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BIOENERGY

By:-
Sumit Kumar
Deepak Panwar
Umed Paliwal
WHAT IS BIOMASS ?

Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. In
the context of biomass for energy this is often used to mean plant based material,
but biomass can equally apply to both animal and vegetable derived material.

Chemical composition
Biomass comes in a million physical forms
However, it is composed typically of
Cellulose - 50%
Hemi cellulose - 25%
Lignin - 25%
Most biomass can be represented by - C10H14O
6

TYPES OF BIOMASS
EXAMPLES OF BIOMASS
Wood: Trees, bushes, wood residue
(Sawdust, bark etc. from forest clearings and
mills)
Wastes: Municipal Solid Waste (Paper, food
and yard wastes, plastics, wood and tires),
Livestock Waste, Process Waste, Sewage
Crops: Starch crops (Corn, wheat and
barley), Sugar crops (Cane and beet), Forage
crops (Grasses, alfalfa, and clover), Oilseed
crops (soybean, sunflower, safflower )
Aquatic Plants: Algae, Water weed, Water
hyacinth, Reed and rushes

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BIOMASS AND
FOSSILE FUEL

The vital difference between biomass and fossil fuels is one of time scale.
Biomass takes carbon out of the atmosphere while it is growing, and returns it as
it is burned. If it is managed on a sustainable basis, biomass is harvested as part
of a constantly replenished crop. This is either during woodland or
arboricultural management or coppicing or as part of a continuous programmer
of replanting with the new growth taking up CO
2
from the atmosphere at the
same time as it is released by combustion of the previous harvest.
This maintains a closed carbon cycle with no net increase in atmospheric CO
2

levels.
BIO-FUEL AND FOSSIL -FUEL
Plant material
The carbon used to construct biomass is absorbed from the atmosphere as carbon
dioxide (CO
2
) by plant life, using energy from the sun.
These processes have happened for as long as there have been plants on Earth and is
part of what is known as the carbon cycle.
Fossil fuels
Fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas are also derived from biological material,
however material that absorbed CO
2
from the atmosphere many millions of years
ago.
As fuels they offer high energy density, but making use of that energy involves
burning the fuel, with the oxidation of the carbon to carbon dioxide and the
hydrogen to water (vapor). Unless they are captured and stored, these combustion
products are usually released to the atmosphere, returning carbon sequestered
millions of years ago and thus contributing to increased atmospheric concentrations
WHY USE BIOMASS ?

Garbage can be converted to useful energy.
Recycling biomass for fuel and other uses cuts down on the
need for "landfills" hold garbage.
It burned much cleaner than coal and oil.
Renewable within short span of time.

BIOENERGY IN PAST AND PRESENT

Biomass was the first fuel mankind learned to use
for energy. Burning wood for warmth and
cooking and keeping wild animals away
Some of the earliest power plants in world were
fueled by wood material
In the early 17
th
century people switched to coal
for fule.
20
th
century saw the rise of oil and natural gas
Many cultures used animal dung to burn, and
some are still doing this today
Will the 21
st
century see the reverse process from
coal to wood ?

BIOMASS ENERGY

Energy obtained from biomass is called biomass energy.
Produced by green plants through photosynthesis in presence of sun light



Other living organisms consume green plants or their byproduct and
generate biomass


6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O (CH
2
O)
6
+ 6O
2
+ 636 kCal
(biomass)
Sunlight
Chlorophyll t
BIOMASS AS A FUEL
What is fuel ?

Fuels are any materials that store that store potential energy in forms that can be
practicably released and and used for work or as heat energy.
However, the Earth actually grows every year about 130 billion tonnes of biomass on
land (60 billion tonnes of carbon) and a further 100 billion tonnes in the rivers, lakes
and oceans (46 billion tonnes carbon).
The energy content of this annual biomass production is estimated to be more than
6 times world energy use or 2,640 exajoules (2500 Quads) on land, with an
additional 2024 exajoules (1920 Quads) in the waters.

COMBUSTION OF FUEL

Fuel Heat Content (GJ/t)
Coal ~30
Oil 42
Natural Gas 55
Air-dry wood ~15
Straw 15
Domestic Refuse 9
Sugarcane Residue 17
Average heat energy content of fuels
BIOMASS - SOLAR ENERGY STORE
Solar energy as a
driver helps to
complete the carbon
cycle,recreating fuel
and oxygen.

The mechanism is
known as
Photosynthesis.
Carbon cycle on local scale
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert
light energy, normally from the sun, into chemical energy that can be later
released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in
carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon
dioxide and water

The plants grows using solar energy to convert CO
2
and water into
carbohydrate or similar material as a fuel ,which give energy on burning.

BIOENERGY SOURCES
ENERGY CROPS

An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to
make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate
electricity or heat. Energy crops are generally categorized as woody or herbaceous
plants.
Energy crops got attraction in recent years for several reasons like.
The need for alternatives of fossil fuels to reduce CO
2
emissions.
The search for indigenous alternatives to imported oil.
The problem of surplus agricultural land.


Elephant grass,an energy crop
WOODY CROPS


1% of worlds forest on 2.47% of worlds geographical area.

Sustaing 16% of the worlds population and 15% of its livestock population.

Forest fullfill nearly 40% of Indias energy needs and 30% of fodder needs.Annual
production of fuelwood,fodder and timber is 270 million tons,280 million tons
and 12 million cubic meters,respectively.Forest cover is about 20.7% of the area
in 2005.

Wood is to be the main domestic fuel in less endowed and poorer regions.

WOODY CROPS
Woody biomass is plant material from trees and shrubs that can include roots,
bark, leaves, branches,limbs, trunks, and vines. Woody biomass can come from
many sources, including forestry operation residues, wood product residues,
urban waste wood,trees grown specifically for energy, fuelwood, and forest
thinnings that reduce damage from fires and pests.

sawdust, scraps, and other wood waste from industries that make products from
wood, such as cabinet and furniture companies, can also be used to produce
energy


Timber and fuel wood obtained from the forest besides minor forest produce.

Commercial plantations like rubber and plants/trees that yield hydrocarbon can
be a source of byproduct fuel.


EXAMPLES
AGRICULTURAL CROPS

Most widely grown crop for bioenergy purpose is sugarcane and maize.

These crops can be converted to liquid fuels.

A completely different type of energy crop as grown for its oily seed,which are
sunflower,oilseed rape,soya beans etc.are grown for the oil in their seeds.

It can be converted to a diesel substitute,known as Biodiesel.

These crops mostly received attention in Europe and the USA because of suitable
climate conditions.

BIOENERGY FROM WASTE
Forest Wood and Leaves
Fallen Leaves, barks retain nutrients
Can be Used for Electricity Production
Bulky, Transportation is uneconomic

Temperate Crop Waste
World wide residue of Wheat and Maize more than billion tons/year
In past and even now most of this is openly burned, Air Pollution Concerns
Can be used to generate biogas
Low density transportation is uneconomic
Local level gasifiers a good solution


BIOENERGY FROM WASTE
Tropical Crop Waste
Total Energy content of Rice and sugarcane residue per annum - 18 EJ

Bagasse
Residue of sugarcane
Used in Sugar factories a fuel
Surplus electricty is sold
Rice Husk
Suitable for gasifcation

Animal Waste & Sewage Sludge
Anerobic Digestion to produce biofuels


BIOENERGY FROM WASTE
Municipal Solid Waste
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Major cities
Production of garbage in Tons/day
BIOENERGY FROM WASTE
Municipal Solid Waste
Avg. Household in Developed countries produce about a ton of solid waste per year
with an energy content enough to fuel 10% of its energy needs
Incineration, Anerobic digestion can be used to extract useful energy
Saves the landfill space, win-win situation

Landfill Gas
Large proportion of MSW is organic
Anerobic digestion in Landfill produces metahne (50-60%) and hydrogen which can
be used as a fuel
Despite low energy efiicency growing rapidly
HUSK POWER SYSTEM, BIHAR
Bihar Produces 47.14 lakh tonnes of Rice per year generating 13.4 lakh tonnes of
residue Rice husk
Waste ?
Electricity has been very-very slow to reach Bihar
Husk power systems was started by Ganesh Pandey in 2007 to provide electricty in
villages of Bihar
Husk Power systems uses gasifiers to produce elctricity through Rice husk
Extra income for farmers
Till 2011 they have installed 84 mini-plants providing electricity to 2 lakh people
across 300 villages.
Environment friendly Saves 42,000 L of Kerosene and 18,000 L of diesel per year
Waste Char used to make incense sticks.
Employment to locals



Nothing is Waste its just the absence of Right Technology