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ELECTRICITY FOR

ELECTRICITY FOR
COOLING
COOLING
by
by
Engr
Engr
. Alexis T.
. Alexis T.
Belonio
Belonio
Department of Agricultural Engineering and
Department of Agricultural Engineering and
Environmental Management
Environmental Management
College of Agriculture
College of Agriculture
Central Philippine University
Central Philippine University
Iloilo City
Iloilo City
atbelonio@yahoo.com
atbelonio@yahoo.com
Application of Refrigeration and
Application of Refrigeration and
Cold Storage of Crops
Cold Storage of Crops

Preservation and storage of farm produce


Preservation and storage of farm produce
such as eggs, milk, meat, vegetables,
such as eggs, milk, meat, vegetables,
fruits, or flower.
fruits, or flower.

Lengthen the storage period of grain


Lengthen the storage period of grain
seeds.
seeds.

Retains the freshness of newly caught fish


Retains the freshness of newly caught fish
and preserve it prior to processing.
and preserve it prior to processing.
Chiller

Provide proper ventilation for various farm


Provide proper ventilation for various farm
structures such as poultry, dairy, other
structures such as poultry, dairy, other
crop conditioning enterprises.
crop conditioning enterprises.

Provide a better environment for farm


Provide a better environment for farm
houses and offices.
houses and offices.
Principles of Refrigeration
Principles of Refrigeration

Refrigeration has something to do with


Refrigeration has something to do with
removing of heat so as to maintain the
removing of heat so as to maintain the
temperature of a substance or space at a
temperature of a substance or space at a
temperature lower than it is normally
temperature lower than it is normally
would be.
would be.

Refrigeration systems basically remove


Refrigeration systems basically remove
heat from an enclosed space and release
heat from an enclosed space and release
the heat outside the space.
the heat outside the space.
Refrigerant
Refrigerant

It is the agent which conducts the heat


It is the agent which conducts the heat
from the refrigerated coils and releases it
from the refrigerated coils and releases it
to the outside air.
to the outside air.

Sources of Refrigerants
Sources of Refrigerants

Ammonia
Ammonia

oldest and widely used for large


oldest and widely used for large
installation
installation

Methyl chloride
Methyl chloride

Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide

Freons
Freons

commonly used for refrigeration


commonly used for refrigeration
system now a days.
system now a days.
Properties of Some Refrigerants
Properties of Some Refrigerants
Refrigerant Refrigerant Refrigerating Refrigerating
Effect, BTU/.lb Effect, BTU/.lb
standard cycle standard cycle
Remarks Remarks
Ammonia Ammonia 475.5 475.5 Highly toxic, flammable Highly toxic, flammable
Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide 55.5 55.5 Nontoxic, nonflammable, Nontoxic, nonflammable,
high operating pressure high operating pressure
Methyl chloride Methyl chloride 150.3 150.3 Somewhat toxic, Somewhat toxic,
flammable flammable
Sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide 141.4 141.4 Very toxic, Very toxic,
nonflammable nonflammable
Freon 12 Freon 12 51.1 51.1 Nontoxic, nonflammable Nontoxic, nonflammable
Freon 21 Freon 21 89.4 89.4 Nontoxic, nonflammable Nontoxic, nonflammable
Freon 22 Freon 22 69.5 69.5 Nontoxic, nonflammable Nontoxic, nonflammable
Evaporation
Evaporation

Evaporation makes liquid to change to


Evaporation makes liquid to change to
gas.
gas.

To cause evaporation, heat must be


To cause evaporation, heat must be
added to the refrigerant.
added to the refrigerant.

Evaporation of refrigerant cools the


Evaporation of refrigerant cools the
surrounding area.
surrounding area.

The evaporator is located inside the


The evaporator is located inside the
refrigerated space (to pick up the heat)
refrigerated space (to pick up the heat)
Condensation
Condensation

It makes the gaseous refrigerant into liquid.


It makes the gaseous refrigerant into liquid.

Heat must be absorbed from the refrigerant in


Heat must be absorbed from the refrigerant in
order to cause condensation.
order to cause condensation.

The cooler space subtracted heat from the


The cooler space subtracted heat from the
refrigerant thereby causing condensation.
refrigerant thereby causing condensation.

Condenser are located outside the refrigerated


Condenser are located outside the refrigerated
space (to release heat)
space (to release heat)
Refrigeration Cycle
Refrigeration Cycle

It is the complete series of events


It is the complete series of events
occurring in order as the refrigerant
occurring in order as the refrigerant
travels the route.
travels the route.
Refrigeration Cycle

Expansion
Expansion

high pressure liquid escapes


high pressure liquid escapes
through the valve into low pressure pipe and
through the valve into low pressure pipe and
refrigerant expands.
refrigerant expands.

Evaporation
Evaporation

liquid refrigerant begins to


liquid refrigerant begins to
evaporate and secures necessary heat from the
evaporate and secures necessary heat from the
air inside the refrigerated room.
air inside the refrigerated room.

Compression
Compression

allows the refrigerant to give up


allows the refrigerant to give up
the heat picked up from the refrigerated room by
the heat picked up from the refrigerated room by
drawing it with the compressor.
drawing it with the compressor.

Condensation
Condensation

high
high
-
-
pressure high temperature
pressure high temperature
gaseous refrigerant is forced out by the
gaseous refrigerant is forced out by the
compressor to the condenser.
compressor to the condenser.
Refrigeration Cycle
Electrical Control for
Electrical Control for
Refrigeration System
Refrigeration System

Manual Disconnect Switch


Manual Disconnect Switch

for servicing and


for servicing and
safety purposes
safety purposes

Time Delay Fuses


Time Delay Fuses

added protection in addition


added protection in addition
to the built
to the built
-
-
in overload control that is often
in overload control that is often
included in the motor.
included in the motor.

Thermostat
Thermostat

controls the operation of the


controls the operation of the
system
system

Solenoid Valve
Solenoid Valve

controls the flow of refrigerant


controls the flow of refrigerant

Pressure Switch
Pressure Switch

controls the low and high


controls the low and high
pressure side of the evaporator and compressor
pressure side of the evaporator and compressor
piping.
piping.
Condenser
Compressor
Expansion
Valve
Evaporator
Solenoid
Valve
Thermostat
Motor
Pressure Switch
Pressure Switch
Manual
Disconnect
Switch
Electrical Circuit for
Refrigerated System
Quantities in Refrigeration
Quantities in Refrigeration

Heat to Removed for Cooling the Product


Heat to Removed for Cooling the Product

It is the heat required to remove when lowering the


It is the heat required to remove when lowering the
temperature of the product
temperature of the product

Heat to Remove for Cooling the Space


Heat to Remove for Cooling the Space

Heat transferring from the outside to the inside of wall


Heat transferring from the outside to the inside of wall
floors, ceiling, and loose fitting joints.
floors, ceiling, and loose fitting joints.

Heat lost when door is opened.


Heat lost when door is opened.

Heat lost due to electric light or appliances


Heat lost due to electric light or appliances

Heat lost due to persons working inside the cooler.


Heat lost due to persons working inside the cooler.
Heat Removed from the Product
Heat Removed from the Product
Q product = specific heat x mass of product
x temperature difference
Example:
Determine the number of BTU that must be removed
in order to lower the temperature of 200 lb of fresh
beef from 90 to 40 F. Assume specific heat for beef
above freezing point equal to 0.75 BTU/ lb-F.
BTU = 0.75 BTU/ lb-F x 200 lb x (90F 40F)
= 7,500 BTU
Specific Heat of Farm Products
Specific Heat of Farm Products
Product Product Sp Ht above Sp Ht above
Freezing Freezing
(BTU/lb (BTU/lb- -F) F)
Sp Ht below Sp Ht below
Freezing Freezing
(BTU/lb (BTU/lb- -F) F)
Freezing Freezing
Point Point
(F) (F)
Latent Heat Latent Heat
of Fusion of Fusion
(BTU/lb) (BTU/lb)
Storage Storage
Temp Temp
(F) (F)
Apples Apples 0.90 0.90 0.49 0.49 28.5 28.5 122 122 35 35- -40 40
Oranges Oranges 0.90 0.90 0.47 0.47 28 28 124 124 40 40- -45 45
Cabbage Cabbage 0.93 0.93 0.47 0.47 0.31 0.31 132 132 35 35- -40 40
Beef Beef 0.75 0.75 0.40 0.40 27 27 98 98 35 35- -40 40
Pork Pork 0.68 0.68 0.38 0.38 28 28 87 87 34 34- -38 38
Poultry Poultry 0.79 0.79 0.37 0.37 27 27 106 106 28 28- -30 30
Butter Butter 0.64 0.64 - - 73 73 - - 45 45- -50 50
Eggs Eggs 0.76 0.76 0.40 0.40 27 27 100 100 40 40- -45 45
Milk Milk 0.93 0.93 0.49 0.49 31 31 124 124 35 35- -40 40
Cheese Cheese 0.64 0.64 0.36 0.36 17 17 79 79 40 40- -45 45
Heat to Remove for Cooling the
Heat to Remove for Cooling the
Space
Space

For chill room (35


For chill room (35
-
-
40F) having a volume of 300
40F) having a volume of 300
to 400 ft
to 400 ft
3 3
and 4 in. cork insulation on all surfaces
and 4 in. cork insulation on all surfaces
use 6.5 BTU/ft
use 6.5 BTU/ft
2 2
-
-
hr
hr

For zero
For zero
-
-
degree rooms having a volume of 300
degree rooms having a volume of 300
to 400 ft
to 400 ft
3 3
and 5 in. of cork insulation on all
and 5 in. of cork insulation on all
surfaces, use 8.5 BTU/ft
surfaces, use 8.5 BTU/ft
2 2
-
-
hr
hr

Select the refrigeration that will remove the


Select the refrigeration that will remove the
required number of BTU/hr by operating only 2/3
required number of BTU/hr by operating only 2/3
of the time.
of the time.
Rating of Refrigerating System
Rating of Refrigerating System

The total amount of heat that must be removed


The total amount of heat that must be removed
can be obtained by adding the product load and
can be obtained by adding the product load and
the space load express in BTU/hr.
the space load express in BTU/hr.

Tons of refrigeration can be obtained by dividing


Tons of refrigeration can be obtained by dividing
the total amount of heat required with 12,000
the total amount of heat required with 12,000
BTU/hr.
BTU/hr.

Rule of thumb giving the relationship between the


Rule of thumb giving the relationship between the
horsepower and the ton of refrigeration is
horsepower and the ton of refrigeration is

1 hp = 1 ton refrigeration if dealing with chill rooms


1 hp = 1 ton refrigeration if dealing with chill rooms

2 hp = 1 ton of refrigeration if dealing with a zero


2 hp = 1 ton of refrigeration if dealing with a zero
-
-
degree room
degree room
Sample Calculations
Sample Calculations
Determine the size of refrigeration
unit for a proposed walk-in cooler
having a floor space of 6 x 8 ft and
a height of 7 ft. It is to have 4 in.
of cork insulation on all surfaces
and an inside temperature of 35 F.
The product to be cooled are:
cabbage, 100 lb/day, and fresh
beef, 200 lbs/day. Assume the
products are to be cooled from 85
to 35 F in 24 hours.
Product load:
0.9 x 100 x (85-35)/ 24 = 187 BTU/ hr
0.75 x 200 x (85-35)/ 24 = 312 BTU/ hr
Space Load:
6 x 8 + 6 x 7 x 2 + 8 x 7 x 2 + 6 x 8= 292 ft
2
Using 6.5 BTU/ ft
2
-hr
292 ft
2
x 6.5 BTU/ ft
2
-hr = 1,898 BTU/ hr
Total Load:
187 + 312 + 1,898 = 2,397 BTU/ hr
Room Air Conditioning
Room Air Conditioning

Types are (1) console, (b) built


Types are (1) console, (b) built
-
-
in unit, and (c) window
in unit, and (c) window
model.
model.

General recommendations for selecting the proper size


General recommendations for selecting the proper size
is given in table below.
is given in table below.

Electrical provision of the installation should include an


Electrical provision of the installation should include an
individual
individual
-
-
equipment branch circuit.
equipment branch circuit.

Individual circuit makes the installation safe, assure


Individual circuit makes the installation safe, assure
proper unit operation, and minimizes the chances of light
proper unit operation, and minimizes the chances of light
flicker and circuit overload.
flicker and circuit overload.

Safe operation requires that the air conditioner should be


Safe operation requires that the air conditioner should be
provided with ground
provided with ground
Evaporator
Condenser
Compressor
Selection Data for Air Conditioner
Selection Data for Air Conditioner
HP size HP size Room Area Room Area
Sun on 2 walls, Sun on 2 walls,
uninsulated uninsulated
(Ft (Ft
2 2
) )
Room Area Room Area
Night operation, insulated Night operation, insulated
walls and ceiling walls and ceiling
(Ft (Ft
2 2
) )
1/3 1/3 Up to 120 Up to 120 Up to 200 Up to 200
1/2 1/2 120 120 - - 180 180 200 200 300 300
3/4 3/4 180 180 - - 280 280 300 300 420 420
1 1 280 280 - - 400 400 420 420 540 540
1 1- -1/2 1/2 400 400 - - 500 500 540 540 - - 660 660
Rule of Thumb for Air
Rule of Thumb for Air
Conditioning Design
Conditioning Design

For every floor area of 20 m2 with a height


For every floor area of 20 m2 with a height
of 8 ft and room temperature of 27 C, one
of 8 ft and room temperature of 27 C, one
hp air conditioning system is required.
hp air conditioning system is required.
References:
References:

Althouse Althouse, A.D. and C. H. , A.D. and C. H. Turnquist Turnquist . 1952. Modern Electric and . 1952. Modern Electric and
Gas Refrigeration. Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. The Gas Refrigeration. Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. The
Goodheart Goodheart - -Willcox Willcox Company, Inc. Publisher, Chicago. 945pp. Company, Inc. Publisher, Chicago. 945pp.

Boast, M. 1991. Refrigeration. Boast, M. 1991. Refrigeration. Satish Satish Kumar Jain for CBS Kumar Jain for CBS
Publishers & Distributors 485, Jain Publishers & Distributors 485, Jain Bhawan Bhawan Bola Bola Nath Nath Nagar Nagar, ,
Delhi. India449pp. Delhi. India449pp.

Brown, R. 1956. Farm electrification. McGraw Brown, R. 1956. Farm electrification. McGraw- -Hill Book Hill Book
Company. New York. 367pp. Company. New York. 367pp.