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Parameters V

(Kmph)
V
R
(Kmph)
e
max
(%)
f
max
(%)
Description
Design Speed
(120/100/80/65/60/50
/40)
Running
Speed
Maximum
Superelevation
allowable
friction factor that can
be mobilised
Formula
/Reference
The designer has to
choose based on the
type of road facility
Exhibit 3-14 of
Green Book
2004
The designer has to
choose based on the
terrain, rainfall,
snowfall, amount of
low speed traffic, etc
IRC: 73 assumes constant
f
max
(=0.15) irrespective of
the Design Speed. However,
it is better based on IRC
Guidelines for
Expressway/AASHTO.
Values 100
85
7.0% 0.11
Input Parameters (as
marked )

(%)
Maximum Relative
dependent on Design
speed V

(vide Ex 3-
30)
0.44%
Sl. No.
R
(m)
e
cal
(%)
e (%) f
mob
Calculated
Superelevation
Design
Superelevation
Mobilised Friction
factor
Formula Designer's choice
V/225R or 7%
whichever is less
IRC Horizontal Geometry Design for Rural (Open) Highways
* (Strictly speaking, up to 2 lanes carriageway this design is alright, however, for more than 2 lanes the R vs e is correct but L
r
in (6)
and Design L
s
in (9) are incorrect
Evaluation of Design Superelevation (e) vis--vis given Design Radius (R)
W (m)
Width of Roadway rotated as a
plane section (it includes
carriageway lanes and paved
shoulder, if any, with same cross
slope as the lanes.
7
b
w
Adjustment factor for number of
equivalent lanes (say, n
1
=W/3.6) rotated as
a plane section (vide Exihit 3-31),
b
w
={(1+0.5(n
1
-1)}/n
1
0.757142857

(1) (2) (3) (4)

60
80
90
100
120
140
150
160
200
250
260
300
350
400
440
10.10% 7.0% 0.1090
450
9.88% 7.0% 0.1050
500
8.89% 7.0% 0.0875
550
8.08% 7.0% 0.0732
600
7.41% 7.0% 0.0612
650
6.84% 6.8% 0.0528
670
6.63% 6.6% 0.0512
700
6.35% 6.3% 0.0490
750
5.93% 5.9% 0.0457
800
5.56% 5.6% 0.0429
850
5.23% 5.2% 0.0403
900
4.94% 4.9% 0.0381
950
4.68% 4.7% 0.0361
1000
4.44% 4.4% 0.0343
1050
4.23% 4.2% 0.0327
1100
4.04% 4.0% 0.0312
1150
3.86% 3.9% 0.0298
1200
3.70% 3.7% 0.0286
1250
3.56% 3.6% 0.0274
1300
3.42% 3.4% 0.0264
1350
3.29% 3.3% 0.0254
1400
3.17% 3.2% 0.0245
1450
3.07% 3.1% 0.0237
1500
2.96% 3.0% 0.0229
1550
2.87% 2.9% 0.0221
1600
2.78% 2.8% 0.0214
1650
2.69% 2.7% 0.0208
1700
2.61% 2.6% 0.0202
1750
2.54% 2.5% 0.0196
1800
2.47% 2.5% 0.0191
1850
2.40% 2.4% 0.0185
1900
2.34% 2.3% 0.0181
1950
2.28% 2.3% 0.0176
2000
2.22% 2.2% 0.0171
2050
2.17% 2.2% 0.0167
2100
2.12% 2.1% 0.0163
2150
2.07% 2.1% 0.0160
2200
2.02% 2.0% 0.0156
2250
1.98% NC 0.0550
2300
1.93% NC 0.0542
2350
1.89% NC 0.0535
2400
1.85% NC 0.0528
2450
1.81% NC 0.0521
2500
1.78% NC 0.0515
2550
1.74% NC 0.0509
2600
1.71% NC 0.0503
2650
1.68% NC 0.0497
2700
1.65% NC 0.0492
2750
1.62% NC 0.0486
2800
1.59% NC 0.0481
2850
1.56% NC 0.0476
2900
1.53% NC 0.0472
2950
1.51% NC 0.0467
3000
1.48% NC 0.0462
3050
1.46% NC 0.0458
3100
1.43% NC 0.0454
3150
1.41% NC 0.0450
3200
1.39% NC 0.0446
3250
1.37% NC 0.0442
3300
1.35% NC 0.0439
3350
1.33% NC 0.0435
Rmin
(m)
Minimum Radius to be
adopted in design of
H-curve
438

eff
(%)
based on AASHTO
Maximum Effective

eff
= /b
w
0.58%
1 in 172
V
check
(Kmph)
L
S
(m)
L
S
(m)
Design
L
S
(m)
Check for Speed (based
on e

and f
max
), However,
this is not correct, as
f
max
is not going to be
mobilised for all radii.
Clothoid Length
(based on
allowable
introduction of
Acceleration ( C)
Clothoid
Length
()
2.7*V
2
/R for
Plain or
Rolling, V
2
/R
for
Mountaneous
or Steep
Maximum of the
values among
(6) and (7)
rounded up to
multiple of 5
IRC Horizontal Geometry Design for Rural (Open) Highways
* (Strictly speaking, up to 2 lanes carriageway this design is alright, however, for more than 2 lanes the R vs e is correct but L
r
in (6)
and Design L
s
in (9) are incorrect
c
(%)
Normal Cross Slope
(NC) / Camber
The designer has to
choose the CS/Camber
based on the road surface
type and rainfall intensity
(vide table 5 of IRC: 38)
2.0%

Evaluation of
Design Runoff
Length (L
r
)
0.67%

eff
(%)
based on IRC
Maximum Effective

eff
= 1 in 150, for
Plain or Rolling terrain,
and = 1 in 60 for
Mountainous or steep.
Terrain should be one of the
following, Plain (P) or
Rolling ( R) or Mountainous
(M) or Steep (S). Enter the
letter in the parenthesis as
appropriate.
p
Evaluation of Design Superelevation (e) vis--vis given Design Radius (R)
Evaluation of Design Clothoid Spiral
Length (L
S
) for the design controls given
above
C (m/s
3
)
Rate of change of Radial
acceleration, which is derived by
the formula, C=80/(75+V), in no
case it should lie beyond (0.5,
0.8)
0.5
Terrain Type
1 in 150
Minimum Design
Runoff (which depends
on e, W and
eff
) based
on the equation
L
r
= W * e /
eff
L
r
(m)
(5) (7) (8) (9)
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
NA NA
100.2915749 98
61 100
101.424849 96
60 100
106.9111781 86
54 90
112.1293895 79
49 80
117.1153278 72
45 75
121.3463821 67
42 75
122.492222 65
40 75
124.1911609 62
39 70
126.9722192 58
36 65
129.6936561 54
34 60
132.3591495 51
32 60
134.9720136 48
30 55
137.535248 46
28 55
140.0515778 43
27 50
142.5234873 41
26 45
144.9532492 40
25 45
147.3429484 38
23 45
149.6945037 36
23 40
152.0096854 35
22 40
154.2901307 34
21 40
156.537358 32
20 40
158.7527778 31
19 40
160.9377036 30
19 35
163.0933611 29
18 35
165.2208959 28
17 35
NA
NA
NA
NA
36
33
33
33
57
72
54
51
48
45
45
42
39
39
36
36
NA
75
75
75
75
72
69
63
60
W
h
e
r
e
e
v
e
r

S
p
i
r
a
l

C
u
r
v
e

i
s

p
r
o
v
i
d
e
d
,

i
t
s

l
e
n
g
t
h

(

L
S

)

i
s

a
l
s
o

e
q
u
a
l

t
o

t
h
e

R
u
n
-
o
f
f

L
e
n
g
t
h

(

L
r

)
.

W
h
e
r
e
,

S
p
i
r
a
l

C
u
r
v
e

i
s

n
o
t

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
,

t
h
e

R
u
n
-
o
f
f

L
e
n
g
t
h

s
h
o
u
l
d

b
e

u
s
e
d
,

a
s

g
i
v
e
n

i
n

c
o
l
u
m
n

(
6
)
.
75
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
(6)
NA
NA
NA
NA
167.3213807 27
17 30
169.3958218 27
16 30
171.4451645 26
16 30
173.4702985 25
15 NR
175.4720617 24
15 NR
177.4512453 24
15 NR
179.4085964 23
14 NR
181.3448219 23
14 NR
183.2605916 22
14 NR
185.1565404 21
13 NR
187.033271 21
13 NR
188.8913562 20
13 NR
190.731341 20
12 NR
160.3667671 NR
NR NR
162.1388294 NR
NR NR
163.8917326 NR
NR NR
165.6260849 NR
NR NR
167.3424632 NR
NR NR
169.041415 NR
NR NR
170.7234606 NR
NR NR
172.3890948 NR
NR NR
174.0387888 NR
NR NR
175.6729917 NR
NR NR
177.2921318 NR
NR NR
178.8966182 NR
NR NR
180.4868416 NR
NR NR
182.0631758 NR
NR NR
183.6259786 NR
NR NR
185.1755923 NR
NR NR
186.7123456 NR
NR NR
188.2365533 NR
NR NR
189.7485178 NR
NR NR
191.2485294 NR
NR NR
192.7368673 NR
NR NR
194.2137997 NR
NR NR
195.679585 NR
NR NR
NR
NR
NR
24
30
27
27
27
27
24
24
30
NR
24
24
24
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
30
NR
NR
NR
W
h
e
r
e
e
v
e
r

S
p
i
r
a
l

C
u
r
v
e

i
s

p
r
o
v
i
d
e
d
,

i
t
s

l
e
n
g
t
h

(

L
S

)

i
s

a
l
s
o

e
q
u
a
l

t
o

t
h
e

R
u
n
-
o
f
f

L
e
n
g
t
h

(

L
r

)
.

W
h
e
r
e
,

S
p
i
r
a
l

C
u
r
v
e

i
s

n
o
t

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
,

t
h
e

R
u
n
-
o
f
f

L
e
n
g
t
h

s
h
o
u
l
d

b
e

u
s
e
d
,

a
s

g
i
v
e
n

i
n

c
o
l
u
m
n

(
6
)
.
NR
NR
NR
It is considered that Spiral Transition is not required for "Those radii" for
which the "Radial Acceleration (V
2
/13R)" becomes less than 0.45 m/s
2
, as
the corresponding sideway jerk is so less that the traffic can comfortably
adjust when they directly enter into a Circular Curve from Tangent
Alignment. Reference can be drawn from page 187 of AASHTO 2004.
Where Spiral is absent, of the Run-off is to be provided on Tangent
and remaining would be on the Circular Curve.
Parameters
V
(Kmph)
V
R
(Kmph)
e
max
(%)
f
max
(%)
Rmin
(m)
R
PI
(m)
Description Design Speed
Running
Speed
Maximum
superelevation
allowable
Maximum
friction
factor that
can be
mobilised
Minimum
design of H-
curve
Vide Exhibit
3-18
Formula
/Reference
The designer
has to choose
based on the
facility
Exhibit 3-14 of
Green Book
2004
The designer
has to choose
based on the
terrain,
rainfall,
snowfall, etc
Exhibit 3-12
(or 3-15) of
Green Book
2004
Values 100
85
7.0%
0.12 414 813
Input
Parameters (as
marked )

R
(m)
f (e+f)
e
(%)
Calculation of Design Spiral Curve Length (L
S
) and Design Superelevation Runoff (L
r
)
{Based on Design Speed (V
D
), Maximum Superelevation (e
max
) , Maximum Radial Friction Factor (f
max
) and width of Traveledway (i/c
Maximum Relative
dependent on Design speed
V

(vide Ex 3-30)
Maximum Effective
is derived by the formula
(vide Ex 3-31)

eff
= /b
w
Evaluation of Design Friction Factor (f), and
consequently the Design Superelevation (e) vis--vis
given Design Radius (R)
0.725
W (m)
Width of Roadway rotated as a
plane section (it includes
carriageway lanes and paved
shoulder, if any, with same cros
slope as the lanes
Evaluation of Design
Runoff Length (L
r
)
8

(%)
0.44%

eff
(%)
0.61%
b
w
number of equivalent lanes
(say, n
1
=W/3.6) rotated as
a plane section (vide Exihit
3-31), b
w
={(1+0.5(n
1
-
1)}/n
1
L
r
(m)
Design Friction
factor
Design value
of summation
of
Superelevatio
n and Friction
factor
Design
Superelevati
on
Formula
Designer's
choice
C
a
s
e

1

(
w
h
e
n

R
<

R
P
I
)
,

f
=
h
P
I

+

S
2
{
(
1
/
R
)

-

(
1
/
R
P
I
)
}

+

M
O
*
[
{
(
1
/
R
m
i
n
)

-

(
1
/
R
)
}
/
L
2
]
2

C
a
s
e

2

(
w
h
e
n

R

R
P
I
)
,

f
=
M
O
*
(
R
P
I
/
R
)
2

+

(
S
1
/
R
)
(e+f) - f
(1) (2) (3) (4)
400 NA NA
420 0.117489163 0.1874766 7.0%
450 0.105424551 0.1749781 7.0%
500 0.089572457 0.1574803 6.8%
550 0.077503622 0.1431639 6.6%
600 0.068065737 0.1312336 6.3%
650 0.0605197 0.1211387 6.1%
700 0.054372592 0.1124859 5.8%
750 0.04928472 0.1049869 5.6%
800 0.045015357 0.0984252 5.3%
850 0.041387016 0.0926355 5.1%
900 0.038264986 0.0874891 4.9%
950 0.035553638 0.0828844 4.7%
1000 0.033179678 0.0787402 4.6%
1050 0.031085894 0.0749906 4.4%
1100 0.029227039 0.071582 4.2%
1150 0.027566909 0.0684697 4.1%
1200 0.02607622 0.0656168 4.0%
1250 0.024731057 0.0629921 3.8%
1300 0.023511714 0.0605694 3.7%
1350 0.022401819 0.058326 3.6%
1400 0.021387671 0.056243 3.5%
1450 0.02045772 0.0543036 3.4%
1500 0.019602167 0.0524934 3.3%
1550 0.018812651 0.0508001 3.2%
1600 0.018081998 0.0492126 3.1%
45
45
42
51
51
48
48
45
63
60
57
54
54
(5)
93
93
90
87
84
81
78
75
72
69
66
63
Minimum Design
Runoff (which depends
on e, W and
eff
) based
on the equation
Lr = W * e /
eff

1650 0.017404016 0.0477213 3.0%
1700 0.01677334 0.0463177 3.0%
1750 0.016185297 0.0449944 2.9%
1800 0.0156358 0.0437445 2.8%
1850 0.01512126 0.0425622 2.7%
1900 0.014638513 0.0414422 2.7%
1950 0.014184761 0.0403796 2.6%
2000 0.013757518 0.0393701 2.6%
2050 0.013354573 0.0384098 2.5%
2100 0.012973948 0.0374953 2.5%
2150 0.012613874 0.0366233 2.4%
2200 0.012272758 0.035791 2.4%
2250 0.011949169 0.0349956 2.3%
2300 0.011641813 0.0342349 2.3%
2350 0.011349517 0.0335064 2.2%
2400 0.01107122 0.0328084 2.2%
2450 0.010805956 0.0321388 2.1%
2500 0.010552843 0.0314961 2.1%
2550 0.010311079 0.0308785 2.1%
2600 0.010079927 0.0302847 2.0%
2650 0.009858715 0.0297133 2.0%
2700 0.009646824 0.029163 2.0%
2750 0.009443685 0.0286328 1.9%
2800 0.009248774 0.0281215 1.9%
2850 0.009061607 0.0276281 1.9%
2900 0.008881739 0.0271518 1.8%
2950 0.008708756 0.0266916 1.8%
3000 0.008542274 0.0262467 1.8%
3050 0.008381939 0.0258164 1.7%
3100 0.00822742 0.0254001 1.7%
3150 0.00807841 0.0249969 1.7%
3200 0.007934623 0.0246063 1.7%
3250 0.007795793 0.0242277 1.6%
3300 0.00766167 0.0238607 1.6%
3350 0.007532021 0.0235045 1.6%
3400 0.007406628 0.0231589 1.6%
3450 0.007285288 0.0228232 1.6%
3500 0.007167809 0.0224972 1.5%
30
30
27
27
27
33
30
30
30
30
36
36
33
33
33
39
39
39
36
36
42
39
27
27
27
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
27
It is considered that Spiral Transition is not required for radii more than 1700 m for the set of design criteria (namely, Speed 100 Kmph, e
max
=7.0%). This
consideration is based on the premise that on the tangent alignment maximum superelevation allowed is limited to 2.0% (which is of the design
superelevation of 3% for R=1700). Incidentally, for the set of design criteria and the minimum Radius (here 1700 m) beyond which Spiral is not required
gives rise to a Radial Acceleration =0.45 m/s
2
which is much below the comfort value specied in page 187 of AASHTO 2004. Where Spiral is absent,
of the Run-off is to be provided on Tangent and remaining would be on the circular curve.
21
21
21
24
Design
670
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
h
PI
(m)
S
1
(%)
S
2
(%)
L
1
(Curvature)
L
2
(Curvature)
MO
(m)
Vide Exhibit
3-18
Slope of the
f
distribution
curve at
Slope of the f
distribution
curve at
min
Vide Exhibit 3-
18
Vide Exhibit
3-18
Middle
Ordinate of the
f distribution
curve
(unsymmetrica
l parabola)
Exhibit 3-18
and page
160 of
AASHTO
2004
( S
1
=h
PI
*
R
PI
)
Page 160
S2 = (f
max
-
h
PI
) /
[(1/Rmin) -
(1/R
PI
)]
L
1
=1/R
PI
L
2
=1/R
min
-
1/R
PI
[L1*L2*(
S2-S1)] /
[2*(L1+L
2)]
0.02689
21.85039 78.74016 0.00123 0.00118 0.01715
L
S
(m)
L
S,min
(m)
L
S,max
(m)
Design
L
S
(m)
Calculation of Design Spiral Curve Length (L
S
) and Design Superelevation Runoff (L
r
)
{Based on Design Speed (V
D
), Maximum Superelevation (e
max
) , Maximum Radial Friction Factor (f
max
) and width of Traveledway (i/c
Maximum Effective
is derived by the formula
(vide Ex 3-31)

eff
= /b
w
Evaluation of Design Clothoid Spiral Length
(L
S
) for the design controls given above
Evaluation of Design
Runoff Length (L
r
)

eff
(%)
0.61%
L
r
(m)
Clothoid
Length
(based on
allowable
introduction
Acceleration
, C= 0.5
m/s
3
)
Clothoid
Length
(based on
minimum
shift
(S
min
)=0.2 m.)
Clothoid
Length
(based on
maximum shift
(S
max
)=1.0 m.)
0.0215* V
/(R*C)
Refer
equation 3-
29 of
AASTHO,
2004
(24*R*S
min
)

Refer
equation 3-28
of AASTHO,
2004
(24*R*Sma
x)

Refer
equation 3-30
of AASTHO,
2004
Based on
column (6),
but in no
case
greater
than the
values in
column (8)
(6) (7) (8) (9)
NA
103 45 100 110
96 46 104 100
86 49 110 100
79 51 115 95
72 54 120 90
67 56 125 85
62 58 130 85
58 60 134 80
54 62 139 75
51 64 143 75
48 66 147 70
46 68 151 70
43 69 155 65
41 71 159 65
40 73 162 60
38 74 166 60
36 76 170 60
35 77 173 55
34 79 177 55
32 80 180 55
31 82 183 50
30 83 187 50
29 85 190 50
28 86 193 45
27 88 196 45
45
45
42
51
51
48
48
45
63
60
57
54
54
(5)
93
93
90
87
84
81
78
75
72
69
66
63
Minimum Design
Runoff (which depends
on e, W and
eff
) based
on the equation
Lr = W * e /
eff

27 89 199 45
26 90 202 45
25 92 205 NR
24 93 208 NR
24 94 211 NR
23 95 214 NR
23 97 216 NR
22 98 219 NR
21 99 222 NR
21 100 224 NR
20 102 227 NR
20 103 230 NR
20 104 232 NR
19 105 235 NR
19 106 237 NR
18 107 240 NR
18 108 242 NR
18 110 245 NR
17 111 247 NR
17 112 250 NR
17 113 252 NR
16 114 255 NR
16 115 257 NR
16 116 259 NR
16 117 262 NR
15 118 264 NR
15 119 266 NR
15 120 268 NR
15 121 271 NR
14 122 273 NR
14 123 275 NR
14 124 277 NR
14 125 279 NR
14 126 281 NR
13 127 284 NR
13 128 286 NR
13 129 288 NR
13 130 290 NR
30
30
27
27
27
33
30
30
30
30
36
36
33
33
33
39
39
39
36
36
42
39
27
27
27
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
27
It is considered that Spiral Transition is not required for radii more than 1700 m for the set of design criteria (namely, Speed 100 Kmph, e
max
=7.0%). This
consideration is based on the premise that on the tangent alignment maximum superelevation allowed is limited to 2.0% (which is of the design
superelevation of 3% for R=1700). Incidentally, for the set of design criteria and the minimum Radius (here 1700 m) beyond which Spiral is not required
gives rise to a Radial Acceleration =0.45 m/s
2
which is much below the comfort value specied in page 187 of AASHTO 2004. Where Spiral is absent,
of the Run-off is to be provided on Tangent and remaining would be on the circular curve.
21
21
21
24
Design
Spiral
0.4538853
125
125
125
120
110
105
100
95
90
85
NR
NR
Parameters V

(Kmph)
V
R
(Kmph)
e
max
(%)
f
max
(%)
Description
Design Speed
(80/60/50/40/30)
Running Speed
Maximum
Superelevation
allowable
friction factor that can
be mobilised
Formula
/Reference
The designer has to
choose based on the
type of road facility
Exhibit 3-14 of
Green Book 2004
The designer has to
choose based on the
terrain, rainfall,
snowfall, amount of low
speed traffic, etc
(Desirably limited to
4.0%)
IRC: 73 assumes
constant f
max
(=0.15)
irrespective of the
Design Speed.
However, it is better
based on AASHTO.
Values 80
70
4.0% 0.14
Input Parameters (as
marked )

(%)
Maximum Relative
dependent on Design
speed V

(vide Ex 3-
30)
0.50%
Sl. No.
R
(m)
e
cal
(%)
e
(%)
f
mob
Calculated
Superelevation
Design Superelevation
Mobilised Friction
factor
Formula Designer's choice
V/225R or 4%
whichever is less

Evaluation of Design Superelevation (e) vis--vis given Design Radius (R)

7 0.757142857
Width of Roadway rotated as a plane
section (it includes carriageway lanes
and paved shoulder, if any, with same
cross slope as the lanes
Adjustment factor for number of equivalent
lanes (say, n
1
=W/3.6) rotated as a plane
section (vide Exihit 3-31), b
w
={(1+0.5(n
1
-
1)}/n
1
IRC Horizontal Geometry Design for Urban Roads
* (Strictly speaking, up to 2 lanes carriageway this design is alright, however, for more than 2 lanes the R vs e is correct but L
r
in (6) and
Design L
s
in (9) are incorrect
W (m) b
w
(1) (2) (3) (4)
22
23
25
28
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
86
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
149
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
183
185
189
190
195
200
205
210
215
220
225
230
235
240
245
250
255
260
265
270
275
280
4.0% 4.0% 0.139977503
285
3.7% 3.7% 0.139820003
290
3.4% 3.4% 0.139771382
295
3.1% 3.1% 0.139826104
300
2.8% 2.8% 0.139979003
305
2.6% 2.6% 0.139225248
310
2.3% 2.3% 0.139560325
315
2.0% 2.0% 0.139980002
320
1.8% 2.0% 0.137480315
325
1.6% 2.0% 0.135057541
330
1.3% 2.0% 0.132708184
335
1.1% 2.0% 0.130428958
340
0.9% 2.0% 0.128216767
345
0.7% 2.0% 0.126068698
350
0.4% 2.0% 0.123982002
355
0.2% 2.0% 0.121954087
360
-0.1% 2.0% 0.119982502
365
-0.2% 2.0% 0.118064934
370
-0.4% 2.0% 0.116199191
375
-0.6% 2.0% 0.114383202
380
-0.8% 2.0% 0.112615002
385
-1.0% 2.0% 0.110892729
390
-1.1% 2.0% 0.109214617
395
-1.3% 2.0% 0.107578989
400
-1.5% 2.0% 0.105984252
405
-1.6% 2.0% 0.104428891
410
-1.8% 2.0% 0.102911465
415
-1.9% 2.0% 0.101430604
420
-2.1% NC 0.139985002
425
-2.2% NC 0.138573414
430
-2.3% NC 0.137194653
Rmin
(m)
Minimum Radius to be
adopted in design of
H-curve
280

eff
(%)
based on AASHTO
Maximum Effective

eff
= /b
w
0.66%
V
check
(Kmph)
L
S
(m)
L
S
(m)
Design
L
S
(m)
Check for Speed (based
on e

and f
max
), However,
this is not correct, as
f
max
is not going to be
mobilised for all radii.
Clothoid Length
(based on
allowable
introduction of
Acceleration ( C)
Clothoid
Length
()
2.7*V
2
/R for
Plain or
Rolling, V
2
/R
for
Mountaneous
or Steep
Maximum of the
values among
(6) and (7)
rounded up to
multiple of 5
L
r
(m)
Minimum Design
Runoff (which depends
on e, W and
eff
) based
on the equation
L
r
= W * e /
eff
Maximum Effective

eff
= 1 in 150, for
Plain or Rolling terrain,
and = 1 in 60 for
Mountainous or steep.
Terrain should be one of the
following, Plain (P) or
Rolling ( R) or Mountainous
(M) or Steep (S). Enter the
letter in the parenthesis as
appropriate.
Rate of change of Radial
acceleration, which is derived by
the formula, C=80/(75+V), in no
case it should lie beyond (0.5,
0.8)

Evaluation of Design Superelevation (e) vis--vis given Design Radius (R)

Evaluation of
Design Runoff
Length (L
r
)
Evaluation of Design Clothoid Spiral
Length (L
S
) for the design controls given
above
0.67% p 0.516129032
C (m/s
3
)
IRC Horizontal Geometry Design for Urban Roads
* (Strictly speaking, up to 2 lanes carriageway this design is alright, however, for more than 2 lanes the R vs e is correct but L
r
in (6) and
Design L
s
in (9) are incorrect
c
(%)
Normal Cross Slope
(NC) / Camber
The designer has to
choose the CS/Camber
based on the road surface
type and rainfall intensity
(vide table 5 of IRC: 38)
2.0%

eff
(%)
based on IRC
Terrain Type
(5) (7) (8) (9)
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
W
h
e
r
e
e
v
e
r

S
p
i
r
a
l

C
u
r
v
e

i
s

p
r
o
v
i
d
e
d
,

i
t
s

l
e
n
g
t
h

(

L
S

)

i
s

a
l
s
o

e
q
u
a
l

t
o

t
h
e

R
u
n
-
o
f
f

L
e
n
g
t
h

(

L
r

)
.

W
h
e
r
e
,

S
p
i
r
a
l

C
u
r
v
e

i
s

n
o
t

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
,

t
h
e

R
u
n
-
o
f
f

L
e
n
g
t
h

s
h
o
u
l
d

b
e

u
s
e
d
,

a
s

g
i
v
e
n

i
n

c
o
l
u
m
n

(
6
)
.
(6)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
80.00499984 77 62 80
80.04070839 75 61 75
80.0526077 74 60 75
80.04070839 73 59 75
80.00499984 72 58 75
80.18734314 70 57 70
80.10811445 69 56 70
80.00499984 68 55 70
80.63746028 67 54 70
81.26499862 66 54 70
81.88772802 65 53 65
82.50575737 64 52 65
83.11919153 63 51 65
83.72813147 62 51 65
84.33267457 61 50 65
84.9329147 61 49 65
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
30
30
27
21
21
NA
42
39
36
33
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
85.52894247 60 48 60
86.12084533 59 48 60
86.70870775 58 47 60
87.29261137 57 47 60
87.8726351 57 46 60
88.44885528 56 45 60
89.02134575 55 45 55
89.59017803 54 44 55
90.15542136 54 44 55
90.71714281 53 43 55
91.27540742 53 43 55
91.83027823 52 42 55
80.00499984 NR NR NR
80.47981113 NR NR NR
80.95183753 NR NR NR
It is considered that Spiral Transition is not required for "Those radii" for
which the "Radial Acceleration (V
2
/13R)" becomes less than 0.45 m/s
2
, as
the corresponding sideway jerk is so less that the traffic can comfortably
adjust when they directly enter into a Circular Curve from Tangent
Alignment. Reference can be drawn from page 187 of AASHTO 2004.
Where Spiral is absent, of the Run-off is to be provided on Tangent
and remaining would be on the Circular Curve.
21
21
21
NR
NR
21
21
21
21
NR
21
21
21
21
21
Parameters
V
(Kmph)
V
R
(Kmph)
e
max
(%)
f
max
(%)
Description
Design Speed
(80/60/50/40/30)
Running Speed
Maximum
Superelevation
allowable
friction factor that can
be mobilised
Formula
/Reference
The designer has to
choose based on the
type of road facility
Exhibit 3-14 of
Green Book 2004
The designer has to choose
based on the terrain,
rainfall, snowfall, amount
of low speed traffic, etc
(Desirably limited to
4.0%)
Based on IRC: 86,
f
max
=0.15 irrespective
of V. The same is
followed except for
V=80 Kph, for which
fmax =0.14
Values 50
47
4.0% 0.15
Input Parameters (as
marked )

(%)
Maximum Relative
dependent on Design
speed V

(vide Ex 3-
30)
0.65%
Sl. No.
R
(m)
e
cal
(%)
e
(%)
f
mob
Calculated
Superelevation
Design Superelevation
Mobilised Friction
factor
Formula Designer's choice
V/225R or 4%
whichever is less

Evaluation of Design Superelevation (e) vis--vis given Design Radius (R)

Width of Roadway rotated as a plane
section (it includes carriageway lanes
and paved shoulder, if any, with same
cross slope as the lanes
Adjustment factor for number of equivalent
lanes (say, n
1
=W/3.6) rotated as a plane
section (vide Exihit 3-31), b
w
={(1+0.5(n
1
-
1)}/n
1
7 0.757142857
W (m) b
w
IRC Horizontal Geometry Design for Urban Roads
* (Strictly speaking, up to 2 lanes carriageway this design is alright, however, for more than 2 lanes the R vs e is correct but L
r
in (6) and
Design L
s
in (9) are incorrect
(1) (2) (3) (4)
22
23
25
28
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
86
90
95
100
105
3.8% 3.8% 0.149476565
110
2.9% 2.9% 0.149954903
115
2.2% 2.2% 0.149174255
120
1.5% 2.0% 0.144041995
125
0.8% 2.0% 0.137480315
130
0.2% 2.0% 0.13142338
135
-0.5% 2.0% 0.125815106
140
-1.0% 2.0% 0.120607424
145
-1.5% 2.0% 0.115758892
149
-1.8% 2.0% 0.112114358
150
-1.9% 2.0% 0.111233596
155
-2.3% NC 0.147000254
160
-2.7% NC 0.143031496
165
-3.1% NC 0.139303269
170
-3.5% NC 0.135794349
175
-3.8% NC 0.132485939
180
-4.1% NC 0.12936133
183
-4.3% NC 0.127568521
185
-4.4% NC 0.126405618
189
-4.6% NC 0.124153647
190
-4.7% NC 0.12360547
195
-5.0% NC 0.12094892
200
-5.2% NC 0.118425197
205
-5.4% NC 0.116024582
210
-5.7% NC 0.113738283
215
-5.9% NC 0.111558323
220
-6.1% NC 0.109477452
225
-6.3% NC 0.107489064
230
-6.5% NC 0.105587128
235
-6.7% NC 0.103766125
240
-6.8% NC 0.102020997
245
-7.0% NC 0.100347099
250
-7.2% NC 0.098740157
255
-7.3% NC 0.097196233
260
-7.5% NC 0.09571169
265
-7.6% NC 0.094283167
270
-7.8% NC 0.092907553
275
-7.9% NC 0.091581961
280
-8.0% NC 0.090303712
285
-8.1% NC 0.089070314
290
-8.3% NC 0.087879446
295
-8.4% NC 0.086728947
300
-8.5% NC 0.085616798
305
-8.6% NC 0.084541113
310
-8.7% NC 0.083500127
315
-8.8% NC 0.082492188
320
-8.9% NC 0.081515748
325
-9.0% NC 0.080569352
330
-9.1% NC 0.079651634
335
-9.2% NC 0.078761312
340
-9.3% NC 0.077897175
345
-9.3% NC 0.077058085
350
-9.4% NC 0.07624297
355
-9.5% NC 0.075450815
360
-9.6% NC 0.074680665
365
-9.7% NC 0.073931615
370
-9.7% NC 0.073202809
375
-9.8% NC 0.072493438
380
-9.9% NC 0.071802735
385
-9.9% NC 0.071129972
390
-10.0% NC 0.07047446
395
-10.1% NC 0.069835543
400
-10.1% NC 0.069212598
405
-10.2% NC 0.068605035
410
-10.2% NC 0.068012291
415
-10.3% NC 0.06743383
420
-10.4% NC 0.066869141
425
-10.4% NC 0.06631774
430
-10.5% NC 0.065779161
Rmin
(m)
Minimum Radius to be
adopted in design of
H-curve
104

eff
(%)
based on AASHTO
Maximum Effective

eff
= /b
w
0.86%
V
check
(Kmph)
L
S
(m)
L
S
(m)
Design
L
S
(m)
Check for Speed (based
on e

and f
max
), However,
this is not correct, as
f
max
is not going to be
mobilised for all radii.
Clothoid Length
(based on
allowable
introduction of
Acceleration ( C)
Clothoid
Length
()
2.7*V
2
/R for
Plain or
Rolling, V
2
/R
for
Mountaneous
or Steep
Maximum of the
values among
(6) and (7)
rounded up to
multiple of 5

Evaluation of Design Superelevation (e) vis--vis given Design Radius (R)

Evaluation of
Design Runoff
Length (L
r
)
Evaluation of Design Clothoid Spiral
Length (L
S
) for the design controls given
above
L
r
(m)
Minimum Design
Runoff (which depends
on e, W and
eff
) based
on the equation
L
r
= W * e /
eff
Maximum Effective

eff
= 1 in 150, for
Plain or Rolling terrain,
and = 1 in 60 for
Mountainous or steep.
Terrain should be one of the
following, Plain (P) or
Rolling ( R) or Mountainous
(M) or Steep (S). Enter the
letter in the parenthesis as
appropriate.
Rate of change of Radial
acceleration, which is derived by
the formula, C=80/(75+V), in no
case it should lie beyond (0.5,
0.8)
0.67% p 0.64

eff
(%)
based on IRC
Terrain Type C (m/s
3
)
IRC Horizontal Geometry Design for Urban Roads
* (Strictly speaking, up to 2 lanes carriageway this design is alright, however, for more than 2 lanes the R vs e is correct but L
r
in (6) and
Design L
s
in (9) are incorrect
c
(%)
Normal Cross Slope
(NC) / Camber
The designer has to
choose the CS/Camber
based on the road surface
type and rainfall intensity
(vide table 5 of IRC: 38)
2.0%
(5) (7) (8) (9)
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
Inadequate R NA NA NA
50.06975135 40 65 45
50.0062996 39 62 40
50.12045491 37 59 40
50.89990177 35 57 35
51.9494947 34 54 35
52.97829744 33 52 35
53.98749855 32 50 35
54.97817749 30 49 30
55.95131813 29 47 30
56.71781025 29 46 30
56.9078202 28 45 30
50.58705368 NR NR NR
51.39649794 NR NR NR
52.19339039 NR NR NR
52.97829744 NR NR NR
53.75174416 NR NR NR
NR
NR
NR
21
21
21
21
NR
NR
33
24
21
21
21
21
NA
NA
NA
42
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
W
h
e
r
e
e
v
e
r

S
p
i
r
a
l

C
u
r
v
e

i
s

p
r
o
v
i
d
e
d
,

i
t
s

l
e
n
g
t
h

(

L
S

)

i
s

a
l
s
o

e
q
u
a
l

t
o

t
h
e

R
u
n
-
o
f
f

L
e
n
g
t
h

(

L
r

)
.

W
h
e
r
e
,

S
p
i
r
a
l

C
u
r
v
e

i
s

n
o
t

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
,

t
h
e

R
u
n
-
o
f
f

L
e
n
g
t
h

s
h
o
u
l
d

b
e

u
s
e
d
,

a
s

g
i
v
e
n

i
n

c
o
l
u
m
n

(
6
)
.
(6)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
54.51421833 NR NR NR
54.96662624 NR NR NR
55.2661741 NR NR NR
55.86045113 NR NR NR
56.00803514 NR NR NR
56.74019739 NR NR NR
57.46303159 NR NR NR
58.17688544 NR NR NR
58.88208556 NR NR NR
59.57893923 NR NR NR
60.26773598 NR NR NR
60.94874896 NR NR NR
61.62223625 NR NR NR
62.28844195 NR NR NR
62.94759725 NR NR NR
63.59992138 NR NR NR
64.24562242 NR NR NR
64.88489809 NR NR NR
65.51793648 NR NR NR
66.14491666 NR NR NR
66.76600932 NR NR NR
67.38137725 NR NR NR
67.9911759 NR NR NR
68.59555379 NR NR NR
69.19465297 NR NR NR
69.78860939 NR NR NR
70.37755324 NR NR NR
70.96160934 NR NR NR
71.54089739 NR NR NR
72.11553231 NR NR NR
72.68562444 NR NR NR
73.25127985 NR NR NR
73.81260055 NR NR NR
74.36968468 NR NR NR
74.92262676 NR NR NR
75.47151781 NR NR NR
76.01644559 NR NR NR
76.55749473 NR NR NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
77.0947469 NR NR NR
77.62828093 NR NR NR
78.15817296 NR NR NR
78.68449657 NR NR NR
79.20732289 NR NR NR
79.72672074 NR NR NR
80.24275668 NR NR NR
80.75549517 NR NR NR
81.26499862 NR NR NR
81.77132749 NR NR NR
82.27454041 NR NR NR
82.7746942 NR NR NR
83.27184398 NR NR NR
83.76604324 NR NR NR
84.25734389 NR NR NR
NR
NR
It is considered that Spiral Transition is not required for "Those radii" for
which the "Radial Acceleration (V
2
/13R)" becomes less than 0.45 m/s
2
, as
the corresponding sideway jerk is so less that the traffic can comfortably
adjust when they directly enter into a Circular Curve from Tangent
Alignment. Reference can be drawn from page 187 of AASHTO 2004.
Where Spiral is absent, of the Run-off is to be provided on Tangent
and remaining would be on the Circular Curve.
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
Parameters Standard of Design
V
(Kmph)

eff
(%)
Description AASHTO or IRC (A/I) Design Speed
Maximum Effective Relative
Formula
/Reference
The input must be either
AASHTO, A, IRC, I
The designer has to
choose based on the
type of road facility
(120.100,80,65,60,5
0,40,35,30,25,20)
Values i 100 0.67
Input Parameters (as
marked )

Parameters
S
(m)
A
Vertical Curve Type
(Crest / Sag)
Description Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) Grade Difference
Values 180 2.50 Crest
c

The input must be either

'Crest, C, Sag, S
AASHTO/IRC Vertical Curve Design
Formula
/Reference
S = 0.278Vt + V2/254 f where
t=2.5 sec and f = 0.35
G
1
-G
2
If A>0, Crest Curve
If A<0, Sag Curve
Guidance for Gradient (G%)
G
1
(%)
G
2
(%)
This Guidance for G-value should be applied only
on Horizontal Curve (Run-out & Run-off) stretch
to ensure adequate drainage
Two controls/criteria to be followed simultaneously.
(1) The gradient of the PGL should be at least 0.5%
(2) The gradient of the Road edges should be at least
0.2% (for uncurbed road) and at least 0.5% (for curbed
The designer to choose
based on the terrain and
amount of Truck/Heavy
vehicle population
The designer to choose
based on the terrain and
amount of Truck/Heavy
vehicle population
Ve)
For Upgrade, G >= 0.87
For Downgrade, G <= -0.87
2.5 0.00

Minimum K Value L
min
K is the Length of Vertical Curve required for
unit (1.0%) Grade difference
Calculated Minimum
length of Crest curve