. Regardless of propeller lever position,
the propellers will move toward feather when oil
pressure is lost as the engines are shut down. For
further details, see the Propeller System section
at the end of this chapter.

CONDITION LEVERS
Figure 7-17 Control Pedestal

POWER LEVERS
Power levers control engine power from idle to
takeoff power by operation of the N1 governor in
the fuel control unit (Figure 7-18). Increasing
N1 rpm results in increased engine power. The
power levers control power in three regions:
FLIGHT, BETA, and REVERSE. The bottom of
the flight range is called IDLE. When power
levers are lifted over the IDLE detent and pulled
back into the beta range, they control propeller
blade angle only. The beta range is normally used
for taxi. The bottom of the beta range is called
GROUND FINE. When the levers are lifted over
the GROUND FINE detent into the REVERSE
range, they control propeller blade angle and
engine power to provide reverse thrust.

PROPELLER LEVERS
The propeller levers are conventional in setting
required rpm for takeoff and cruise (Figure 7-18).
T h e n o r m a l g ove r n i n g r a n g e i s 1 4 0 0 t o
1700 rpm.
However, in the 1900D (UE Series), the minimum governing range is 1200 rpm, and ground
taxi position is marked on the power quadrant
just before the propeller levers reach the feather

The condition levers have three positions: FUEL


CUTOFF, LO IDLE, and HI IDLE (Figure 7-18).
In the FUEL CUTOFF position, all fuel flow to
the engines is cut off.
At LO IDLE, engine gas generator speed (N1) is
a minimum of 58%; N1 at HI IDLE is 70%. Condition levers can be set between these two values
for any speed between 58% and 70% N1. For the
-67D engines these figures are 65% for LOW
IDLE and 71% for HI IDLE.

CONDITION LEVER OPERATION


(SERIES UA, UB, UC)
Engines are controlled from the cockpit by using
the propeller, power, and condition levers. Both
the power and condition levers are connected to
the N 1 governing section of the FCU. Either
lever will reset the FCU to maintain a new N1
rpm. During start, power levers are at IDLE.
Once condition levers are moved to LO IDLE,
the fuel cutoff valve opens and the N1 governor
is set at LO IDLE. The condition levers are continuously variable from LO IDLE at 58% to HI
IDLE at 70% N1. When condition levers are set
to LO IDLE, the power levers will select N1 rpm
from 58% to 104%, the maximum for takeoff;
however, if condition levers are at HI IDLE, the
power levers can only select N1 rpm from 70%
to 104%.

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Moving either the power levers or condition


levers changes only N1 rpm. As the power or
condition levers are advanced, ITT, torque and
fuel flow increase; however, these increases are
byproducts of the N1 speed maintained by the
FCU. With power levers in a fixed position, N1
remains constant even in climb or descent, but
ITT, torque and fuel flow will vary with altitude,
ambient air temperature, and propeller setting.

ITT AND TORQUEMETERS


The two primary operating parameters which
limit available engine power are temperature and
torque. Engine torque and ITT are affected by
ambient temperature and altitude. During operations requiring maximum engine performance at
cold temperature or low altitude, torque limits
power. When ambient temperature is hot or when
operating at high altitude, ITT limits power.
Whichever condition reaches its limit first, determines the amount of power available.

ITT GAGE

Figure 7-18 Control Levers

CONDITION LEVER
OPERATION (SERIES UE)
In the PT6A-67D equipped airplanes, the LO
IDLE setting is 65%. HI IDLE is 71% with the
maximum power setting being 104%.

7-22

The ITT gage monitors interstage turbine


temperature at Station 5 (Figures 7-19, 7-20, and
7-21). ITT is a prime limiting indicator of power
available under varying ambient temperature and
altitude conditions. The normal operating range,
indicated by the green arc on the gage, is 400 to
810 C (400 to 780 CUE). Maximum
starting-only temperature of 1000C, indicated
by the solid white line (red diamond on Series
UE and after) on the instrument, is limited to five
seconds. Maximum continuous temperature (red
line) is 810 C (800 CUE), and maximum
cruise temperature is 750 C.
Engines can be damaged if limiting temperatures
indicated on the ITT gage are exceeded. Temperature limitations for all operating conditions are
listed in the POH or AFM, and should be committed to memory. ITT gages are self-generating
and do not require electrical power. Starting with
UE-93, this gage will be powered by 28 VDC
plus the electrical signal from the thermocouples
installed in the engine.

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TORQUEMETER (SERIES UA,


UB, UC)
The torquemeter, marked with the green arc from
zero foot-pounds to 3,400 foot-pounds, constantly measures rotational force applied to the
propeller shaft (Figures 7-19, 7-20, and 7-21).
Maximum permissible sustained torque is 3,400
foot-pounds, indicated by the red radial on the
instrument. Torque is measured by a hydromechanical torquemeter in the first-stage reduction
gearcase. Rotational force on the first-stage ring
gear compresses oil in the torquemeter chamber.
The difference between torquemeter chamber
pressure and reduction gear internal pressure
accurately indicates the torque produced at the
propeller shaft. The torquemeter transmitter measures this torque and sends an AC electrical
signal to the torquemeter on the cockpit instrument panel. Recommended cruise torques vary
with altitude and temperature.

TORQUEMETER (SERIES UE)


The normal operating range for the PT6A-67D
engine is from 0 to 3,750 foot-pounds (green arc)
with the maximum permissible torque set at
3,950 foot-pounds and with a time limit of 5 minutes (yellow arc). The torque reading is displayed
on 26-VAC powered gages. Starting with UE-93,
this gage will be changed to a 28-VDC stepper
motor gage.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

GAS GENERATOR (N1)


TACHOMETER (SERIES UA, UB,
UC)
The gas generator (N1 ) tachometer measures
rotational speed of the compressor shaft, in percent rpm, based on 37,468 rpm at 100% (Figures
7-19, 7-20, and 7-21). The outer scale of the indicator is measured in units of ten, and the smaller
inner dial is read in single units. The N1 indicator
is self-generating, requiring no electrical power
for operation. The tachometer generator, located
on the engine accessory section, is geared
directly to the N1 compressor shaft. The tachometer generator sends an electrical signal to the N1
indicator on the cockpit instrument panel, indicating the percentage of N1 rpm. Maximum
allowable continuous gas generator speed is
39,000 rpm, read as 104% on the N1 indicator.

GAS GENERATOR (N1)


TACHOMETER (SERIES UE)
The indicator for the 1900D (UE Series) combines an analog and digital read-out. This gage is
powered by 28 VDC plus a signal from the N1
tachometer generator located in the engine accessory section.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 7-19 Engine Instrument Markings (Series UA, UB, and UC)

7-24

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Figure 7-20 Engine Instruments (Series UE-1 through UE-92)

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 7-21 Engine Instruments (Series UE-93 and After)

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ENGINE LIMITATIONS
Airplane and engine limits are described in the
Limitations section of the POH or AFM. These
limitations have been approved by the Federal Aviation Administration, and must be observed when
operating the 1900 Airliner. The Engine Operating
Limits Chart provides important limitations for all
operating conditions. The Power Plant Instrument
Markings Chart lists minimum, normal, and maximum limits (Figures 7-22 and 7-23).

NOTE
Engine limits charts are reproduced
from applicable POH or AFM.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

During engine start, temperature is the most critical limit (Figure 7-24). The ITT starting limit of
1,000 C is limited to five seconds. During any
start, if the indicator needle approaches the limit,
start should be aborted before the needle passes
the solid white line. For this reason, it is helpful
during starts to keep the condition lever out of the
LO IDLE detent so that the lever can be quickly
pulled back to FUEL CUTOFF.
Monitor oil pressure and oil temperature gages to
further determine engine condition. During start,
oil pressure should come up quickly to the minimum red line at 60 psi, but should not exceed the
maximum 200 psi. During normal operation oil
temperature and pressure gages should be in the
normal operating range, indicated by a green arc
from 90 to 135 psi. Fluctuations of 10 psi are
acceptable, but pressures between 60 and 90 psi
are undesirable. Low oil pressures (60 to 90 psi)
should be tolerated only for completion of the
flight, and then only at a reduced power setting.
Oil pressure below 60 psi is unsafe. Below
60 psi, the engine should be shut down, or a landing should be made as soon as possible using the
minimum power required to sustain flight.
Normal operating oil temperatures are limited to
0 to +110 C. A minimum of -40C is required
for engine start, and temperature limits at idle are
-40 to +110 C. However, temperatures between
+99 and +110 C are limited to a maximum of 10
minutes.
During ground operations, ITT must remain
below 700 C (750 CSeries UE). Engine temperatures can be controlled by regulating N1 rpm
and generator load. When condition levers are at
LO IDLE, high ITT can be corrected by first
reducing N1 loads, such as generators and air
conditioning, then by advancing condition levers
to increase N1 rpm. HI IDLE will reduce ITT
since increased compressor speed increases the
amount of cooling airflow available to the
engine. Once ITT has been reduced below the
idle temperature limit, N1 loads may be restored
as desired. During normal flight operations, ITT
should never be allowed to exceed the maximum
continuous limit (red line).

Figure 7-22 Engine Limits ChartPT6A-65B

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Figure 7-23 Engine Limits ChartPT6A-67D

Figure 7-24 Overtemperature Limits (Starting)

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During the climb, available torque will decrease


and ITT may increase slightly. Recommended
cruise climb and normal cruise ITT limit is
shown by a white triangle on the indicator.
Torque and N1 limitations are the same for maxim u m c r u i s e a n d f o r t a ke o ff ; h ow ev e r,
recommended cruise torque values will vary with
altitude and temperature.
Transient limits provide buffers for surges during
engine acceleration. Torque and ITT have an
allowable excursion duration of 20 seconds. A
momentary peak of 5,000 foot-pounds and
8 7 0 C i s a l l ow e d f o r t o r q u e a n d I T T
respectively.
The overtemperature chart (Figure 7-24) shows
specific actions required if ITT limits are
exceeded during start. If engine temperature limits in Area A have been exceeded, determine and
correct the cause of the overtemperature. Then
the engine must be visually inspected through the
exhaust duct (Figure 7-25), and any action taken
must be recorded in the engine log book.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

engine must be returned for overhaul. Exceeding


ITT limits in Area C for more than a few seconds
may cause extensive engine damage.
The POH lists generator limitations for operation
at various N1 rpms. To remain within limits it
may be necessary to reduce accessory loads or to
increase N1 rpm. LOW IDLE is sufficient for
generator loads of 50% and lower with air conditioning off. With air conditioning on, or with
loads higher than 50%, N1 rpm must be increased
as specified in the limitations.

STARTER OPERATING
TIME LIMITS
Engine starters are time-limited during the starting cycle to prevent the possibility of starter
damage due to overheating. The starter is limited
to 30 seconds ON and 3 minutes OFF for cooling
before the next sequence of 30 seconds ON. After
the second cycle of 30 seconds ON, the starter
must remain OFF for 30 minutes.
Starting with Series U C-143 and after and those
airplanes that have been modified, the starter
duty limitation has been changed to 20 seconds
ON, 30 seconds OFF; 20 seconds ON, 60 seconds OFF; 20 seconds ON, 5 minutes OFF. For
continuous motoring without engine starting, the
limit is set at 20 seconds ON, 5 minutes OFF.

TREND MONITORING

Figure 7-25 View through Exhaust Duct

Overtemperature in Area B will require a hot section inspection. During a hot section inspection,
combustion chamber and turbine areas and components are examined and replaced as necessary.
If an overtemperature occurs in Area C, the

During normal operations, gas turbine engines


are capable of producing rated power for
extended periods of time. Engine operating
parameters, such as output torque, interstage turbine temperature compressor speed, and fuel
flow for individual engines are predictable for
specific ambient conditions. On PT6A engines,
these predictable characteristics may be taken
advantage of by establishing and recording individual engine performance parameters.
Parameters can then be compared periodically to
predicted values for day-to-day confirmation of
engine efficiency.

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The engine condition trend monitoring system


recommended by Pratt & Whitney is a process of
periodically recording engine instrument readings such as torque, interstage turbine
temperature, compressor speed, and fuel flow.
Readings are corrected for altitude, outside air
temperature, and airspeed, if applicable, then
compared to a set of typical engine characteristics to determine deviations.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

DATA COLLECTION
The trend monitoring procedure specifies that
flight data be recorded on each flying day, every
five flight hours, or other predetermined flight
period. Select a flight with long established
cruise, preferably at a representative altitude and
airspeed. With engine power established and stabilized for a minimum of five minutes, record the
requested data on a form similar to the in-flight
engine data log shown (Figure 7-26).

Figure 7-26 In-Flight Engine Data Log

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PROPELLER SYSTEM
GENERAL
Each engine is equipped with a composite, fourblade, counterweighted, full-feathering, variablepitch, constant-speed, reversing propeller
mounted on the output shaft of the reduction
gearbox (Figure 7-27). Since the engines are free
turbines, with no mechanical connection between
compressor and power turbines, the propeller can
rotate freely on the power shaft when the engine
is shut down. Propeller tiedown boots (Figure
7-28) are provided to prevent windmilling at zero
oil pressure when the airplane is parked.
Figure 7-28 Propeller Tiedown Boot
Installed

Figure 7-27 Hartzell Propeller

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Figure 7-29 Propeller Blade Angle Diagram

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Propeller pitch (Figure 7-29) and speed are controlled by engine oil pressure supplied to the
propeller dome through engine-driven propeller
governors. A governor oil pump boosts oil pressure delivered by the engine oil system to a
pressure high enough to control movement of the
propeller blades. When oil pressure is present in
the propeller dome, propeller pitch (blade angle)
is controlled normally by the propeller governor
or by the beta valve, depending upon the propellers mode of operation. As oil pressure
increases, the propeller moves toward low pitch
(high rpm). Loss of oil pressure will cause centrifugal counterweights and feathering springs to
move propeller blades toward high pitch (low
rpm) and, eventually, into the feathered position.
As oil pressure decreases during engine shutdown, the propeller automatically moves toward
feather.
The minimum low pitch propeller position is
determined by a mechanically actuated hydraulic
stop, referred to as the primary low pitch stop.
The power levers control beta and reverse blade
angles by adjusting the low pitch stop position in
beta and reverse ranges.
Two governors (a primary governor and an overspeed governor) control propeller rpm. The
primary governor controls the propeller through
its normal governing range. The propeller control
lever selects propeller rpm by adjusting the primary governor condition. Should the primary
governor malfunction, the overspeed governor
prevents propeller speed from exceeding 1,768
rpm (1,802 rpm in the 1900D [UE Series]). The
fuel topping governor acts as a backup governor,
limiting propeller speed to 106% of that selected
by the propeller lever. In the reverse range, the
fuel topping governor is reset, limiting propeller
rpm to approximately 96% of the primary governor setting. The fuel topping governor limits
propeller rpm by reducing fuel flow to the
engine.
The propeller rpm is displayed in the cockpit on a
gage that receives its input from the propeller
tachometer located on the right side of the engine
crankcase. On the 1900D (UE Series) model, this
tachometer signal is fed to a gage that is powered
by 28 VDC.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

BLADE ANGLE
Blade angle is the angle between the chord of the
propeller and the propellers plane of rotation.
Because of the normal twist of the propeller,
blade angle is different near the hub than it is
near the tip. Blade angle for the 1900 Airliner is
measured at the chord, 42 inches from the propellers hub. This position is referred to as the
42-inch station. All blade angles specified in
this section are approximate values.

PRIMARY GOVERNOR
The primary governor modulates oil pressure in
the propeller dome to change blade angle to
maintain a constant propeller speed. As oil pressure in the dome changes, propeller blade angles
change to maintain the propeller speed the operator has selected. The primary governor can
maintain any selected propeller speed from
approximately 1,400 to 1,700 rpm (1,200 to
1,700 rpm for UE).
For example, suppose an airplane is in normal
cruising flight with the propeller turning at 1,550
rpm. If the pilot begins a descent without changing power, the airspeed will increase. This
decreases the angle of attack of the propeller
blades, causing less drag on the propeller, thus
beginning to increase its rpm. If this propeller has
variable pitch capabilities and is equipped with a
governor set at 1,550 rpm, the governor will
sense this overspeed condition (Figure 7-30)
and increase blade angle to a higher pitch. The
higher pitch increases the blades angle of attack,
slowing it back to 1,550 rpm, or onspeed.
Likewise, if the airplane changes from cruise to
climb airspeeds without a power change, the propeller rpm tends to decrease. The governor
responds to this underspeed condition by
decreasing blade angle to a lower pitch, and the
rpm returns to its original value. Thus the governor gives constant speed characteristics to the
variable pitch propeller.
Power changes, as well as airspeed changes,
cause the propeller to momentarily experience
overspeed or underspeed conditions, but again

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

the governor reacts to maintain the onspeed condition. Due to the smooth action of the governor,
the pilot will notice few, if any, of these minor
adjustments.
There are times, however, when the primary governor is incapable of maintaining selected rpm.
For example, imagine an airplane approaching to
land with its governor set at 1,700 rpm. As power
and airspeed are both reduced, underspeed conditions exist which cause the governor to decrease
blade angle as it attempts to restore the onspeed
condition. If blade angle were allowed to
decrease to its full reverse limit, aircraft control
would be dramatically reduced. In such a situation the propeller, acting as a large disc, would
create excessive drag, disturbing airflow around
tail surfaces. A rapid nosedown pitch change
would result.
To prevent these undesirable flight characteristics, a device is provided to stop the governor
from selecting blade angles that are too low for
safety. As blade angle is decreased by the governor, eventually the low pitch stop is reached.
Blade angle then becomes fixed, preventing its
continued movement toward a lower pitch. At the
low pitch stop, the governor is prevented from
restoring the onspeed condition, and propeller
rpm decreases below the selected governor rpm
setting. Once the low pitch stop is reached, blade
angle cannot decrease further until the pilot
selects beta or reverse.

Primary Governor Operation


The propeller levers adjust the primary propeller
governor between 1,400 and 1,700 rpm (1,200
and 1,700 rpm for UE). The primary propeller
governor, mounted at the top of the engine reduction gearbox, has two functions: it selects
constant propeller rpm, and it can also feather the
propeller. The primary propeller governor adjusts
propeller rpm by controlling the oil supply to the
propeller mechanism.

Figure 7-30 Primary Governor Diagram

7-34

An integral part of the primary propeller governor is the governor pump. This pump is driven by
the N P shaft and raises engine oil pressure to
approximately 375 psi (750 psi for UE) for use

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by the propeller governing system. A transfer


gland surrounds the NP shaft, allowing oil to continuously enter and exit the propeller dome area.
Thus, the transfer gland constantly supplies
fresh, warm oil to the propeller pitch control
mechanism. Propeller control is a balancing act
of opposing forces. Although the feathering
springs and centrifugal counterweights constantly exert force on the propeller to drive the
blade angle toward high pitch and feather, oil
pressure constantly attempts to maintain low
pitch and high rpm.
For propeller speed reference, the primary propeller governor uses a set of rotating flyweights
that are geared to the propeller shaft. The flyweights compare governor set speed (set with
propeller levers) to actual propeller rotational
speed. These flyweights are connected to a free-

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

floating pilot valve. The position of the pilot


valve determines how much oil pressure will be
supplied to the propeller pitch control mechanism. The slower the flyweights are turning in
relation to the desired reference speed, the lower
the position of the pilot valve. If the propeller and
flyweights turn faster than governor set speed,
the resulting centrifugal force causes the pilot
valve to rise inside the governor, decreasing the
oil pressure. Here are a few examples.
If a propeller rpm of 1,550 is selected and the
propeller is actually turning at 1,550, the flyweights are in their center, or onspeed
condition (Figure 7-31). The pilot valve is also in
the center position. This onspeed configuration
provides constant oil pressure to the propeller
pitch mechanism, which therefore maintains constant pitch and constant rpm.

Figure 7-31 Propeller Onspeed Diagram

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If the airplane begins a descent, or if engine


power is increased without any change to the
propeller levers, airspeed will tend to increase,
causing the propeller to turn faster (Figure 7-32).
The flyweights will, in turn, rotate faster. The
additional centrifugal force will cause the pilot
valve to rise. Notice that oil can now escape
through the pilot valve. The decreased oil pressure results in a higher pitch and in a reduction of
propeller rpm, returning the propeller to its original rpm setting. As propeller speed decreases, the
flyweights slow, and the pilot valve returns to the
equilibrium position to maintain selected propeller rpm.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

If the airplane enters a climb, or if engine power


is decreased without any change in propeller controls, airspeed will decrease, and the propeller
will tend to slow (Figure 7-33). The flyweights in
the propeller governor will slow down as propeller rpm decreases, and the pilot valve will lower.
When pilot valve position moves down, more oil
pressure is supplied to the propeller pitch mechanism. Higher oil pressure results in lower
propeller pitch, causing an increase in propeller
rpm. As the propeller increases to its original rpm
setting, the flyweights speed up, and the pilot
valve returns to its equilibrium or onspeed
position.

Figure 7-32 Propeller Overspeed Diagram

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The flyweights and pilot valve continuously


make small adjustments which change propeller
blade angles, maintaining constant propeller rpm.
The cockpit propeller lever adjusts where the
equilibrium or onspeed condition will occur.
The pilot can select any constant speed from
1,400 to 1,700 rpm. Normally 1,700 rpm is used
for takeoff and for initial climb. Cruise climb,
maximum range power, and recommended cruise
power are set at 1,550 rpm.
The propeller primary governor cannot maintain
selected propeller rpm if power and airspeed are
reduced below the governing range. For example,
with the progressive reduction of power and airspeed during final approach, the propeller and
rotating flyweights will tend to go to the under-

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

speed condition. In underspeed the pilot valve


drops, increasing oil pressure to the dome, and
decreasing propeller pitch as power and airspeed
are reduced. Since a reversible propeller is capable of continued decrease into negative or reverse
blade angles, a low pitch stop is necessary to prevent the blade angle from decreasing beyond a
predetermined value of 13 (12.7 for UE). When
the propeller governor becomes incapable of
maintaining the onspeed condition, the propeller
rpm will fall below the selected governor rpm
setting, indicating that the low pitch stop has
been reached. In the event of a governor control
linkage failure, an external spring on top of the
governor will move the governor set speed to
1,700 rpm.

Figure 7-33 Propeller Underspeed Diagram

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LOW PITCH STOP


WHENEVER PROPELLER RPM IS BELOW
SELECTED GOVERNOR RPM, THE PROPELLER BLADE ANGLE IS AT THE LOW
PITCH STOP (assuming the propeller is not
feathered or in the process of being feathered).

NOTE
The preceding statement assumes that
momentary periods of underspeed are
not being considered. Rather, the propeller rpm is below and staying below
the selected governor rpm. For example, if the propeller control is set at
1,550 rpm but the propeller is turning
at less than 1,550 rpm, the blade angle
is at the low pitch stop.
On many airplanes, the low pitch stop is simply
at the low pitch limit of travel, determined by the
propellers construction. But with a reversing
propeller, extreme travel in the low pitch direction is past 0, into reverse or negative blade
angles. Consequently, the 1900 Airliners propeller system has been designed to allow the low
pitch stop to be repositioned when reversing is
desired.
The low pitch stop is created by mechanical linkage which senses blade angle. At the low pitch
stop the linkage causes a valve to close, stopping
the flow of oil into the propeller dome. Since
more oil causes low pitch and reversing, blocking
off oil flow creates a low pitch stop. The low
pitch stop valve, commonly referred to as the
beta valve, is quite positive in its mechanical
operation. Furthermore, the valve is springloaded to provide redundancy in the event of
mechanical loss of beta valve control.

Low Pitch Stop Operation


Low pitch propeller position is determined by a
mechanically monitored hydraulic stop. The propeller servo piston is connected by four springloaded sliding rods to the slip ring mounted
behind the propeller. A carbon brush block riding
on the slip ring transfers the movement of the slip

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

ring through the propeller reversing lever to the


beta valve of the governor. The initial forward
motion of the beta valve blocks off the flow of oil
to the propeller. Further motion forward dumps
the oil from the propeller into the reduction gearbox sump. A mechanical stop limits the forward
motion of the beta valve. Rearward movement of
the beta valve does not affect normal propeller
control. When the propeller is rotating at a speed
lower than that selected on the governor, the governor pump provides oil pressure to the servo
piston and decreases the pitch of the propeller
blades until the feedback of motion from the slip
ring pulls the beta valve into a position blocking
the supply of oil to the propeller, thus preventing
further pitch changes.

BETA AND REVERSE


CONTROL
The position of the low pitch stop is controlled
from the cockpit by the power lever. Whenever
the power lever is at IDLE or above, this stop is
set at 13 (12.7 for UE) blade angle in flight and
7 (+4.7 for UE) blade angle on the ground.
Bringing the power lever aft of IDLE progressively repositions the low pitch stop to lower
blade angles (Figure 7-34).
The geometry of the power lever linkage through
the cam box is such that power lever increments
from idle to full forward thrust have no effect on
the beta valves position. When the power lever is
moved from idle into the reverse range, it repositions the beta valve to direct governor pressure to
the propeller piston, decreasing blade angle
through zero into a negative range. The travel of
the propeller servo piston is fed back to the beta
valve to null its position and, in effect, to provide
infinite negative blade angles all the way to
MAXIMUM REVERSE. The opposite will occur
when the power lever is moved from full reverse
to any forward position up to idle, thus providing
the pilot with manual blade angle control for
ground handling.
The region between GROUND IDLE and
GROUND FINE is referred to as the beta for
taxi, or simply BETA range. In this range, the
engines compressor speed (N1) remains at the

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Figure 7-34 Beta and Reverse Control

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 7-35 Beta Range and Reverse Diagram

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value selected when the power lever was at IDLE


(58 to 70% [65 to 7l% for UE] based on condition lever position).
To enter the BETA range, the power lever must
be lifted beyond the IDLE stop and then moved
aft. The aft stop of BETA range is called
GROUND FINE. With aft movement of the
power levers, blade angle moves progressively
from GROUND IDLE to GROUND FINE.
The region between GROUND FINE and MAXIMUM IDLE is referred to as beta plus power
or simply REVERSE range. In this range, N1
progressively increases to a maximum value of
85 3% while the blade angle decreases. To enter
the REVERSE range, the power lever must be
lifted beyond the GROUND FINE stop and
moved aft. With aft movement of the power
levers, the blade angle will progressively
decrease from GROUND FINE to MAXIMUM
REVERSE at REVERSE.

Beta and Reverse Control


Operation
When propeller blade angle reaches approximately 18 1, the four flanges extending from
the dome make contact with four beta nuts (Figure 7-35). As propeller pitch angle continues to
decrease, each flange on the propeller dome
pushes each beta nut and attached polished rod
forward. As the rod moves forward, it pulls the
feedback ring forward. In turn a beta valve inside
the governor is pulled into the oil cutoff position.
The linkage is set to cut off oil supply to the
dome when blade angle reaches 13 (12.7 for
UE). This provides the governor with a hydraulic
low pitch stop of 13 (12.7 for UE) for in-flight
operations.
If the low pitch stop were fixed at 13 (12.7 for
UE), the propeller could not enter the beta and
reverse ranges; however, the low pitch stop can
be reset to allow the propeller to operate in the
beta and reverse ranges while the aircraft is on
the ground.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

When the power levers are lifted up and over the


idle detent into the beta range, they are pulling
back on the top of the reverse lever. As the
reverse lever moves back, the beta valve is
pushed back, reestablishing oil flow to the propeller dome. This allows propeller blade angle to
go below the low pitch stop. As the propeller
blades go below the low pitch stop, the propeller
dome and feedback ring continue forward, eventually pulling the beta valve back into the oil
cutoff position.
In summary, the position of the low pitch stop is
controlled by the power levers. When the power
levers are set at idle or above, the stop is set at
13 (12.7 for UE). When the power levers are
moved aft of idle, the low pitch stop is repositioned to blade angles of less than 13 (12.7 for
UE).

FLIGHT AND GROUND LOW


PITCH STOPS
Both a flight low pitch stop and a ground low
pitch stop are utilized in this propeller system. In
flight, the minimum blade angle is approximately
13 (12.7 for UE) with the power levers at idle.
When the wheels touch the ground upon landing,
the propeller low pitch blade angle automatically
changes from 13 to +7 (+12.7 to +4.9 for UE)
through the action of a ground idle solenoid. The
ground idle solenoid acts on the top of the
reverse lever in the same manner as the power
levers when selecting beta and reverse (Figure
7-36).
The right landing gear safety switch controls the
ground low pitch stop. During the landing flare at
idle power, the propeller blade angle will be
approximately 13 (12.7 for UE). Upon touchdown the landing gear safety switch causes the
propeller blade angle to immediately decrease to
approximately +7 (+4.9 for UE). The propeller
blade angle remains at +7 (+4.9 for UE) until
the power levers are retarded behind the idle
stop. As a backup for the landing gear safety
switch, switches installed in the power quadrant
ensure that the ground idle solenoid is activated
by the time the power levers enter the beta range.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 7-36 Propeller Postioning Diagram (Sheet 1 of 2)

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Both flight and ground low pitch stops are set by


the beta valve. Upon touchdown, the reverse
lever position is electrically reset, causing the
beta valve to open slightly. As the beta valve
opens, more oil flows to the propeller dome, and
blade pitch is reduced to the ground idle low
pitch stop position. The electric circuits of the
idle low pitch stops are protected by the PROP
GOV TEST circuit breaker on the copilots subpanel (Series UA, UB, UC).
Keep in mind that although the ground low pitch
stop is set at less than 13, the actual blade angle
is only affected when the propeller is at the low
pitch stop. It follows, then, that as long as the
propeller rpm is still on the selected governor setting, bringing the power lever aft of IDLE will
not necessarily cause the propeller to reverse.
Reverse thrust can only occur when propeller
rpm is below selected governor rpm (at the low
pitch stop).

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

In a condition of constant underspeed, the primary governor cannot prematurely interrupt oil
flow to the propeller dome. Once the low pitch
stop is reached, propeller blade angle is controlled by the beta valve. Since the beta valve
controls oil flow to the dome for beta and reverse,
it is mechanically impossible to bring the power
levers into reverse unless the propellers are on
the low pitch stops.
Attempting to pull the power levers into reverse
with the propellers feathered causes damage to
the power levers reversing linkage. Attempting
to pull the power levers into reverse with the
engines shut down will damage the reversing
system.

Figure 7-36 Propeller Positioning Diagram (Sheet 2 of 2)

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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OVERSPEED GOVERNOR
Since the PT6s propeller is driven by a free turbine (independent of the engines compressor),
overspeed can rapidly occur if the primary governor fails. The overspeed governor provides
protection against excessive propeller speed in
the event of primary governor malfunction.
The hydraulic overspeed governor (Figure 7-37)
is located on the left side of the propeller reduction gearbox. The operating point of the
overspeed governor is 4% (6% for UE) greater
than the primary governors maximum speed.
Since maximum propeller speed selected on the
primary governor is 1,700 rpm, then overspeed

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

governor set speed is 1,768 rpm (1,802 rpm for


UE). If a propellers speed reached 1,768 rpm
(1,802 rpm for UE), the overspeed governor
would begin increasing blade angle to a higher
pitch to prevent the rpm from continuing its rise.
From a pilots point of view, a propeller tachometer stabilized at approximately 1,768 rpm (1,802
rpm for UE) would indicate failure of the primary governor and proper operation of the
overspeed governor. For pretakeoff check purposes, the set point of the overspeed governor is
rescheduled using the prop governor test switch
on the pilots left subpanel. During testing, propeller speed should not exceed approximately
1,520 to 1,610 rpm (1,535 to 1,595 rpm for UE).

Figure 7-37 Overspeed Governor Diagram

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

FUEL TOPPING GOVERNOR


The primary propeller governor contains a fuel
topping governor which prevents power turbine
overspeed if a propeller malfunctions. An overspeed could occur, for example, if a propeller
blade were to stick in a fixed position during normal primary governor operation. In addition,
during reverse thrust operation, the fuel topping
governor is set below the speed selected by the
primary governor to permit indirect control of
propeller speed by the FCU (fuel control unit)
servo system.
The speed at which fuel topping governor operation occurs is determined by the speed selected
with the propeller levers, and by the position of
the reset lever. In the flight range the reset lever is
set to regulate power turbine (N 2 ) speed at
approximately 6% higher than the propeller lever
setting. In the ground range the reset lever is set
to 4% lower than the propeller lever position.
If propeller speed (NP) exceeds levels sensed by
the fuel topping governor, fuel flow to the N1 section will be reduced, and engine power will
decrease. When this occurs, propeller rpm (NP)
normally remains constant, but it may decrease if
propeller blades are frozen in a fixed position.

POWER LEVERS
The power levers (Figure 7-38) are located on the
power lever quadrant (first two levers on the left
side) on the center pedestal. They are mechanically interconnected through a cam box to the
fuel control unit, reverse lever, beta valve and follow-up mechanism, and the propeller (NP )
governor. The power lever quadrant permits
movement of the power lever in the forward
thrust (alpha) range from idle to maximum
thrust, and in the beta/reverse range from idle to
maximum reverse. Detents in the power lever
quadrant at the IDLE and GROUND FINE positions prevent inadvertent movement of the lever
into the beta/reverse range. To select beta or
reverse, the pilot must lift the power levers up
and over the detents.

Figure 7-38 Power Levers

In the forward thrust (alpha) range the power


levers establish gas generator rpm (N G ) by
selecting a gas generator governor speed which
results in a fuel flow that will maintain the
selected N1 rpm.
In the beta range, the power levers control the
beta valve to reduce propeller blade angle, thus
reducing residual propeller thrust. N1 rpm is not
affected in the beta range.
In the reverse range, the power lever: (1) selects a
blade angle proportionate to the aft travel of the
lever, (2) selects a fuel flow that will sustain the
selected reverse power, and (3) resets the fuel
topping governor (NP) from its normal 106% to a
range between 93 and 97%. Therefore, rpm in
reverse is a function of the primary propeller
governor acting through the FCU to limit fuel
flow and control propeller rpm in relation to
power lever position.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PROPELLER CONTROL
LEVERS
Propeller rpm, within the primary governor range
of 1,400 to 1,700 rpm (1,200 to 1,700 rpm for
UE), is set by the position of the propeller control
levers (Figure 7-39). These levers, one for each
engine, are located between the power levers and
the fuel cutoff levers on the center pedestal quadrant. The full-forward position sets the primary
governor at 1,700 rpm. In the full-aft position,
forward of the feathering detent, the primary
governor is set at 1,400 rpm (1,200 rpm for UE).
Intermediate propeller rpm positions can be set
by moving the propeller levers to select desired
rpm as indicated on the propeller tachometer. The
tachometers are read directly in revolutions per
minute. In the Series UE the propeller rpm gages
are 28-VDC-powered gages.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

A detent at the low rpm position prevents inadvertent movement of the propeller lever into
feather. The feather position is indicated by red
and white stripes at the bottom of the propeller
lever slots in the power quadrant. The taxi position for the propeller levers is indicated by a
white line just prior to the feather detente on
Series UE.

PROPELLER FEATHERING
The propeller can be manually feathered by moving the propeller lever full aft, past the detent,
into feather. This action locks the governors
pilot valve in the full-up position, opens the
feather valve, and all oil quickly drains from the
propeller pitch mechanism. As oil is dumped
from propeller servo chambers, the counterweights and springs drive propeller blades to the
feathered position. Since the propeller shaft and
the N1 shaft are not connected, the propeller can
be feathered with the engine running; however, to
avoid excessive torque loads on the propeller
gearbox, the engine should be at idle power when
the propellers are manually feathered. If an
engine fails with the autofeather system inoperative, the propeller will maintain onspeed rpm
unless it is feathered manually.

BEFORE TAXI AND BEFORE


TAKEOFF CHECKS
The Before Takeoff (Runup) checklist in the
POH/AFM Normal Procedures section contains preflight checks for the propeller system.
To minimize propeller blade erosion and pitting
of airplane surfaces, the following system checks
should be accomplished on a clean, hard surface
which is free of sand and gravel.
Figure 7-39 Propeller Control Levers

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AUTOFEATHER SYSTEM
(SERIES UA, UB, UC)
The autofeather system (Figure 7-40) provides a
means of dumping oil from the propeller dome
automatically. Thus, the feathering spring and
counterweights start the blade feathering action
immediately in the event of an engine failure.
Although the system is armed by a switch on the
subpanel, placarded AUTOFEATHER with
ARM, OFF, and TEST positions, the arming
phase is completed only when both power levers
are advanced above 85 to 90% N1 and engine
torque is above 525 foot-pounds. When armed,
both right and left indicator lights on the caution/advisory annunciator panel will be
illuminated (Figure 7-41). The green annunciator

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

lights are placarded L AUTOFEATHER and


R AUTOFEATHER. The autofeather system
will be inoperative as long as either power lever
is retarded below 85 to 90% N1.
The autofeather system should be armed during
takeoff, climb, approach, and landing, and should
be turned off in cruise. When the system is
armed, if torquemeter oil pressure on either
engine drops below 250 foot-pounds, oil is
dumped from the dome, the feathering spring
starts the blades toward feather, and the
autofeather system of the other engine is disarmed. When the autofeather portion of the
operative engine is disarmed, the annunciator
indicator light for that engine will be extinguished (Figure 7-42). Autofeather is required to
be armed and operable for flight.

Figure 7-40 Autofeather Test DiagramSeries UA, UB, UC

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 7-41 Autofeather System Diagram (Armed)Series UA, UB, UC

Figure 7-42 Autofeather System Diagram (Armed, Left Engine Failure)Series UA, UB, UC

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

AUTOFEATHER SYSTEM
(SERIES UE)

PROPELLER
SYNCHROPHASER SYSTEMS

The autofeather system (Figure 7-43) provides a


means of dumping oil from the propeller dome
automatically. Thus, the feathering spring and
counterweights start the blade feathering action
immediately in the event of an engine failure.
Although the system is armed by a switch on the
subpanel, placarded AUTOFEATHER with
ARM, OFF, and TEST positions, the arming
phase is completed only when both power levers
are advanced above 90% N1 and engine torque is
above 1,000 foot-pounds. When armed, the green
L and R AUTOFEATHER and L and R AFX
annunciators are illuminated. The AFX DISA B L E a n n u n c i a t o r i s ex t i n g u i s h e d . T h e
autofeather system will be inoperative on either
engine as long as its power lever is retarded
below 90% N1.

The propeller synchrophaser automatically


matches the speed of the two propellers to synchronize rpm. In addition, propeller blades on
one engine are maintained at a predetermined relative position with the blades of the other so that
only one propeller blade at a time will rotate past
the fuselage. The synchrophaser system reduces
propeller beat and cabin noise.

The autofeather system is required to be armed


and operable for flight during takeoff, climb,
approach, and landing, and should be turned off
in cruise. When the system is armed, if
torquemeter oil pressure on either engine drops
below 350 foot-pounds, oil is dumped from the
dome, the feathering spring starts the blades
toward feather, and the autofeather system of the
other engine is disarmed. When the autofeather
portion of the operative engine is disarmed, the
AUTOFEATHER and AFX annunciator lights
for that engine will be extinguished, and the AFX
DISABLE annunciator will be illuminated.
After the autofeather system has been tested, the
propeller manual feathering system should be
checked. Be sure to verify that engine power is at
idle, then bring both propeller levers into the
feather detent. The propellers may be allowed to
completely feather with the compressor operating at low idle without engine damage; however,
ground operations while the propellers are feathered should be kept to a minimum. Extensive
ground operations in feather may overheat the
fuselage and can damage nose-mounted avionics
when hot exhaust gases are not being blown aft
by the propellers air blast.

Synchrophaser Operation
The synchrophaser system (Figure 7-44) is an
electronic system certificated for use during all
flight operations, including takeoff and landing.
It is not a designated master-slave system. It
always matches the rpm of the slower propeller
to the rpm of the faster propeller, and constantly
keeps the propellers in phase to reduce cabin
noise to a minimum.
The synchrophaser has a limited range of authori t y. T h e m a x i m u m p o s s i b l e i n c r e a s e i s
approximately 25 rpm. In no case will the rpm
fall below that selected by the propeller control
lever. Normal governor operation is unchanged,
but the synchrophaser continuously monitors
propeller rpm and resets either governor as
required.
Propeller rpm and relative blade position are
sensed by a magnetic pick-up mounted adjacent
to each propeller spinner bulkhead. The magnetic
pick-up transmits electrical pulses, once per revolution, to a control box installed forward of the
pedestal.
The control box converts any pulse rate differences between the propellers into correction
commands, and transmits the commands to coils
mounted close to the flyweights of each primary
governor. As coil voltages vary, the governor
speed settings are biased until the propeller rpms
match exactly. A toggle switch, installed adjacent
to the synchroscope, turns the system on. When
the synchrophaser is off, propeller governors
operate at the manual speed settings selected by
the pilot. To operate the synchrophaser system,

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 7-43 Autofeather System DiagramSeries UE

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synchronize the propellers manually to establish


a maximum of 25 rpm difference between them,
then turn the synchrophaser on. The system can
be on at all times unless a malfunction is
indicated.
Propeller rpm can be reset when the synchrophaser system is turned on. To do so, simply
adjust both propeller controls simultaneously. If
the synchrophaser is on, but is unable to adjust
the propeller rpms to match, the system has
reached the end of its operating range. Increasing
the setting of the slow propeller, or reducing the
setting of the fast propeller, will bring the speeds
within synchrophaser range. If preferred, turn the
synchrophaser switch off, resynchronize manually, and turn the synchrophaser on.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Propeller Synchroscope
A propeller synchroscope, located to the left of
the oil pressure/temperature gages, indicates the
status of propeller synchronization. The face of
the synchroscope has a black-and-white cross
pattern which can spin either left or right and
turns toward the faster propeller. Therefore, if the
right propeller rpm is greater than the left, the
face turns clockwise (to the right). When the left
propeller rpm is greater than the right, the face
turns counterclockwise (to the left). No rotation
of the synchroscope indicates that both propellers
are synchronized.

Figure 7-44 Propeller Synchrophaser

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 8
FIRE PROTECTION
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 8-1
FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM (SERIES UA, UB, UC, UE).................................................. 8-1
Fire Detection and Extinguisher Test (Series UA, UB) .................................................. 8-3
Fire Detection Test (Series UC) ...................................................................................... 8-3
Fire Detection Test (Series UE) ...................................................................................... 8-5
FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM (SERIES UA, UB, UC, UE)......................................... 8-5
Fire Extinguisher Test (Series UC) ................................................................................. 8-6
Fire Extinguisher Test (Series UE) ................................................................................. 8-6

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

8-1

Engine Fire Detection System Schematic................................................................ 8-2

8-2

Fire Extinguisher Control Switches and


Firewall Fuel Shutoff Valve T Handles ............................................................... 8-3

8-3

Engine Fire Extinguishing System Schematic......................................................... 8-4

8-4

Fire Extinguisher Control Switches......................................................................... 8-5

8-5

Engine Fire Extinguisher Test Switches.................................................................. 8-6

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CHAPTER 8
FIRE PROTECTION

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INTRODUCTION

Fire detection and protection systems provide fire warning and fire extinguishing capability of a
fire in either engine.

FIRE DETECTION SYSTEM


(SERIES UA, UB, UC, UE)
The engine fire detection system provides immediate warning in the event of fire in either engine
compartment (Figure 8-1). The system incorporates a temperature sensing cable looped
continuously around each engine. The cables
from left and right nacelles are interconnected to
a single control amplifier, mounted on the forward pressure bulkhead behind the left subpanel.
Should an engine fire occur, the amplifier activates a red warning light in the firewall fuel
shutoff valve handle placarded FIRE PULL. Two
fire extinguisher control switches placarded L or
R ENGINE FIRE PUSH TO EXT are in the

glareshield above the firewall valve T handles


(Figure 8-2).
The sensing cable forms a continuous loop over
and around areas in which critical fire situations
could develop. The cable functions as a temperature-sensitive resistor (thermistor) which senses
temperature increase as a drop in resistance.
When resistance drops below a preset value, a
signal is sent to a control amplifier which then
illuminates the fire warning annunciators. Since
the warning system functions as a temperature
averaging device, and variances in temperatures
cause differences in resistance at different points

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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along the cable, base resistance must be determined. This means that the temperatures along
the entire length of the cable are compared and
averaged to determine the base resistance at
which a fire will be sensed. In addition, the resistance value that triggers fire warning indications
is different on any given day relative to outside
air temperature; therefore, base resistance automatically adjusts to compensate for differences
in outside ambient air temperatures.
In the unlikely event of an engine fire, cable temperature rises, thereby decreasing its resistance.
When the resistance drops below its absolute set

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

point value of approximately 100 ohms, it will


trigger the amplifier, illuminating the T handle
lights.

NOTE
(Series UE only) In the UE Series, the
loop continuity is monitored and if a
break is detected, the Fire Loop annunciator and Master Caution Flasher will
illuminate, warning the pilot that the
detector circuit may not be functioning
properly in the event of a fire.

Figure 8-1 Engine Fire Detection System Schematic

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Length of the continuous loop is a critical variable in the system. In the event of a single cable
break, the system remains operational. If the total
length of the loop is changed, the resistance at
which fire is sensed will also change. If less than
the full length of the cable is heated to a specific
temperature, the resistance value will be greater
than if the full length is heated to the same temperature. In such a situation the resistance value
would be too high to activate the fire warning.
The control amplifier is set to an alarm level high
enough to prevent false fire warnings. The single
amplifier, which interconnects left and right fire
warning systems, discriminates for short circuits
in control circuitry. Ample margin exists between
the fire alarm trip setting and the short circuit
discriminator.
A time delay in the amplifier prevents false fire
warnings because only a steady resistance signal
will be sensed as an actual alarm. Intermittent
signals due to shorts in control circuitry or cable
connectors will not trip the fire warning annuncia t o r. T h e FAU LT t e s t f u n c t i o n h a s b e e n
incorporated to test the control amplifier for open
circuit conditions.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

FIRE DETECTION TEST


(SERIES UC)
The airplane is equipped with two toggle test
switches placarded ENG FIRE TEST-DETECT,
one for the LEFT system and one for the RIGHT
system. The switches are three-position switches
spring-loaded to the center. The switch positions
are placarded LOOP-OFF-AMP. When either
toggle switch is placed in the LOOP position, the
integrity of the appropriate firezone cable is
tested. A good test is indicated by the red lights
in the appropriate FIRE PULL T handle being
illuminated. When either toggle switch is placed
in the AMP position, the integrity of the circuitry
within the control amplifier is tested. A good test
is indicated by the red lights in the appropriate
FIRE PULL T handle being illuminated as in
the loop test.

FIRE DETECTION AND


EXTINGUISHER TEST
(SERIES UA, UB)
The UA/UB Series airliners were equipped with
a fire detection and extinguisher test system combined as a single knob. This system has been
replaced on many airliners by a retrofit kit of the
same configuration as the UC-1 and after series.
For those airliners with the original system, refer
to applicable POM/AFM.

Figure 8-2 Fire Extinguisher Control


Switches and Firewall Fuel
Shutoff Valve T Handles

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 8-3 Engine Fire Extinguishing System Schematic

8-4

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FIRE DETECTION TEST


(SERIES UE)
The airplane is equipped with two toggle test
switches placarded ENGINE FIRE TESTDETECT, one for the LEFT system and one for
the RIGHT system. The switches have three
positions and are spring-loaded to the center
position. When either toggle switch is placed in
the LOOP position, the integrity of the appropriate fire zone cable is tested. A good test is
indicated by illumination of the appropriate yellow FIRE LOOP annunciator. When either toggle
switch is placed in the AMP position, the integrity of the circuitry within the control amplifier is
tested. A good test is indicated by the red light in
the appropriate FIRE PULL T handle being
illuminated.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

FIRE EXTINGUISHING
SYSTEM (SERIES UA,
UB, UC, UE)
Figure 8-3 shows the fire extinguishing system. A
fire extinguisher supply cylinder is mounted aft
of the main spar in each wheelwell. Each cylind e r i s c h a rg e d w i t h 2 . 1 0 p o u n d s o f
bromotrifluoromethane (Halon) pressurized to
360 psi at 700 F. Each cylinder supply line
branches into two spray tubes which diffuse the
extinguishing agent into the engine nacelle when
activated. One nozzle discharges into the engine
exhaust area, and the other discharges into the
engine accessory area. Once the system is activated, the entire supply of extinguishing agent is
discharged.
The fire extinguisher control switches are located
on the glareshield on either side of the warning
annunciator panel (Figure 8-4). Their power is
derived from the hot battery bus through microswitches mounted on the firewall fuel shutoff
valve. The push-to-activate switches incorporate
three indicator lights.
The red lens, placarded L or R ENG FIRE PUSH
TO EXT, indicates the fire T handle has been
pulled closed, thus arming the fire extinguisher
pushbutton circuitry. The red light in the extinguisher pushbutton will illuminate only if a fire
exists and the T handle is pulled, or if the
rotary test switch is in FIRE DET TEST with the
T handle pulled. A green lens, placarded OK,
is provided for test functions only. The amber
lens, placarded D, monitors the status of the cylinder charge and the condition of the pyrotechnic
cartridge, which must be intact before the bottle
can be discharged. As long as the cartridge is
intact and the cylinder has not been discharged,
the amber light will remain extinguished. When
the cartridge has been fired, the D light will
remain illuminated until the cartridge is replaced.

Figure 8-4 Fire Extinguisher


Control Switches

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FIRE EXTINGUISHER TEST


(SERIES UC)

FIRE EXTINGUISHER TEST


(SERIES UE)

The airplanes are equipped with two toggle test


switches placarded ENG FIRE TEST-EXT
TEST, one for the LEFT system and one for the
RIGHT system installed in the copilots inboard
subpanel. These switches test the circuitry of the
fire extinguisher pyrotechnic cartridges. The
switches are moved to the EXT TEST position
while verifying the illumination of the appropriate yellow D light and the appropriate green OK
light in each fire extinguisher activation switch
on the glareshield. The toggle switches are
spring-loaded and will return automatically to the
center OFF position.

The airplanes are equipped with two toggle test


switches placarded ENG FIRE TEST-EXT TEST
A and TEST B, one for the LEFT system and one
for the RIGHT system installed in the copilots
inboard subpanel. These switches are for the purpose of testing the dual circuitry of the fire
extinguisher pyrotechnic cartridges. The
switches are moved to the EXT TEST A position
while verifying the illumination of the appropriate yellow D light and the appropriate green OK
light in each fire extinguisher activation switch
on the glareshield. The switches are then moved
to the EXT TEST B position while verifying the
illumination of the appropriate green OK light in
each fire extinguisher activation switch on the
glareshield. The toggle switches are springloaded and will return automatically to the center
OFF position.

A cylinder gage, calibrated in psi, provides a


means of determining the charge level of each
supply cylinder (Series UC and UE). These gages
must be checked at the cylinder in each wheelwell during preflight.

Figure 8-5 Engine Fire Extinguisher Test Switches

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 9
PNEUMATICS
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 9-1
DESCRIPTION....................................................................................................................... 9-1
ENGINE BLEED AIR PNEUMATIC SYSTEM ................................................................... 9-3
Pneumatic Air Source...................................................................................................... 9-3
Vacuum Air Source ......................................................................................................... 9-3
Bleed Air Control ............................................................................................................ 9-4
ENGINE BLEED AIR WARNING SYSTEM ....................................................................... 9-4
Brake Deice Overheat Warning ...................................................................................... 9-4
HYDRAULIC FILL CAN PRESSURE ................................................................................. 9-6

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

9-1

Pneumatic System Diagram..................................................................................... 9-2

9-2

Pneumatic Pressure Gage ........................................................................................ 9-3

9-3

Gyro Suction Gage .................................................................................................. 9-4

9-4

Bleed Air Valve Controls ........................................................................................ 9-4

9-5

Bleed Air Warning System Diagram ....................................................................... 9-5

9-6

Bleed Air Warning Annunciators ............................................................................ 9-5

9-7

Hydraulic Fill Can ................................................................................................... 9-6

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CHAPTER 9
PNEUMATICS

BLEED AIR CO

R
AIR

15
20

LV
VA E

INTRODUCTION
Many small but important tasks are accomplished by the aircraft pneumatic and vacuum
systems. This section identifies these systems, their controls, and proper utilization.

DESCRIPTION
This chapter describes the sources of pneumatic
and vacuum air.

Acceptable gage indications and normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures are discussed.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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Figure 9-1 Pneumatic System Diagram

9-2

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ENGINE BLEED AIR


PNEUMATIC SYSTEM
The pneumatic system in the Beechcraft 1900
Airliner provides support for several aircraft system operations. These operations include surface
deice, brake deice, brake deice overheat warning,
and bleed air warning. Pneumatic pressure is also
used to create vacuum for air-driven gyros, pressurization control and deflation of the deice
boots.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Bleed air is extracted after the final stage of the


engine compressor at a maximum temperature of
approximately 800 F. As bleed air enters the
pneumatic manifold, it is cooled to approximately 70 F above ambient temperature due to
heat transfer in the pneumatic plumbing.
Ordinarily, the pressure regulator valve, which is
mounted under the center aisle floor forward of
the main spar, will provide 18 1 psi with the
engine running at 70% to 80% N1. System pressure is monitored on the pneumatic pressure gage
(Figure 9-2).

High pressure bleed air from each engine compressor is routed through a pneumatic/instrument
air valve and regulated at 18 psi to supply pressure for the pneumatic system and vacuum
source (Figure 9-1). Vacuum for the flight instruments and for deice boot deflation is supplied by
routing 18 psi pneumatic air through a bleed air
ejector (venturi). One engine can supply sufficient bleed air for all pneumatic and vacuum
systems.
A suction gage on the copilots subpanel indicates instrument vacuum pressure in inches of
mercury. To the right of the suction gage is a
pneumatic pressure gage, calibrated in pounds
per square inch.
Figure 9-2 Pneumatic Pressure Gage

PNEUMATIC AIR SOURCE


Bleed air at 90 to 150 psi pressure is obtained
from both engines, and flows through the pneumatic/instrument air valve and pneumatic lines to
a common tee located in the fuselage. Check
valves installed on each side of the tee prevent
loss of bleed air during single engine operation.
Downstream from the check valves, bleed air
passes through an 18 psi regulator. The regulated
bleed air then flows through a manifold that supplies pneumatic pressure for the surface deicers,
the bleed air failure and brake deice overheat
warning systems, the flight hourmeter, and the
hydraulic powerpack reservoir. Regulated bleed
air also provides flow and pressure for the vacuum ejector. Should the pneumatic pressure
regulator fail, an overpressure relief valve will
open at 21 psi.

VACUUM AIR SOURCE


Vacuum is obtained from the bleed air vacuum
ejector. Vacuum is supplied at a regulated 4.3 to
5.9 inches Hg through the vacuum regulator
valve. The vacuum regulator is protected by a
foam filter, and is mounted in the nose compartment on the right side of the pressure bulkhead.
The instrument vacuum line is routed through a
suction relief valve designed to admit into the
system the amount of air required to maintain
sufficient vacuum for proper operation of the
instruments. A gyro suction gage (Figure 9-3),
which is calibrated in inches of mercury, is
located on the copilots right subpanel. With one
engine running at 70% to 80% N1, the vacuum
gage should indicate approximately 5.9 (+0/.2)
inches Hg.

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ENGINE BLEED AIR


WARNING SYSTEM
The engine bleed air warning system provides
visual indication of a rupture in the bleed air
lines. If a leak is detected by the warning system,
the affected engines bleed air valves can be
immediately shut down before heat of the escaping bleed air damages the skin and structure
adjacent to the break in the line (Figure 9-5).

Figure 9-3 Gyro Suction Gage

BLEED AIR CONTROL


Bleed air entering the cabin is controlled by the
two BLEED AIR VALVE switches (Figure 9-4)
marked OPEN, ENVIR OFF, and INST &
ENVIR OFF. When the switches are in the
OPEN position, the environmental valves and the
pneumatic/instrument air valves are open. When
the switches are in the ENVIR OFF position, the
environmental valves close and the pneumatic/instrument air valves remain open. In the
INST & ENVIR OFF position, all bleed air
valves are closed.

Bleed air lines are routed from the engines to the


cabin, in close proximity to the ethylene vinyl
acetate (EVA) tubing of the bleed air warning
system. The tubing is pressurized by air which is
tapped off the pneumatic manifold. Two pressure
switches are mounted under the center aisle
floorboards at the ends of the EVA tubing.
Excessive heat caused by a ruptured bleed air
line melts the EVA tubing. When the tubing
melts the pressure drops below that required to
keep the pressure switch actuated and the switch
closes. A circuit is then completed, illuminating
the appropriate BL AIR FAIL light in the warning annunciator panel (Figure 9-6).
When the indication of bleed air failure becomes
evident, all bleed air for that side must be turned
off by placing the respective bleed air valve
switch in the INSTR & ENVIR OFF position.
With the switch in this position, all environmental and pneumatic bleed air shutoff valves close,
stopping bleed air flow at the engine firewall;
however, the BL AIR FAIL light will remain illuminated since the EVA tubing is unable to hold
the 18 psi required to deactivate the pressure
switch. Before the annunciator can be extinguished, the leak in the EVA tubing must be
repaired.

BRAKE DEICE OVERHEAT


WARNING
Figure 9-4 Bleed Air Valve Controls

9-4

The brake deice overheat warning system is similar to the bleed air failure warning system. The
EVA tubing and pressure switches are routed
near the brake deice plumbing inside the
wheelwell. Normal operation of the brake deice

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Figure 9-5 Bleed Air Warning System Diagram

Figure 9-6 Bleed Air Warning Annunciators

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system will not activate the brake deice overheat


warning system.
To further prevent overheating in the wheelwell,
a timer automatically deactivates brake deice 10
to 12 minutes after gear retraction. However, if
the timer fails, allowing brake deice to operate
for extended periods, or if a bleed air leak occurs
in the brake deice system, the tubing will melt.
This activates the pressure switch, illuminating
t h e a p p r o p r i a t e B R K D I OV H T c a u t i o n
annunciator.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

HYDRAULIC FILL CAN


PRESSURE
Pneumatic air pressure is routed to the landing
gear hydraulic powerpack fill can (Figure 9-7). It
provides positive pressure to the reservoir and
pressurizes the hydraulic fluid to provide positive
feed to the hydraulic pump. When the engines are
shut down, the pneumatic pressure in the hydraulic fill can be bled off by a pushbutton relief
valve. Before checking fluid level in the hydraulic reservoir, residual pressure must be bled off
with the relief valve to prevent loss of fluid when
the cap is opened.

Figure 9-7 Hydraulic Fill Can

9-6

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CHAPTER 10
ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 10-1
DESCRIPTION..................................................................................................................... 10-1
ICE PROTECTION SYSTEMS ........................................................................................... 10-3
Description and Operation............................................................................................. 10-3
Precautions during Icing Conditions ............................................................................. 10-3
Surface Deice Systems .................................................................................................. 10-6
Wing Ice Lights ............................................................................................................. 10-9
Stall Warning Heat ........................................................................................................ 10-9
Engine Inertial Separators ........................................................................................... 10-11
Ice Vane Controls ........................................................................................................ 10-11
Engine Air Inlet Lip Heat ............................................................................................ 10-12
Engine Autoignition System ....................................................................................... 10-13
Fuel System Anti-ice ................................................................................................... 10-14
Propeller Electric Deice System.................................................................................. 10-17
Windshield Anti-ice .................................................................................................... 10-18
Windshield Wipers ...................................................................................................... 10-22
Brake Deice System .................................................................................................... 10-23
Pitot-Static Mast Heat ................................................................................................. 10-24
Alternate Static-Air System......................................................................................... 10-25
Alternate Static Heat ................................................................................................... 10-25

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

10-1

Anti-icing and Deicing Components ..................................................................... 10-2

10-2

Ice and Rain Protection Required Equipment ....................................................... 10-2

10-3

Ice and Rain Protection Controls ........................................................................... 10-4

10-4

Surface Deice Boot Installation ............................................................................. 10-6

10-5

Surface Deice System Diagram (TailetsSeries UE Only) ................................. 10-8

10-6

Surface Deice Controls .......................................................................................... 10-8

10-7

Wing Ice Lights ..................................................................................................... 10-9

10-8

Stall Warning Vane and Heat Control ................................................................... 10-9

10-9

Inertial Separators in RETRACT Position .......................................................... 10-10

10-10

Inertial Separators in EXTEND Position............................................................. 10-10

10-11

Ice Vane Controls ................................................................................................ 10-11

10-12

Caution/Advisory Annunciators .......................................................................... 10-12

10-13

Engine Air Inlet Lip Heat .................................................................................... 10-13

10-14

Engine Autoignition System................................................................................ 10-13

10-15

Fuel System Anti-ice ........................................................................................... 10-14

10-16

Oil-to-Fuel Heat Exchanger................................................................................. 10-15

10-17

Propeller Electric Deice System .......................................................................... 10-16

10-18

Propeller Deice Boots .......................................................................................... 10-17

10-19

PROP AMPS Indicator ........................................................................................ 10-18

10-20

Windshield Anti-ice Switches ............................................................................. 10-18

10-21

Windshield Anti-ice Diagram.............................................................................. 10-19

10-22

Windshield Anti-ice DiagramNormal Heat ..................................................... 10-20

10-23

Windshield Anti-ice DiagramHigh Heat ......................................................... 10-21

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10-24

Windshield Wipers.............................................................................................. 10-22

10-25

Brake Deicer........................................................................................................ 10-23

10-26

Pitot Masts and Heat Controls............................................................................. 10-24

10-iv

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CHAPTER 10
ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION

INTRODUCTION
Flight into known icing conditions requires pilot understanding of meteorological conditions
which are conducive to icing. The pilot must be familiar with all aircraft anti-ice and deice
systems which prevent excessive ice formation from interfering with the safety of flight. This
section identifies these systems, their controls, and best usage.

DESCRIPTION
This chapter presents a description and discussion of the airplane ice and rain protection
systems. All anti-ice and deice systems are
described showing location, controls, and procedures for use. The purpose of this section is to
acquaint the pilot with the systems for flight into

icing or heavy rain conditions. Systems controls


and use are described, and procedures to be followed in the event of system malfunctions are
discussed. Information concerning preflight deicing and defrosting are included.

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Figure 10-1 Anti-icing and Deicing Components

Figure 10-2 Ice and Rain Protection Required Equipment

10-2

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

ICE PROTECTION
SYSTEMS
The Beech 1900 Airliner has been approved by
the Federal Aviation Administration for flight in
known icing when the required equipment is
installed and operational (Figure 10-1). The
POH/AFM Limitations section contains the
Required Equipment for Various Conditions of
Flight List (Figure 10-2). Ice protection controls
are primarily grouped together on the pilots subpanel. The windshield wiper control is located on
the overhead panel (Figure 10-3).

DESCRIPTION AND
OPERATION
The airplane is equipped with a variety of ice
protection systems for operation in inclement
weather conditions. Only one, the surface deice,
is a deicing system designed to be used AFTER
ice has accumulated. All other ice protection systems are to be used as anti-icing systems to
PREVENT the formation of ice on aircraft surfaces. The following is a list of ice protection
systems provided for the 1900 Airliner:

Inertial separators (ice vanes)

Engine intake lip heat

Pitot heat

Alternate static

Propeller deice

Windshield anti-ice

Stall warning heat

Fuel vent heat

Brake deice

Surface deice (leading-edge boots)

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Ice protection for the engine is provided by an


inertial separation system which is driven by an
electrical actuator. Should the main electrical
actuator motor fail, a standby actuator motor can
be used. The leading-edge lip of the engine air
inlet is continuously heated by engine exhaust
air. The propellers are protected from icing by
electrothermal boots on each blade.
Electrical heating elements embedded in the
windshield provide adequate protection against
the formation of windshield ice. Warm air from
the cabin heating system is used for defogging.
Heavy-duty windshield wipers for both the pilot
and copilot provide increased visibility for
approaches and taxi operations in rain.
A heating element in the pitot-static mast prevents the pitot opening from becoming clogged
with ice. The heating element is powered by the
airplane electrical system through a 15-ampere
circuit breaker switch.
Brake deice is a standard installation which prevents ice and slush buildup on the main wheel
brakes.
Pneumatic deicing boots on the wings, stabilons,
and horizontal stabilizers remove ice after it has
formed on the leading edges of these surfaces.
On Series UE, the tailets also have boots on the
leading edges. Regulated bleed-air pressure
inflates the boots, and vacuum pressure deflates
the boots. The selector switch that controls the
system permits automatic single-cycle or manual
operation.

PRECAUTIONS DURING ICING


CONDITIONS
During winter, a careful preflight inspection is
required before operating in cold weather or in
potential icing conditions. In addition to the normal exterior inspection, special attention should
be paid to areas where frost and ice may
accumulate.
Even a thin layer of frost can cause great harm. It
is not the thickness of the frost that matters, it is
the texture. A slightly irregular surface can sub-

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Figure 10-3 Ice and Rain Protection Controls

10-4

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stantially decrease proper airflow over wings and


stabilizers. Never underestimate the damaging
effects of frost. All frost should be removed from
leading edges of the wings, stabilons, stabilizers
and propellers before the airplane is flown.

Pitot-static masts should always be covered while


the airplane is parked for extended periods. Once
the covers are removed, make sure both masts are
free of ice or water. Flight instrument indications
may be faulty if masts are clogged.

Control surfaces, hinges, windshield, pitot masts,


fuel tank caps and vents should also be free of
frost before flight. Deicing fluid should be used
when needed.

Before taxiing, the brake deicers may be turned


on to help rid the brake mechanisms of accumulated ice. If the brake deicers are used, the
condition lever should be placed in the HIGH
IDLE position.

Fuel drains should be tested for free flow. Water


in the fuel system has a tendency to condense
more readily during winter months, and if left
unchecked, large amounts of moisture may accumulate in the fuel system. Moisture does not
always settle at the bottom of the tank. Occasionally a thin layer of fuel gets trapped under a large
mass of water, and water may not drain if only a
small sample is taken.

Keep flaps retracted to avoid throwing snow or


slush into flap mechanisms, and to minimize the
possibility of damage to flap surfaces. When taxiing in extremely icy conditions, make sure tires
are rolling, not just sliding on the icy surface.
Engine autoignition should not be used for
extended taxiing or ground holding. This precaution prolongs the service life of the igniters.

Although anti-icing additives are rarely needed in


the 1900 Airliner fuel system, it is important to
add correct amounts of additive when necessary.
Higher concentrations of anti-icer does not
ensure lower fuel freezing temperatures, and too
great a concentration can damage the fuel system. Fuel system ice protection will be discussed
later in this section.

Snow, slush or standing water on the runway


degrades airplane performance during takeoffs
and landings. For takeoff, more runway is needed
to achieve necessary takeoff speed, and landing
roll is longer because of reduced braking effectiveness. Brake deicers should be activated well
before landing and left on to dry the brakes after
takeoff when conditions are slushy or snowy.

The brakes and tires should be checked before


taxiing the airplane. If an anti-ice solution is
needed to free the brakes, be sure the solution
does not contain oil-based lubricants. If tires are
frozen to the ground, use undiluted defrosting
fluid or a ground heater to melt the ice, then
move the airplane as soon as the tires are free.
Heat applied to tires should not exceed 160 F or
71 C.

The 1900 Airliner is equipped with both deicing


and anti-icing equipment. However, only the surface deice is a true deicing system. That is,
surface deice is intended to eliminate ice which
has already accumulated. The remaining ice protection systems are considered to be anti-ice
systems, and should be used to prevent ice formation. Accumulated ice on even the bestequipped airplane will degrade its performance
and alter time and fuel calculations. A minimum
speed of 160 KIAS should be maintained at all
times while flying in icing conditions to prevent
ice formation on the underside of the wing, since
these surfaces have no ice protection.

In addition to preventing unnecessary reduction


gearbox wear, using propeller tie-downs is effective as an ice preventive when the airplane is
parked during cold weather. When the propeller
is properly secured, moisture is channeled down
the blades, past the propeller hub, and off the
lower blade. The propeller hubs should also be
inspected for ice and snow accumulation.

Due to distortion of the wing airfoil, stalling airspeeds should be expected to increase as ice
accumulates on the airplane. For the same reason, stall warning devices are not accurate and
should not be relied upon. Always maintain a
comfortable margin of airspeed above the normal

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stall airspeed when ice is on the airplane. It may


be necessary to reduce airspeed should ice accumulate on the windshield.
Engine ice vanes should be extended any time
potential icing conditions are encountered.
Because of ram-air effect, the engine icing will
occur at ambient air temperatures slightly above
freezing. Even small pieces of ice can damage
compressor blades.
Engine anti-ice should be used:

Before visible moisture is encountered at


OAT +5C and below

At night when freedom from visible


moisture is not assured and the OAT is
+5 C or below

Before entering icing conditions, fuel vent heat,


pitot heat, prop deice, windshield heat, and stall
warning heat should all be ON.

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Since engine bleed air is used for pneumatic boot


operation and for brake deice, the bleed-air warning system should be monitored during icing
flight. If either BLEED AIR FAIL annunciator
illuminates in flight, the bleed-air switch on the
affected engine must be moved to the INST &
ENVIR OFF position. Since pneumatic air is
used to pressurize the bleed-air warning system,
BLEED AIR FAIL lights may illuminate
momentarily during simultaneous wing boot and
brake deice operation at low N1 speeds. If the
annunciators are immediately extinguished after
increasing N1 speed, they can be disregarded.

SURFACE DEICE SYSTEMS


The wings, stabilons, and horizontal stabilizer,
also tailets, (UE only) are deiced in flight with a
system of inflatable rubber boots attached to
leading edges of these surfaces (Figure 10-4).

Figure 10-4 Surface Deice Boot Installation

10-6

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After ice has accumulated, pneumatic pressure


can be cycled through a deice distributor valve to
inflate the boots. After the inflation cycle, vacuum is cycled through the distributor valve to
deflate the boots, and hold them tightly against
the leading-edge surfaces. Ice is removed by
alternately inflating and deflating the deice boots
(Figure 10-5).

When the switch is held in the MANUAL position, all the boots are inflated simultaneously,
remaining inflated until the switch is released.
After the switch is released, vacuum is supplied
to the boots until the switch is again pressed to
manual. The manual position bypasses the electronic timer, providing an alternate means of
inflating the boots should the timer fail.

To ensure normal pneumatic deicing operation, a


check valve is incorporated into the bleed-air line
from each engine, preventing loss of bleed-air
pressure through the compressor of an inoperative engine.

Electrical power is required for boot inflation in


both single-cycle and in manual. If electrical
power is lost, the boots cannot be inflated, but
vacuum is always available for deflation since the
distributor valve is deenergized to the vacuum
side of the cycle. A single circuit breaker, located
on the copilots circuit-breaker panel, supplies
electrical power for the surface deice system.

A three-position switch on the pilots subpanel,


placarded SURFACE DEICE SINGLE
MANUAL, controls surface deice operation
(Figure 10-6). The switch is spring-loaded to the
center position. Momentary activation of the
switch to the SINGLE position, starts the
inflation cycle. During single-cycle operation, an
electronic timer controls the deice distributor
valve to provide sequential inflation of the boots.
First, the outboard wing boots are inflated for
approximately six seconds. During the next sixsecond cycle, all other boots are inflated,
including the center wing, horizontal stabilizer,
and stabilon boots. When all boots have inflated
and deflated, after approximately 12 seconds, the
cycle is complete. The deice distributor valve
then returns to the deflate position, distributing
constant vacuum to all surface deice boots.

For most effective deicing, at least 1 to 1-1/2


inches of ice should be allowed to form before
attempting ice removal. Very thin ice may crack
and cling to the boots instead of shedding when
the boots are inflated. Subsequent cyclings will
then have a tendency to build up a shell of ice
outside the contour of the leading edges of the
boots, making ice removal efforts ineffective.

CAUTION
The deicer boots must not be cycled
below 40 F. Exceeding this limit can
result in permanent damage to the
boots.
The 1900D (Series UE) has an INBD WG
DEICE, an OUTBD WG DEICE and a TAIL
DEICE annunciator which will illuminate during
the period the selected boots are inflated. There
are no annunciators on other 1900 models.

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Figure 10-5 Surface Deice System Diagram (TailetsSeries UE Only)

Figure 10-6 Surface Deice Controls

10-8

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WING ICE LIGHTS


During night flight, the wing ice lights can be
used as necessary to check for wing ice accumulation. The wing ice lights should not be used for
prolonged periods while the airplane is on the
ground.
The wing ice lights are on the outboard side of
each nacelle. A circuit-breaker control switch is
located on the pilots right subpanel in the lighting control panel above the ice protection control
switches (UA, UB, UC) and on the overhead
lighting panel (Series UE) (Figure 10-7).

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

transducer vane and the metal plate surrounding


the vane (Figure 10-8) are provided with an antiicing system which uses electrical heating elements to prevent ice formation.
The stall warning heat system supplies electric
heat to the metal plate. It is activated by a twoposition circuit-breaker switch located on the
pilots right subpanel. The stall warning vane and
plate are heated whenever the battery switch and
the stall warning heat switch are selected ON.
A safety switch on the left landing gear limits
current flow to the vane and metal plate to prevent overheating while the airplane is on the
ground. In flight, after the left strut extends, the
full 24 to 28 volts is applied to the stall warning
heat components.
The UE model also incorporates an amber
STALL HEAT annunciator that will illuminate
whenever insufficient current is being applied to
the vane. The light will also be illuminated whenever the switch is in the OFF position.

Figure 10-7 Wing Ice Lights

STALL WARNING HEAT


Ice buildup changes wing contour, and the disrupted airflow may prevent the stall warning
system from accurately indicating an imminent
stall. In addition, the stall speed increases whenever ice accumulates on any airplane.
However, the FAA requires ice protection for the
stall warning system for flight into known or
forecast icing conditions. The stall warning lift

Figure 10-8 Stall Warning Vane and Heat


Control

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Figure 10-9 Inertial Separators in RETRACT Position

Figure 10-10 Inertial Separators in EXTEND Position

10-10

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ENGINE INERTIAL
SEPARATORS

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ICE VANE CONTROLS

The inertial separator system is installed in each


engine to prevent foreign objects such as ice,
dust, and gravel from entering the engine inlet
plenum. During normal flight operations when
icing conditions are not present, the ice vanes and
bypass doors are retracted (Figure 10-9). At temperatures above +5 C the ice vane and door
should be in the RETRACT position since ice
formation is unlikely at these temperatures.
The ice vanes should be extended for all ground
operations and during flight operations when visible moisture is present and the temperature is
+5 C or below. Since air temperature decreases
as it moves through the inlet toward the engine
air intake screen, moisture can enter the engine
as water or water vapor and freeze when it
reaches the engine intake screens. As the ice continues to build on the intake screens, it may break
off into small pieces which enter the compressor
section and may cause severe damage to compressor blades. Therefore, the ice vanes should be
extended any time the outside air temperature
reaches +5 C and moisture is present or
suspected.
When the ice vanes are in the EXTEND position
(Figure 10-10), a sudden turn is introduced into
the air inlet creating a venturi effect. At the same
time the bypass door in the lower cowling at the
aft end of the air duct opens. As the mixture of air
and ice particles or water droplets enters the
inlet, it is accelerated by the Venturi effect. Due
to their greater mass, and therefore greater
momentum, the heavier ice particles accelerate
past the screen area and are discharged overboard
through the bypass door. The airstream, however,
makes the sudden turn free of ice particles and
enters the engine through the inlet screen.

The ice vane and bypass doors are extended or


retracted simultaneously by electric actuators.
The actuators are controlled by switches labeled
ENGINE ANTI-ICE which are located on the
pilots left subpanel (Figure 10-11).

Figure 10-11 Ice Vane Controls

When the ice vanes are extended, two green advisory annunciators will be illuminated. Since inlet
airflow is restricted by the vanes, torque will
decrease proportionate to power setting, and ITT
will be increased very slightly. When the ice
vanes are retracted, the annunciators will be
extinguished, torque will increase and ITT will
decrease.
The ice vane control switches are placarded
ENGINE ANTI-ICE LEFT RIGHT ON
OFF. Dual actuator motors provide redundancy
for operation of the electric actuators. Additional
selector switches for left and right engine ice
vanes allows the system to be driven by either the
main or the standby actuator motor. The switch is
placarded ACTUATORS STANDBY MAIN.
The ice vanes cannot be extended to intermediate
positions. They are either extended or retracted.
Ice vane position and status of the inertial separator system is indicated by illumination of L and R
ENG ANTI-ICE (green) or L and R ENG ICE
FAIL annunciators (Figure 10-12).

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When the ice vanes have been extended fully, the


L and R ENG ANTI-ICE annunciators will be
illuminated. If the vanes have not reached the
fully extended position within 30 seconds after
the system has been turned on, the L or R ENG
ICE FAIL annunciator will be illuminated. If the
ice vanes have not reached the fully retracted
position within 30 seconds after selecting ice
vanes off, the L or R ENG ICE FAIL annunciator
will be illuminated. If the annunciator is illuminated, the standby actuator should be selected.
The ice fail annunciator circuit compares ice
vane control switch position to the actuator position microswitches. The L and/or R ENG ICE
FAIL annunciators will be illuminated if the control switch position and microswitch position do
not agree. In addition, if the power source for the
actuator system selected (either MAIN or STBY)

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

is inoperative, the engine ice fail annunciator will


be illuminated immediately. Immediate illumination of the ICE FAIL annunciator indicates loss
of electrical power, whereas delayed illumination
indicates an inoperative actuator.

ENGINE AIR INLET LIP HEAT


The lip around each air inlet is continuously
heated by hot exhaust gases (Figure 10-13). A
scoop inside the engines left side exhaust stack
deflects the hot exhaust gases downward into the
hollow lip tube that encircles the engine air inlet.
The gases are expelled with the engine exhaust
through a line in the right side exhaust stack.
Heat flows through the inlet whenever the engine
is running.

Figure 10-12 Caution/Advisory Annunciators

10-12

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w h e n fl y i n g i n t o t u r bu l e n c e o r h e av y
precipitation. If the system is armed, the igniters
will be automatically activated when torque falls
below 550 foot-pounds (750 foot-pounds on
Series UE).

Figure 10-13 Engine Air Inlet Lip Heat

ENGINE AUTOIGNITION
SYSTEM
The engine autoignition system provides
automatic continuous ignition to prevent engine
p ow e r l o s s d u e t o c o m bu s t i o n f a i l u r e .
Autoignition is armed during icing flight, or

Control switches for the autoignition system are


located on the pilots left subpanel, above the ice
vane switches and to the left of the control column (Figure 10-14). The system is activated by
moving the switches up to the ARM position.
Each switch must be lifted over a detent before it
can be moved into, or out of, the ARM position.
This lever-lock feature prevents inadvertent operation of autoignition.
When autoignition is armed, as torque falls
below 550 foot-pounds (750 foot-pounds on
Series UE), the green IGNITION ON annunciator on the caution/advisory panel will be
illuminated, indicating that the igniters are energized. During ground operation, the system
should be turned off to prolong the life of the
igniter units.

Figure 10-14 Engine Autoignition System

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FUEL SYSTEM ANTI-ICE


Several anti-ice systems protect fuel flow through
the fuel lines to the engine (Figure 10-15). Moisture in fuel can freeze and fuel can thicken during
flight in extremely cold temperatures.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Ice formation in the fuel vent system is prevented


by electrically-heated vents in each wing. Fuel
vent heat is controlled with toggle switches for
left and right fuel vents. These switches, located
on the ice protection panel, should be turned on
whenever ice is anticipated or encountered.
Fuel temperature in the fuel control unit is maintained by an oil-to-fuel heat exchanger, mounted
on the engines accessory section (Figure 10-16).
An engine oil line within the heat exchanger is
located next to the fuel line. Heat transfer occurs
through conduction between these two lines
before fuel is delivered to the fuel control unit.
The heat exchanger melts ice particles, and prevents the fuel from thickening in extremely cold
temperatures. The heat exchangers operate automatically whenever the engines are running.
Refer to the POH/AFM Limitations Section for
fuel temperature limitations.

Figure 10-15 Fuel System Anti-ice

10-14

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Figure 10-16 Oil-to-Fuel Heat Exchanger

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Figure 10-17 Propeller Electric Deice System

10-16

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PROPELLER ELECTRIC DEICE


SYSTEM
The propeller electric deicer system consists of
electrically heated deice boots, slip rings and
brush block assemblies, a timer for automatic
operation, and a dual-scale ammeter (Figure
10-17). Two switches on the pilots right subpanel control automatic or manual deicing
operations, and two circuit breakers for auto and
manual control circuit protection are located on
the copilots circuit-breaker panel.
Although propeller deice is capable of removing
ice from the propeller after it has accumulated,
the system is normally used as an anti-icing system and it should be turned on before entering
icing conditions. The heated boots reduce ice
adhesion on propeller blades (Figure 10-18). The
ice is then removed by the centrifugal effect of
the propellers and the blast of the airstream.

Figure 10-18 Propeller Deice Boots

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

When the AUTO switch is turned on, electrical


current flows from the timer through the brush
block assemblies and to the slip rings on the back
of the propeller spinner, where it is distributed to
the individual propeller deicing boots. Since the
automatic control switch is a circuit-breaker
switch, excessive current flow will cycle the
switch off and remove power to the deicer timer.
When propeller deice is operated in AUTO,
power to heating elements in the deicer boots is
cycled in 90-second phases. The first 90-second
phase heats all the boots on one propeller, and the
next 90-second phase heats all the boots on the
other propeller. The full cycle may begin with
either propeller. The automatic timer completes
one full cycle every three minutes, and propeller
deice functions continuously until the AUTO
switch is turned off.
A manual system is provided as a backup to the
automatic system. The MANUAL control switch,
located to the right of the AUTO control switch
(Figure 10-6), controls the manual override
relays. The manual switch is spring-loaded to the
center (off) position, and must be held in place
until the ice has been dislodged from the propell e r s u r fa c e . W h e n t h e s w i t c h i s h e l d i n
MANUAL, electrical current bypasses the automatic timer, simultaneously heating all propeller
deice boots.
Both automatic and manual operations can be
monitored on the propeller deice ammeter (Figure 10-19). The right side of the dual-scale
ammeter provides an indication of current flow to
the right propeller and the left side of the ammeter indicates current for the left propeller. Normal
indications are 26 to 32 amperes (32 to
38Series UE) per side. During automatic deicing, as heating cycles move from one propeller to
the other, ammeter deflection will move from one
side of the scale to the other. In manual, both
scales will show simultaneous deflections, indicating both left and right systems are energized.
The electrical system load meters will indicate
approximately 0.10 increase in load in manual
and 0.05 increase in automatic.

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Propeller deice must not be operated when the


propellers are static to avoid damage to the brush
blocks and slip rings.

Figure 10-19 PROP AMPS Indicator

WINDSHIELD ANTI-ICE
The pilots and copilots windshields are each
heated independently. The windshield heat control switch can be selected to a HI intensity heat
level or a lower NORMAL intensity heat level.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

embedded in each windshield and a temperature


controller in each windshield heat circuit. The
temperature controller maintains windshield temperatures at 90 to 110 F.
The control switches for windshield heat (Figure
10-20) are placarded WSHLD ANTI-ICE
NORMAL OFF HI PILOT COPILOT.
When NORMAL is selected, the low heat relay is
energized and the entire windshield is heated
(Figure 10-22). The low heat relay is activated by
the temperature controller, as necessary, to maintain the preset temperature. When the switches
are in the HI position, the high heat relay is energized, and a smaller portion (about 2/3) of the
windshield area is heated (Figure 10-23).
Although temperature of the windshield is maintained to the same preset value in HI, the
windshield is heated faster in the HI position.
Each switch must be lifted over a detent before it
can be moved into high heat. The lever-lock feature prevents inadvertent selection of HI heat
when moving the switches from NORMAL to
the OFF (center) position.

The pilots and copilots windshield heat systems


are controlled and powered differently. On UC-1
and after, the pilots system utilizes a remote control circuit breaker (RCCB) for control and one
for power. The RCCBs are controlled by 1/2 amp
circuit breakers on RH circuit breaker panel.
The windshields are composed of three layers.
The thick glass inner panel is the supporting
structural layer. The middle layer is a polyvinyl
sheet which contains the gold-filament fine wire
heating grids. The outer layer is protective glass
bonded to the first two layers. The outside of the
windshield is treated with a static discharge film
called a NESA (non-electrostatic application)
coating. This transparent material (usually stannous oxide) has high electrical resistance which
promotes a constant bleed-off of static electricity
on the windshields.
Windshield heating elements (Figure 10-21) are
connected through terminal blocks in the corner
of the glass to the control switches in the ice protection group of the pilots right subpanel.
Windshield temperature is controlled automatically by a temperature-sensing element

10-18

Figure 10-20 Windshield Anti-ice Switches

The power circuit of both HI and NORMAL heat


is protected by 50 ampere current limiters located
in the power distribution panel. Windshield
heater control circuits are protected with a 5ampere circuit breaker on the copilots circuit
breaker panel.
Use of windshield heat causes erratic operation
of the magnetic compass. It may also be necessary to reduce airspeed in order to keep the
windshield ice-free in sustained icing conditions.

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Figure 10-21 Windshield Anti-ice Diagram

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

10-19

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Figure 10-22 Windshield Anti-ice DiagramNormal Heat

10-20

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Figure 10-23 Windshield Anti-ice DiagramHigh Heat

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WINDSHIELD WIPERS
Separate windshield wipers are mounted on the
pilots and copilots windshields. The dual wipers
are driven by a common mechanism operated by
a single electric motor, all located forward of the
instrument panel.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The windshield wiper control is located on the


overhead light control panel (Figure 10-24). It
provides the wiper mechanism with SLOW,
FAST, and PARK operations. The wipers may be
used either on the ground or in flight, as required.
To protect the NESA coating, the wipers must
not be operated on a dry windshield. The windshield wiper circuit breaker is on the copilots
circuit breaker panel in the WEATHER group.

Figure 10-24 Windshield Wipers

10-22

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BRAKE DEICE SYSTEM


Brake deice is installed on the main wheels to
prevent ice and slush from building up between
the wheels and freezing the brakes.
Heated air for brake deicing is supplied by P3
bleed air from the compressor of each engine
(Figure 10-25). Engine bleed air is routed to a
solenoid-operated shutoff valve in each main
gear wheel well, then to a distributor manifold
attached to the lower gear assembly. The bleed
air is directed to the brakes through orifices
around the circumference of each ring of the distributor manifold.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The brake deice system is controlled by an ON


OFF toggle switch mounted on the pilots right
subpanel. When the switch is ON, power from
the airplane electrical system is supplied through
a 5-ampere circuit breaker in the copilots circuitbreaker panel to a control module. The control
module supplies electrical current to the solenoid
shutoff valves on the aft side of the firewall in
each wheel well. Both DC power and bleed air
must be available before the solenoid will open
to allow the hot bleed air to enter the distributor
manifold.
A switch which is part of the solenoid shutoff
valve provides a signal that illuminates the L or R

Figure 10-25 Brake Deicer

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BRK DEICE ON (green) advisory annunciators


when brake deice is selected on.
If the airplane is flown with the control switch for
the brake deice system switched ON, a circuit is
completed through the left main gear switch to a
timer in the control module when the main landing gear is retracted. The timing circuit will cycle
the deice system off after a maximum of 12 minutes of operation, closing the solenoid valve in
the wheel well to shut off the flow of bleed air to
protect brakes and adjacent components in the
wheel well from overheating. The brake deice
cannot be reactivated until the landing gear is
extended and the brake deice switch is cycled to
OFF and then ON.
Additional protection from damage due to overheating of the brake deice system is provided by
the brake deice overtemperature warning system.
In this system, low-pressure lines are routed from
the pneumatic air manifold into each wheel well,
where the lines terminate in heat-sensitive polyvinyl tubing plugged at the end. If overheating of
the brake deice system should occur, the tubing
will melt, thus relieving the pressure in the warning system lines. As pressure is relieved, a
pressure switch, which is tapped off from the
EVA tubing in each wheel well, will activate
L BK DI OVHT and or R BK DI OVHT lights in
the annunciator panel. When a brake deice overheat annunciator is illuminated, the brake deice
system must be turned off.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

PITOT-STATIC MAST HEAT


Two pitot-static masts, located on the nose of the
airplane, contain heating elements to protect
against ice accumulation (Figure 10-26). The
masts are electrically heated. Each heating element is controlled by a two-position, circuit
breaker switch placarded PITOT LEFT
RIGHT, located next to the stall warning heat
switch. The down position is OFF, and the up
position is ON.
The pitot heat system should not be operated on
the ground, except for testing or for short intervals to remove snow or ice from the mast. Pitot
heat should be turned on for takeoff and can be
left on in flight during icing conditions, or whenever icing conditions are expected. If, during
flight at altitude, the airspeed indicator shows a
gradual reduction in airspeed, icing of the pitotstatic mast may be suspected. If turning on the
pitot heat restores airspeed, leave the pitot heat
on. For many pilots, it is standard practice to
keep the pitot heat on during all flights at higher
altitudes.
The UE Series incorporate an amber L and R
PITOT HEAT light that will illuminate any time
insufficient current draw is sensed. The lights
would also be illuminated any time the switch is
OFF. The other 1900 models do not have a failure
indication.

Figure 10-26 Pitot Masts and Heat Controls

10-24

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ALTERNATE STATIC-AIR
SYSTEM
The pilots or copilots alternate static-air source
is used any time the normal static-air source is
obstructed. The alternate static-air sources are
button shaped and are located on each side of the
lower fuselage below the cockpit. Alternate static
heat is applied by moving the circuit-breaker
control switch on the ice protection control panel
to the ALT STATIC position.
When the airplane has been exposed to moisture
and/or icing conditions (especially on the
ground), the possibility of obstructed pitot-static
masts should be considered. Partial obstructions
will result in the rate-of-climb indication being
sluggish during a climb or descent, inaccurate
airspeed indications, and incorrect altimeter indications. A suspected obstruction is verified by
switching to the alternate system and noting a
sudden sustained change in the rate of climb.
This may be accompanied by abnormal indicated
airspeed and altitude changes beyond normal calibration differences.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

ALTERNATE STATIC HEAT


The alternate static-air system is protected from
icing by the alternate static heat system. Alternate static heat is controlled by a 5-ampere
circuit breaker switch on the ice protection panel.
The switch controls heat for both alternate staticair ports.
The alternate static system is the primary static
source for the differential pressure gage and
pneumatic pressure gage in Series UA, UB, and
UC. In Series UE, the differential pressure gauge
and differential pressure switch are connected to
the alternate static source, therefore alternate
static heat should be used under the same conditions that require use of pitot-static heat.

Whenever an obstruction exists in the normal


static-air system the pilots and/or copilots alternate static-air source can be selected. When using
the alternate system, the POH/AFM should be
consulted for the corrections to airspeed and
altimeter indications. In general, whenever the
alternate system is selected, the aircraft is actually lower and slower than indicated by the
aircrafts flight instruments.
Be certain the static-air selector switches are in
the NORMAL position when the alternate system is not needed.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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CHAPTER 11
AIR CONDITIONING
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 11-1
GENERAL ............................................................................................................................ 11-1
ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION ................................................................ 11-3
ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM CONTROLS ..................................................................... 11-3
ENVIRONMENTAL BLEED AIR AND CONTROL......................................................... 11-5
CABIN AIR DISTRIBUTION ............................................................................................. 11-5
UNPRESSURIZED VENTILATION................................................................................... 11-7
HEATING (SERIES UA, UB, UC) ...................................................................................... 11-8
HEATING (SERIES UE)...................................................................................................... 11-8
COOLING (SERIES UA, UB, UC)...................................................................................... 11-8
COOLING (SERIES UE) ..................................................................................................... 11-8
COOLING (ALL) ............................................................................................................... 11-10
AIR-CYCLE MACHINE SYSTEM ................................................................................... 11-10
VAPOR-CYCLE SYSTEM ................................................................................................ 11-11
VCS (Series UA, UB, UC) .......................................................................................... 11-11
VCS (Series UE) ......................................................................................................... 11-11
VCS (All) .................................................................................................................... 11-11
TEMPERATURE CONTROL............................................................................................ 11-11
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS .................................................................................... 11-12
Automatic Mode Control............................................................................................. 11-13
Manual Mode Control ................................................................................................. 11-14

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MANUAL COOL Mode Control (Series UE)............................................................ 11-14


ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM PROTECTION AND ANNUNCIATORS..................... 11-14
TEST FUNCTIONS ........................................................................................................... 11-15

11-ii

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ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

11-1

Environmental System Schematic ......................................................................... 11-2

11-2

Ram-Air Scoop ...................................................................................................... 11-3

11-3

Bleed-Air System Schematic ................................................................................. 11-4

11-4

Environmental Annunciators ................................................................................. 11-4

11-5

BLEED AIR VALVES Switches .......................................................................... 11-5

11-6

Cabin Eyeball Outlets ........................................................................................ 11-5

11-7

Environmental Air Distribution ............................................................................. 11-6

11-8

Cockpit Eyeball Outlets ..................................................................................... 11-7

11-9

Cabin Floor Outlets................................................................................................ 11-7

11-10

Ram-Air Door and Solenoid Valve ....................................................................... 11-7

11-11

VENT AIR Control................................................................................................ 11-7

11-12

Precooler and Valves ............................................................................................. 11-8

11-13

Air-Cycle Machine Schematic............................................................................... 11-9

11-14

Vapor-Cycle Cooling System .............................................................................. 11-10

11-15

Environmental Group Switches and Knobs......................................................... 11-12

11-16

BLOWERS Switch .............................................................................................. 11-12

11-17

Air Control Knobs ............................................................................................... 11-13

11-18

MODE CONTROL Selector Switch ................................................................... 11-13

11-19

Cabin Temperature Rheostat ............................................................................... 11-13

11-20

MAN TEMP Switch ............................................................................................ 11-14

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CHAPTER 11
AIR CONDITIONING

INTRODUCTION
Passenger comfort and safety is of prime importance. The following chapter teaches operators
of the 1900 Airliner to use the aircraft environmental systems effectively and within the limitations of the system.

GENERAL
This chapter describes air conditioning, bleed-air
heating, and fresh air systems. Each component
discussion includes general description, princi-

ples of operation, system controls, and


emergency procedures.

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Figure 11-1 Environmental System Schematic

11-2

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ENVIRONMENTAL
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Environmental System refers to the devices
which control the pressure vessels environment.
Along with ensuring air circulation, the system
controls temperature by using the heating and
cooling devices as needed.
Pressurization and air conditioning systems operate in conjunction with each other and as separate
systems. Together they maintain the desired
cabin pressure and cabin air temperature. The
cabin is pressurized, heated, or cooled through
common ducts.
The Beechcraft 1900 Airliner environmental system (Figure 11-1) uses engine bleed air not only
for cabin pressurization, but also for cabin heating. In addition, bleed air provides the motive
force to operate the air-cycle machine (ACM),
the primary source of cabin cooling. A vaporcycle system, driven by the right engine, augments air-cycle machine output when additional
cooling is required.

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Various modes of environmental temperature


control are provided for by the environmental
system control circuitry. The system can be cont r o l l e d m a n u a l l y b y t h e fli g h t c r ew, o r
automatically by the cabin temperature controller. The evaporator blowers can be operated
automatically, or they may be selected independently of temperature control.
Environmental bleed air is distributed and recirculated through two distinctly separate ducting
systems, providing unpressurized ventilation or
pressurized air which is temperature regulated.
Floor vents deliver bleed air into the cabin. Eyeball outlets in the cabin mid-sidewall provide
cool vapor-cycle air or recirculated cabin air to
the passengers. On the flight deck, bleed air is
ducted through vents under the pilots seats, and
cool vapor-cycle air is dusted through eyeball
outlets in the overhead panel. When operating
unpressurized, ventilation can be obtained on
demand through a ram-air scoop (Figure 11-2) on
the right side of the nose. Unpressurized air is
then delivered through the floor vents and recirculated through the eyeball outlets.

ENVIRONMENTAL
SYSTEM CONTROLS
A system of valves, regulators, and temperature
and pressure sensors controls all physical aspects
of the bleed air flowing into the cabin. Two outflow valves, modulated by the pressurization
controller and mounted on the aft pressure bulkhead, provide a controlled exit for bleed air. The
pressurization system maintains a specific and
constant pressure differential between the cabin
environment and the outside air.

Figure 11-2 Ram-Air Scoop

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Figure 11-3 Bleed-Air System Schematic

Figure 11-4 Environmental Annunciators

11-4

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ENVIRONMENTAL
BLEED AIR AND
CONTROL
Bleed air from the P3 stage of the engines is precooled to 450 25 F by the precooler heat
exchanger mounted immediately aft of the
engine oil cooler (Figure 11-3). Bleed air is then
regulated to 38 2 psi by the environmental regulator/shutoff valve. A precooler bypass and a
precooler through-valve modulate the amount of
bleed air passing through the precooler. The two
valves oppose each other in operation when the
through-valve is opening, the bypass valve is
closing, and vice versa.
When the BLEED AIR VALVES switch is
OPEN, all environmental bleed-air valves (precooler through-valves, precooler bypass valves,
and shutoff valve regulators) are energized
through the normally closed contacts of the
bleed-air valve deactivate relays. If bleed-air
pressure is adequate, a temperature controller
assumes control of the precooler valves and
pneumatically controls the valves to maintain the
specified bleed-air temperature prior to reaching
the environmental system.
Bleed air entering the cabin is controlled by two
switches on the copilots subpanel (Figure 11-5)
placarded BLEED AIR VALVES OPEN
ENVIR OFF INSTR & ENVIR OFF. When the
switches are OPEN, the bleed-air regulator/shutoff valves and the pneumatic/instrument air
valves are both open. When switches are placed
in ENVIR OFF, the bleed-air regulator/shutoff
valves are closed and the pneumatic/instrument
air valves are open. In ENVIR OFF, no bleed air
is allowed to enter the environmental system for
pressurization or temperature control. When
switches are in the INSTR & ENVIR OFF position, all environmental bleed-air valves and
pneumatic/instrument air valves are closed. This
position eliminates all pressurization, cabin temp e r a t u r e c o n t r o l , a n d a i r- d r iv e n fl i g h t
instruments.

Figure 11-5 BLEED AIR VALVES Switches

CABIN AIR
DISTRIBUTION
There are two separate environmental dusting
systems for delivering air to the cabin (Figure
11-7).
Engine bleed air is cooled and delivered to the
cabin through outlets in the lower cabin sidewalls, near the floor. The vapor-cycle cooling
system recirculates and further cools cabin air as
required and distributes the air through adjustable eyeball outlets (Figure 11-6). Air ducted to
each eyeball outlet can be directionally controlled by moving the outlet in the socket. Air
volume is regulated by twisting the outlet to open
or close the damper.

Figure 11-6 Cabin Eyeball Outlets

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Figure 11-7 Environmental Air Distribution

11-6

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Figure 11-8 Cockpit Eyeball Outlets

Two evaporator blowers recirculate cooled cabin


air. Evaporator coils are mounted on the inlet side
of the evaporator blowers to facilitate the
exchange of heat between cabin air and the cooling freon when the vapor-cycle system is
operating. The evaporator blowers recirculate
cabin air through the eyeball outlets.

Figure 11-9 Cabin Floor Outlets

UNPRESSURIZED
VENTILATION
Ventilation is available during the unpressurized
mode. With one or both bleed-air valves open, air
enters the cabin through the floor outlets (Figure
11-9). However, for the cabin to remain unpressurized, the pressurization control switch must be
in the DUMP position. Air volume through the
floor outlets is regulated by using the CABIN AIR
control knob located on the copilots subpanel.

Figure 11-10 Ram-Air Door and Solenoid


Valve

The second source of fresh air, available only


when unpressurized, is ambient air which is supplied through a ram-air door (Figure 11-10).
During pressurized operations, the door is held
closed by a solenoid and by cabin pressure. During unpressurized operation, a manually
controlled valve located in the nose ram-air duct
can be opened to allow air to enter the airplane;
however, before the valve can be opened, the pressurization switch must be placed in DUMP. The
vent control knob, placarded VENT AIR PULL
ON (Figure 11-11), is located under the copilots
left subpanel. When the control is pulled out, and
the pressurization switch is in dump, ambient air
flows into the cabin through the floor outlets.

Figure 11-11 VENT AIR Control

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HEATING (SERIES UA,


UB, UC)
Engine bleed air, precooled by modulation of the
precooler valves (Figure 11-12) to approximately
450 F, enters the heat distribution ducts through
two electrically operated rotary valves (the ACM
bypass valve and the ejector bypass valve)
located adjacent to the ACM.

The two valves operate sequentially. When heating


is required, the ACM bypass valve opens first,
reducing air-cycle machine output. When more
heating is required, the ACM bypass valve opens
fully, contacting a valve-limit switch that sends
operating current to the ejector bypass valve.
When the ACM bypass valve is thus fully opened,
with more heating required, the ejector bypass
valve will begin to open. When maximum heating
is needed, both bypass valves are completely open.

HEATING (SERIES UE)


Engine bleed air, precooled by modulation of the
precooler valves (Figure 11-12) to approximately
450 F, enters the heat distribution ducts through

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a simple electrically operated rotary valve adjacent to the ACM. When heating is required, the
ACM bypass valve opens reducing air-cycle
machine output. When more heating is required,
the ACM bypass valve opens fully, allowing
maximum heat to be supplied to the cabin.

COOLING (SERIES UA,


UB, UC)
All cabin cooling is provided by the air-cycle
machine (Figure 11-13) and, when required, by
the vapor-cycle cooling system (Figure 11-14).
When a cool cabin is required, the ejector bypass
valve begins closing first. When the ejector
bypass valve is fully closed, a limit switch completes the circuit for operation of the ACM
bypass valve. When the ACM bypass valve is
fully closed, maximum cooling is available from
the ACM.

COOLING (SERIES UE)


All cabin cooling is provided by the air-cycle
machine (Figure 11-13) and, when required, by

Figure 11-12 Precooler and Valves

11-8

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Figure 11-13 Air-Cycle Machine Schematic

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Figure 11-14 Vapor-Cycle Cooling System

the vapor-cycle cooling system (Figure 11-14).


When cabin cooling is required, the ACM bypass
valves begin to close. When the ACM bypass
valve is fully closed, maximum cooling is available from the ACM.

COOLING (ALL)
Vapor-cycle system cooling is turned on by a
limit switch on the ACM bypass valve. Therefore, the vapor-cycle system is activated only
when the ACM bypass valve is fully closed, and
maximum cooling is required.

11-10

AIR-CYCLE MACHINE
SYSTEM
The air-cycle machine uses engine bleed air to
drive a compressor which compresses the air,
increasing its pressure and making it hotter. The
excess heat of compression is removed through
the use of heat exchangers. This cooler, highpressure air is then released through an ejector,
and as pressure drops rapidly, the air is cooled.
The sequence in the air-cycle machine is as
follows:
1. Bleed air enters the air-cycle machine
through the first-stage heat exchanger where
excess heat is removed.

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2. Bleed air enters the air-cycle machine compressor where it is compressed to a higher
pressure and a hotter temperature.
3. Compressed bleed air passes through the
second-stage heat exchanger where the
excess heat of compression is removed.
4. Bleed air passes through the air-cycle
machine expansion turbine, cooling the air
and providing the motive force necessary to
drive the ACM compressor.

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VCS (SERIES UA, UB, UC)


As commands are again received for warmer air,
the ACM bypass valve is the first to begin to
open. If heating continues to be required, the
ejector bypass valve will also begin to open. A
limit switch at the open position of the ACM
bypass valve provides the electrical signal which
terminates vapor-cycle operation.

VCS (SERIES UE)

5. Bleed air exits the air-cycle machine through


the air-cycle machine ejector, where the pressure is released and the bleed air allowed to
expand, producing cold air for circulation
through the cabin.

In the UE Series, the ejector bypass valve has


been removed and control of the vapor-cycle system is handled by a limit switch in the ACM
bypass valve. Once activated, the vapor-cycle
w i l l o p e r a t e u n t i l t h e AC M va l ve o p e n s
completely.

VAPOR-CYCLE SYSTEM

VCS (ALL)

When the air-cycle machine is at maximum cooling, a switch on the ACM bypass valve transmits
a signal to the freon air conditioner. When the
ACM bypass valve is fully closed, the signal is
transmitted to the temperature controlling circuitry. The heat/cool command relay then
energizes the freon compressor clutch to initiate
vapor-cycle system cooling. Once the vaporcycle system is activated, it will remain in operation until the ACM reaches the full open position.

An outside air temperature sensor and overpressure and underpressure switches are installed to
protect the vapor-cycle system. When outside
ambient air temperatures are 45 5 F or below,
the freon air-conditioning system will not operate. If system pressures exceed maximum or
minimum safe limits, overpressure and underpressure switches deactivate the freon air
conditioner.

An air-conditioning compressor, driven by the


right engine, compresses gaseous freon into a
h i g h - t e m p e r a t u r e , h i g h - p r e s s u r e ga s . A
condensing coil and blower assembly in the right
center wing then removes excess heat, allowing
the gas to condense into a liquid state. This highpressure, low-temperature liquid then passes
through an expansion valve where the pressure is
relieved, and into an evaporator where the liquid
freon again becomes a gas. Both the expansion
valve and the evaporators cause the freon to cool.
Cabin air is circulated over the evaporator coil
where heat is transferred from the cabin air to the
gaseous refrigerant. The low-pressure, lowtemperature freon then returns to the compressor,
and the entire cycle is repeated.

TEMPERATURE
CONTROL
Temperature control in the 1900 Airliner can be
either automatic or manual. When operating
automatically, a cabin temperature controller registers cabin temperatures and signals control of
the ACM (all series) and ejector bypass valves
(Series UA, UB, and UC).
The solid-state automatic temperature controller
is located overhead in the center passenger compartment. In the automatic mode, the cabin
temperature controller issues commands to the
air-cycle machine (all series) and ejector bypass
valves (Series UA, UB, and UC) to control the
amount of ACM cooling provided to the cabin.

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The bypass valves can also be modulated manually with a toggle switch on the environmental
control panel.

ENVIRONMENTAL
CONTROLS
The cabin environmental controls are located on
the copilots left subpanel (Figure 11-15). The
environmental systems controls include bleedair valve switches, a blower control switch, a
manual temperature control switch, a cabin-temperature level control, and the environmental
mode control switch.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

at night, all cockpit ceiling and cabin eyeball


outlets should be closed for maximum cabin
heating.

Vent blowers are controlled by a three-position


switch (Figure 11-16) placarded BLOWERS
HI LO AUTO (HI OFF AUTO UE).
When the blower control switch is in AUTO, the
blower is controlled by the mode control selector
switch. When the mode control switch is OFF,
and the blower switch is in AUTO, the blowers
will not operate. When the switch is in AUTO and
mode control is in any other position (i.e., MANual or AUTOmatic) (MAN COOL - UE), the vent
blowers will operate continuously at low speed.

Four additional manual controls (Figure 11-17)


are used to distribute airflow and to regulate the
volume of air delivered to cockpit and cabin
compartments. These are labeled PILOT AIR,
DEFROST AIR, CABIN AIR, and COPILOT
AIR. When all control knobs are in the full out
position, maximum airflow is distributed to the
cockpit. If all controls are pushed in, maximum
airflow is provided to the cabin.
When flying in very warm weather, cockpit
ceiling outlets and all cabin eyeball outlets
should be fully open for maximum cooling. For
cold weather flights, particularly high altitude or

Figure 11-16 BLOWERS Switch

Figure 11-15 Environmental Group Switches and Knobs

11-12

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Figure 11-17 Air Control Knobs

When the BLOWERS switch is operated in LO


or HI, the vent blowers are controlled independently of any other environmental system
component, including the mode control switch.
(Note below)

AUTOMATIC MODE CONTROL


When the environmental mode control selector
switch (Figure 11-18) is in the AUTO position,
air-cycle machine and vapor-cycle systems operate automatically, and the cabin temperature

Figure 11-18 MODE CONTROL Selector


Switch

controller modulates bypass valve positions to


control temperature.
A rheostat knob, placarded AUTO TEMP INCR
CABIN TEMP (Figure 11-19) determines temperature levels when the automatic mode is
selected. To select warmer cabin temperatures,
rotate the control clockwise, and for cooler cabin
temperatures, rotate the knob counterclockwise.
When the rheostat is set, the desired temperature
will be maintained automatically.

Figure 11-19 Cabin Temperature Rheostat

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MANUAL MODE CONTROL


To select manual control of cabin temperature,
the environmental mode control selector must be
in MAN. When in the manual mode, cabin temperature is controlled by a spring-loaded toggle
switch placarded MAN TEMP INCR DECR
(Figure 11-20). Moving this switch to the INCR
or DECR position manually controls the circuit
which provides power to modulate ACM bypass
and ejector bypass valves. Approximately 60 seconds (30 seconds Series UE) is required for the
valve(s) to complete their movement toward the
full hot or full cold position. Just as in the automatic mode, only one valve moves at a time,
varying the amount of conditioned bleed air
routed through the heat exchangers and into the
cabin. But the pilot, rather than the automatic
temperature controller, must now determine
whether to increase or decrease cabin
temperature.

Figure 11-20 MAN TEMP Switch

When the mode control selector is in MAN, the


vapor-cycle air conditioner system will operate,
provided the ACM bypass valve is fully closed
and OAT is above 45 5 F. Therefore, if maximum cooling is required, be sure to allow time
for the bypass valve(s) to close completely.

MANUAL COOL MODE


CONTROL (SERIES UE)
When the mode control selector is placed in the
MANUAL COOL position, the vapor-cycle air-

11-14

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

conditioner system will operate without regard to


the position of the ACM bypass valve provided
the OAT is above 45 5 F.

ENVIRONMENTAL
SYSTEM PROTECTION
AND ANNUNCIATORS
Hot bleed air flows through a heat exchanger and
two valves on each engine to precool the air to
450 F before it is ducted into the air-cycle
machine or bypassed into the cabin. A bleed-air
shutoff valve/regulator for each engine, downstream of the precooler valves, provides master
control of bleed-air flow.
Protective mechanisms terminate bleed-air flow
if any failure allows bleed-air temperature or
pressure to increase without control. Should specific temperature or pressure limits be exceeded,
both bypass valves and the regulator/shutoff
valve on the affected side will automatically
close.
A small surge tank attached to the bleed-air line
dampens any surges in bleed-air pressure, and
provides a stable reference source for the overpressure limit switch. If the overpressure limit is
exceeded due to a malfunction of the shutoff
valve regulator, the overpressure limit switch
closes, and all three environmental bleed-air
valves automatically close. When the overpressure switch closes, a signal is simultaneously
transmitted to the annunciator system (See Figure 11-4), illuminating the L or R ENVIR FAIL
light and the green (white Series UE) L or R
ENVIR OFF light.
A temperature sensor in the bleed-air line monitors bleed-air temperature and transmits that
information to the bleed-air overtemperature
detector. If a failure in the precooler system
a l l ow s b l e e d - a i r t e m p e r a t u r e t o ex c e e d
500 20 F, the detector transmits energizing
current to the bleed-air valve deactivate relay,
automatically closing all three environmental
bleed-air valves. At the same time, a signal is

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generated, illuminating the L or R ENVIR FAIL


annunciator and the L or R ENVIR OFF light.
Anytime the bleed-air deactivate relay is energized, opening the bleed-air valve power circuits,
a latching circuit holds the relay in that mode. If
an overtemperature or overpressure has tripped
the bleed-air deactivate relay, it can be reset by
placing the bleed-air valve switch in the ENVIR
OFF position. The bleed-air valves can then be
reopened by moving the switch back to OPEN.

TEST FUNCTIONS
The overtemperature circuits can be functionally
tested in the T TEST position of the mode control
rotary switch on the copilots subpanel (See Figure 11-18).
This test simulates an overtemperature condition,
causing the overtemperature sensing circuits to
shut down the environmental system. The L and
R ENVIR FAIL and L and R ENVIR OFF
annunciators (See Figure 11-4) will be illuminated immediately after T TEST is selected if the
system is operating correctly. The mode control
switch should again be returned to AUTO and the
bleed-air valve switches to ENVIR OFF then
OPEN to reset the system.
Complete procedures for T TEST are outlined in
B e f o r e Ta k e o ff ( R u n u p ) c h e c k s i n t h e
POH/AFM.

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CHAPTER 12
PRESSURIZATION
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 12-1
DESCRIPTION..................................................................................................................... 12-1
PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM ............................................................................................ 12-3
AIR DELIVERY SYSTEM .................................................................................................. 12-4
Cabin Differential Pressure Hi Warning (Series UE) ................................................... 12-7
Cabin Pressure Control.................................................................................................. 12-7
Preflight Check............................................................................................................ 12-10
Climb and Cruise......................................................................................................... 12-10
Descent ........................................................................................................................ 12-10
Malfunctions and Troubleshooting ............................................................................. 12-16

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ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

12-1

Pressurization and Air Conditioning Distribution System .................................... 12-2

12-2

Cabin Altitude for Various Airplane Altitudes GraphSeries UE....................... 12-3

12-3

Bleed-Air Valve Switches ..................................................................................... 12-4

12-4

Cabin-Air Outflow Valve ...................................................................................... 12-5

12-5

Pressurization Control Schematic.......................................................................... 12-6

12-6

Cabin Pressure Switch ........................................................................................... 12-7

12-7

Cabin Altimeter ..................................................................................................... 12-7

12-8

Cabin Climb Indicator ........................................................................................... 12-7

12-9

Pressurization Controller ....................................................................................... 12-8

12-10

Pressurization Control Electrical Schematic ......................................................... 12-8

12-11

Pressurization System Circuit Breakers................................................................. 12-9

12-12

Troubleshooting Information Chart ..................................................................... 12-18

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CHAPTER 12
PRESSURIZATION

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INTRODUCTION
Pressurization is desirable in an airplane because it decreases or eliminates the need for supplementary oxygen. In this chapter the pilot learns how the pressurization system operates, how it
is controlled, and how to handle system malfunctions.

DESCRIPTION
This chapter presents a description of the pressurization system (Figure 12-1). The function of
various major components, their physical locations, and the operation of pressurization system

controls are discussed. Where necessary, references are made to the environmental system as it
affects pressurization.

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Figure 12-1 Pressurization and Air Conditioning Distribution System

12-2

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PRESSURIZATION
SYSTEM
As airplane altitude increases, outside ambient
air pressure decreases. At approximately 12,500
feet the environment outside the aircraft cannot
supply enough oxygen for human needs. However, the pressurization system in the 1900
Airliner provides a comfortable cabin environment, containing sufficient oxygen, up to its
design ceiling of 25,000 feet.
The pressurization system maintains an inside
cabin altitude proportionally lower than the aircrafts altitude. As shown by the Cabin Altitude
for Various Airplane Altitudes graph (Figure
12-2), whenever cabin altitude and airplane altitude are the same, no pressure differential exists.
Whenever cabin pressure is the greater of the
pressure, differential is positive. If cabin pressure

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is less than that of the outside ambient air, press u r e d i ff e r e n t i a l i s n eg a t ive . M a x i m u m


differential is defined as a measure of the highest
differential pressure the airplane structure can
safely withstand for an extended period of time,
expressed in pounds per square inch differential
(psid).
The 1900 Airliner maintains a normal differential
pressure of 4.8 .1 psi (5.1 psiSeries UE),
providing cabin altitudes as indicated in Figure
12-1. Although the pressure vessel is designed to
withstand a normal maximum differential of
4.8 .1 psi (5.1 psiSeries UE), the minimum
differential allowable is zero. That is, the airplane
structure is not designed to withstand negative
differential pressure.
Pressurization and air conditioning systems (Figure 12-1) operate in conjunction with each other,
or as separate systems. Together they maintain
the desired cabin pressure and cabin air tempera-

Figure 12-2 Cabin Altitude for Various Airplane Altitudes GraphSeries UE

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ture. The cabin is pressurized, heated or cooled


through common ducts.
The Pressure Vessel is that portion of the aircraft designed to withstand the pressure
differential. In the 1900 Airliner, the pressure
vessel extends from a forward pressure bulkhead,
between the cockpit and nose section, to a rear
pressure bulkhead just aft of the baggage compartment. Exterior skins make up the outer seal,
and windows are oval for maximum strength. All
cables, wire bundles, and plumbing that pass
through pressure vessel boundaries are sealed to
reduce leaks. The cabin and cargo doors are
sealed by using pressurized cabin air to inflate
the door seals; therefore, the greater the pressure
differential, the tighter the seal.

AIR DELIVERY SYSTEM


Bleed air from the engine compressor sections is
used to pressurize the pressure vessel. The bleed
air is discharged through one of two precooler
valves on each engine, distributed through or
around a precooler, then routed to the environmental bleed air regulator/ shutoff valve before it
is ducted into the environmental bleed air system.
The bleed air regulator/shutoff valves are controlled by switches placarded BLEED AIR
VALVES - LEFT - RIGHT; OPEN - ENVIR OFF
- INSTR & ENVIR OFF. The bleed air switches
are located on the Environmental Control Panel
(Figure 12-3) on the copilots subpanel. When
the switches are in either the ENVIR OFF or the
INSTR & ENVIR OFF positions, no bleed air
can enter the air cycle machine or the cabin.
When the switches are OPEN, bleed air flows
through the environmental regulator/shutoff
valves. If a complete electrical failure should
occur, both environmental regulator/shutoff
valves would fail to the closed position. No more
bleed air would enter the pressure vessel and
cabin pressure would leak down.

12-4

Figure 12-3 Bleed-Air Valve Switches

Protective devices terminate bleed air flow in the


event of failures which would allow the bleed air
temperature or pressure to increase without control. Should specific temperature and pressure
limits be exceeded, a bleed air valve deactivate
relay is energized, closing both precooler valves
and the regulator/shutoff valve on the affected
side. A signal is simultaneously transmitted to
the annunciator system illuminating the ENVIR
FAIL and ENVIR OFF annunciators on the
affected side. Placing the bleed air switch in
ENVIR OFF resets the bleed air valve deactivate
relay and restores the power circuits for the precooler valves.
After flowing through the regulator/shutoff
valves, and before reaching the cabin, bleed air
passes through the air cycle machine for further
cooling, or bypasses the ACM if warmer air is
required. The temperature-controlled, pressurized air then flows into outlets in the lower cabin
sidewalls. Finally, it flows out of the pressure
vessel through the outflow valves (Figure 12-4),
located on the aft pressure bulkhead.

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Figure 12-4 Cabin-Air Outflow Valve

The temperature-controlled air is delivered to the


pressure vessel at a rate which can vary from
about 8 to 16 pounds per minute, depending upon
ambient temperature and pressure altitude. Pressure within the cabin and the rate of cabinpressure changes are regulated by pneumatic
modulation of the outflow valves (Figure 12-5).
The primary function of the vacuum-operated
outflow valves is to control the rate at which air
can escape from the pressure vessel. In addition,
the outflow valves serve three other purposes: 1)
to provide positive and negative differential pressure relief; (2) to depressurize the pressure vessel
whenever the cabin pressure switch is moved into
the DUMP position; and (3) to keep the pressure
vessel unpressurized while the airplane is on the
ground, with the left landing gear safety switch
closed.
Cabin air outflow modulation is controlled by
applying vacuum pressure to the outflow valves.
Regulated controller pressure (metered suction)
is introduced into the center chamber of the out-

flow valves to oppose the internal spring which


holds the valve closed. When this suction is
increased (lower chamber pressure), the valve
opens. Conversely, as suction is decreased, the
outflow valve closes. In normal pressurized
flight, the outflow valve is constantly being
adjusted to maintain desired cabin altitude as
engine power and cabin/ambient pressure differential changes occur. The center chamber
pressure stabilizes inside the outflow valves at a
slightly lower pressure than the actual cabin pressure once desired cabin altitude is reached. This
differential between cabin pressure and the pressure inside the center chamber of the outflow
valves holds the valves open at the precise setting
appropriate for cabin air inflow.
The 1900 Airliner pressure vessel is not designed
to withstand negative pressure differential. The
outflow valves are designed to relieve negative
differential pressure at 0.1 psi. This prevents outside atmospheric pressure from exceeding cabin
pressure during rapid descents, even if bleed air
inflow ceases.

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Figure 12-5 Pressurization Control Schematic

The outflow valves also protect cabin pressure


Tom exceeding maximum positive differential
(4.8 psid) (5.1 psid UE). By comparing ambient
(static) pressure to controller chamber pressure, a
poppet valve within the outflow valve can sense
when maximum differential pressure is reached.
As pressure is applied to that relief valve, vacuum is applied against the normal spring tension
of the outflow valve case. If this differential continues to increase, the valve opens and releases
controller pressure air to the static line, thereby
reducing pressure in the center chamber (blue)
and modulating the outflow valve open. As the
outflow valve opens, more cabin air is allowed to
escape, thus raising the cabin altitude and reduc-

12-6

ing the differential between ambient (static)


altitude and cabin altitude.
When the outflow valves function as dump
valves, vacuum is introduced into the main outflow valve chamber through the dump solenoid
valve. The resulting pressure drop causes the
valve to open, allowing cabin air to escape, thus
raising cabin altitude. This is known as dumping cabin pressure. Dumping cabin pressure will
cause the cabin to depressurize. Negative differential protection in both outflow valves ensures
that cabin differential pressure remains at zero
(unpressurized) and not less than outside atmospheric pressure.

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CABIN DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE HI WARNING
(SERIES UE)
In the UE Series Aircraft, additional warning is
provided to the pilots in the event the cabin differential should exceed 5.1 psid. To accomplish
this, a differential pressure switch monitors
inside pressure and compares this pressure to the
pressure sensed from the alternate static sources.
Should the differential pressure reach 5.25 psid,
the CABIN DIF HI annunciator would illuminate
and warn the pilot to shut off the incoming bleed
air to prevent damage to the pressure vessel.

CABIN PRESSURE CONTROL


The pressurization control switch (Figures 12-6
and 12-10), located forward of the pressurization
controller on the pedestal, is placarded CABIN
PRESSURE - DUMP - PRESS - TEST. When the
switch is in the DUMP position (forward, leverlocked), the outflow valves are held open by vacuum. With both valves completely open, the cabin
is depressurized and will remain unpressurized as
long as the pressurization control switch is locked
in dump. When the switch is held in the TEST
position (aft, spring-loaded), the landing gear
safety switch is bypassed, allowing the outflow
valves to be modulated by the pressurization controller during preflight testing. When the switch is
in the PRESS position (center, on) the outflow
valves can be controlled by the pressurization
controller, so that the cabin will pressurize normally. Pressurization system circuit breakers
(Figure 12-11) are located on the copilots circuit
breaker panel under the heading Environmental.
The cabin pressurization indicators are mounted
below the caution/ advisory annunciator panel
above the power quadrant. Actual cabin pressure
altitude (outer scale) and cabin differential pressure (inner scale) are continuously indicated by the
cabin altimeter (Figure 12-7). Immediately to the
left of the cabin altimeter is the cabin rate of climb
indicator (Figure 12-8), labeled CABIN CLIMB.
The cabin climb gage continuously indicates the
rate at which cabin pressure altitude is changing.

Figure 12-6 Cabin Pressure Switch

Figure 12-7 Cabin Altimeter

Figure 12-8 Cabin Climb Indicator

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An adjustable cabin pressurization controller


(Figure 12-9) is mounted in the pedestal. A volume tank is also located in the pedestal to
increase the air volume needed at the rate control
side of the controller. The pressurization controller commands modulation of the outflow valves.
A dual-scale indicator is mounted in the center of
the controller. The outer scale (CABIN ALT)
indicates the cabin pressure altitude which the
pressurization controller is set to maintain. The
inner scale (ACFT ALT) indicates the maximum
ambient pressure altitude at which the airplane
can fly while continuing to maintain selected
cabin altitude. The indicated value on each scale
is read opposite the index mark at the forward
(top) position of the dial. Both scales rotate
together when the altitude selector is rotated.

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The cabin pressurization controller compares current cabin pressure to selected cabin pressure and
references vacuum input to provide the desired
cabin altitude. A pneumatic relay amplifies vacuum
input and directly applies vacuum to the outflow
valves. As vacuum is applied to the controller, the
controllers balancing forces move toward equalization. Cabin altitude (pressure) stabilizes at the
desired altitude when actual cabin pressure and
selected cabin pressure are in balance.
Inside the controller an aneroid bellows provides
the reference for all controller action. When the
CABIN ALT knob is turned, it moves the bellows
and a calibration spring which is connected to the
rate diaphragm separating the two chambers in the
controller. The position of the diaphragm regulates
the amount of suction applied to the upper chamber through a metering valve. The upper chamber
is also vented to the cabin through a filter.

Figure 12-9 Pressurization Controller

Cabin pressure altitude is selected by turning the


cabin altitude selector knob until the desired setting on the CABIN ALT dial is aligned with the
index mark. The maximum cabin altitude which
can be selected is -1,000 feet to +12,500 feet
MSL. The rate control selector is placarded
RATE - MIN - MAX. Rotating the rate control
schedules the rate at which cabin pressure altitude changes the current value to the selected
value. The rate of change selected may be from
approximately 175 to approximately 2,500 feet
per minute.

Figure 12-10 Pressurization Control


Electrical Schematic

12-8

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Figure 12-11 Pressurization System Circuit Breakers

When the controllers upper and lower chamber


pressures are equal and are approximately
0.05 psi less than cabin pressure, the metering
valve holds steady suction to the controller to stabilize the controller and cabin pressure. This
slightly lower controller pressure is required to
hold the outflow valves open (against internal
spring tension), and to maintain a dynamic balance between air inflow and cabin outflow.
When the two chamber pressures are not equal, a
vacuum provides the dynamics to adjust them to
higher or lower pressures, as required, to adjust
cabin pressure altitude. The rate at which the
chambers equalize their pressures is regulated by
the RATE knob. Turning this knob adjusts a needle valve which changes the size of the opening
in the line between the two chambers.

results in a temporary increase in controller


upper chamber pressure, causing the outflow
valves to close.
The preset solenoid valve allows the pilot to
adjust the cabin controller prior to takeoff, but
prevents the controller from pressurizing the
cabin while the aircraft is on the ground. When
on the ground with weight on the left landing
gear safety switch, the preset solenoid removes
the vacuum supply from the controller. Once airborne, the valve opens to admit vacuum, and the
controller begins to readjust cabin altitude as
requested by the CABIN ALT set knob. With the
CABIN PRESS switch in PRESS, the preset
solenoid valve is energized (closed) on the
ground and de-energized (open) in normal flight.
Refer to the Pressurization Control segment in
this chapter for more details.

A request for the cabin altitude to climb (move


toward a lower pressure) results in a temporary
reduction in pressure in the upper chamber of the
controller, commanding the outflow valves to
open. Conversely, a request for the cabin altitude
to descend (move toward a higher pressure)

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PREFLIGHT CHECK

annunciator advises the pilot of operations which


may require the use of oxygen.

During runup, the pressurization system can be


checked by using the cabin pressurization switch.
With both bleed-air valves OPEN, adjust the
cabin altitude selector knob so that the CABIN
ALT dial indicates an altitude at least 500 feet
BELOW field pressure altitude. Rotate the rate
control selector knob to place the index at the
12 oclock position. Hold the pressurization
switch to TEST until the cabin altitude indicator
shows a descent. Release the switch to the
PRESS position after normal pressurization operation is confirmed.
Prior to takeoff, the cabin altitude selector should
be adjusted so that the ACFT ALT scale on the
indicator dial indicates an altitude approximately
1,000 feet above the planned cruise pressure altitude, and the CABIN ALT scale indicates an
altitude at least 500 feet above the takeoff field
pressure altitude. The rate control selector knob
should be adjusted as desired. A setting of
12 oclock on the index will provide the most
comfortable cabin rate of climb. The cabin pressure switch should be checked to ensure that it is
in the PRESS position.

CLIMB AND CRUISE


As the airplane climbs, cabin pressure altitude
climbs at the selected rate of change until the
cabin reaches the selected pressure altitude. The
system then maintains cabin pressure altitude at
that value. However, if the airplane climbs to an
altitude higher than the value indexed on the
ACFT ALT scale of the controller, the cabin-toambient pressure differential will reach the maximum differential pressure relief setting of the
outflow valves. Either or both valves will then
override the pressurization controller in order to
limit differential pressure. During cruise operation, if the flight plan calls for an altitude change
of 1,000 feet or more, reselect the new altitude
plus 1,000 feet on the CABIN ALT dial. If cabin
pressure altitude reaches 12,500 feet (10,000
feetSeries UE), for any reason, a pressure
sensing switch closes, causing the red CABIN
ALTITUDE (CABIN ALT HISeries UE)
annunciator to be illuminated. The cabin altitude

12-10

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

DESCENT
During descent, and in preparation for landing,
the cabin altitude selector should be set to indicate a cabin altitude of approximately 500 feet
above the landing field pressure altitude. The rate
control selector should be adjusted as required to
provide a comfortable rate of cabin descent.
Again, the 12 oclock position on the rate control
knob will provide a comfortable rate of change in
cabin pressure. The airplane rate of descent
should be controlled so that the airplane altitude
does not catch up with the cabin pressure altitude
during the descent. If the cabin is allowed to
depressurize before reaching the desired airplane
level-off point, the cabin rate of descent will be
the same as aircraft rate of descent until the
desired airplane altitude is reached. However, it
is desirable to set the controller so that the cabin
is unpressurized upon reaching pattern altitude,
to prevent the possibility of landing while the
cabin is still pressurized.
The following pressurization situations are
described in order to illustrate normal flight operation of the system. In each case, the given
conditions will be outlined on the profile
diagram.

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

Situation 1
Climb from sea level to FL200, then descend to a
field pressure altitude of 1,500 feet.

Conditions

Aircraft climbs at 1,000 ft/min to FL150,


then 1,500 ft/min to FL200

Cabin climbs at 500 ft/min

Aircraft descends at 1,000 ft/min

Cabin descends at 500 ft/min

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Controller setup for descentAs the aircraft


starts to descend, set the outer dial (CABIN ALT)
to 2,000 feet altitude (500 feet above field pressure altitude). The rate knob should stay in the
12 oclock position.
OperationAs the aircraft descends to 2,000
feet in approximately 18 minutes, the cabin
descends to 2,000 feet, in approximately 11 minutes. At 2,000 feet, the cabin continues its
descent unpressurized to 1,500 feet, descending
at the same rate as the aircraft.
RemarksAll settings are normal and the system reacts properly.

Controller setup before takeoffPrior to takeoff,


set the inner dial (ACFT ALT) on the pressurization controller to FL210 (1,000 feet above cruise
altitude). The outer dial (CABIN ALT) will show
a 6,500 foot altitude. Set the rate knob at the
12 oclock position.
OperationAs the aircraft climbs to FL200,
which will take approximately 18 minutes, the
cabin climbs to 6,500 feet in approximately
15 minutes, thus the cabin always stays ahead
of the aircraft during the climb. (Staying ahead
means that maximum differential pressure is not
achieved while the aircraft is climbing since the
cabin reaches its final altitude of 6,500 feet
before the aircraft has completed its climb to
FL200).

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12-11

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

Situation 2
Climb from sea level to FL200, then descend to a
field pressure altitude of 1,500 feet.

Conditions

Aircraft climbs at 1,000 ft/min to FL150,


then 1,500 ft/min to FL200

Cabin climbs at 500 ft/min

Aircraft descends at 1,000 ft/min

Cabin descends at 500 ft/min

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

OperationPressurization is normal until the


cabin reaches maximum differential pressure,
causing pressure bumps in the cabin. The condition normalizes during descent.
RemarksBy not setting the pressurization controller properly, cabin pressure bumps are likely,
and passenger discomfort results. The ACFT
ALT dial should be set to at least 1,000 feet
above aircraft cruise altitude.

Controller SetupSame as Situation #1 except


set ACFT ALT dial to FL200 (same as cruise altitude) which will put cabin at maximum
differential pressure when the aircraft arrives at
its final altitude. Set it as in Situation #1 for the
descent.

12-12

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

Situation 3
Climb from sea level to FL200 then descend to a
field pressure altitude of 1,500 feet.

Conditions

Aircraft climbs at 1,000 ft/min to


15,000 ft then 1,500 ft/min to FL200

Cabin climbs at 500 ft/min

Aircraft descends at 1,000 ft/min

Cabin descends at 500 ft/min

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

less than the aircrafts rate. Because the aircraft is


cruising at maximum differential pressure, the
cabin will be subject to pressure bumps. Once the
aircraft begins to descend below 14,250 feet and
the cabin pressure is below maximum differential, the condition normalizes.
RemarksBy setting the controller for landing
prior to takeoff, a problem similar to that
described in Situation #2 occurs, resulting in discomfort to the passengers.

Controller setupSame situation as #1 except


set CABIN ALT dial to landing field pressure
altitude plus 500 feet prior to takeoff. No readjustment required for descent.
OperationPressurization situation is normal
until maximum differential pressure is reached as
the aircraft climbs through approximately 14,250
feet. As the aircraft continues to climb, the cabin
climbs at a rate proportional to, and only slightly

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

12-13

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

Situation 4
The aircraft was held to 5,000 feet for 15 minutes
during climb, then cleared to FL200. The aircraft
was given a segmented descent to FL150 before
being given final descent clearance for landing at
sea level.

Conditions

Aircraft climbs at 1,000 ft/min to


5,000 ft, levels off for 15 minutes

Cabin climbs at 500 ft/min to 4,500 ft,


levels off until reset, then climbs at
500 ft/min to 7,500 ft.

Aircraft descends at 1,500 ft/min with a


10-min level-off at 15,000 ft before continuing down for landing.

Cabin descends at 500 ft/min with a brief


level-off at 3,500 ft until being reset for
landing, then descends at 500 ft/min.

Controller setup before takeoffSet CABIN


ALT dial to 4,000 feet (1,000 feet below the aircrafts intermediate level-off altitude of 5,000
feet). This prevents cabin altitude from catching
up to aircraft altitude during climb.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

When cleared for final descentSet the CABIN


ALT dial to 500 feet above landing field pressure
altitude.
OperationAs the aircraft climbs to 5,000 feet,
the cabin climbs to 4,000 feet, thereby maintaining a slight pressurization differential. When the
aircraft climbs to FL200, the controller is reset as
in Situation #1, and the cabin climbs accordingly.
When the aircraft starts to descend to 15,000 feet
and the controller is reset to 16,000 feet, the
cabin starts down, leveling at approximately
3,000 feet. This allows the pressurization controller to maintain a cabin pressure below maximum
differential, avoiding pressure bumps as in Situat i o n # 2 . U p o n b eg i n n i n g fi n a l d e s c e n t ,
pressurization occurs normally as in Situation #1.
RemarksAn alternate method for operating the
pressurization system, when given the situation
described above, is to set the rate knob to minimum until cleared to the final altitude. The rate
control can be returned to a normal setting after
final clearance altitude is given. However, if the
aircraft remains at the intermediate altitude for a
longer time than anticipated, it is still possible to
create a situation that will result in passenger discomfort. Whatever method is used, forgetting to
reset the controller will result in problems similar
to those discussed in Situations #2 and #3.

When finally cleared to FL200Set the ACFT


ALT dial to 1,000 feet above assigned flight level
as in Situation #1.
When cleared down to 15,000 feetSet the
ACFT ALT dial to 1,000 feet above the newly
assigned altitude. The aircraft altitude is now set
to 16,000 feet on the dial.

12-14

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

SITUATION 5
Depart from a high altitude airport (in this case
6,000 feet), cruise at an altitude of 11,000 feet,
and land at a sea level airport 15 minutes later.

Conditions

Aircraft climbs at 2,000 ft/min to


11,000 ft

Aircraft levels off for approx. 5 min

Cabin climbs and descends at 500 ft/min

Aircraft descends at 1,500 ft/min

Controller setting before takeoffSet the


CABIN ALT dial to 500 feet above the 6,000 foot
takeoff field elevation (set cabin altitude at 6,500
feet).

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

OperationThe aircraft will continue to climb to


altitude while the cabin starts to descend to 500
feet pressure altitude. Aircraft levels at cruise,
then descends for landing. By the time the aircraft is ready for landing, the cabin altitude is
level at 500 feet (this assumes aircraft altitude vs.
cabin altitude does not exceed 4.8 psid) (5.1 UE).
RemarksIt is important to set the cabin pressurization controller for a cabin altitude above
takeoff field pressure altitude. If the cabin altitude is set to an altitude lower than the airport
elevation at takeoff, a pressure bump will be
experienced shortly after liftoff when the cabin
begins to pressurize. Once cabin pressurization is
stabilized after takeoff, the controller may be
reset for landing, provided cruise altitude does
not exceed the altitude in the ACFT ALT
window.

OperationAfter cabin altitude has stabilized at


6,500 feet (approximately one to two minutes
after takeoff, depending upon cabin rate of
climb) reset the controller to 500 feet above the
landing field pressure altitude.
Controller setting during cruiseIf the cabin
altitude remains at 6,500 feet while flying at a
cruise altitude of 11,000 feet, the differential
pressure is 1.8 psid. Since only five minutes of
the flight is planned at cruise, do not set the
CABIN ALT dial higher than 500 feet above
landing field pressure altitude.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

12-15

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

MALFUNCTIONS AND
TROUBLESHOOTING
Pilot controls are simple and straightforward and
workload is minimal. The pilot has sufficient
controls readily available to either regain control
or minimize the effects of most problems.
If pressurization is lost in flight, follow the procedures outlined in the Emergency Procedures
section of the POH/AFM. If the cabin climbs
above 12,500 ft (10,000 ftSeries UE) pressure
altitude, the CABIN ALT (CABIN ALT HI - UE)
warning annunciator will illuminate, and pilots
should consider the use of oxygen for crew and
passengers. See the Oxygen section of this workbook for more details concerning use of the
oxygen system.
Most pressurization malfunctions will show up
shortly after takeoff. Three general symptoms are
most common:

Rapid pressurization toward maximum


differential

Lack of pressurization (i.e., the cabin


climbs at the same rate as the aircraft)

Cabin leakdown (i.e., the cabin leaks


pressurization slowly - 500 ft/min at lowpressure differentials and faster at highpressure differentials.)

The first two symptoms are generally caused by


controller, control system or outflow valve malfunctions. The third is normally caused by air
inflow problems. Refer to the Troubleshooting
Information Chart at the end of this section for
specific pressurization problems and recommended action (Figure 12-12).

12-16

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The outflow valves should modulate open as


directed by controller pressure. If one or both
outflow valves are stuck closed, cabin altitude
will descend rapidly shortly after takeoff. Possible sources of this problem include: a stuck
preset solenoid, a cracked pressurization controller, a diaphragm failure in the pressurization
controller, disconnected or leaking plumbing, a
cracked outflow valve, or a failed diaphragm in
the outflow valve.
In this situation, the pilot should position both
bleed-air valves to ENVIR OFF, stopping P3
bleed-air inflow, thus repressurizing the cabin at
its leak rate. Once the cabin is stabilized, cycling
the CABIN PRESS switch to TEST might free a
stuck preset solenoid valve. Any additional troubleshooting should be accomplished on the
ground.
Failure to pressurize after takeoff can be caused
by: leaving the CABIN PRESS switch in DUMP,
failure of the left main gear squat switch, or failure of the dump solenoid. The pilot should first
check to ensure the CABIN PRESS switch is in
PRESS. If it is already in PRESS, move the
switch to TEST to override the squat switch. If
the cabin begins to pressurize, hold the switch in
TEST until cabin differential pressure exceeds
0.5 psid, then pull the PRESS CONTROL circuit
breaker on the copilots circuit breaker panel.
Remember that the DUMP switch is inoperative
as long as the circuit breaker is pulled. If the
cabin does not pressurize with the CABIN
PRESS switch in TEST, the problem is beyond
the capability of inflight troubleshooting.

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

Failure of the cabin to pressurize shortly after


takeoff may also indicate inflow and/or outflow
malfunctions. If the cabin altitude climbs with
the airplane, one or both outflow valves could be
fully open. One cause is premature opening of
the preset solenoid. If the solenoid valve opened
while still on the ground, the controller will hold
the outflow valves wide open until the aircraft
catches up to the controller during the climb. If
this condition is suspected, the pilot can decrease
cabin climb rate to minimum, or select a lower
cabin altitude. However, be sure to reselect the
proper setting once the cabin begins to pressurize
normally.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Unusual or excessive pressure bumps may be


caused by sticking outflow valves, due to the
buildup of contaminants on the valve seats. The
filters associated with this system can also
become contaminated causing large differences
in cabin climb versus cabin descent without a
change in rate knob position. These valves and
filters should be checked at regular maintenance
inspections, or more often if unusual conditions
(heavy smoking, dusty atmosphere) exist.

Cabin leakdown because of air inflow problems


is often caused by malfunctions of the bleed-air
modulation system (precooler valves and bleedair regulator/shutoff valve). Check to see that the
bleed-air valve switches are in the OPEN position. If both switches are open, the bleed-air
modulation system may be inoperative or an
electrical failure may have caused the environmental bleed-air valves to close. Check to see
that the bleed-air control circuit breakers on the
copilots circuit breaker panel have not tripped.
Reset the circuit breaker, if possible. If no reset is
possible, continue the flight at a lower altitude or
use oxygen if necessary. Maintenance troubleshooting procedures are outlined in the
maintenance manuals.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

12-17

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 12-12 Troubleshooting Information Chart1 of 3

12-18

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 12-12 Troubleshooting Information Chart2 of 3

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

12-19

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 12-12 Troubleshooting Information Chart3 of 3

12-20

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

See Chapter 14, Landing Gear and Brakes, for information


on the hydraulic power systems.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

13-1

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 14
LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 14-1
GENERAL ............................................................................................................................ 14-1
LANDING GEAR................................................................................................................. 14-2
Landing Gear Assemblies ............................................................................................. 14-2
Wheel Well Door Mechanisms ..................................................................................... 14-3
Hydraulic Landing Gear ................................................................................................ 14-3
Landing Gear Extension and Retraction ....................................................................... 14-5
Hydraulic Fluid Level Indication System ..................................................................... 14-7
Landing Gear Controls .................................................................................................. 14-8
Position Indicators......................................................................................................... 14-9
Landing Gear Warning System ................................................................................... 14-11
Manual Landing Gear Extension................................................................................. 14-11
Hydraulic Schematics.................................................................................................. 14-12
Tires............................................................................................................................. 14-17
Shock Struts................................................................................................................. 14-17
Landing Gear Operating Limits .................................................................................. 14-17
Landing Gear Switch Circuits ..................................................................................... 14-17
NOSEWHEEL STEERING ................................................................................................ 14-18
Manual Steering System.............................................................................................. 14-18
Power Steering System (Airight)Series UA and UB............................................... 14-18
Power Steering System (Decoto)Series UC and UE ............................................... 14-21

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

WHEEL BRAKES ............................................................................................................. 14-23


Brake System .............................................................................................................. 14-23
Parking Brake ............................................................................................................. 14-23
Brake System Servicing.............................................................................................. 14-24
Brake Wear Limits...................................................................................................... 14-25
Brake Deice System.................................................................................................... 14-26
Cold Weather Operation ............................................................................................. 14-28
Antiskid System .......................................................................................................... 14-28

14-ii

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

14-1

Main Gear Assembly ............................................................................................. 14-2

14-2

Nose Gear Assembly ............................................................................................. 14-2

14-3

Main Gear Door Mechanism ................................................................................. 14-3

14-4

Landing Gear Electrical Circuitry ......................................................................... 14-4

14-5

Hydraulic Landing Gear Plumbing Schematic ...................................................... 14-4

14-6

Checking Hydraulic Fluid Level ........................................................................... 14-5

14-7

Hydraulic Landing Gear Schematic....................................................................... 14-6

14-8

Hydraulic Landing Gear Powerpack ..................................................................... 14-7

14-9

Hydraulic Fluid Low Indicator .............................................................................. 14-7

14-10

Landing Gear Control Switch Handle ................................................................... 14-8

14-11

Safety Switch ......................................................................................................... 14-8

14-12

Landing Gear Position Indicator Assembly........................................................... 14-9

14-13

Landing Gear Position IndicatorNo Illumination .............................................. 14-9

14-14

Landing Gear Control Switch Handle and Red In-Transit/Unsafe Indicator ...... 14-10

14-15

Landing Gear Handle Light Test ......................................................................... 14-10

14-16

Landing Gear Alternate Extension Placard ......................................................... 14-11

14-17

Landing Gear Relay Circuit Breaker ................................................................... 14-12

14-18

Landing Gear Retraction Schematic .................................................................... 14-13

14-19

Landing Gear Extension Schematic..................................................................... 14-15

14-20

Hand Pump Emergency Extension Schematic .................................................... 14-16

14-21

Power Steering ControlsSeries UA and UB .................................................... 14-19

14-22

Power Steering System SchematicPark and Taxi Mode.................................. 14-20

14-23

Power Steering ControlsSeries UC and UE..................................................... 14-22

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

14-24

Brake SystemLeft Brake Applied ................................................................... 14-24

14-25

Brake SystemParking Brake Set ..................................................................... 14-25

14-26

Brake Fluid Reservoir ......................................................................................... 14-26

14-27

Brake Wear Diagram........................................................................................... 14-26

14-28

Brake Deice System ............................................................................................ 14-27

14-29

Brake Deice Controls .......................................................................................... 14-28

14-30

Antiskid Controls ................................................................................................ 14-29

14-iv

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 14
LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES

INTRODUCTION
An understanding of the landing gear system will aid the pilot in the proper handling of landing
gear operation and emergency procedures. This section, in addition to describing the overall
system, identifies inspection points and abnormal procedures.
An understanding of the brake system will help the pilot operate brakes safely and with
minimum brake wear. This section, in addition to describing the brake system, points out operating and servicing procedures.

GENERAL
The landing gear system section presents a
description and discussion of the landing gear
system, landing gear controls, and system limitations. Landing gear indicating and warning
systems and alternate landing gear extension
operations are also described. In addition, this
section is followed by a discussion of the standard manual and optional power steering systems.

The wheel brake system section presents a


description and discussion of the wheel brake
system. Correct use of the primary braking system and parking brakes is described. An
overview of the brake system, brake deice system, and brake inspection procedures is also
presented.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

14-1

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LANDING GEAR

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Operation

LANDING GEAR ASSEMBLIES


Components

The upper ends of the drag braces and two points


on the shock struts are attached to the airplane
structure. When the gear is extended, the drag
braces are rigid components of the gear
assemblies.

Each landing gear assembly (Figures 14-1 and


14-2) consists of a shock strut, torque links, drag
brace actuator, wheel and tire, and brake assembly. A shimmy damper is mounted on the right
side of the nose gear assembly on all aircraft with
manual steering systems. Brake assemblies are
located on the main gear.

The landing gear incorporates Beechcraft air/oil


shock struts that are filled with both compressed
air and hydraulic fluid. Airplane weight is borne
by the air charge in the shock struts. At touchdown, the lower portion of each strut is forced
into the upper cylinder; this moves fluid through
an orifice, further compressing the air charge and
thus absorbing landing shock. Orifice action also
reduces bounce during landing.

Figure 14-1 Main Gear Assembly

Figure 14-2 Nose Gear Assembly

14-2

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

A torque link connects the upper and lower portions of the shock strut. The torque link allows
strut compression and extension but resists rotational forces, thereby keeping the wheels aligned
with the longitudinal axis of the airplane. On the
nose gear, the torque link also transmits steering
motion to the nosewheel, and nosewheel shimmy
to the shimmy damper.
The shimmy damper (manual steering system
only) is a balanced hydraulic cylinder that bleeds
fluid through an orifice to dampen nosewheel
shimmy.

WHEEL WELL DOOR


MECHANISMS
The nose gear door is hinged at the front and is
connected to the nose gear brace with two links.
When the landing gear is retracted, the door is
pulled closed, and when it is extended, the door
is pushed open.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The main gear doors are hinged at the sides and


are spring-loaded to the open position. As the
landing gear is retracted, two rollers on each
main gear engage the door actuating cams, pulling the doors closed (Figure 14-3). When the
landing gear doors are closed, they cover the top
braces of each landing gear. The lower portion of
the tires remains exposed when the main gear
doors are closed.

HYDRAULIC LANDING GEAR


The retractable tricycle landing gear is electrically controlled (Figure 14-4) and hydraulically
actuated (Figure 14-5). The individual landing
gear actuators incorporate internal mechanical
downlocks to hold the gear in the fully extended
position. The landing gear is held in the retracted
position by hydraulic pressure.

Figure 14-3 Main Gear Door Mechanism

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14-3

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 14-4 Landing Gear Electrical Circuitry

Figure 14-5 Hydraulic Landing Gear Plumbing Schematic

14-4

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Hydraulic pressure is supplied by a hydraulic


powerpack located inboard of the left nacelle and
forward of the main spar. A hydraulic fill can
located in the left center wing section supplies
hydraulic fluid to the reservoir in the power pack.
A dipstick in the fill can provides for a visual
check of the fluid level (Figure 14-6).
Electrically actuated control valves route the flow
of hydraulic fluid to the individual gear actuators.
The landing gear control switch provides electrical power to the control valves.

To prevent accidental landing gear retraction, a


safety switch (squat switch) on the right main landing gear interrupts power to the landing gear motor
when weight is on the wheels. The safety switch
also provides power to a solenoid-operated latch
which secures the landing gear control handle in the
down position while the aircraft is on the ground.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

LANDING GEAR EXTENSION


AND RETRACTION
The landing gear is extended and retracted by a
hydraulic powerpack in conjunction with hydraulic actuators located at each landing gear (Figure
14-7). The hydraulic powerpack (Figure 14-8)
consists of a hydraulic pump, a 28-VDC motor, a
two-section fluid reservoir, filter screens, a fourway gear selector valve, an up and down selector
solenoid, a fluid level sensor, and a retract pressure switch.
The landing gear can also be extended manually
with a hand-operated pump. The pump handle is
located on the floor between the pilots seat and
the pedestal.
Hydraulic lines for normal extension and retraction are routed from the powerpack to the nose
and main gear actuators. Hydraulic fluid for manual gear extension is routed from the hand pump
to the nose and main gear actuators through an
independent system of tubing. The normal and
manual extension lines are connected separately
to the upper end of the nose gear actuator and to
the lower end of the main gear actuators.
The hydraulic lines for gear retraction are fitted
to the lower end of the nose gear actuator and to
the upper end of the main gear actuators.
Hydraulic pressure is generated by the powerpack pump and supplied to actuator pistons
which are attached to the drag braces; thus the
gear is retracted and extended by hydraulic
pressure.
When the actuator pistons have fully extended
the landing gear, internal mechanical locks in all
three actuators secure the gear in the down position. The internal locking mechanisms energize
the actuator downlock switches, interrupting
electrical current to the hydraulic pump motor.
The pump motor will continue to operate until all
three landing gears are down and locked.

Figure 14-6 Checking Hydraulic Fluid


Level

When the red gear-in-transit lights in the LDG


GEAR CONTROL handle are extinguished, and
all three green GEAR DOWN, NOSELR indicators are illuminated, the landing gear is in the
fully down and locked position.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 14-7 Hydraulic Landing Gear Schematic

Moving the landing gear control handle up energizes a solenoid mounted on the powerpack. As the
solenoid is powered, the gear selector valve is
actuated, allowing hydraulic fluid to flow to the
retract side of the actuators. The actuators unlock
when 200 to 400 psi of hydraulic pressure is
applied to the retract port of the actuators. The gear
selector valve is energized in either the up or the
down position of the landing gear control handle.
Hydraulic system pressure holds the landing gear
in the retracted position. When hydraulic pressure reaches approximately 2,775 psi, the retract
pressure switch will cause the landing gear relay
to open, interrupting electrical current to the
pump motor. The same pressure switch will actuate the pump motor if hydraulic pressure drops
below approximately 2,320 psi.

14-6

The landing gear control circuit is protected by a


2-ampere circuit breaker located on the pilots
inboard subpanel. Power for the pump motor is
supplied through the landing gear motor relay
and a 200-ampere current limiter (UB-1 through
UB-36), or a 60-ampere relay circuit breaker
(UB-37 and after). The motor relay and circuit
protection are located in the left nacelle power
distribution panel. Electrical current through the
2-ampere circuit breaker and through the downlock switches energizes the motor relay.
The landing gear powerpack is powered off the
center bus, and when activated, the battery bus tie
HED is momentarily desensitized to prevent
inadvertent opening of the battery bus tie during
landing gear operation.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 14-8 Hydraulic Landing Gear Powerpack

During gear extension or retraction, if the powerpack motor runs longer than 16 0.5 seconds, a
time delay will open the pump motor relay and
stop the motor. This action also shorts out the 2ampere control circuit and trips the LANDING
GEAR RELAY circuit breaker.

HYDRAULIC FLUID LEVEL


INDICATION SYSTEM
An annunciator placarded HYD FLUID LOW
(Figure 14-9) in the caution annunciator panel is
illuminated whenever the hydraulic fluid level in
the landing gear powerpack reservoir is low. The
fluid level sensor inside the powerpack senses the
level of light within the reservoir, and provides
the signal which illuminates the annunciator. The
annunciator and the low level sensor can be tested
by pressing the annunciator PRESS TO TEST
button on the glareshield. The system is operating
correctly when the annunciator is illuminated
within four seconds after pressing the button.

If the low fluid annunciator illuminates in flight,


the gear can be extended with the normal system
upon reaching the destination. After the aircraft
is on the ground, the hydraulic fluid level should
be checked visually with the dipstick in the fill
can. If the landing gear fails to extend normally,
the gear can be extended with the alternate extension system.

Figure 14-9 Hydraulic Fluid Low Indicator

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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LANDING GEAR CONTROLS


The landing gear powerpack pump motor is controlled by the landing gear handle on the pilots
right subpanel (Figure 14-10), placarded LDG
GEAR CONTROLUPDN. The handle must
be pulled out of a detent before it can be moved
up or down.
The safety switch (Figure 14-11) on the right
main gear torque link opens the landing gear control circuit when the oleo strut is compressed.
This switch also breaks power to a solenoid to
activate a mechanical latch which secures the
control handle in the down position when the airplane is on the ground. After takeoff, when

Figure 14-10 Landing Gear Control Switch


Handle

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

weight is off the gear, the downlock mechanism


is automatically unlocked as power is applied to
the solenoid. If the solenoid or the safety switch
circuit malfunctions, press downward on the
DOWN LOCK REL button to manually release
the mechanical latch. The release button is
located left of the landing gear control handle.
Although landing gear safety devices have been
installed to prevent inadvertent gear retraction,
the handle should not be moved out of the down
position while the airplane is on the ground. If
the handle is moved UP when weight is on the
gear, the landing gear warning horn will sound

Figure 14-11 Safety Switch

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

intermittently, and the red warning lights in the


control handle will be illuminated (when the
MASTER SWITCH is ON). When the handle is
returned to the DN position, the red lights will be
extinguished, and the warning horn will be
silenced.

POSITION INDICATORS
Landing gear position is indicated by a single
unit containing three green annunciators located
on the pilots right subpanel (Figure 14-12). The
annunciator is marked NOSELR. Four

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

lights, two for the nose and one each for the left
or right main gear, are illuminated to indicate the
down and locked position of that particular gear.
Absence of illumination indicates that a gear is
UP or unlocked (Figure 14-13). The green position indicator lights may be tested by pushing on
the light housing. Any of the four bulbs can be
replaced with any other annunciator bulb after
removing the housing from the subpanel (Series
UA, UB, UC); on the UE Series, the lights may
be tested by pressing the annunciator test switch.
Removal of the assembly requires a special tool
that is supplied with the aircraft loose equipment.

Figure 14-12 Landing Gear Position Indicator Assembly

Figure 14-13 Landing Gear Position IndicatorNo Illumination

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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Two red, parallel-wired indicator lights in the


landing gear control handle are illuminated when
the gear is in transit (Figure 14-14) or unlocked.
In addition, if the landing gear aural warning
horn has been actuated, the red lights will be illuminated. If the horn has been silenced with the
warning horn silence button, the red handle lights
will continue to be illuminated until the landing
gear is in a safe configuration. When the gear is
UP or DN and locked, the red lights should be
extinguished. The red warning lights may be
checked by pressing the HDL LT TEST button
(Figure 14-15) adjacent to the landing gear control handle.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Each gear up-position switch is located in the


upper portion of the wheel wells. When the gear
is fully retracted, the up-position switch is activated, opening the circuit from the control
handle warning lights to ground. As soon as the
gear begins to extend, the up-position switch
provides a path to ground, illuminating the red
lights in the gear control handle. The lights go
out when the drag brace on each landing gear
actuates its respective down-position switch. All
three gears must be down and in contact with the
down-position switches to extinguish the red
warning lights.

Figure 14-14 Landing Gear Control Switch Handle and Red In-Transit/Unsafe Indicator

Figure 14-15 Landing Gear Handle Light Test

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When illuminated, the red lights in the landing


gear control handle indicate one or all of the following conditions:

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CONTROL handle. The lights in the LDG


GEAR CONTROL handle will remain illuminated until the landing gear is down and locked,
or until the power levers are advanced. Advancing the power levers above 84 to 86% N1 rearms
the landing gear warning system.

Landing gear handle is in the UP position


and the airplane is on the ground with
weight on the landing gear.

One or both power levers are retarded


below approximately 84 to 86 1% N1,
and one or more landing gears are not
down and locked. Aural warning horn
will sound.

With the flaps beyond the APPROACH position,


the warning horn and landing gear switch handle
lights will be activated regardless of power lever
position. In this configuration, neither the lights
nor the horn can be canceled with the warning
horn silence button.

Any one or all three landing gears are not


in the fully retracted or down-and-locked
position.

MANUAL LANDING GEAR


EXTENSION

Warning horn has been silenced with the


warning horn silence button with the gear
unsafe for landing.

A hand pump, placarded LANDING GEAR


ALTERNATE EXTENSION (Figure 14-16), is
located on the floor between the pilots seat and
the pedestal. The pump is located under the floor,
below the handle, and is used when manual
extension of the gear is required. The hand pump
manually provides hydraulic pressure to the landing gear system. The landing gear cannot be
retracted manually in flight.

Thus, the function of the landing gear handle


lights is to indicate that the landing gear is in
transit, the position of the landing gear does not
agree with that of the handle, or the landing gear
warning horn has been silenced and not rearmed.
The gear handle lights, gear-down indicators, and
warning horn systems are completely independent of each other. A malfunction in any one
system should leave the other two systems
unaffected.

LANDING GEAR WARNING


SYSTEM
The landing gear warning system is provided to
warn the pilot when the landing gear is not down
and locked. The warning system is interconnected with flap position sensing.
When the flaps are UP or at APPROACH, and
either or both power levers are retarded below 84
to 86% N1, the aural warning horn will be activated (the pilot will hear an intermittent warning
tone), and the red landing gear control handle
lights will be illuminated. The horn can be
s i l e n c e d b y p r e s s i n g t h e WA R N H O R N
SILENCE button adjacent to the LDG GEAR

Figure 14-16 Landing Gear Alternate


Extension Placard

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

To operate the system, first pull the 2-ampere


LANDING GEAR RELAY circuit breaker (Figure 14-17) below and to the right of the landing
gear control handle, and place the control handle
in the DN position. This ensures that power is
removed from the landing gear powerpack motor
circuit. Then remove the pump handle from the
securing clip, and pump the handle up and down
until the green NOSELR gear-down indicator
lights are illuminated and further resistance is felt.
Approximately 80 up-and-down strokes will be
required to move the gear to the down and locked
position. Finally, place the handle in the fully
down position, and secure it in the retaining clip.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

If all three green lights are not illuminated, or if


the red light remains illuminated in the handle,
the landing gear should be considered to be
unsafe. If this situation occurs after manually
extending the gear, the handle should not be
stowed, and the pilot should ensure that sufficient
resistance remains on the pump handle, indicating pressure in the hydraulic system.
After a practice manual extension of the landing
gear, the gear may be retracted by pushing the
LANDING GEAR RELAY circuit breaker in and
moving the LDG GEAR CONTROL handle to
the UP position.

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATICS

WARNING
If for any reason the green
NOSELR gear-down indicator does
not illuminate (e.g., in the case of an
electrical system failure), continue
pumping until sufficient resistance is
felt to ensure that the gear is down and
locked. After an alternate landing gear
extension has been made, do not move
any other landing gear controls or reset
any switches or circuit breakers until
the airplane is on jacks and the cause
of the malfunction has been determined. The failure may be in the gearup circuit, and the landing gear could
retract on the ground.

The hydraulic system schematics shown in this


section are for gear extended, gear retracted,
hand pump alternate extension, and maintenance
retraction modes. Power is shown available to the
contacts of the landing gear power relay.

Landing Gear Retraction


When the aircraft is airborne, the pilot selects
GEAR UP. This completes the circuit from the
gear selector switch to the retract pressure switch
(Figure 14-18). The pressure switch closes, completing the circuit to the gear-up switch and to the
landing gear remote power relay.

Figure 14-17 Landing Gear Relay Circuit Breaker

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 14-18 Landing Gear Retraction Schematic

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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When the power relay closes, electrical power is


provided to the powerpack pump motor. Electrical power is also routed from the pressure switch
to the hydraulic selector valve up-and-down solenoid. Power to this solenoid moves the selector
valve to the up position, and routes hydraulic
fluid to the retract side of the gear actuator. During retraction hydraulic pressure in the retract
line increases until reaching approximately 2,775
psi. The retract pressure switch then opens, interrupting the power circuit to the pump motor,
stopping the hydraulic pump. If the pressure
switch fails to interrupt power to the motor
within 16 0.5 seconds after the gear retraction
cycle has begun, a timer will open the power circuit to the motor. A normal retraction cycle is
completed in approximately six seconds.
In flight, due to normal hydraulic pressure leakdown, the retract pressure switch closes periodically. As pressure drops to approximately 2,320
psi, the powerpack pump motor is reenergized to
restore the retract pressure needed to hold the
gear up. Since there are no mechanical uplocks in
the landing gear system, pressure is maintained
between approximately 2,320 to 2,775 psi to
keep the gear in the retracted position. An accumulator, precharged to 800 psi, located in the left
wheel well, aids in maintaining pressure in the
retract mode.

Landing Gear Extension


When the landing gear power relay is open,
power is supplied through the 2-ampere control
circuit breaker, to the landing gear control
switch, and to the three downlock switches. In
Figure 14-19, each gear is depicted as down and
locked; the three downlock switches are open
with no current passing through them. This is the
status of the system after a normal gear
extension.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Electrical power is also supplied to the selector


valve solenoid to route hydraulic fluid to the
extend side of the actuators.
Hydraulic pressure pushes the gear down until all
three gear actuator downlock switches are
depressed. When all three gears are down and
locked, the control circuit to the pump motor is
deenergized, and the pump motor stops. Notice
that no pressure switches are involved. The pump
does not cycle when the landing gear is in the
down-and-locked position, and hydraulic pressure is not maintained after the downlocks have
actuated. Internal mechanical downlocks in each
actuator hold the gear in the extended position.

Hand Pump Alternate Extension


Hydraulic fluid is pumped from the secondary
reservoir by the hand pump and routed through
the service valve to the extend side of each actuator through alternate extension hydraulic lines
(Figure 14-20). Note that the alternate system is
completely independent of the normal extension
system.
For manual extension, electrical power to the
powerpack pump motor is removed. The landing
gear control handle is in the down position, and
the control relay circuit is deenergized by pulling
the 2-ampere control circuit breaker. When the
landing gear has extended fully, the actuator
downlocks secure the gear in the down position,
and the green gear down-and-locked annunciators will be illuminated. For detailed operational
procedures, refer to Landing Gear Manual Extension in the Abnormal Procedures section of the
POH/AFM.

For normal gear extension, GEAR DN is selected


with the landing gear control handle, completing
the circuit from the landing gear control to all
three actuator downlock switches, through the
service valve, and finally to the landing gear
power relay. The power relay closes and provides
a power circuit to the powerpack pump motor.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 14-19 Landing Gear Extension Schematic

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 14-20 Hand Pump Emergency Extension Schematic

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TIRES

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Left Main Gear Squat Switch

Series UA, UB, and UC


The nose landing gear wheel is equipped with a
single 19.5 x 6.75 x 8, 10-ply-rated, tube-type
rim-inflation tire. The nose tire should be inflated
to 60 psi +3/0.
Each main landing gear wheel is equipped with a
22 x 6.75 x 10, 8-ply-rated, tubeless, rim-inflation tire. For increased service life, 10-ply-rated
tires of the same size may be installed on the
main gear wheels. The main wheel tires are
inflated to 95 psi +5/0.

Series UE
The nose gear wheel is equipped with a single
19.5 x 6.75-8, 10-ply-rated tubeless tire. The
nose tire should be inflated to 60 psi +5/0. Main
landing gear wheels are equipped with 22 x 6.7510, 10-ply-rated tubeless tires. The main wheel
tires should be inflated to 97 psi +5/0.
Maximum tire speed is increased from 160 to
190 mph.

SHOCK STRUTS
Shock struts should always be properly inflated.
Do not over- or under-inflate, and never tow or
taxi an aircraft when any strut is flat. Correct
inflation is approximately 5.12 to 5.6 for the
main strut, and 5.25 to 5.75 for the nose strut.

LANDING GEAR OPERATING


LIMITS
Consult current issue of POH/AFM for landing
gear operating limits.

Stall vane heat control

Nosewheel steering disconnectmanual


steering system only

Power steering system connect/disconnect

Pressurization systempreset and dump


solenoid valves

Flight hourmeter ground path

Left Main Gear Drag Brace


Switch

Brake deice time-delay sequencing

Power steering system connect/disconnect

Gear-extended signal for green light

Left Main Gear Actuator Switch

Landing gear powerpack motor relay and


selector valve

Gear-locked signal for green light

Right Main Gear Squat/Safety


Switch

Power steering systemMAIN STEER


FAIL power

Ground idle low-pitch stop system

Landing gear powerpack motor relay and


selector valve

Gear handle downlock solenoid

LANDING GEAR SWITCH


CIRCUITS
The following list will better acquaint the pilot
with the various circuits controlled by the landing gear switches.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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Right Main Gear Drag Brace


Switch

Gear-extended signal for green light

Air conditioner systemcondenser blower


ground

Right Main Gear Actuator


Switch

Gear locked and signal for green light

Nose Gear Drag Brace Switch

Antiskid systemground for pressure


switch

Gear-extended signal for green light

Nose Gear Actuator Switch

Gear locked and signal for green light

Up-Position Switches

In-transit/unsafe light control

NOSEWHEEL STEERING
Either of two systems are available to provide
nosewheel steering for the 1900 Airliner.
Although manual steering is standard equipment,
most of the aircraft have been provided with the
optional power steering system.

MANUAL STEERING SYSTEM


In airplanes with manual steering, direct linkage
to the rudder pedals permits nosewheel steering
when the nose gear is down. One spring-loaded
link in the system absorbs some of the force
applied to any of the interconnected rudder pedals until the nosewheel is rolling. When the nose
wheel begins to roll, the resisting force
decreases, allowing more pedal motion to result
in more nosewheel deflection.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Since pedal motion is transmitted to the rudder


through cables and linkage, rudder deflection
occurs when steering force is applied to the rudder pedals. Therefore, an electrical actuator and
cam are incorporated into the steering linkage to
remove nosewheel steering from the rudder pedals while the airplane is in flight. After liftoff,
nosewheel steering is automatically disconnected. The nosewheel is self-centering upon
retraction.
When force on the rudder pedal is augmented
with differential power and braking, nosewheel
deflection can be increased to its full range
of 63.

POWER STEERING SYSTEM


(AIRIGHT)SERIES UA AND UB
The optional power steering system consists of
an electric motor-driven hydraulic pump, hydraulic actuator, and servo valve assembly with
electronic controls. The shimmy damper, standard with conventional nosewheel steering, is
deleted when power steering is installed.
A rotary actuator is mounted on top of the nose
gear assembly to rotate the nose gear shock strut
and steer the nosewheel. The actuator consists of
a two-position solenoid arming valve, a servo
valve, a pressure-activated selector valve, and
two pistons. A pump and motor assembly located
in the left wheel well supplies hydraulic pressure
to drive the actuator. Hydraulic fluid for the
power steering pump is contained in the landing
gear powerpack primary reservoir.
The steering command potentiometers, mounted
on the rudder pedals, transmit input from either
pilots rudder pedals to the power steering signal
amplifier.
The nose gear follow-up potentiometers, above
the nose gear assembly, monitor the nose gear
turning action and relay this information to the
signal amplifier. The amplifier then transmits
these electrical signals to the actuator servo
valve, which controls hydraulic pressure to either
side of the nose gear rotary actuator as commanded by the pilots rudder pedal steering input.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Power Steering Control Switch

TAXI Steering Mode

The power steering control switch is located on


the lower pedestal and has three positions: OFF,
TAXI, and PARK (Figure 14-21). The power
steering activation switch is mounted on the left
power lever. The power steering control switch
must be in TAXI or PARK, and the power steering activation switch must be pressed for power
steering to be operative. If not activated by the
power lever switch, the steering actuator will
remain in the caster mode. When castering, the
actuator acts as a shimmy damper.

When the power steering control switch is in


TAXI, 10 of power steering is available to the
nosewheel after pressing the power steering activation switch.

Steering Modes
The power steering system provides two steering
modes: TAXI and PARK.

Caster Mode
When power steering is not selected or if it
becomes inoperative, the nosewheel operates in
the caster mode. The pilot may use rudder, braking, and differential power as required to
maintain directional control. Power steering can
be turned off with the control switch, or it can be
immediately disconnected by rapidly moving
both power levers forward momentarily above
91% N1.

Annunciator System

PARK Steering Mode


When the power steering control switch is in
PARK, the power steering system provides 63 of
nosewheel steering when activated (Figure
14-22). PARK is a solenoid-held switch position.
If both power levers are advanced beyond 91% Nl,
the control switch will revert to the TAXI position, and the system will then be inoperative.

A PWR STEER FAIL annunciator in the caution/advisory panel will be illuminated if


hydraulic pressure in the power steering system
falls below 650 psi, or if an electrical fault is
sensed when the gear is down and locked with
the power steering control switch in TAXI or
PARK.

Figure 14-21 Power Steering ControlsSeries UA and UB

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 14-22 Power Steering System SchematicPark and Taxi Mode

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A MAN STEER FAIL annunciator in the caution/advisory panel illuminates if the rotary
actuator selector valve is in the power steering
mode and:

The airplane is on the ground with the


power steering control switch OFF.

The airplane is on the ground with the


control switch in TAXI or PARK and the
activation switch off.

The airplane is in flight with the control


switch in OFF or TAXI and the landing
gear extended.

The airplane is in flight with the control


switch in TAXI and the landing gear
retracted.

Power Steering Fault Protection


The power steering system is protected from
electrical failures in the control system by automatic disconnect devices. If power steering
becomes inoperative due to an electrical fault in
the system, the power steering control amplifier
will open. Power steering then reverts to the
caster mode, and the PWR STEER FAIL annunciator will be illuminated.
If uncommanded steering occurs at any time,
power steering will be automatically disconnected, and the PWR STEER FAIL annunciator
will be illuminated.
If power steering does not disconnect when the
control switch is placed in the OFF position, or
when the power levers have been advanced with
power steering selected, the MAN STEER FAIL
annunciator will be illuminated. If this should
occur, power steering should be selected, and
takeoff is not authorized.
The fault protection system can be tested with the
power steering test switch on the pedestal,
located next to the power steering control switch.
The complete test procedure is in the After Starting engines checklist in the Normal Procedures
section of the POH/AFM.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Steering Control Circuits


The power steering control circuit is protected by
a 5-ampere circuit breaker located on the copilots circuit-breaker panel. Power for the power
steering pump motor is supplied through the
power steering motor relay and 35-ampere limiter. The motor relay, two-position solenoid
valve, and actuator arming valve are energized
simultaneously by current from the control relay.
The control relay is energized by the power steering control switch and is grounded through the
locking relay and power steering activation
switch on the left power lever.
The locking relay will retain the ground circuit
through the steering disconnect switches as long
as either power lever is retarded below 89% N1.
Once both power levers are advanced beyond
91% N1, the control relay is disconnected.
When the airplane leaves the ground, the left
main gear drag brace switch and the left and right
main gear safety switches open the control circuit, automatically disconnecting power steering.

POWER STEERING SYSTEM


(DECOTO)SERIES UC AND UE
Beginning with the UC series, and including the
UE series aircraft, an improved power steering
system was introduced. This new electrically
controlled, hydraulically operated system has
many basic operating similarities of the older
system but includes a number of hardware and
limitation changes. The Decoto system provides
two modes of operation: a TAXI mode, 15
from center, and a PARK mode with a 55 from
center limitation.
This power steering system is electronically controlled and hydraulically actuated, with no
mechanical connection between the rudder pedals and the nose gear. The system has three
modes of operation: unpowered caster mode,
powered TAXI mode providing 15 of nose
gear travel, and powered PARK mode providing
55 of nose gear travel.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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The system consists of a hydraulic actuator


mounted atop the nose gear strut, a hydraulic
pump and associated plumbing in the nose wheel
well, and an electronic amplifier with associated
circuitry located under the copilots seat.
Hydraulic fluid is supplied from the brake reservoir in the nose avionics compartment.
The system may be operated by turning the
power steering switch ON, selecting either the
TAXI or PARK mode, using the two-position
toggle switch placarded POWER STEERING

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

PARKTAXI located on the pedestal, and then


pressing the power lever steering switch on the
left power lever (Figure 14-23). The system will
remain on as long as either power lever is in the
low-power position. If both power levers are
advanced above approximately 89 to 91% N1, the
power steering system is disengaged, and if the
mode switch is in PARK, will automatically
move to the TAXI position. The power steering
system should not be used for any purpose other
than parking or taxiing the airplane.

Figure 14-23 Power Steering ControlsSeries UC and UE

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

A green annunciator (PWR STEER ENGA) is


provided on the caution/advisory annunciator
panel to indicate when the system is engaged and
operating.
Two amber annunciators on the caution/advisory
panel are provided to caution the pilot that an
abnormal power steering condition exists. An
illuminated PWR STEER FAIL annunciator indicates an electrical failure or low system hydraulic
pressure. An electrical failure will cause the system to deactivate, while low hydraulic pressure
will cause sluggish response but will still permit
system operation. An illuminated MAN STEER
FAIL annunciator indicates that the nose gear has
not returned to the caster mode after attempted
disengagement of the power steering system. In
the MAN STEER FAIL condition, the nosewheel
will remain in the position existing when power
was removed. In this circumstance, steering will
only be available with power steering turned on.
Refer to the 1900 Airliner POH (Series UC-1 and
after) or 1900D AFM (Series UE-1 and after) for
operating instructions on this system.

WHEEL BRAKES
The main landing gear wheels are equipped with
dual, multidisc, hydraulic brakes, actuated by toe
pressure on the rudder pedals (Figure 14-24).
Depression of either set of pedals compresses
piston rods in master cylinders attached to the
pedals. Hydraulic pressure, resulting from movement of pistons in the master cylinders, is
transmitted through flexible hoses and fixed aluminum tubing to disc brake assemblies on the
main landing gear. The pressure forces brake pistons to press against the linings and discs of the
brake assembly.
Each rudder pedal is attached to its own master
cylinder. The pilots and copilots right rudder
pedals control the right brake. Similarly, the
pilots and copilots left rudder pedals control the
left brake. Differential braking can be used for
taxiing and maneuvering on the ground. Either
pilot can operate the brakes without taking exclusive control over braking action.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

As with any airplane, proper traction and braking


control cannot be expected until the landing gear
is carrying the full weight of the airplane. Excessive tire wear can be prevented by using extreme
care to control skidding when applying brakes at
high speeds. Braking should be applied smoothly
and evenly to the end of ground roll.

BRAKE SYSTEM
The dual brakes are plumbed in series (Figure
14-24). The pilots master cylinders are plumbed
through the copilots master cylinders, thus
allowing either set of pedals to perform braking
action, eliminating the need for shuttle valves.
The effect of the brakes is cumulative; neither
pilot has exclusive control.

PARKING BRAKE
The parking brake holds hydraulic pressure in the
brake lines through a set of check valves (Figure
14-25). Dual parking brake valves are installed
adjacent to the rudder pedals between the master
cylinders of the pilots rudder pedals and the
wheel brakes. Control for parking brake valves is
on the center pedestal. To set the parking brake,
depress brake pedals to build up pressure in the
brake system, depress the button in the center of
the parking brake control, and pull the control
handle up. This procedure closes both parking
brake valves simultaneously.
Parking brake valves will retain the pressure previously applied to the system. The parking brake
can be released by depressing pilot or copilot
pedals (to equalize the pressure on both sides of
the valves) and pushing down the parking brake
handle (to allow the parking brake valve to open).
To avoid damage to the parking brake system,
tires, and landing gear, the parking brake should
be left off, and wheel chocks should be used to
secure the airplane for extended periods. The
parking brake system is designed to be used for
temporary parking only, since it is not thermally
protected. Ambient temperature changes can
expand or contract brake fluid, causing excessive
brake pressure or too little pressure. Excessive
pressure may cause difficulty in releasing the

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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parking brake, and low pressure can cause brake


release, resulting in potential damage to the
aircraft.

BRAKE SYSTEM SERVICING


Brake fluid is supplied to master cylinders from a
reservoir accessible through the nose avionics

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

compartment door on the right side of the aircraft


(Figure 14-26). The brake fluid reservoir is on the
upper left side of the compartment.
Brake system servicing includes maintaining
hydraulic fluid level in the reservoir. A sight gage
and dipstick are used to observe fluid level. When
the reservoir is low, add MIL-H-5606 hydraulic
fluid to fill the reservoir to the full mark on the

Figure 14-24 Brake SystemLeft Brake Applied

14-24

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dipstick. Before flight, check all hydraulic landing gear connections for signs of leaks.
Brakes are equipped with automatic brake adjusters. Automatic adjusters reduce brake drag,
thereby allowing unhampered roll. Airplanes
with automatic adjusters tend to exhibit a softer
pedal and a somewhat longer pedal stroke.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

BRAKE WEAR LIMITS


To check brakes for wear, set the parking brake
and measure the distance between the lining
assembly and the piston housing (Figure 14-27).
When this distance measures 0.34 inch or more,
the brake lining should be replaced.

Figure 14-25 Brake SystemParking Brake Set

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

BRAKE DEICE SYSTEM


A brake deice system is also installed (Figure
14-28). This system routes bleed-air heat into a
distributor manifold attached to each brake. A
lever-locked switch on the pilots subpanel,
labeled BRAKE DEICE, activates the system
(Figure 14-29). This switch opens two shutoff
valves, permitting hot bleed air to enter the distributor manifolds for brake deicing. When the
valves are open, the green L and R BK DEICE
ON annunciators will be illuminated.

Figure 14-26 Brake Fluid Reservoir

The brake deice system may be operated as


required on a continuous basis with the landing
gear extended. However, if the BRAKE DEICE
switch is not turned off manually after the landing gear has been retracted, a timer automatically
turns off the brake deice system. A complete
description of the brake deice system is in Chapter 10, Ice and Rain Protection, of this training
manual and in the POH/AFM Supplements
section.

Figure 14-27 Brake Wear Diagram

14-26

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 14-28 Brake Deice System

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

conditions cannot be avoided while taxiing, keep


flaps retracted to avoid throwing snow or slush
into flap mechanisms and to minimize potential
damage to flap surfaces.
Refer to the FAA-approved Brake Deicing System in the POH/AFM for Emergency, Abnormal,
and Normal Operation of the system.

ANTISKID SYSTEM
The antiskid system provides a power brake
mode for normal braking applications and an
antiskid mode for maximum braking performance. In the power brake mode, brake pedal
feel is much stiffer and master cylinder pressure
is boosted, once it exceeds a preset level, to
assist the pilot in braking effort. In the antiskid
mode the above characteristics are combined
with an antiskid control system to provide maximum stopping performance on a dry or reducedfriction runway while protecting the tires from
undue scuffing or blowout. Both modes are
available when the antiskid switch is turned ON
and the landing gear is down.
The antiskid system is self-contained and completely independent of any other system except
for electrical power. The pilot control equipment
consists of one two-position antiskid switch
located on the console and an annunciator
labeled ANTI-SKID FAIL to indicate a failure
in the antiskid system (Figure 14-30).
Figure 14-29 Brake Deice Controls

COLD WEATHER OPERATION


When operating in cold weather, check brakes
and tire-to-ground contact for freeze lock-up.
Before taxi, anti-ice solutions can be used on
brakes or tires if freeze lock-up has occurred.
However, do not use anti-ice solutions containing
oil-based lubricants, because these solutions may
decrease brake effectiveness.
When possible, taxiing in deep snow or slush
should be avoided. These conditions can force
snow and slush into brake assemblies. If these

14-28

The objective of the antiskid system is to closely


approach, but not reach, the brake pressure which
would produce a skid. This pressure is not constant and varies continuously during any braking
process. In operation, the control computer continuously monitors wheel speed information that
is transmitted by the transducers located on each
wheel. When a skid is imminent, the computer
signals the power brake relay valve which, in
turn, adjusts brake pressure to obtain optimum
braking effectiveness. When skid control is no
longer required, the computer reverts to the monitoring mode, and braking forces are totally
controlled by the pilot.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 14-30 Antiskid Controls

The system incorporates test functions that continuously monitor the system. If electrical faults
are detected, the annunciator light will inform the
pilot that he does not have antiskid protection. If
the motor-driven pump should fail, the accumulator will provide sufficient fluid pressure for
approximately 10 brake applications, after which
the power brake relay valve will revert the system
back to master cylinder control, and the lowpressure switch will cause the ANTI-SKID FAIL
annunciator to illuminate.
Directional control is maintained with rudder
input, nosewheel steering, and, when required,
differential braking. A combination of these
steering techniques may be used.
During periods of medium to maximum braking
effort, steering corrections made with conventional differential (or asymmetric) braking
techniques may not produce the desired effect.

The following caution is included in the


POH/AFM:

CAUTION
Do not use conventional differential
braking techniques to maintain directional control during maximum
braking performance. REDUCE the
pedal force on the side opposite the
desired direction of turn.
For airliners with the antiskid system installed,
refer to the Supplements section of the
POH/AFM, Abnormal and Normal Procedures.
Landing performance charts are different with
the antiskid system also, so refer to the Supplementary information for correct data.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 15
FLIGHT CONTROLS
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 15-1
DESCRIPTION..................................................................................................................... 15-1
FLAP SYSTEM .................................................................................................................... 15-1
ASYMMETRICAL FLAP PROTECTION ......................................................................... 15-4
FLAP AIRSPEED LIMITS (SERIES UA, UB, UC)............................................................ 15-4
FLAP AIRSPEED LIMITS (SERIES UE) ........................................................................... 15-5

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

15-1

Flap Control System .............................................................................................. 15-2

15-2

Flap Control Lever................................................................................................. 15-3

15-3

Flap Position Indicator........................................................................................... 15-3

15-4

Flap System Circuit BreakersSeries UA, UB, UC ............................................ 15-4

15-5

Airspeed Indicator MarkingsSeries UA, UB, UC ............................................. 15-4

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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TABLES
Table

Title

Page

15-1

Airspeed Indicator MarkingsSeries UE ............................................................. 15-5

15-2

Airspeed LimitationsSeries UE ......................................................................... 15-5

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FLIGHT CONTROLS
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INTRODUCTION
Familiarization with the flap system operation and limits is necessary to provide optimum
performance in takeoff, approach, and landing modes. This training unit identifies and describes
flap action so the pilot will understand operation, controls, and limits.

DESCRIPTION

FLAP SYSTEM

This chapter presents a description and discussion of the flap system. The four-segment
Fowler-type flap system, its controls, and its limits are considered with reference to operation as
outlined in the Pilots Operating Handbook.

The flaps, two on each wing, are driven by an


electric motor through a gearbox mounted on the
forward side of the rear spar (Figure 15-1). The
motor incorporates a dynamic braking system
through the use of two sets of motor windings,
which help to prevent overtravel of the flaps.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 15-1 Flap Control System

15-2

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The gearbox drives four flexible drive shafts connected to jackscrews at each flap. The flaps
cannot be stopped at an intermediate point.

operated by a potentiometer driven by the right


inboard flap. Flap position limit switches are also
driven by the right inboard flap.

The UE flap system has the following three positions and degrees of travel: UP (0), APPROACH
(17), and DOWN (35). The UA/B/C system has
f o u r p o s i t i o n s , U P ( 0 ) , TA K E O F F ( 1 0 ) ,
APPROACH (20), and DOWN (35). Flap position is registered on an electric indicator on top
of the pedestal.

The flap motor power circuit is protected by a


20-ampere circuit breaker, placarded FLAP
MOTOR, located on the right circuit breaker
panel (under floor boards - UE) (Figure 15-4). A
5-ampere circuit breaker, placarded FLAP IND
& CONTROL, for the flap control circuit is also
located on this panel.

The flaps are operated by a sliding lever located just


below the condition levers on the pedestal (Figure
15-2). Flap travel, from 0 (up) to 35 (landing)
(down UE), is registered on an electric indicator on
top of the pedestal near the flap control lever (Figure 15-3). The flap control has a position detent to
select 100 flaps for takeoff and 20 flaps for
approach (17 UE). Full flap deflection, is equal to
approximately 35 of flap travel. The indicator is

When the flap handle is placed beyond the


approach position with the landing gear up, the
landing gear warning horn will sound continuously regardless of power lever position. In this
configuration, the horn cannot be silenced with
the landing gear warning horn silence button.
Returning the flaps to the approach position or
extending the landing gear will then silence the
gear horn.

Figure 15-2 Flap Control Lever

Figure 15-3 Flap Position Indicator

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

ASYMMETRICAL FLAP
PROTECTION
Split-flap protection is provided by an asymmetrical flap switch system. This switch is rigged to
shut off the flap motor for any out-of-phase condition of approximately three to six degrees
between adjacent flap segments. This switch is
spring-loaded to the normally open position, but
is rigged so that the roller cam holds the switch in
its momentary (closed) position. This provides
electrical continuity to the flap motor when the
outboard and inboard flap segments on both sides
are parallel and in phase with one another.

FLAP AIRSPEED LIMITS


(SERIES UA, UB, UC)
Figure 15-4 Flap System Circuit
BreakersSeries UA, UB, UC

Airspeed indicator (Figure 15-5) markings show


the maximum speeds and operating ranges of the
flaps (VFE). The open white triangle indicates a
maximum flap speed of 198 KIAS for using the
takeoff flap setting. The maximum speed with

Figure 15-5 Airspeed Indicator MarkingsSeries UA, UB, UC

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flaps at the approach position is 168 KIAS or at


the white triangle. The upper limit of the narrow
white arc is the maximum speed permissible with
flaps beyond approach. Beyond the approach
position, the maximum speed is 153 KIAS.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

(UE-79 and above, and earlier airplanes in compliance with SB 2512). Airspeed indicator
marking are shown in Table 15-2. Airspeed limitations are show in Table 15-1.
Lowering the flaps will produce these results:

FLAP AIRSPEED LIMITS


(SERIES UE)

ATTITUDENose Up

AIRSPEEDReduced

The maximum speed for flaps to the APPROACH


p o s i t i o n ( 1 7 ) i s 1 8 8 K I A S . B ey o n d t h e
APPROACH position, the maximum speed is
143 KIAS (UE-1 through UE-78) or 154 KIAS

STALL SPEEDLowered

TRIMNose down adjustment required


to maintain attitude

Table 15-1 AIRSPEED INDICATOR MARKINGSSERIES UE


RANGE OR MARKING

KIAS VALUE OR RANGE

SIGNIFICANCE

84-188
84-143

Full-flap operating range. Lower Limit


is the stalling speed (VSO) at maximum weight with flaps down (35)
and Idle power.

Maximum map extension/extended


speed VFE:
Flaps 17
Flaps 350 (UE-1 through UE-78 not
in compliance with S.B. 2512)
Flaps 35 (UE-79 and after, and earlier airplanes in compliance with S.B.
2512)

84-154

Table 15-2 AIRSPEED LIMITATIONSSERIES UE


SPEED
Maximum map extension/extended speed VFE:
Flaps 17
Flaps 35 (UE-1 through UE-78 not in compliance with S.B. 2512)
Flaps 35 (UE-79 and after, and earlier airplanes in compliance with S.B. 2512)

KCAS

KIAS

190
145

188
143

155

154

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

REMARKS
Do not extend flaps or operate with
flaps in prescribed position above
these speeds.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 16
AVIONICS
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 16-1
GENERAL ........................................................................................................................... 16-1
AVIONICS POWER DISTRIBUTION ............................................................................... 16-3
KING SILVER CROWN II EQUIPMENT ......................................................................... 16-7
Audio Control System .................................................................................................. 16-7
Communications Transceiver System .......................................................................... 16-9
VOR/LOC/GS Receiver System................................................................................. 16-10
DME System............................................................................................................... 16-10
RNAV System ............................................................................................................ 16-11
ADF System................................................................................................................ 16-11
COLLINS PRO LINE II EQUIPMENT (SERIES UC) ..................................................... 16-13
NAV System ............................................................................................................... 16-13
DME System............................................................................................................... 16-14
COMM System ........................................................................................................... 16-15
ADF System................................................................................................................ 16-15
Transponder System ................................................................................................... 16-15
DB-407 Audio System................................................................................................ 16-17
Slaved Compass Systems............................................................................................ 16-19
AVIONICS INSTALLATION (SERIES UE).................................................................... 16-22
Cockpit Installation..................................................................................................... 16-23

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

PITOT-STATIC SYSTEM.................................................................................................. 16-31


Introduction.................................................................................................................. 16-31
Description................................................................................................................... 16-31
Pitot and Static System ................................................................................................ 16-32

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

16-1

Nav/Comm Control PanelCollins ...................................................................... 16-2

16-2

Avionics Master Switch......................................................................................... 16-2

16-3

Alternative Method of Powering the Avionics Bus............................................... 16-3

16-4

Avionics Master Switch ON/OFF Schematic........................................................ 16-4

16-5

Avionics Buses ...................................................................................................... 16-5

16-6

Inverter Power Supply ........................................................................................... 16-6

16-7

Nav/Comm Control PanelKing Silver Crown II ............................................... 16-7

16-8

King Audio Control System .................................................................................. 16-8

16-9

King Communications Transceiver ....................................................................... 16-9

16-10

King VOR/LOC/GS Receiver ............................................................................. 16-10

16-11

King DME System............................................................................................... 16-10

16-12

King ADF System................................................................................................ 16-11

16-13

Pro Line II NAV Control ..................................................................................... 16-12

16-14

Pro Line II DME Control..................................................................................... 16-14

16-15

Pro Line II Single DME Installation.................................................................... 16-14

16-16

Pro Line II Dual DME Installation ...................................................................... 16-14

16-17

Pro Line II COMM Control ................................................................................. 16-15

16-18

Pro Line II ADF Control...................................................................................... 16-16

16-19

Pro Line II TRANSPONDER Control ................................................................ 16-16

16-20

DB-407 Audio Switching Panel .......................................................................... 16-17

16-21

DB-407 Audio System Diagram.......................................................................... 16-18

16-22

Compass System Connections ............................................................................. 16-19

16-23

Slaved Compass System Block Diagram ............................................................ 16-20

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

16-24

Collins PN-101 Compass System ....................................................................... 16-22

16-25

EFIS and Controls ............................................................................................... 16-23

16-26

Instrument Panel (Series UE).............................................................................. 16-24

16-27

Attitude and Compass Displays .......................................................................... 16-25

16-28

Compass and Weather Display, Flight Director Controls,


and Course Heading Panel .................................................................................. 16-26

16-29

Radio Magnetic Indicator and Standby Horizon................................................. 16-27

16-30

Altitude Alerter, Cabin Briefing, and Transponder Controls.............................. 16-28

16-31

ADF, Navigation, and Communication Controls................................................ 16-29

16-32

Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System.......................................................... 16-30

16-33

Pitot and Static System Schematic ...................................................................... 16-31

16-34

Pilots Static Air Source Valve ........................................................................... 16-32

16-35

Pitot and Static System Schematic UB/C....................................................... 16-33

16-36

Pitot and Static System Schematic UE........................................................... 16-34

16-37

Airspeed Calibration - Alternate System Graph ................................................. 16-35

16-38

Altimeter Correction - Alternate System Graph ................................................. 16-36

16-39

Ice Protection Control Panel ............................................................................... 16-36

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

CHAPTER 16
AVIONICS

INTRODUCTION
Avionics systems, as a vital part of the airplane, are becoming more sophisticated and complex.
These systems lighten the pilot load, particularly during IFR operations. It is therefore important for the flight crew to understand how the various nav/comm systems function, and how to
use them effectively. This section describes the standard avionics installation and how it
operates.

GENERAL
The Beechcraft 1900 Airliner avionics controls,
along with the weather radar, are mounted on an
isolation panel in the center of the instrument
panel, easily accessible to the pilot or copilot.
Individual audio switches, across the top of the
p a n e l , c o n t r o l a u d i o t o t h e s p e a ke r s o r
headphones.

the main units typically installed in a 1900 Airliner will be addressed.


The Collins Pro Line II remote-mounted avionics
package is installed in the Series UC and UE
(Figure 16-1). The Series UE aircraft utilize the
Collins EFIS-84 four-tube configuration which
will be covered briefly in this section.

The King Silver Crown II line of panel-mounted


avionic equipment is installed on many 1900 Airliners. Although not all equipment types in the
Silver Crown II line will be discussed here, all of

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 16-1 Nav/Comm Control PanelCollins

Figure 16-2 Avionics Master Switch

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AVIONICS POWER
DISTRIBUTION
All avionics equipment may be turned on and off
by the avionics master switch (Figure 16-2). In
the event that this switch fails, power may be
restored by pulling the avionics master circuit
breaker, located in the upper right corner of the
main circuit breaker panel (Figure 16-3).
The 1900 Airliner has three avionics buses (Figure 16-5) to feed DC power to the various types
of avionic equipment. To determine specifically
what equipment is being fed from a specific bus
or power source, refer to the wiring diagram entitled DC Power Distribution which is supplied
with each airplane. There are, however, some
general rules of thumb which usually apply. For
example:
1. Items numbered one (e.g., Comm 1, Nav 1,
etc.) are fed by the No. 1 avionics bus, which

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

in turn is fed from the electrical system triple-fed bus. It is important to note that in the
event of a dual generator failure, the items
fed by the No. 1 avionics bus would continue
to operate for a limited period of time, being
fed directly by the battery.
2. Items numbered two (e.g., Comm 2, Nav 2,
etc.) are fed by the No. 2 avionics bus. The
No. 2 avionics bus is fed by the left generator
bus.
3. Additional avionic items which are not fed
by the previous buses are fed by the No. 3
avionics bus. The No. 3 avionics bus is fed by
the right generator bus.
During a normal engine starting sequence, as
each generator is brought on line, the respective
bus tie is closed. Therefore, assuming the avionics master switch is turned ON, all avionics
systems will receive power from their respective
buses under normal circumstances. Also, when

Figure 16-3 Alternative Method of Powering the Avionics Bus

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 16-4 Avionics Master Switch ON/OFF Schematic

16-4

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running equipment checks on the ground with the


external power switch ON and an APU connected, all three avionics buses will be powered.
In these instances, the bus ties are automatically
closed (Figure 16-4).
However, assume the need to make a quick
ground check of Comm 2, prior to starting
engines, and without an APU connected. In this

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

situation, manually close the bus ties with the


appropriate switch located on the pilots outboard
subpanel.
As a general rule of thumb, an APU should be
considered essential for running avionic equipment on the ground. For electronic flight
instrument system (EFIS) equipped airplanes, the
avionic equipment and inverters require approxi-

Figure 16-5 Avionics Buses

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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mately 50 amperes of current from the battery.


This amount of current drain would deplete the
battery in a short period of time.
Also, especially with EFIS equipment installed,
it is desirable to have the avionic nose compartment doors removed to allow sufficient cross
ventilation and cooling of the equipment. Particularly during practice sessions with the avionic
equipment which exceed 15 minutes in duration.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

AC power is available from either of two 400-Hz


inverters. Under normal circumstances, the No. 1
inverter is fed from the left generator bus and the
No. 2 inverter is fed from the right generator bus
(Figure 16-6). However, in the event that the
operating inverter loses power from its appropriate bus, the inverter automatically switches over
to the center bus as its power source.

Figure 16-6 Inverter Power Supply

16-6

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KING SILVER CROWN II


EQUIPMENT

installed in a King Air will be addressed. For


additional information on each system, please
consult the appropriate pilots guide.

The King Silver Crown II line of panel-mounted


avionic equipment is installed on many 1900 Airliners (Figure 16-7). Although not all equipment
types in the Silver Crown II line will be discussed here, all of the main units typically

AUDIO CONTROL SYSTEM


The KMA 24 audio control system consists of a
rotary microphone selector switch, speaker and

Figure 16-7 Nav/Comm Control PanelKing Silver Crown II

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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phone switches for each receiver installed in the


aircraft, and an integral marker beacon receiver
with marker beacon lights (Figure 16-8).

appropriate comm receiver must be manually


selected each time the microphone selector
switch is changed to a different transmitter.

The microphone selector switch connects the


microphone to each transmitter installed on the
aircraft. On versions of the KMA 24 which do
not have the capability of handling audio from a
No. 2 ADF, the proper comm receiver audio
switch may be automatically selected by simply
pushing either the speaker or phone AUTO
switch to the ON position and placing the microphone selector switch to the desired transmitter.

Each receiver may be connected to either the


speaker and/or the phones by pushing the appropriate alternate action pushbutton switch to the in
or ON position.

Versions of the KMA 24 which have the


capability of handling audio from a second ADF
do not have the AUTO buttons and therefore the

The marker beacon receiver has a HIGH (button


pushed in) and a LOW (button out) sensitivity
position. The marker beacon lights may also be
tested by pushing and holding the test button in.
A built in photo cell automatically adjusts the
lighting intensity depending on ambient lighting
conditions.

Figure 16-8 King Audio Control System

16-8

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COMMUNICATIONS
TRANSCEIVER SYSTEM
The KY 196 is capable of transmitting and
receiving a frequency range of 118.0 through
135.975 MHz in either 25- or 50-KHz
steps (Figure 16-9).

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

volume level. Pulling out this control opens up


the receiver squelch circuit, enabling the pilot to
hear weaker stations. This might be an appropriate action when attempting to receive a weak
transmitter from a distance, such as listening to
an ATIS at a distant point.

The large frequency knob changes the frequency


to the left of the decimal point while the smaller
knob changes the frequency to the right of the
decimal point. The smaller knob makes 50 KHz
changes when pushed in and 25 KHz changes
when pulled out.

The left frequency display indicates the frequency to which the transceiver is actively tuned.
The right display indicates the standby frequency. In order to transfer or swap the two
frequencies, the pilot pushes the transfer button
momentarily. (NOTE: The frequency selector
knob only changes the standby frequency.)

The ON/OFF/VOLUME control switch turns the


unit on when rotated clockwise past the initial
detent. Further clockwise rotation increases the

Transmitter operation is annunciated by the illumination of the letter T located between the
active and standby frequencies.

Figure 16-9 King Communications Transceiver

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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VOR/LOC/GS RECEIVER
SYSTEM
Operation of the KN 53 (Figure 16-10) is virtually identical to that of the KY 196 comm
transceiver with the following exceptions:
1. Pulling out on the volume control knob activates the Morse code identification circuit,
thus allowing the Ident to be heard through
the audio system.
2. There is no transmit annunciator on this
system.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

DME SYSTEM
The remote-mounted KN 63 DME with the KD1
572 panel-mounted indicator operates in a
straightforward manner. The indicator is capable
of displaying DME distance, ground speed, and
time-to-station simultaneously (Figure 16-11).
The mode selector allows the unit to be channeled by either Nav 1 or Nav 2. Selecting the
HLD (hold) position allows the DME to remain
channeled to the previously selected frequency
and is annunciated by either H1 or H2 depending
on whether Nav 1 or Nav 2 was previously used.
The mode selector also allows the DME to be
turned off.

Figure 16-10 King VOR/LOC/GS Receiver

Figure 16-11 King DME System

16-10

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RNAV SYSTEM
For operational information on the KNS 81 system, refer to the appropriate flight manual
supplement.

ADF SYSTEM
The KR 87 ADF (Figure 16-12) has two basic
modes of operation, ANT (antenna) and ADF. In
the ANT mode, the bearing pointer in the
RMI/ADF indicator will not point to the station
but provides improved audio reception. The ADF
mode is used for navigation purposes, allowing
the bearing pointer to point to the station. The
ADF mode is selected by pushing the alternate
action pushbutton in, and the ANT mode is
selected by allowing the same pushbutton to
remain in the out position. The selected mode
is annunciated on the left side of the ADF
display.
This unit incorporates a BFO (beat frequency
oscillator) circuit which allows non-directional
beacons to be identified which are not modulating the carrier with audio. These types of stations
are sometimes used outside of the United States.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The BFO circuit, when activated by pushing the


BFO pushbutton to the in position, generates a
1020-Hz tone which will be heard each time the
NDB transmitter is turned on. This allows the
Morse code to be identified in a normal fashion.
As with the KY 196 comm and KN 53 nav, two
frequencies may be displayed on the KR 87 ADF.
The frequency on the left is always the frequency
in use, however, the right display window is
shared by several different functions. Like the
comm and the nav, the right window may display
the standby frequency. However, pushing the
FLT/ET alternate action pushbutton changes the
function of the right display window.
When FLT is annunciated to the right of the right
display window, the display is being used to display flight time. Initially, the flight timer begins
operation when the unit is turned on. Then, during takeoff, the flight timer is reset to zero and
begins counting again when the weight of the aircraft is off the landing gear squat switch. The
flight timer continues to operate until the weight
of the aircraft is once again on the landing gear
squat switch, at which time the display is frozen, and will remain so until power is removed
or the aircraft takes off again.

Figure 16-12 King ADF System

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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Pushing the FLT/ET button again will switch the


right window to display an elapsed time function.
The elapsed timer may be reset to zero at any
time by momentarily pushing the SET/RST
(set/reset) button. Elapsed time will continue to
accumulate until the SET/RST button is pushed
again or power is removed.
The elapsed timer also has a countdown mode
of operation, which may be initiated by holding
the SET/RST button in for approximately three
seconds, or until the ET annunciator begins to
flash. Now, the countdown time (in minutes and
seconds) may be set into the right display by
rotating the two concentric knobs which are normally used to change the frequency. Set the
minutes with the large knob and the seconds with
the small knob.
In order to start the countdown cycle (as when
passing the final approach fix) push the SET/RST
button. Time remaining will now be continuously

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

displayed until the timer reaches zero, at which


time it will revert to a count-up mode of operation and will now automatically display the
elapsed time above and beyond that which was
originally set in. Additionally, when the countdown mode switches to the count-up mode, the
right display window will flash for 15 seconds in
order to alert the pilot to the fact that he has gone
beyond the originally preset time.
With both the flight and elapsed timer, the display will initially be read in minutes and seconds
(up to 59 minutes and 59 seconds [59:59]). After
the first hour, these timers will display hours and
minutes.
Pushing the FREQ (frequency transfer) button
initially changes the right window back to the
standby frequency display. Subsequent pushes of
the FREQ button transfers the standby and in-use
frequencies back and forth (flip-flops).

Figure 16-13 Pro Line II NAV Control

16-12

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COLLINS PRO LINE II


EQUIPMENT
(SERIES UC)
A new series of Collins CTL control heads is
used for the nav, comm, ADF, and transponder.
The ADF-60 and TDR-90 (ADF and transponder
units respectively), however, are retained from
the earlier Collins Pro Line System.
The Pro Line II family presently consists of a
VHF comm (VHF-22), a VOR/LOC/GS/MB
receiver (VIR-32), and a DME (DME-42). These
units employ many state-of-the-art features,
including extensive self-diagnostic capabilities
and multiple frequency storage. Some of the features of this equipment will be described here.
For additional information, see the current Collins Pro Line II Pilots Guide.
The comm and nav units have many features in
common; therefore, we will use the features of
the nav (VIR-32/CTL-32) as a building block for
the comm, which will be described next. Features
common to both will be described under the nav
explanation; differences will be pointed out
under the comm explanation.

NAV SYSTEM
The VIR-32/CTL-32 nav system is comprised of
a VOR/localizer receiver, a glide-slope receiver,
and a marker beacon receiver, all contained in
one black box located in the nose avionics
compartment.
The nav receiver (Figure 16-13) may be tuned to
the correct frequency in any one of three ways:

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

2. The PREset (standby) frequency may be initially selected and displayed in the lower
frequency window. It may be necessary to
cancel the direct tuning mode (described in 1
above) by again holding the ACT pushbutton
for approximately three seconds. Once the
PREset frequency is displayed in the lower
window, it may be transferred up to the
ACTive window by holding the XFR/MEM
switch to the XFR position momentarily.
3. Up to four frequencies may be placed into the
four channel slots of the memory. This is
done by repeatedly pressing the XFR/MEM
switch to the MEM position until the desired
channel number appears in the upper
(ACTive) window (e.g., CH-1). Now the frequency may be selected using the two
concentric frequency select knobs and will be
displayed in the lower (PREset) window.
Once selected, the frequency may be stored
by simply pressing the STOre button twice.
Subsequent frequencies/channels may be
stored in a similar fashion.
Regardless of the frequency selection method
used, when a new frequency is selected, the compare annunciator (labeled ACT) will flash once if,
in fact, the VIR-32 receiver has properly tuned to
the frequency displayed in the active window. If
the compare annunciator continues to flash, a
tuning fault is indicated. The test button should
be pressed momentarily in order to display the
fault and diagnostic code (see Pilots Guide for
further details).
DME hold may be selected by placing the mode
selector switch in the HLD position. This topic
will be further discussed under the topic of DME,
to be covered later in this section.

1. The active frequency may be tuned directly


by first holding down the ACT pushbutton for
approximately three seconds. The lower
(PRE set) frequency display will be dashed
out. The two concentric frequency select
knobs will now directly channel the active
frequency. Features such as DME hold, preset channels, etc., are still operable in this
situation.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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DME SYSTEM
By using frequency scanning techniques, the
DME-42 is capable of working with up to three
DME stations simultaneously (Figure 16-14). It
can display DME distance (NM), ground speed
(GS), time to station (MIN), and station identification to any one of these stations; however, the
DME stays locked onto all three stations.
In a single DME-42 installation, the three frequencies or channels are connected to the Nav 1
and Nav 2 control heads (CTL-32s) (Figure
16-15).
In a dual DME-42 installation, the No. 1 DME42 is only connected to the No. 1 nav control
head. Likewise, the No. 2 DME-42 is only connected to the No. 2 nav control head. In this
configuration, each DME-42 is purposefully limited to displaying only two channels (Figure
16-16).

Figure 16-14 Pro Line II DME Control

Figure 16-15 Pro Line II Single DME Installation

Figure 16-16 Pro Line II Dual DME Installation

16-14

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

COMM SYSTEM

ADF SYSTEM

In most respects, the VHF-22 COMM works just


like the features previously explained on the
VIR-32 navigation receiver (Figure 16-17). The
primary differences are as follows:

The ADF control head also works like the nav


control head in many respects, however, the
modes on the mode selector switch are appropriate to an ADF (Figure 16-18).

1. There are six frequency memory positions


instead of four.

Although the ADF utilizes one of the new Pro


Line II control heads (CTL-62), the actual ADF
unit is of an older generation and it does not display test codes.

2. In place of the HLD annunciator, there is a


TX (unit transmitting) annunciator.
3. SQ OFF (squelch off) replaces HLD on the
mode selector.

TRANSPONDER SYSTEM

4. Two short tones indicate a fault. Push the test


button to display fault code.

Like the ADF, the transponder unit is of an earlier


generation, has a new Pro Line II control head
(CTL-92), and does not display test codes (Figure 16-19).

5. Continued turning of the small knob results


in 50-kHz steps. When reversed one click,
however, a 25-kHz step results.

The transponder control head can store one preselected code, such as 1200, ready for use at the
push of the PRE button.

Figure 16-17 Pro Line II COMM Control

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Figure 16-18 Pro Line II ADF Control

Figure 16-19 Pro Line II TRANSPONDER Control

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DB-407 AUDIO SYSTEM


The avionics installation has dual DB-407 audio
systems which are totally independent of each
other (Figures 16-20 and 16-21).
The following operating rules apply to the audio
system. These rules will only be listed for the
pilots audio system. However, they apply
equally to the copilots audio system.
1. The speaker volume control regulates the
speaker audio level.
2. The speaker switch turns the speaker ON and
OFF.
3. The phone volume control regulates the
headphone audio level.
4. The headphones are operational at all times
(as long as they are plugged into their jack).

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

one does not necessarily imply a failure of


the other.
6. To select any audio source (e.g., Comm 1,
ADF, etc.) turn ON the appropriate audio
selector switch.
7. The switch labeled VOICEBOTHRANGE
Figure 16-20 works in conjunction with both
the ADF and nav receivers. When in the
VOICE position, the voice portion of the
audio will be heard and not the Morse code
station identification. When in the RANGE
(ident) position, only the Morse code station
identification will be heard, not the voice portion. When in the BOTH position, both the
voice and range portions of the audio will be
heard.
If the pilots audio system has failed entirely, the
pilot may still listen to audio through the
copilots speaker.

5. The speaker and headphone audio channels


are independent of each other and failure of

Figure 16-20 DB-407 Audio Switching Panel

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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Figure 16-21 DB-407 Audio System Diagram

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SLAVED COMPASS SYSTEMS


The most common compass system for the 1900
Airliner is the King KCS-55A; however, the
Sperry C-14A-43 or the Collins MCS-65 or
MCS-103 systems could be installed. As far as
the pilot is concerned, all of these systems operate in a similar manner. They will be treated as
one common system in the following discussion.
Occasionally, a Collins PN-101 system will be
installed on the copilots side. This system operates in a slightly different manner and will be
discussed separately in this section.

KCS-55A, MCS-65, MCS-103,


and C-14A-43 Systems
From an operational standpoint, all of these systems may be treated identically. All of these
systems require 400-Hz electrical power from an
inverter. In the unlikely event that both inverters
fail, these systems would be inoperative. Each of
them has the following components (Figure
16-23).
1. Flux sensor (also called a flux gate or flux
valve)The function of this device is to
sense the earths magnetic field relative to the
airplane and convert that information into an
electrical signal which represents the airplanes magnetic heading.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

2. Slaving amplifierThe magnetic heading signal from the flux sensor is too weak to be used
directly; therefore, is amplified (made larger or
stronger) by the slaving amplifier. The output
signal is now strong enough to directly drive a
torquer motor in the directional gyro and thus
maintain the gyro rotor in alignment with magnetic north.

3. Directional gyroOnce the gyro rotor is


aligned with magnetic north, it will have a
natural tendency to stay there for a short
period of time, due to a force called gyroscopic rigidity in space. This force will
continue to keep the gyro mechanism in relatively good alignment as long as the gyro
rotor continues to turn at its design speed.
When the gyro drifts out of alignment (precesses) the condition will be sensed, and the
magnetic heading reference information from
the slaving amplifier will again drive the gyro
rotor back into alignment with magnetic
north, using the torquer motor previously
described.
4. Horizontal situation indicator (HSI)The
gyro heading information (which should be
the same as magnetic heading) is sent to a
compass card on the HSI to display the magnetic heading to the pilot. This heading
information is then sent from the HSI to the
compass card on the opposite radio magnetic
indicator (RMI). In this way, gyrostabilized,
magnetic heading information is displayed in
front of each pilot from two independent
sources, the pilots and the copilots compass
systems (Figure 16-22).

Figure 16-22 Compass System Connections

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 16-23 Slaved Compass System Block Diagram

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5. Slaving meterThe slaving meter compares


the sensed magnetic heading at the flux sensor (system input) to the displaced magnetic
heading at the HSI (system output). The difference, if any, is displayed on the slaving
meter by displacement of the slaving needle
from the center position (which indicates
synchronization or zero error). It is normal
for this needle to deviate occasionally due to
precession, however, it should always come
back to center. If it is displaced to one side
for more than approximately one minute, the
gyro may be precessing excessively and/or
the slaving system may not be doing its job.
In any case, the accuracy of the compass system should be checked by cross referencing
the heading information from the opposite
system and/or the magnetic compass.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

7. Increase/decrease switch: This is a toggle


switch which is spring-loaded to the center
(OFF) position. The switch may be used
when in the free mode of operation to manually change the directional gyro to the left or
right, thus increasing or decreasing the displayed heading information. When in the
slaved mode of operation, momentarily holding this switch in either position causes the
system to reset itself to the fast-slave mode
of operation, thereby correcting any displayed error at a rapid rate. This could be
helpful if for any reason the gyro had tumbled or precessed excessively.

6. SLAVE/FREE switchThis lever-locking


switch is used to select either the slaved or
the free mode of operation for the compass
system.
This switch should normally remain in the
slaved mode of operation. In this mode, when
power is initially applied to the system, it will
automatically slave itself to the correct
magnetic heading and remain there throughout the flight, correcting for precession as
necessary.
The free mode of operation is generally
reserved for occasions when the slaved (automatic) mode of operation has failed and the
pilot wishes to revert to a directional gyro
mode of operation. This mode may also be
used for flight in polar regions where extreme
levels of magnetic variation exist. In this
mode of operation, the flux sensor and the
slaving amplifier are disconnected from the
rest of the system. The result is that the pilot
now has a directional gyro (which will precess and must be corrected manually using
the increase/decrease switch) which uses the
HSI to display the heading information from
the directional gyro.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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Collins PN-101 System


This compass system (Figure 16-24) is frequently installed on the copilots side. It has the
advantage of being directly powered by the 28volt DC electrical system. If both inverters fail,
the system would continue to operate. However,
the PN-101 system does not have a manual backup mode of operation (FREE) if the slaving system (flux sensor and/or slaving amplifier) fails.
The PN-101 system does have a fast-slave switch
which may be momentarily held in the UP position to initiate the fast-slaving sequence (see fastslaving explanation under increase/decrease
switch above). Except for the differences mentioned here, the basic operation of this system is
virtually identical to that of the Collins MCS-65,
MCS-103, and the Sperry C-14A-43 systems
described previously.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

AVIONICS
INSTALLATION
(SERIES UE)
The standard flight instrument system installation
in the Beech 1900D Airliner encompasses the
fully digitized Collins EFIS-84 four tube configuration and Collins Pro Line II advanced line of
digital technology radios.
The primary display system consists of multicolor cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, remote
display processor unit and system control units
(Figure 16-25). The CRT displays provide conventional electronic attitude director indicator
(EADI) and electronic horizontal situation indicator (EHSI) functions which replace existing
electromechanical flight instruments.

Figure 16-24 Collins PN-101 Compass System

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Through advanced digital techniques, the Collins


Pro Line II radios bring far more information to
the cockpit than ever before made possible. The
result is greater pilot confidence and increased
safety of flight.
Fuel savings and increased payload are achieved
through significant weight reduction in the entire
avionics package. High reliability has been made
possible through the extensive use of microprocessors resulting in fewer total parts for each
instrument and radio.

COCKPIT INSTALLATION
The standard instrument panel layout includes
duplicate EFIS instruments for the pilot and
copilot. The NAV/COM radios are installed on
the center of the panel available to both the pilot
and copilot. The audio control panel is located in
the center of the panel above the radios.

Key Operator Benefits


Collins 4-Tube EFISIdentical pilot/copilot
panels in an airline mature cockpit design with
dual flight directors

State-Of-The-Art Cockpit
4 Tube EFIS
Figure 16-26 shows identical instrument panel
presentations for:

Figure 16-25 EFIS and Controls

Both pilots w/dual flight directors

Low pilot workload for more safety

Less transition training lowers cost

High reliability/fewer moving parts

Cockpit voice recorderstandard

Flight data recorderstandard

Cabin briefer
(heads-up solid state) standard

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 16-26 Instrument Panel (Series UE)

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 16-27 through Figure 16-32 show flight and navigation instruments, and communication
equipment.

Figure 16-27 Attitude and Compass Displays

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 16-28 Compass and Weather Display, Flight


Director Controls, and Course Heading Panel

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 16-29 Radio Magnetic Indicator and Standby Horizon

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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Figure 16-30 Altitude Alerter, Cabin Briefing, and Transponder Controls

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 16-31 ADF, Navigation, and Communication Controls

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Figure 16-32 Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

INTRODUCTION

DESCRIPTION

The pitot-static system is vital to safe operation


of the airplane. This training unit describes the
pitot-static system and identifies the instruments
which are affected by it. Alternate static air use
is discussed, and emergency procedures are
outlined.

The Pitot-Static System section of the workbook


presents a description and discussion of the
pitot-static system. The dual pitot-static system
and alternate static air source are described in
detail. Abnormal indications are outlined, and
performance graphs covering the alternate static
air system will be discussed.

STATIC
SELECTOR
SWITCHES

COPILOT'S PITOT-STATIC TUBE

VSI
ALTIMETER
AIRSPEED IND
VSI

ALTIMETER

ALTERNATE
STATIC SOURCE

STATIC
SELECTOR
SWITCHES
AIRSPEED IND

TEST
PORTS
ALTERNATE
STATIC SOURCE
PILOT'S PITOT-STATIC TUBE

Figure 16-33 Pitot and Static System Schematic

Revision 1

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Pitot and Static System


The pitot and static system (Figure 16-33) provides a source of impact air and static air for
operation of the flight instruments. A heated
pitot-static mast is located on each side of the
upper portion of the nose. Tubing from the left
pitot-static mast is connected to the pilots airspeed indicator, and tubing from the right pitotstatic mast is connected to the copilots airspeed
indicator. The pilots pitot pressure source is
completely independent of the copilots pitot
pressure sourse.
The normal static system provides sources of
static air from both pitot-static probes to both
pilot and copilot flight instruments. The static
ports are incorporated into the sides of each pitotstatic mast and are open to the atmosphere, providing the source for normal static pressure.
Pitot-static lines are interconnected to provide a
redundant static air source to both sides of the airplane. The pilots static air source is completely
independent of the copilots static air source.
If the normal static source fails, alternate static air
lines can be selected as the static air source for
the pilots and copilots flight instruments. If, for
example, ice accumulations obstruct the static air
ports, the alternate source should be selected
(Figure 16-34). The alternate line obtains static
air from the alternate static air ports, located on
the outside lower portion of the fuselage. The
static air selector valve for the pilot is located on
the left side of the instrument panel, below and to
the left of the airspeed indicator.
The copilots static air selector valve is located on
the right side of the instrument panel, just to the
right of the vertical speed indicator. In Series UE
aircraft, these Selector Valves have been relocated to the lower side walls just in front of Pilot
and Copilot seats. When the alternate air source is
required, the toggle switch is moved from the
NORMAL to the ALTERNATE (ALTERNATE
AND DRAIN - Series UE) position on the pilots
or copilots static air selector valve. The need for
drain valves is eliminated (Series UA, UB, UC)
since the alternate static buttons are located in the
lowest point in each line.

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The pilots altimeter, vertical speed indicator, and


airspeed indicator are connected to the pilots
static air source (Figure 16-35). When the system
is switched to the pilots alternate air source, only
the pilots flight instruments are affected. When
using alternate air, the pilots airspeed indicator
and altimeter will read higher than actual, and the
vertical speed indicator will show a momentary
climb.
Alternate static air for copilots airspeed indicator, altimeter, and vertical speed indicator is
selected independently of the pilots normal system. When the alternate static system on the
copilots side is selected, only the copilot flight
instruments are affected. If both pilot and copilot
alternate air sources are selected simultaneously,
they then share a common alternate static air
source.
Airspeed and altimeter indications change when
the alternate static air source is selected. Refer to
the Airspeed Calibration - Alternate System, and
the Altimeter Correction - Alternate System
graphs, in the Performance section of the Pilots
Operating Handbook / Airplane Flight Manual
(UE), for correct indications when using the
alternate static air source.

Figure 16-34 Pilots Static Air Source Valve

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

TEST PORTS
P

TEST PORTS
S

FUSELAGE
STATION 84.00

PITOT-STATIC MAST

PITOT-STATIC MAST

PITOT

PITOT

STATIC

STATIC
P

S2

S1

S1

S2

MANIFOLD

AS

MANIFOLD

ALT

VSI

AS

ALT

VSI

DP

ALTERNATE AIR
SELECTOR VALVE
ALTERNATE
STATIC SOURCE
BUTTON

PP

ALTERNATE AIR
SELECTOR VALVE

PILOT'S

COPILOT'S
P
S2
S1
AS
ALT
VSI
DP
PP

ALTERNATE
STATIC SOURCE
BUTTON

= PITOT SOURCE
= STATIC SOURCE (COPILOT'S)
= STATIC SOURCE (PILOT'S)
= AIRSPEED INDICATOR
= ALTIMETER
= VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR
= DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE
= PNEUMATIC PRESSURE

Figure
22-6.Pitot
Pitotand
andStatic
Static System
UB/C
Figure
16-35
SystemSchematic
Schematic
UB/C

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

F.S. 42.75

NUMBER 1 ADS
P
P S

NUMBER 2 ADS
P
P S

F.S. 57.50

TP

TP

TP

TP

P
ADC
S
F.S. 84.00
COPILOT'S
PITOT-STATIC
MAST
PITOT
P

PILOT'S
PITOT-STATIC
MAST
PITOT
P

S1

S2
S1

STATIC

STATIC

MANIFOLD

ASI

MANIFOLD

ALT

IVSI

PILOT ALTERNATE STATIC


AIR SELECTOR VALVE

ASI

ALT

DPS

DPG

IVSI

ASI

COPILOT ALTERNATE STATIC


AIR SELECTOR VALVE

S
PILOT
ALTERNATE
STATIC
PORT

LEGEND
PILOT'S PITOT
PILOT'S STATIC
COPILOT'S PITOT
COPILOT'S STATIC

S
P
S2
S1
ASI
ALT
IVSI
DPG
PPI
DPS
TP
DV
ADS
FDR
ADC

S2

= STATIC PRESSURE
= PITOT PRESSURE
= STATIC PRESSURE (COPILOT'S)
= STATIC PRESSURE (PILOT'S)
= AIR SPEED INDICATOR
= ALTIMETER
= INSTANT VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR
= DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE GAGE
= PNEUMATIC PRESSURE INDICATOR
= DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE INDICATOR
= TEST PORT
= DRAIN VALVE
= AIR DATA SENSOR
= FLIGHT DATA RECORDER
= AIR DATA COMPUTER

S
F.S. 120.00

COPILOT
ALTERNATE
STATIC
PORT
DV
F.S. 468.25
DV
FDR

F.S. 531.00

Figure 16-36 Pitot and Static System Sytematic UE

16-34

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Figure 16-37 Airspeed Calibration - Alternate System Graph

A sample Airspeed Calibration - Alternate System graph from the Performance section of the
POH/AFM is shown in Figure 16-37. When
either system is switched to ALTERNATE, use
this graph to determine the Indicated Airspeed
required to maintain a desired Calibrated Airspeed. For example, to maintain a CAS of 125
knots with Approach Flaps and Gear Down, an
IAS of about 130 knots is required.

maintain an Indicated Altitude of 15,290 feet


MSL. The graph shows that in the alternate static
mode, the actual airplane altitude is 285 feet
lower than the altimeter indicates. In general,
when using the alternate static air system for
flight in the 1900 Airliner, indicated airspeeds
will be higher than calibrated airspeed and indicated altitudes will be higher than actual for any
given aircraft configuration.

A sample Altimeter Correction - Alternate System graph is shown in Figure 16-38. In this
sample, to maintain an actual altitude of 15,000
feet MSL at 200 KIAS, it would be necessary to

When the alternate static air source is not needed,


ensure that the STATIC AIRSOURCE valve
switches are in the NORMAL position.

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Figure 16-38 Altimeter Correction - Alternate System Graph

The pitot-static masts can be heated electrically


for flight in icing conditions. As a precautionary
measure, it is customary to have the pitot heat on
during high altitude flight when temperatures are
below 5C. It is not advisable to operate the pitot
heat system on the ground except for testing or
for short intervals to remove ice or snow from the
mast. Operating the pitot heat on the ground for
extended periods can damage the internal heating
elements in the pitot-static masts. Two circuit
breaker switches on the pilots right subpanel (ice
protection control panel) control power to the
heating elements in the pitot-static masts (Figure
16-39). Ice protection is also provided for the
alternate static air system. The alternatic static
heat switch, also a circuit breaker type switch, is
located on the pilots subpanel.

16-36

Figure 16-39 Ice Protection Control Panel

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CHAPTER 17
MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS
CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 17-1
GENERAL ............................................................................................................................ 17-1
OXYGEN SYSTEM ............................................................................................................. 17-3
Passenger Oxygen Deployment System........................................................................ 17-4
Flight Crew Oxygen Masks........................................................................................... 17-5
Oxygen Supply Cylinders ............................................................................................. 17-5
Oxygen Duration ........................................................................................................... 17-6
Servicing the Oxygen System ....................................................................................... 17-8
Physiological Training .................................................................................................. 17-9

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ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure

Title

Page

17-1

Oxygen System Schematic .................................................................................... 17-2

17-2

Oxygen Cylinder Installation................................................................................. 17-3

17-3

Oxygen System Controls ....................................................................................... 17-4

17-4

Passenger Oxygen Mask........................................................................................ 17-5

17-5

Crew Oxygen Mask ............................................................................................... 17-5

17-6

Oxygen Fill Valve and Gage ................................................................................. 17-6

17-7

Oxygen Pressure Gage........................................................................................... 17-6

17-8

Percent of Usable Oxygen Capacity Graph ........................................................... 17-7

17-9

Oxygen Duration Chart.......................................................................................... 17-7

17-10

FAA Altitude Chamber........................................................................................ 17-10

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CHAPTER 17
MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS
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ANTI-ICE
ON

12
16

8
4
0

RESET
TEST

OIL

NO 1 FUEL
TRANS

BLOWER
OFF
ENG 1
CHIP

XMSN
OIL

NO 1 FUEL
LOW

NO 1 FUEL
FILTER

90 BOX
OIL

BATT
HOT

NO 1 BATT
SYS

GEN 1
HOT

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INTRODUCTION
Pilot and passenger comfort and safety are of prime importance in operating the 1900 Airliner.
Flight crewmembers must be prepared to use the oxygen system safely and effectively, when
necessary, within the requirements of applicable Federal Aviation Regulations.

GENERAL
This chapter deals with the oxygen system. It
includes a general system description, operational considerations, and a discussion of
emergency procedures. Use of the oxygen duration chart is demonstrated for a variety of flight
situations.

FAR requirements for crew and passenger needs,


and types and availability of oxygen masks, are
discussed. Servicing procedures, referenced in
the POH/AFM, are also included.

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Figure 17-1 Oxygen System Schematic

17-2

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OXYGEN SYSTEM
The oxygen system (Figure 17-1) provides adequate oxygen flow for pressure altitudes up to
25,000 feet. Oxygen duration charts (POH/AFM
Normal Procedures) for this system are based on
a constant flow rate of 3.8 liters per minute (lpm)
delivered to crew masks at all altitudes, and altitude-compensated flow delivered to passenger
masks.
The oxygen system utilizes two interconnected
76.6-cubic-foot (77.9 on UE) cylinders mounted
on either side of the nose under the floor of the
nose compartment (Figure 17-2). Two cylinder
pressure gages are mounted on the copilots
right subpanel. Pressure from the cylinders is

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

controlled by a regulator mounted on each cylinder, and by an altitude-compensated, constantflow regulator mounted on the cabin side of the
forward pressure bulkhead.
Both cylinders are activated simultaneously by a
push-pull handle (OXYGEN PULL ON) on the
pilots subpanel, in the upper left corner (lower
left corner on UE) (Figure 17-3). The handle controls pilot oxygen flow through the shutoff valve.
The OXYGEN PULL ON handle must be activated before the CABIN OXYGEN PULL ON
control can supply oxygen to all 19 passenger
outlets. The cabin oxygen control is mounted on
the left lower portion of the pilots subpanel. This
control has been relocated below the pilots control column on Series UE.

Figure 17-2 Oxygen Cylinder Installation

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Figure 17-3 Oxygen System Controls

PASSENGER OXYGEN
DEPLOYMENT SYSTEM
Oxygen is delivered to passenger masks through
an altitude compensator, which varies the flow
rate from a minimum of 0.1 lpm at 1,000 feet to
2.9 lpm at 25,000 feet.
When the cabin oxygen control knob is pulled
out, a surge valve momentarily allows high pressure to reach passenger mask container
assemblies located at elbow-level for seated passengers (Figure 17-4), and overhead for the

17-4

center aft cabin passenger. On Series UE, the


access panel is located at the outboard side of the
cabin, above each window in the light assembly.
High pressure causes a plunger at the mask
assembly to open the oxygen access panel, allowing flow to the outlet. In order to initiate oxygen
flow to the masks, a lanyard valve pin must be
pulled out. This is accomplished by pulling the
lanyard tight. The pin must be reinserted or the
control must be pushed back in to stop the flow
of oxygen.

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Figure 17-4 Passenger Oxygen Mask

FLIGHT CREW OXYGEN


MASKS
Crew mask oxygen pressure is regulated through
an orifice in the mask container assembly (Figure
17-5). Oxygen is available to the crew at a constant flow rate of 3.8 liters per minute, regardless
of altitude (UA, UB, UC). A lanyard pin must be
removed from the mask assembly to activate
oxygen flow to the mask. Again, as with passenger masks, this is accomplished by pulling the
lanyard tight. Reinsert the pin to stop the flow.

If either cylinders pressure exceeds 2,775 psi, its


relief cap will blow out, relieving the pressure in
both cylinders and providing a visual cue that
overpressure has occurred. The cap must be
replaced before the oxygen system can be reserviced. Two cylinder pressure gages, mounted on

On Series UE, optional diluter-demand crew


masks are available to provide oxygen at approximately 2.5 lpm at 10,000 feet and 5.0 lpm at
25,000 feet.

OXYGEN SUPPLY CYLINDERS


Both oxygen cylinders are serviced through a
single filler valve covered by an access door,
located below the left side of the nose baggage
compartment (Figure 17-6). A gage adjacent to
the filler valve is used for checking system pressure during filling. High-pressure overboard
relief indicators are located on either side of the
lower nose fuselage.
Figure 17-5 Crew Oxygen Mask

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the right side of the copilots instrument subpanel, indicate pressure in each of the cylinders.
A third gage, indicating oxygen pressure supplied to the cabin passenger masks, is on the
upper right side of the copilots instrument panel
(Figure 17-7).

OXYGEN DURATION

Figure 17-6 Oxygen Fill Valve and Gage

During preflight, the pilot should determine that


available oxygen is sufficient to supply both crew
and passengers during an unpressurized descent
from 25,000 to 12,500 feet (10,000 on UE). Full
system pressure is 1,850 50 psi, which is sufficient to supply pilot, copilot, and 19 passengers

Figure 17-7 Oxygen Pressure Gage

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for 60 minutes at 25,000 feet. Oxygen pressure


can be determined by reading the cockpit gages.
To determine the percent of usable oxygen, note
system pressure and refer to the Percent of
Usable Oxygen Capacity Graph (Figure 17-8).

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

The Oxygen Duration Chart (Figure 17-9) is


based on 3.8 lpm delivered to the crew and altitude-compensated flow delivered to passengers. If
the two gages in the cockpit indicate different
pressures, use the average of the two for all calculations. To calculate total minutes of oxygen
available, obtain the duration for a full bottle
from Figure 17-9, considering the number of persons aboard and aircraft altitude, then multiply
full bottle duration by percent of full bottle
available.

Oxygen Duration Computation

Figure 17-8 Percent of Usable Oxygen


Capacity Graph

To compute oxygen available at 25,000 feet


cruise altitude, 32 F, for 18 passengers, the following example assumes that one pressure gage
indicates 1,300 psi and the other indicates 1,600
psi. Average these two readings to 1,450 psi.
Enter the graph in Figure 17-8 at 1,450 psig, and
read across to the 32 F intersection; then follow
the graph down to read 82% of usable capacity.
Finally, multiply 82% by the duration in minutes
obtained from the chart in Figure 17-9. With 18
passengers at 25,000 feet, 64 minutes oxygen
would be available if both oxygen bottles were
full; however, since the system is only partially
full, it is necessary to compute 82% of the 64
minutes. The result is 52.48 minutes of oxygen
available for pilot, copilot, and 18 passengers.

Figure 17-9 Oxygen Duration Chart


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Time of Useful Consciousness


If decompression is experienced at high altitude,
hypoxia can result from lack of oxygen. The
bodys primary need is oxygen to keep the brain
and other body tissues functioning properly.
Early symptoms of hypoxia, such as an increased
sense of well-being, quickly give way to slow
reactions, impaired thinking ability, unusual
fatigue, and a dull headache. If pressurization is
lost, the crew must act quickly to don oxygen
masks and to provide oxygen to the passengers
before hypoxia can cause impairment.
The following sets forth the average time of useful consciousness (time from onset of hypoxia
until loss of effective performance) at various
altitudes:

The following precautions should be observed


when purging or servicing the oxygen system:

Avoid any operation that could create


sparks. Keep all burning cigarettes or fire
away from the vicinity of the airplane
when oxygen is in use.

Inspect the filler connection for cleanliness before attaching it to the filler valve.

Make sure that hands, tools, and clothing


are clean, particularly of grease or oil.
These contaminants are extremely dangerous in the vicinity of oxygen.

As a further precaution against fire, open


and close all oxygen valves slowly during
filling.

Use only aviators breathing oxygen


(MIL-0-27210) for servicing the oxygen
system. Do not use oxygen intended for
medical purposes or for such industrial
uses as welding. Such oxygen may contain excessive moisture that could freeze
oxygen system lines and valves.

35,000 feet ...................... 1/2 to 1 minute

30,000 feet ....................... 1 to 2 minutes

28,000 feet ................. 2 1/2 to 3 minutes

25,000 feet ....................... 3 to 5 minutes

22,000 feet ..................... 5 to 10 minutes

12,000 to 18,000 feet ............ 30 minutes


or more

Individual reactions may differ from those shown


above. The POH Emergency Descent procedure
should be used to quickly descend to an altitude
more compatible with human needs, and to
reduce the potential for experiencing hypoxia.

SERVICING THE OXYGEN


SYSTEM
The oxygen system is serviced through a filler
valve on the fuselage, below the left side of the
nose baggage compartment (see Figure 17-6). A
cylinder pressure gage at the filler port is used to
monitor pressure indications during servicing.

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To recharge the oxygen system, remove the protective cap from the filler valve, and attach the
hose from an oxygen recharging unit to the filler
valve. Make sure that both the airplane oxygen
system and the servicing equipment are properly
grounded before servicing.
To prevent overheating, fill the oxygen system
slowly by adjusting the recharging rate with the
pressure regulating valve on the recharging unit.
All oxygen cylinders should be filled to 1,850 psi
at 70 F. Pressure may be increased an additional
3.5 psi for each degree of increase in temperature; similarly, for each degree of drop in
temperature, reduce the pressure for the cylinder
by 3.5 psi. When the system is properly charged,
disconnect the filler hose from the filler valve,
and replace the protective cap.

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Oxygen Cylinder Retesting

Where Can You Get It?

Oxygen cylinders used in the airplane are of two


types. Lightweight cylinders, stamped 3HT on
the side-plate, must be hydrostatically tested
every three years and stamped with the retest
date. This bottle has a service life of 4,380 pressurizations or 15 years, whichever occurs first,
and then must be discarded. Regular-weight cylinders, stamped 3Aor 3AA, must be
hydrostatically tested every five years and
stamped with the retest date. Service life on these
cylinders is not limited.

A resident physiological training course at the


FAAs Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City is
devoted entirely to problems in civil aviation.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in Houston, Texas, and many
military installations conduct resident programs
for non-government personnel.

Oxygen System Purging


Purging may remove offensive odors from the
oxygen system. The system should also be
purged any time system pressure drops below 50
psi, or when the lines have been left open. To
purge the system, connect a recharging unit, and
allow oxygen to flow through lines and outlets
until offensive odors have been carried away.
If any offensive odor still lingers, continue purging the system for an additional hour. If odors
remain, the cylinder must be replaced. After
purging, return the cylinder valve to its normal
position, and service the system.

PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAINING
What Is It?
Physiological training is a program directed
toward understanding and surviving in the flight
environment. It covers problems occurring at
both high and low altitudes and recommends procedures to prevent or minimize human-factor
errors which occur in flight.

Who Needs It?


The course primarily benefits pilots. It is also
recommended for other aircrew personnel, air
traffic controllers, aviation medical examiners,
and other national aviation system personnel.

How Long Is the Course?


The course takes one full day.

What Is Contained in the


Course?
Many topics are covered. They include the environment to which a person is exposed each time
he flies, physiological functions of the body at
ground level, and alteration of some of these
functions by changes in the environment. The
higher one flies the more critical are changes in
the environment. The higher one flies the more
critical is the need for extra oxygen. After the
course, the trainee will understand why pilots
cannot fly safely at altitudes in excess of 12,000
feet for prolonged time periods without some
aideither from supplemental oxygen or pressurized aircraft. Both oxygen equipment and
pressurization are discussed.
When man is confronted with certain stressful
situations, he tends to breathe too rapidly. This
topic (hyperventilation) and methods of control
are discussed. Ear pain on descent and other
problems with body gases are described, and procedures to prevent or minimize gas problems are
explained. Alcohol, tobacco, and drugs are also
discussed as they apply to flying. Vertigo is discussed and demonstrated so that the trainee will
understand why a non-current instrument pilot
should never attempt to fly in clouds or other
weather situations where visibility is reduced.
All resident courses include an altitude chamber
flight (Figure 17-10), where the trainee may
experience his individual symptoms of oxygen

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deficiency and rapid decompression. This simulated flight will demonstrate that:

Oxygen equipment will protect an individual from oxygen deficiency.

The pilot can experience and recognize


symptoms identical to those in actual
flight situations, and can learn to take
necessary action to prevent loss of judgment and consciousness.

Decompression is not dangerous, provided necessary protective actions are


taken afterwards.

What Are the Prerequisites for


Training?
Trainees must have a valid FAA Medical Certificate. When training is scheduled at military
facilities, a training fee of five dollars is required.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Written parental consent is required for those


under age 21.

How Do You Apply for Training?


All requests for the training course must be coordinated with:
Physiological Operations and Training Section,
AC-143
FAA Aeronautical Center
P.O. Box 25082
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73125

How Can You Get Further


Information?
Write to the Physiological Operations and
Training Section at the above address, or phone
(405) 954-4837.

Figure 17-10 FAA Altitude Chamber

17-10

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APPENDIX
SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS,
AND TERMINOLOGY
CONTENTS
Page
AIRSPEED........................................................................................................................ APP-1
METEOROLOGICAL...................................................................................................... APP-2
POWER............................................................................................................................. APP-2
CONTROL AND INSTRUMENT ................................................................................... APP-3
GRAPH AND TABULAR................................................................................................ APP-3
WEIGHT AND BALANCE ............................................................................................. APP-4
AVIONICS........................................................................................................................ APP-5

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APPENDIX
SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS,
AND TERMINOLOGY
AIRSPEED
CASCalibrated airspeed is the indicated airspeed of an airplane corrected for position and
instrument error. Calibrated airspeed is equal to
true airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level.
GSGroundspeed is the speed of an airplane
relative to the ground.
IASIndicated airspeed is the speed of an airplane as shown on the airspeed indicator when
corrected for instrument error. IAS values published in this manual assume zero instrument
error.

VFEMaximum flap extended speed is the highest speed permissible with wing flaps in a
prescribed extended position.
VLEMaximum landing gear extended speed is
the maximum speed at which an airplane can be
safely flown with the landing gear extended.
VLOMaximum landing gear operating speed is
the maximum speed at which the landing gear
can be safely extended or retracted.

TASTrue airspeed is the airspeed of an airplane relative to undisturbed air, which is the
CAS corrected for altitude, temperature, and
compressibility.

VMCAAir minimum control speed is the minimum flight speed at which the airplane is
directionally controllable, as determined in
accordance with Federal Aviation Regulations.
The airplane certification conditions include: one
engine becoming inoperative and windmilling, a
5 bank toward the operative engine, takeoff
power on operative engine, landing gear up, flaps
in takeoff position, and most rearward CG. For
some conditions of weight and altitude, stall can
be encountered at speeds above VMCA, as established by the certification procedure described
above, in which event stall speed must be
regarded as the limit of effective directional
control.

V1Takeoff decision speed.

VMCGGround minimum control speed.

V2Takeoff safety speed.

VMO/MMOMaximum operating limit speed is


the speed limit that may not be deliberately
exceeded in normal flight operation. V is
expressed in knots and M in Mach number.

KCASCalibrated airspeed expressed in knots.


KIASIndicated airspeed expressed in knots.
MMach number is the ratio of true airspeed to
the speed of sound.

VAManeuvering speed is the maximum speed


at which application of full available aerodynamic control will not overstress the airplane.
VFDesign flap speed is the highest speed permissible at which wing flaps may be actuated.

VRRotation speed.
VSStalling speed or the minimum steady flight
speed at which the airplane is controllable.

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V SO Stalling speed or the minimum steady


flight speed at which the airplane is controllable
in the landing configuration.
VSSEIntentional one-engine-inoperative speed
is a speed above both V MCA and stall speed,
selected to provide a margin of lateral and directional control when one engine is suddenly
rendered inoperative. Intentional failing of one
engine below this speed is not recommended.
VXBest angle-of-climb speed is the airspeed
which delivers the greatest gain of altitude in the
shortest possible horizontal distance.
V Y Best rate-of-climb speed is the airspeed
which delivers the greatest gain in altitude in the
shortest possible time.

METEOROLOGICAL
Altimeter settingBarometric pressure corrected to sea level.
Indicated pressure altitudeThe number actually read from an altimeter when the barometric
subscale has been set to 29.92 inches of mercury
(1013.2 millibars).
IOATIndicated outside air temperature is the
temperature value read from an indicator.
ISAInternational standard atmosphere in
which:

Air is a dry, perfect gas.

Temperature at sea level is 59 Fahrenheit


(15 Celsius).

Pressure at sea level is 29.92 inches of


mercury (1013.2 millibars).

Temperature gradient from sea level to


the altitude at which the temperature is
69.7 F (56.5 C), is 0.003566 F
(0.00198 C) per foot, and is zero above
the altitude.

APP-2

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

OATOutside air temperature is the free air


static temperature, obtained either from the temp e r a t u r e i n d i c a t o r ( I OAT ) a d j u s t e d f o r
compressibility effects or from ground meteorological sources.
Pressure altitudeAltitude measured from standard sea level pressure (29.92 inches Hg) by a
pressure (barometric) altimeter. It is the indicated
pressure altitude corrected for position and
instrument error. In this manual, altimeter instrument errors are assumed to be zero. Position
errors may be obtained from the altimeter correction graphs.
Station pressureActual atmospheric pressure at
field elevation.
Temperature compressibility effectsAn error in
the indication of temperature caused by airflow
over the temperature probe. The error varies,
depending on altitude and airspeed.
WindThe wind velocities recorded as variables
on the charts of this manual are to be understood
as the headwind or tailwind components of the
reported winds.

POWER
Beta rangeThe region of the power lever control which is aft of the idle stop and forward of
reversing range, where blade pitch angle can be
changed without a change of gas generator rpm.
Cruise climbCruise climb is the maximum
power approved for normal climb. This power is
torque or temperature (ITT) limited.
High idleHigh idle is obtained by placing the
condition lever in HIGH IDLE position. This
limits the power operation to a minimum N1 of
70% (72% for UE).
Low idleLow idle is obtained by placing the
condition lever in LOW IDLE position. This limits the power operation to a minimum N1 of 58%
(65% for UE).

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Maximum continuous powerMaximum continuous power is the highest power rating not
limited by time. Use of this power setting is
intended for emergency situations at the discretion of the pilot.

Power lever (gas generator N1 rpm)The power


lever serves to modulate engine power from full
reverse thrust to takeoff. The flight idle position
represents the lowest recommended level of
power for flight operation.

Maximum cruise powerMaximum cruise


power is the highest power rating for cruise and
is not time limited.

Propeller control lever (NP rpm)The propeller


control is used to control the rpm setting of the
propeller governor. Movement of the lever results
in an increase or decrease in propeller rpm. Propeller feathering is the result of lever movement
beyond the detents at the low rpm (high pitch)
end of the lever travel.

ReverseReverse thrust is obtained by lifting


the power levers and moving them aft of the
ground fine range and moving them aft of the
Beta range to the second detent.
SHPShaft horsepower.
Minimum takeoff powerMinimum takeoff
power is the minimum power which must be
available for takeoff without exceeding the
engine limitations.
Takeoff powerTakeoff power is the maximum
power rating and is limited to a maximum of
5 minutes operation. Use of this rating should be
limited to normal takeoff operations and emergency situations.

CONTROL AND
INSTRUMENT
Condition lever (fuel shutoff lever)The fuel
shutoff lever actuates a valve in the fuel control
unit which controls the flow of fuel at the fuel
control outlet and regulates the idle range from
low to high idle.

Propeller governorThe propeller governor


senses changes in rpm and hydraulically changes
propeller blade angle to compensate for the
changes in rpm. Constant propeller rpm is
thereby maintained at the selected rpm setting.
Propeller ground fineThe aft stop of the beta
range. From here the power levers must be lifted
to enter the reverse range. Propeller ground fine
is used to provide deceleration on the ground
during landing and accelerate-stop conditions by
taking advantage of the maximum available propeller drag without creating negative thrust.
TorquemeterThe torquemeter system indicates the shaft output torque. Differential
pressure from the mechanism within the reduction gearcase causes a bellows and servo system
to indicate torque on a meter. Instrument readout
is in foot-pounds.

GRAPH AND TABULAR

ITT (interstage turbine temperature)Eight


probes, wired in parallel, sense the temperature
between the compressor and power turbines, and
send the reading to the ITT indicator in degrees
centigrade x 100.

Accelerate-goAccelerate-go is the distance to


accelerate to takeoff decision speed (V1), experience an engine failure, continue accelerating to
liftoff, then climb and accelerate in order to
achieve takeoff safety speed (V2) at 35 feet above
the runway.

N 1 tachometer (gas generator rpm)The N1


tachometer registers the rpm of the gas generator
in percent, with 100% representing a gas generator speed of 37,468 rpm.

Accelerate-stopAccelerate-stop is the distance


to accelerate to takeoff decision speed (V1) and
then bring the airplane to a stop.

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Route segmentRoute segment is a part of a


route. Each end of that part is identified by a:

AGLAbove ground level.


Best angle-of-climbThe best angle-of-climb
delivers the greatest gain of altitude in the shortest possible horizontal distance with gear and
flaps up.
Best rate-of-climbThe best rate-of-climb
delivers the greatest gain of altitude in the shortest possible time with gear and flaps up.
ClearwayA clearway is an area beyond the airport runway not less than 500 feet wide, centrally
located about the extended centerline of the runway, and under the control of the airport
authorities. The clearway is expressed in terms of
a clear plane, extending from the end of the runway with an upward slope not exceeding 1.25%,
above which no object nor any terrain protrudes.
However, threshold lights may protrude above
the plane if their height above the end of the runway is 26 inches or less, and if they are located to
each side of the runway.
Climb gradientClimb gradient is the ratio of
the change in height during a portion of a climb
to the horizontal distance traversed in the same
time interval.
Demonstrated crosswindDemonstrated crosswind is the maximum 90 crosswind component
for which adequate control of the airplane during
takeoff and landing was actually demonstrated
during certification. This is not intended to limit
operations in crosswind conditions.
MEAMinimum enroute altitude.
Net gradient of climbNet gradient of climb is
the gradient of climb with the flaps in the takeoff
position and the landing gear retracted. Net
indicates that the actual gradients of climb have
been reduced by 8% to allow for turbulence and
pilot technique. The net gradient of climb graphs
are constructed so that the value(s) obtained
using the airport pressure altitude and outside air
temperature will be the average gradient from 35
feet above the runway up to 1,500 feet above the
runway.

APP-4

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Geographic location, or

Point at which a definite radio fix can be


established

Takeoff flight pathTakeoff flight path is the


minimum gradient of climb required to clear
obstacles in excess of 35 feet, measured horizontally from reference zero, and vertically at the
altitude above the runway. Reference zero is the
point where the airplane has reached 35 feet
above the runway, as determined from the accelerate-go graphs.

WEIGHT AND BALANCE


Approved loading envelopeThose combinations of airplane weight and center of gravity
which define the limits beyond which loading is
not approved.
ArmArm is the distance from the center of
gravity of an object to a line about which
moments are to be computed.
Basic empty weightBasic empty weight is the
weight of an empty airplane, including full
engine oil and unusable fuel. This equals empty
weight plus the weight of unusable fuel, and the
weight of all the engine oil required to fill the
lines and tanks. Basic empty weight is the basic
configuration from which loading data is
determined.
Center of gravityCenter of gravity is the point
at which the weight of an object may be considered concentrated for weight and balance
purposes.
CG limitsCG limits are the extreme center-ofgravity locations within which the airplane must
be operated at a given weight.
DatumDatum is a vertical plane perpendicular
to the airplanes longitudinal axis from which
fore and aft (usually aft) measurements are made
for weight and balance purposes.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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Empty weightEmpty weight is the weight of


an empty airplane before any oil or fuel has been
added. This includes all permanently installed
equipment, fixed ballast, full hydraulic fluid, full
chemical toilet fluid, and all other operating fluids full, except that the engines, tanks, and lines
do not contain any engine oil or fuel.
Engine oilEngine oil indicates that portion of
the engine oil which can be drained from the
engine.
Jack pointJack points are points on the airplane identified by the manufacturer as suitable
for supporting the airplane for weighing or other
purposes.
Landing weightLanding weight is the weight
of the airplane at landing touchdown.
Leveling pointsLeveling points are those
points which are used during the weighing process to level the airplane.
Maximum weightMaximum weight is the
greatest weight allowed by design, structural,
performance, or other limitations.
Maximum zero fuel weightThe maximum
weight allowable of the loaded aircraft (including
payload) before adding fuel. Any weight above
the value given must be loaded as fuel.
MomentMoment is a measure of the rotational
tendency of a weight, about a specified line,
mathematically equal to the product of the
weight and the arm.
PayloadPayload is the weight of occupants,
cargo, and baggage.
PPHPounds per hour.
Ramp weightRamp weight is the airplane
weight at engine start, assuming all loading is
completed.
StationStation is the longitudinal distance
from some point to the zero datum or zero fuselage station.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Takeoff weightTakeoff weight is the weight of


the airplane at liftoff from the runway.
TareTare is the apparent weight which may be
indicated by a scale before any load is applied.
Unusable fuelUnusable fuel is the fuel remaining after consumption of usable fuel.
Usable fuelUsable fuel is that portion of the
total fuel which is available for consumption as
determined in accordance with applicable regulatory standards.
Useful loadUseful load is the difference
between the airplane ramp weight and the basic
empty weight.
Zero fuel weightZero fuel weight is the airplane ramp weight minus the weight of fuel on
board.

AVIONICS
ADF modeA mode of automatic direction
finder operation allowing the ADF needle to
point to the station.

NOTE
In this mode of operation, on many
receivers the audio fidelity is severely
limited.
Air data computerAn electronic system primarily designed to gather information for an
autopilot flight director system with outputs
relating to pitot and static data. Possible information from this system includes: pressure altitude,
indicated airspeed, total air temperature, static air
temperature, and other information related to
autopilot operation.
Altitude alert lightAn amber light associated
with an altitude alerter system. This light will be
illuminated prior to intercepting a preselected
altitude, or if for any reason the aircraft strays
beyond a preset limit from the selected altitude
once the aircraft has intercepted the altitude.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

APP-5

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Altitude preselectorAn autopilot flight director


subsystem that allows a pilot to preselect the altitude to which he desires to climb or descend. The
controlling mechanism for an altitude preselect
system is normally combined with the same
device which controls the altitude alerter system.
AmplifierA basic type of electronic device that
seeks to make an electrical signal greater in
strength. A public address system, for instance, is
a type of amplifier. Amplifying devices are typically tubes or transistors.
AnalogA type of electronic circuitry that is
characterized by smooth, continuous operation
rather than discrete steps, as would be observed
with digitally operated equipment.
Angle-of-attack (AOA) indicatorA supplemental flight instrumentation system that attempts to
read out to the pilot the angle-of-attack or deck
angle information. Several variations of this system are available.
Angular deviationA means of showing displacement from a selected course either to or
from a VOR station, TACAN, or NDB, showing
displacement from the desired course in terms of
angle. This is commonly used with the VOR system having a normal course width of 10 on each
side of the course.
AnnunciatorAn indicator light with a message.
An annunciator makes an announcement as to the
specific status of a system or subsystem.
ANT (antenna) modeThis mode of ADF operation allows improved audio fidelity in order to
listen to the music or voice programs of an AM
broadcast station. However, the ADF needle
operation is defeated in this mode of operation.
Area navigation system (RNAV)A system of
direct point-to-point navigation having four further subclassifications:

APP-6

Course line computerA computer util i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m VO R a n d


colocated DME stations, that allows the
operator to change the location of the

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

VOR station from its physical position to


wherever the operator wants.

OMEGA/VLF
definition.

Inertial navigation systemSee related


definition.

Loran systemOperationally similar to


an OMEGA/VLF system.

systemSee

related

AsymptoticA design characteristic of an autopilot or flight director system. The function of


this characteristic is to allow the autopilot to
attempt to intercept a given course or altitude
without overshooting. This is done by continuously reducing the intercept angle as the aircraft
approaches the selected ground track or altitude.
AttenuationThe process of electrically reducing the size of a radio or audio signal (i.e., to turn
down or make smaller.)
Attitude director indicator (ADI) (flight director
indicator)This instrument combines the basic
functions of an attitude indicator with the steering commands received from the flight director
system.
Attitude indicator (artificial horizon)A gyroscopically controlled instrument used to display
the aircrafts pitch and roll attitude relative to the
earths surface. The gyro used to display this
information may be contained within the case of
the displayed instrument, or it may receive its
information from a remotely located attitude
gyro.
Audio filtersAn electronic means of removing
a portion of the audio which the pilot does not
desire to listen to. The pilot may choose to
remove either the voice portion or the Morse
code identifier of a VOR or an ADF system.
Audio selector switchesThe system of
switches which allows one or several audio syst e m s t o b e p i p e d - i n t o t h e s p e a ke r o r
headphones of an aircraft.

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Audio systemThe electronic system that serves


as a switchboard and amplification system for the
varied receivers that require the audio to be funneled to the speaker or headphones.
Autopilot/flight director modes:

Vertical modesVertical modes control


changes in the pitch attitude of the aircraft using the elevator servo. Examples
of vertical modes are: altitude hold, altitude preselect, indicated airspeed hold,
and vertical speed hold.
Lateral modesLateral modes control
autopilot operation by controlling the
aileron and rudder servos. Examples of
lateral modes are: heading hold, navigation modes and submodes (e.g., en route
nav tracking, approach, backcourse, etc.).

Autopilot/flight director submodeGenerally


speaking, this concept represents two subclassifications of operation within a given mode.
Namely:

ArmThe process of activating a system


or preparing it to operate at a future time.
For instance, if you push the Nav button
to track a specific radial from a VOR station, but the CDI needle is displaced fullscale to the left or right at the moment
you push the Nav button, then the autopilot flight director system will initially be
activated in the nav-arm mode while the
aircraft continues to intercept the selected
radial.
CaptureA submode allowing the autopilot flight director system to track a
specified lateral or vertical reference
(e.g., altitude or glide slope as a vertical
mode; VOR or localizer course as a lateral mode).

Avionics master circuit breakerThe circuit


breaker that supplies power to the avionics master switch in Beechcraft factory-installed
avionics packages on Baron, Bonanza, Duke, and
King Air installations. This circuit breaker serves
as a backup means of activating the avionics sys-

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

tem should the avionics master switch fail for any


reason.
Avionics master switchA central on/off power
switch for the entire avionics package in an aircraft. This switch conveniently allows the pilot to
turn on the entire avionics package by turning on
only one switch.
Beat frequency oscillator (BFO)A device used
on an ADF receiver that generates a tone allowing the pilot to identify the Morse code being
transmitted by some nondirectional beacons.

NOTE
This type of transmitter is not
employed in the United States.
CarrierThat portion of the transmitted radio
energy which carries the useful information
(i.e., modulation).
Compass system slavingThe process of automatically aligning the directional gyro in a
compass system with the earths magnetic field to
display the aircrafts magnetic heading. When the
compass system is initially powered, slaving
occurs at a fast rate to quickly align the compass
system with magnetic north. Once the fast-slaving rate is accomplished, the system
automatically goes into a slow-slaving rate for
continuous operation. It will correct for precession errors of the compass system up to a
maximum error of about 3 per minute.
ConcentricTwo or more knobs mounted on
one common system of shafts having the same
axis. For example, most frequency selector knobs
used in all avionic systems employ concentric
knobs in the interest of conserving panel space.
Course deviation indicator (CDI)An indicator
used with a VOR/localizer receiver that shows
only left/right deviation and to/from information.
This instrument has a knob called an OBS knob,
meaning omnibearing selector, which allows
the pilot to choose the course to or from a VOR
station.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

APP-7

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PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Course knobThe name applied to the omni


bearing selector on an HSI type of instrument.
The course knob is attached to the resolver and a
course pointer on the HSI indicator.

Fast erectA mode of operation whereby an


attitude indicator may be quickly realigned with
the earths horizon if for any reason the gyro has
precessed or tumbled.

Course widthDisplacement left or right of the


desired course:

Flux valve (flux gate)A component of a slaved


compass system that senses the earths magnetic
field and converts this information into an electrical signal representing magnetic north.

AngularDegrees left or right of the


desired course. Course width using the
VOR system is 10 on each side of the
desired course.
LinearIn the en route mode most
course line computer RNAVs have a
course width of 5 nautical miles. In the
approach mode most course line computer RNAVs have a course width of
1 1/4 nautical miles on each side of the
centerline.

Cross sidetoneSending sidetone audio across


the cockpit from one side to the other; for example, this allows the pilot to hear what the copilot
is saying on the transmitter. Cross sidetone may
be heard through either the phones or the
speaker.
DigitalA type of electronic circuitry technology that operates in specific steps, as opposed to
the smooth, sweeping type of operation
employed in analog.
Double-cue flight director system (cross
pointer)A command presentation system using
one vertical bar to indicate commanded roll-attitude instructions and one horizontal bar to
indicate commanded pitch instructions.
Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS)A
type of flight instrumentation system employing
cathode ray tubes (television screens) to display
information.
Emergency/normal switchIn the event of the
failure of the audio system, this switch (when
placed in the emergency position) allows audio
from the aircraft receivers to be piped directly
to the headphones.

APP-8

Free operationA mode of operation for a


slaved compass system whereby the directional
gyro is disconnected from the slaving system.
Normally this would be used when the slaving
system fails or for operation in the polar regions
where the earths magnetic field will not permit
normal slaved operation. The concept here is that
the directional gyro is free of its master, magnetic
north.
GainThe relative amount of amplification of a
radio receiver. A gain control is commonly used
on a radar indicator to control the relative amount
of amplification of the received radar echo. This
allows the pilot to optimize the information displayed, especially when the radar is used for
terrain mapping purposes.
Go-around modeAn autopilot flight director
mode intended to be used during a missed
approach. This mode will command a pitch-up
attitude appropriate for a climbout with an associated wings-level command. The autopilot may
or may not remain engaged during the go-around
mode, depending upon the type of autopilot
installed in a specific aircraft.
Gyro erectionThe process of an attitude gyro
becoming aligned with the earths horizon or,
viewed in another way, aligned with true vertical.
This happens automatically when the system first
receives power.
Half bankAn autopilot mode of operation
whereby the bank angle is limited during turns in
such a way that the aircraft will only bank
approximately half as much as normal. This is
designed to give the passengers the perception of
a smoother ride with no steep banks.

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Heading bugAn adjustable marker used on a


heading indicator to direct an autopilot and/or
flight director system according to the magnetic
heading the pilot desires to fly. Also, this device
may be used simply as a reminder to the pilot of
what heading he is to fly when not using the autopilot flight director system.
Heading indicator (directional gyro)A gyroscopically controlled instrument used to display
an aircrafts heading relative to magnetic north.
The compass card of this indicator may be
receiving the information which it displays from
a remotely located gyro and an associated slaved
compass system.
HertzThe unit of measure used to describe the
number of cycles of alternating current per
second.
Horizontal situation indicator (HSI)This
instrument, alternately called a CDI by some
manufacturers, displays heading information
from a compass system, left/right and to/from
information from a VOR/localizer receiver, and
deviation above and below a glide slope from a
glide-slope receiver. The pilots workload is
reduced by integrating these displays onto one
indicator.
Inertial navigation systemThis system allows
direct point-to-point navigation via a great circle
route. This system is completely self-sufficient,
utilizing a group of gyros and accelerometers to
sense movement along the earths surface.
Integrated autopilot/flight director systemA
system utilizing both autopilot and flight direction information to respond to selected modes.
InterrogationIn the secondary surveillance
radar system the ground-based radar unit is said
to interrogate the transponders of all aircraft
flying within reception range of that radar. Once
a transponder has been interrogated, it should
reply to the ground radar unit by sending a brief
transmission of radio energy. For general aviation aircraft a transponder may be interrogated in
both modes. A mode supplies azimuth and distance information, and altitude information is
provided through mode C.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

KeyingThe process of turning on the transmitter by means of the push-to-talk button located
on the microphone or the control wheel.
LatitudeThe angular displacement of a geographic location north or south of the equator.
This is normally expressed in terms of degrees,
minutes, and tenths of minutes.
Linear deviationA means of showing lateral
displacement from the desired navigational
course calibrated in miles. Linear deviation
allows for parallel course boundaries whether far
away from or near a station.
LongitudeThe angular displacement of a geographic location east or west of the prime
meridian located in Greenwich, England. This is
normally expressed in terms of degrees, minutes,
and tenths of minutes.
Magnetic bearingThe direction of a nondirectional beacon (NDB) or VOR station relative to
magnetic north.
Meter movementAn application of an ammeter
used in any instrumentation system to show deviation such as left/right, to/from, slaving indicator,
etc.
ModeOne of several operating conditions of a
system. For instance, most airborne weather
radars have both weather mapping and terrain
mapping modes of operation.
Mode AThat portion of the transponder reply
which transmits azimuth and distance information for the radar controller.
Mode CThe portion of a transponder reply
containing the pressure altitude of an aircraft as
provided by an encoding altimeter.
ModulationThe addition of useful information
to the carrier wave that is emitted from a transmitter; for example, talking into the microphone
or the transmission of the Morse code identification from a VOR station.
MutingThe silencing of incoming receiver
audio while one is transmitting.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

APP-9

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Nonintegrated AP/FD systemTwo separate


flight control systems, each using its own computer. Information coming from these two
systems may or may not agree at any given time.
OMEGA/VLF systemA world-wide navigation system that allows direct great circle flight
from one point to another. This system utilizes
U.S. Navy VLF communication transmitters and
the OMEGA system of navigation.
Parallax errorA problem that can cause inaccurate interpretations of an instrument reading. It is
caused by the users viewing angle not being
directly in line with the instrument.
Parallax error adjustmentAn adjustment of
some single cue flight director systems which
allows the command bars to be adjusted up or
down in order to nestle just above the aircraft
symbol.
Parked or stowed ADF needleThe process of
placing the ADF needle at the 3 oclock relative
bearing location to indicate that the ADF unit is
in the antenna mode and that the needle is not
operating.
Radio magnetic indicator (RMI)The combined
display of magnetic heading from a compass system and relative bearing to a nondirectional
beacon or VOR, which results in displaying the
product, called magnetic bearing, to or from
the station.
Range filterAn audio filter designed to remove
the Morse code identification from a radio transmission. Actually, range is something of a
misnomer as pilots know it todayyou should
think of this as being an ident filter.
Relative bearingThe direction of a nondirectional beacon relative to the longitudinal axis of
the aircraft.
RelayAn application of an electromagnet to
perform switching duties. A relay may be used to
switch large quantities of current. A multiple pole
relay will allow a single pole switch to switch
many circuits from a remote location.

APP-10

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Remote mounted avionicsAvionic equipment


which is not fully self-contained and mounted on
the instrument panel. Typically, the black
boxes for these systems are located in the forward avionics compartment, forward of the front
pressure bulkhead, or aft of the rear pressure
bulkhead.
ResolverThe electronic device to which the
course knob or OBS knob is attached. This
device communicates the desired course, which
the pilot selects, to the VOR receiver.
Servo systemUsing an electric motor in any
one of several applications to reduce pilot workload or allow automatic operation of some
systems; for example: autopilot servos, electric
elevator trim servos, servoed altimeters, compass
systems, etc.
SidetoneThe ability to hear oneself talk while
transmitting. The sidetone may be heard through
either the headphones or the speaker. Additionally, sidetone may be considered as a means of
verifying normal transmitter and receiver operation. If the receiver and transmitter are working
properly, the sidetone will sound normal. If
either the transmitter or receiver is malfunctioning, the sidetone will sound weak or garbled.
Single-cue flight director system (V-bar system)A command display system using a pair
of bars which work in unison to display the commanded attitude to the pilot.
Slant/range correctionA means of correcting
for the inherent error in raw slant/range data
which will result in a true lateral distance from
the aircraft to the DME station. Many of the
more sophisticated RNAV computers provide
slant/range correction.
Slant/range distanceConventional, uncorrected DME distance to the station.
Slaved compass systemA directional gyro system that is automatically synchronized to the
magnetic heading of the aircraft. The concept of
this system is that magnetic north is the master;
therefore, the compass system is its slave.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

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Slaved operationThe normal mode of a slaved


compass system whereby the directional gyro
automatically remains synchronized to magnetic
north. This type of operation continually compensates for gyro precession and other compass
system errors. The concept is that the compass
system is a slave to magnetic north.
Slaving amplifierAn amplifier which takes the
weak signal representing magnetic north, coming
from the flux valve, and boosts that signal to a
usable level in order to drive the directional gyro
to the proper magnetic heading.
Slaving indicatorA meter used in some slaved
compass systems that displays the difference
between sensed magnetic heading and displayed
magnetic heading. If the needle on this indicator
is centered, there is no error between sensed and
indicated magnetic heading. If the needle is off to
the left or right, a small amount of error is indicated. Normal operation of the compass system
causes the needle to sway to the left and right
because of gyro precession and other factors.
Soft rideA mode for an autopilot whereby the
responsiveness of the autopilot to rough air is
altered in such a way that the ride is perceived to
be much smoother than it is.

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

Voice terrain advisoriesVoice callouts of pertinent altitude-above-ground information. The


information announced will be determined by the
type of system installed.
WaypointThe geographic location of navigational fix used in area navigation. This may be
used in either a VLF/omega system or a
VOR/DME system utilizing a course line
computer.
Waypoint addressThe radial and distance of a
waypoint from a VORTAC.
Waypoint coordinatesThe latitude and longitude of the waypoint used with a VLF/omega
system.
Yaw damperA system connected to the rudder
servo that seeks to dampen or reduce oscillations
of the aircraft about the yaw axis. The yaw
damper system significantly reduces the level of
motion sickness experienced by passengers. This
system should be engaged soon after takeoff and
under normal operations should remain engaged
until just prior to landing.

SquelchA silencing circuit employed in communication receivers that allows undesirable


background noise to be omitted. Only a strong
incoming signal from a transmitter will be heard.
Transponder codeA specific four-digit code
that may be selected by the pilot on his transponder to identify his specific aircraft.

NOTE
A common misconception is that this
control changes the transponder reply
frequency. The transponder always
operates on the same frequency.
Voice filterAn audio filter designed to remove
t h e v o i c e p o r t i o n o f a r e c e iv e d r a d i o
transmission.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

APP-11

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ANNUNCIATORS
The Annunciators section presents a
color representation of all the annunciator lights in the airplane.
Please unfold to the right and leave open
for ready reference as the annunciators
are cited in the text.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

ANN-1

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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

L FUEL PRESS

CABIN ALTITUDE

BAGGAGE DOOR

INVERTER

R FUEL PRESS

L OIL PRESS

L ENVIR FAIL

FWD CABIN DOOR

R ENVIR FAIL

R OIL PRESS

A/P DISC

R BL AIR FAIL

AFT CABIN DOOR


L BL AIR FAIL

A/P TRIM FAIL

SERIES UA, UB, UC

L DC GEN

L FUEL QTY

L FW VALVE

L FUEL FEED

L GEN TIE OPEN

L ENG ICE FAIL

L BK DI OVHT

L AUTOFEATHER

L CHIP DETECT

L IGNITION ON
L ENG ANTI-ICE

L BK DEICE ON

L ENVIR OFF

FUEL TRANSFER

BATTERY CHARGE BATT TIE OPEN

R FUEL QTY

R DC GEN

R GEN TIE OPEN

R FUEL FEED

R FW VALVE

HYD FLUID LOW

MAN STEER FAIL

R BK DI OVHT

R ENG ICE FAIL

ANTI SKID FAIL

PWR STEER FAIL

R CHIP DETECT

R AUTOFEATHER

TAXI LIGHT

EXTERNAL POWER

ELEC TRIM OFF

MAN TIES CLOSE

R IGNITION ON
R BK DEICE ON

R ENG ANTI-ICE

AIR COND N1 LOW

R ENVIR OFF

R FUEL QTY

R DC GEN

SERIES UA, UB
BATTERY CHARGE BATT TIE OPEN

L DC GEN

L FUEL QTY

L FW VALVE

L FUEL FEED

L GEN TIE OPEN

R GEN TIE OPEN

R FUEL FEED

R FW VALVE

L ENG ICE FAIL

L BK DI OVHT

HYD FLUID LOW

MAN STEER FAIL

R BK DI OVHT

R ENG ICE FAIL

ANTI SKID FAIL

PWR STEER FAIL ANN PWR SOURCE

L NO FUEL XFR

R NO FUEL XFR
PWR STEER ENGA

L AUTOFEATHER

L IGNITION ON

TAXI LIGHT

EXTERNAL POWER

R IGNITION ON

R AUTOFEATHER

L ENG ANTI-ICE

L BK DEICE ON

ELEC TRIM OFF

MAN TIES CLOSE

R BK DEICE ON

R ENG ANTI-ICE

L ENVIR OFF

FUEL TRANSFER AIR COND N1 LOW

SERIES UC

ANN-2

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

R ENVIR OFF

FlightSafety
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BEECH 1900 AIRLINER

EXTINGUISHER
PUSH

MASTER
WARNING

MASTER
CAUTION

PRESS TO RESET

PRESS TO RESET

HDG
ALT

NAV

PILOT TRAINING MANUAL

ARM NAV APPR ARM APPR DSC CLIMB


ALT ARM
GS ARM GS GA

OK

DISCH

EFIS
DRIVE
XFR
ALT
ALERT

EXTINGUISHER
PUSH
DISCH

CABIN DIFF HI

R FUEL PRES LO

CABIN DOOR

R ENVIR FAIL

R OIL PRES LO

L AC BUS

CARGO DOOR

R AC BUS

A/P TRIM FAIL

ARM EMER LITES

A/P FAIL

L FUEL PRES LO

CABIN ALT HI

L OIL PRES LO

L ENVIR FAIL

OK

COMPARE
PUSH TO
RESET

GPS

L BL AIR FAIL

B/C

CLIMB

ALT

ALT SEL

VS

IAS

DSC

PUSH TO
RESET

C X 100

C X 100

OBS

AFX

10

20

4
BARO

30

12

24

-11

20
0
-20
C

50
0
PSI

OIL
200
140
150
100
100
60
20
0
-20
C

30
27
24

21

18

21

ANT
OFF

ADF TONE

STBY
OFF

STO

33

CLR

CRSR

ENT

NAV
D/T
ACTV
REF
CTR

APT
VOR
NDB
INT
SUPL

AP/L
YD

XFR

MEM

DIM
OFF

RNG

ON ALT

60

3
HP

IN.HG
45

11 12 1
2
10
9
3
4
8
7 6 5
35

DRIVE
XFR
ALT
ALERT

15

25

30

1
.5
UP

VERTICAL
SPEED

MASTER
WARNING

PRESS TO RESET

PRESS TO RESET

GYRO
SLAVING
+

COMPARE

HDG
ALT

PUSH TO
RESET

NAV

ARM NAV APPR ARM APPR DSC CLIMB


ALT ARM
GS ARM GS GA

0
DN
.5

ET

CRS

24.4 NM

00:00
12

V
O
R
1

15

SLEW

INSTANTANEOUS
FPM X 1000

MODE

GPS

DG

A
30 40 50

ON

NORM

EADI/EHSI
DIM

12.5

20K

20

ELAPSED
TIME

15K

60

25K

N ALTITU
BI

GPS APR

70

CRS
TO

130

VG FAST
ERECT

OXYGEN
OUTLET PRESSURE
PSIG

ADF TONE
STO

V
TEST

MASTER
CAUTION

EFIS

PUSH HARD

ADF
ANT
OFF

IDENT

2
55

10

MEM

TEST

ACT

VG FAST
ERECT

Collins

ALT 0900
TEST

50
0

BELOW
G/S
P/CANCEL

GS

ACT

ARM

ACTV

HDG

NAV

APPR

B/C

CLIMB

ALT

ALT SEL

VS

IAS

DSC

TEST

GPS CRS
OBS

GPWS

BELOW
G/S

P/TEST

P/CANCEL

LEG

ON

TEST

PSI

WSHLD ANTI-ICE
NORMAL
O
F
F
PILOT
PILOT
AIR

DEFROST
AIR

MAIN

PULL
ON

HI
COPILOT
SURFACE
DEICE
SINGLE

LDG GR CONTROL

NOSE

L ENG ICE FAIL

R DC GEN

ARM
OFF
TEST

LO PITCH

L BK DI OVHT

HYD FLUID LOW ANTI SKID FAIL ANNPWRSOURCE R BK DI OVHT

L FIRE LOOP

L PITOT HEAT

XFR VALVE FAIL PWR STEER FAIL MAN STEER FAIL

L NO AUX XFR

AUTOFEATHER OFF

PITCH TRIM OFF

INBD WG DEICE

YD/RB FAIL

R FW VALVE

R PITOT HEAT

R FIRE LOOP

AFX DISABLE

R NO AUX XFR

UP
DN

FUEL VENT
LEFT
RIGHT
DOWN
LOCK
REL

HDL
LT
TEST

WARN
HORN

RUD BOOST OFF OUTBD WG DEICE

TAIL DEICE

L AUTO FEATHER L IGNITION ON

PWRSTEERENGA

R IGNITION ON R AUTO FEATHER

L ENG ANTI-ICE L BK DEICE ON

MAN TIES CLOSE

R BK DEICE ON R ENG ANTI-ICE

FUEL TRANSFER

0
STALL
WARN

LEFT

PITOT
RIGHT

ALT
STATIC

BRAKE
DEICE

LANDING
GEAR

UP
0

CABIN
OXYGEN
PULL
ON

FLAPS

RELAY

1
.5

B IN
CA ALT

35
30

CABIN CLIMB
FT PER MIN

17

25

0
0

ON

LDG GR CONTROL

NOSE

VENT AIR - PULL ON

10

A
F
T

COPILOT
AIR

PULL
DECR

PULL ON

1000

1000
1500

500

FLIGHT
0 0 0 5

1500

500

PSIG
1/10

4
5

PSIG

2000

2000

OXYGEN

OXYGEN

CYLINDER
PRESSURE

CYLINDER
PRESSURE

L DC GEN

L FUEL QTY

STALL HEAT

BATTERY CHARGE PROP GND SOL

R FUEL QTY

R DC GEN

AUX
ARM

AUX
ON

L FW VALVE

L COL TANK LOW L GEN TIE OPEN

BATT TIE OPEN

R GEN TIE OPEN R COL TANK LOW

ANTI SKID FAIL

ANN PWR SOURCE

R BK DI OVHT

R ENG ICE FAIL

PWR STEER FAIL MAN STEER FAIL

R PITOT HEAT

R FIRE LOOP

AFX DISABLE

R NO AUX XFR

R FW VALVE

AUX TEST

GND
FINE

ALT
ALERT

LIFT

FEATHER

U
P

FUEL CUTOFF
FRICTION
LOCK

R
E
V
E
R
S
E

REVERSE
ONLY WITH
ENGINES
RUNNING

CABIN
AIR

PUSH TO

LIFT

CAUTION

OFF

STALL
WARN
TEST

ENG FIRE TEST


EXT
TEST A
O
F
F
TEST B
LEFT
RIGHT
LOOP
O
F
F
AMP
DETECT

IDLE

C
O
N
D
I
T
I
O
N

P
R
O
P
TAXI

T
R
I
M

DN

P
O
W
E
R

MAN
COOL

HIGH
RPM

INCR

E
L
E
V
A
T
O
R

F
W
D

AUTO
P
TEST

DECR
INCR

120
FURN
ON

HIGH

VG FAST
ERECT

MAN

20
PNEUMATIC
PRESSURE

15

TAKEOFF
LANDING
AND
REVERSE

D
N

F
CABIN TEMP

1
3

20

INCR

OVERSPEED
WARNING
TEST

0 FT

6
4

80

100

.5

35
DOWN

PSI

INCHES OF MERCURY

HOURS

R ENVIR OFF

EXTERNALPOWER

TAXI LIGHT

HI
O
F
F
AUTO

OFF
AUTO TEMP

CABIN TEMP
40

SILENCE

RDR PWR ON

BLOWERS MAN TEMP

4 5

VACUUM

ENVIRONMENTAL
BLEED AIR VALVES
OPEN
E
NO
VF
IF
R
INSTR & ENVR OFF
LEFT
RIGHT

R ENG ICE FAIL

PULL ON

AUTOFEATHER

STARTER ONLY

R FUEL QTY

BATTERYCHARGE

L COL TANK LOW L GEN TIE OPEN BATT TIE OPEN R GEN TIE OPEN R COL TANK LOW

L FW VALVE

PROP
AUTO MANUAL

MANUAL

PROP TEST
OVERSPEED
O
F
F

STALL HEAT

L FUEL QTY

L DC GEN
ICE PROTECTION

ACTUATORS
STANDBY

OPEN

RIGHT

OFF
OXYGEN
PULL
ON

ALT

GPWS
P/TEST

0
LOC2

DH200
ACT

PUSH
ON

BRT

ATC

UP 0
F
L
A
17
P
DOWN 35

FRICTION
LOCK

L ENG ICE FAIL

L BK DI OVHT

HYD FLUID LOW

L FIRE LOOP

L PITOT HEAT

XFR VALVE
FAIL

L NO AUX XFR

AUTOFTHER
OFF

PITCH TRIM OFF

INBD WG DEICE

YD/RB FAIL

TAIL DEICE

L AUTOFEATHER

L IGNITION ON

PWR STEER ENGA

R IGNITION ON

R AUTOFEATHER

L ENG ANTI-ICE

L BK DEICE ON

MAN TIES CLOSE

R BK DEICE ON

R ENG ANTI-ICE

L ENVIR OFF

RDR PWR ON

TAXI LIGHT

EXTERNAL POWER

R ENVIR OFF

CANCEL

AILERON TRIM
LEFT

UP

RIGHT

LEFT

RUDDER TRIM
RIGHT

DN

EFIS
TEST

EFIS POWER
COPLT
PILOT
EADI
DSPL
EHSI
PRCSR

PILOT
EADI
EHSI

ADC
TEST

AP/L

COPLT
DSPL
PRCSR

OFF

ET

PRE

ACT

TTG

ALL ON NO. 2
DH
SET

WX
ARC HSI ARC
MAP
MAP

S/S

ET

TST

PRE

RN

P US H

HDG

CRS

P US H

HDG

CRS

DIR C
E

CRS
SEL

SY N C

MODE
TEST
STBY
OFF

XFR

XFR

DIR C
E

CRS
SEL

RANGE

NORM
WX
MAP

TGT

HLD

50

STB

25
10

100
200
300

RUD BOOST OFF OUTBD WG DEICE

+10

DN
SR
YAW
ENG

ACT

P US H

P US H

SY N C

GSP

NORM

TTG

TST

COPLT
CMPST

NORM
COPLT
OFF
ALL ON NO. 1

HDG

ALL ON NO. 2
TIMER
SET

DH
SET

WX
ARC HSI ARC
MAP
MAP

DR XFR
PLT
NORM

NORM

RN

GSP

S/S

DSP
PLT

COPLT
OFF
ALL ON NO. 1
ATT

OFF
NAV DATA

TIMER
SET

NAV DATA

PLT
CMPST

AP/R

PLT
COPLT
OFF

OFF

HDL
LT
TEST

MIN

AP
ENG

+5

MAX
0

1/20

GAIN

UP

TILT

-5
-10
TAKEOFF
LANDING
TURBULENCE
OPTION
AUTOBRIEF

PARKING
BRAKE

ELEV
TRIM

PARK

POWER
ON

YAW
DAMP

OFF

TAXI

OFF

PUSH FWD
ON/OFF

O
F
F
YAW
CONTROL
TEST

CABIN
PRESSURE
DUMP
P
R
E
S
S
TEST

WARNING

1
14

RATE
INC

DEPRESSURIZE CABIN
BEFORE LANDING

CABIN R
CONTROLLE

8
10

ANTI
SKID

CANCEL

FT
T AL
00 0
X1

POWER STEERING
RUDDER
BOOST

SEND

CAB
IN

DOWN
LOCK
REL

ACF
T

GPWS
FLAP
OVRD

MSG

+02

GPWS
INOP

CALC
STAT
SETUP
OTHER

TA1.1 -06
TA2.6
+05

ADF

TEST

GPS

5 nm

G/S
CANCLD

ON

DSC

00
MEM

OIL
200
140
150
100
100
60

IAS

10

30
TEST

VS

TEST

Collins

BFG
XFR

MEM

ALT SEL

V
TEST

Collins

L ENVIR OFF

LEFT

DIS
3 4 . 5 N M D AT E / T I M E

11 SEP 97
OBS IN
02:04:00UTC
O U T 3 1 5 A LT 0 1 5 0 0 F T
RMI
130 BARO:30.10"
O N A P P ROV E ?
ANNUN
ENRLEG
CRSR

CRSR
NAV
FPL
MODE
TRIP

PPH X 100

ALT

LEG

STO

BENDIX/KING
KLN 90B TSO

RIGHT

RIGHT

R GEN
GEN TIES
MAN CLOSE
N
O
R
M

IGNITION AND
ENGINE START

OBS

DE

TEST

CLIMB

10

ON
OFF

L GEN

B/C

COM

SQ
ON OFF
OFF

IDENT

TEST

ACT

APPR

OFF
LEFT
ENG ANTI-ICE
LEFT

OFF

BUS SENSE
RESET

XFR

MEM
MEM

NAV
ON HLD

3, 0 0 0

NAV

300 4060
280
KNOTS 80
260
100
240
120
220
140
200
180160

Collins

MEM
MEM

OFF

ALTITUDE SET
ALT
ALERT

RESET

ARM NAV APPR ARM APPR DSC CLIMB


ALT ARM
GS ARM GS GA

HDG
GPS CRS

ACTV

5
0

PPH X 100

ENG AUTO IGNITION


ARM
GEN
RESET

MASTER SWITCH

OFF

VE

PUSH TO

VG FAST
ERECT

AC BUS

AUX
ON

XFR
MB

DI

8
7
6 FUEL FLOW

8
7
6 FUEL FLOW
GPWS
FLAP
OVRD

GPWS
INOP

CRS

OFF

BATT

20
40

60

AUX
ARM

Collins

CLI

CANCEL

PROP SYN
ON

AVIONICS

% RPM
80

5
G/S
CANCLD

TURBINE

TEST

NAV
IDENT

V
TEST

0.0

110
100

15

NA
V

FPM X 1000

ON

ON RIGHT
O
F
F
TRANSFER

20
40

SILENCE

ARM

PA

AUX TEST

XFR
OFF

INSTANTANEOUS

000

LEFT

% RPM
60

GPS APR

COMM 2
COMM 1

OFF

MEM

ON HLD
OFF

STO

NAV

PH

STBY HRZN PWR


ON

HORN

MEM

COM

SQ
ON OFF

COPILOT AUDIO OFF

OFF

Collins

XFR

MEM
MEM

HDG
ALT

PUSH TO
RESET

ADF

V
NA

V1

TURBINE

OVERRIDE

12

12

V
NA

33

ELAPSED
TIME

AUX
ON

L
VO

DME
1

VOLUME

AUDIO
SPKR

L
VO

MKR BCN 1 & 2


HI
L
VO
LO

XPNDR
NORMAL

MKR BCN
1
2

9
00:00
N

0.0

110
100

GND
COMM
PWR

DIM

OFF

ENCD
ALTM 1
ALTM 2

0
20 PROP 5
19
18 RPM X 100 10
17
16 15 1413

80

DN
.5

NAV
1

GPS

BOTH
RANGE
PA

PUSH
ON/OFF

20.0 NM
L
O
C
1

EADI/EHSI
DIM

SILENCE

VERTICAL
SPEED

EFIS
AUX POWER
HORN

OFF

25

OFF
DME

1
.5
UP
ET

CRS

AUX TEST

EXT
PWR

20

OFF

15

50

0
20 PROP 5
19
18 RPM X 100 10
17
16 15 1413

IN HG

30.03

OFF

ON

30

AUDIO
SPKR

PH

15

35

VOICE

BOTH
RANGE
ANN
HOT PUSH BRT
INTPH

40

40

DG

AUX
ARM

25

10

DH200
0

MODE

TEST

X 100

20

PA

5
TORQUE

40

Collins

MB

1017

33

ON

10

GYRO
SLAVING
+

SLEW

30

ALT

10

VOICE

ADF

PRESS TO

COMPARE

10

10

15

25

30

15

35

0
9
500 1
1,400
2
8

VOLUME

COMM 1

50
45

35

KR

TORQUE

COMM
1
2

DME
1

VO

60
55

AP/L
YD

MKR BCN
1
2

COMM 2

LEG

50

ALT

NAV
1

PILOT AUDIO OFF


AFX

GS

COMM
1
2

6 5

GPS CRS

ARM ACTV

LOC1

6 5

TEST

MASTER
WARNING

RESET

EFIS
DRIVE
XFR
ALT
ALERT

50

APPR

RADIO CALL

N669CM

SP

NAV

FIRE PULL

PULL TO CLOSE
FIREWALL
FUEL VALVE
FIRE EXT ARM

12

X 100

11 12 1
2
10
9
3
4
8
7 6 5

OK

DISCH

ITT

45

45

R BL AIR FAIL

NA
V

ARM NAV APPR ARM APPR DSC CLIMB


ALT ARM
GS ARM GS GA

START

12

ITT

40

PUSH HARD

A/P FAIL

SERIES UE
EXTINGUISHER
PUSH

MASTER
CAUTION

HDG

300 4060
280
KNOTS 80
260
100
240
120
220
140
200
180160

ARM EMER LITES

R BL AIR FAIL

PRESS
TO TEST

PRESS TO

START

COMPARE

GPS APR

FLT
RCDR
OFF

A/P TRIM FAIL

L BL AIR FAIL

KR

BELOW
G/S
P/CANCEL

R OIL PRES LO

R AC BUS

SP

GPWS
P/TEST

R ENVIR FAIL

CARGO DOOR

FIRE PULL
DRIVE
XFR
ALT
ALERT

GPS

AUX TEST

R FUEL PRES LO

CABIN DOOR

L AC BUS

27

NAV

CABIN DIFF HI

L ENVIR FAIL

RESET

9
HDG
ALT

CABIN ALT HI

L OIL PRES LO

24

PRESS TO

EFIS

AUX
ON

L FUEL PRES LO

OK

DISCH

PRESS

LEG

DSC

MASTER
CAUTION

MASTER
G
WARNIN
TO RESET

OBS

FIRE PULL

20

IAS

10K

VS

CA

ALT SEL

EXTINGUISHER
PUSH

AUX
ARM

GPS CRS

ARM ACTV

ALT

FIRE PULL

TEST

CLIMB

P/CANCEL

B/C

21

P/TEST

APPR

18

GPWS

NAV

GPS APR

FLT
RCDR
OFF

15

HDG
BELOW
G/S

TEST

ERASE

OFF

HEADSET
600 OHMS

COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER

FUEL TRANSFER

SERIES UE

Figure ANN-1 Annunciators

FOR TRAINING PURPOSES ONLY

ANN-3