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GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION

Power System Stability


GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Outline
Basis for Steady-State Stability
Transient Stability
Effect of Excitation System on Stability
Small Signal Stability
Power System Stabilizers
Speed Based
Integral of Accelerating Power
Case Studies
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Mechanical and Electrical Torque
Applied to the Shaft
T
T
M
e
T

G
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Stator, Rotor, and Resultant MMFs and Torque Angle
F
A
A'
B'
B
C'
C
F
R
2
1

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION


Synchronous Machine Tied to Infinite Bus
X
L
X
E
E
X
E
E
T
+X X
L E
=X
T
T
g
g
O
HV
Infinite Bus
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Steady State Electrical Power
Output
P
E E
X
e
g T
g
=
sin
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Phasor Diagram - Generator Tied to
Infinite Bus
IX
E
E
E
IX
I
g
g
T
0
E

j
j
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Transient Stability
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Rubber Band Analogy
Rubber Bands
Weights
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Change in Electrical Torque

T T T
e s D
= +
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Transient Stability Illustration
P
P
o
w
e
r
Power Angle-
90

0
180

Turbine
Power
P
P
P
2
1
3
4
Unstable,
machine loses
Synchronism
Stable
Retarding
Torque
Insufficient
Retarding
Torque
MAX
M
ACCEL
DECEL



GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Effect of Fault Clearing Time -
Equal Area Not Possible
Fault
Power
Unit pulls out of sync
P
P
E
M
Breaker
clears

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Effect of Fault Clearing Time -
Equal Area Substantial Margin
Power
Fault Breaker
clears faults
System returns to
steady state, system stable
Rotor decelerates due to
P max exceeding
mechanical power
E
Equal Area
substantial margin
P
P
E
M

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Effect of the Excitation System
on Stability
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Steady State Electrical Power
Output
P
E E
X

e
g T
g
=
sin
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Effect of High Initial Response
Excitation System
Power
0
Fast excitation system
Maximum field forcing
First swing, system recovers
P
B
A
P
P
P
E
E-A
E-B
M
Machine will lose
synchronism

GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Small Signal Stability
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Change in Electrical Torque

T T T
e s D
= +
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Inter-Unit Oscillations
E
g2
g1
g2
X
X
E
o
1.5 - 3 Hertz
E
g1
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Local Mode Oscillations
E
g
g L
X X
E
o
.7 - 2 Hertz
E
g
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Inter-Area Oscillations
<0.5 Hertz
Eg2
g1 g2 L
X X X
E
g1
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Block Diagram of Generator Under
Voltage Regulator Control
V
REF
+
-
G
ex
(s)
Exciter
E
fd
-
+
K
3
1+sT
3
1
1+sT
R
K4
K
2
K6
+
+ E
v
t
1
+
1
2Hs +K
D

0
s
T
e
T

M
+
-
r
K
5
K
1
+

fd

Voltage transducer
Field circuit
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Power System Stabilizers
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
The "Swing Equation"
2
0
2
2
H d
dt
T T K
m e D r

=
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Small Signal Version of "Swing
Equation"

T T T
e s D
= +
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Response of Speed and Angle
to Small Disturbances
0
0

T
D
D
e
e
s
s

D
s
Stable
Positive T
Positive T
D
s
Oscillatory
Instability
Positive T
T Negative
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
PSS with AVR, Exciter and
Generator
V
REF
+
+
-
G
ex
(s)
Exciter
E
fd
-
+
K
3
1+sT
3
1
1+sT
R
K4
K
2
K6
+
+ E
v
v
t
1
s
+
1
2Hs +K
D

0
s
T
e
T

M
+
-
r
r
K
5
K
1
+

fd
G
P S
(s)

Voltage transducer
Field circuit
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
PSS Theory of Operation
Speed Based Stabilizers
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Speed-Based Stabilizer
Speed
s T5
1 + s T5
1
1 + s T6
1
1 + A1 s + A2 s
Ks1
1 + s T1
1 + s T2
1 + s T3
1 + s T4
Vstmax
Vstmin
Output
High-Pass Filter
Stabilizer Gain & Phase Lead Limits
2
Torsional Filter
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
PSS Theory of Operation
Dual Input Stabilizers
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Small Signal Version of "Swing
Equation"

T T T
e s D
= +
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Speed Deviation from Net
Accelerating Power
d
dt H
T T K
r m e D r
=
1
2
( )
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Accelerating Power Based on
Integral of Mechanical and
Electrical Power
T ]
=
[
1
2H
T
m e
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Block Diagram of Dual-Input
Power System Stabilizer
Freq
Power
+
+
+
-
Ramp-Tracking
Filter
Vstmax
Vstmin
Output
High-Pass Filters
High-Pass Filters & Integrator
Stabilizer Gain & Phase Lead
Limits


1+sT
8
(1+sT
9
)
N
M
sT
w2
1 + sT
w2
sT
w1
1 + sT
w1
K
s1
1+sT
1
1+sT
2
1+ sT
3
1+ sT
4
sT
w3
1+sT
w3
K
s2
1+sT
7
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Speed Derived from VT and CT Signals

E
E
Generator
q-axis
d-axis
jX
I
I
t
t
I
t q
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Accelerating-Power Design (Speed
Input)
Compensated Frequency
Equivalent to Rotor Speed
s Tw1
1 + s Tw1
s Tw 2
1 + s Tw2
High-Pass Filters
Generator Speed Deviation
Signal (i.e. no steady state component)
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Integral of Electrical Power Block
Diagram
Active Power
s Tw3
1 + s Tw3
K 2
1 + s T7
High-Pass Filters & Integrator
Integral-of-Power
Deviation
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Output Stage of PSS to AVR
Ks1
1 + s T1
1 + s T2
1 + s T3
1 + s T4
Vstmax
Vstmin
Output to AVR
S
Filtered
Speed
tabilizer Gain & Phase Lead
Limits
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Case Studies
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Case 1 - Hydro Generator without PSS
Time (seconds)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Case 1 - Hydro Generator with PSS
Dual Input Stabilizer, Phase Lead=(1+0.05s)/(1+0.01s), Gain=40
Time (seconds)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Ks=6, 92MW
Hydro Turbine
Generator
A single input
PSS measures
only frequency,
power or speed
Case 2 - On-line Step Response Frequency Type PSS
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Ks=7.5, 92MW
Hydro Turbine
Generator
The
PSS monitors
frequency and
power for superior
performance
Case 2 - On-line Step Response Dual input PSS
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Case 3 Step
Response
All generators
in service,
Stabilizer OFF
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Case 3
Step Response
All generators
in service,
Stabilizer Gain = 1
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
0.875
0.01
0.01
-1.5
1
0.975
WATTS
TEST OUT
PSS OUT
GEN TERM F
POSTLIM OUT
GEN TERM V
0.865
0.006
0.006
-2.5
0
0.965
0.855
0.002
0.002
-3.5
-1
0.87
0.008
0.008
-2
0.5
0.97
0.86
0.004
0.004
-3
-0.5
0.96
0.85
0
0
-4
0
0
0
0
0
0
x10
-4
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
4
4
4
4
4
12
12
12
12
12
12
18
18
18
18
18
18
2
2
2
2
2
2
10
10
10
10
10
10
16
16
16
16
16
16
6
6
6
6
6
6
14
14
14
14
14
14
20
20
20
20
Time (Sec) Time (Sec)
20
20
Case 4 - 1165MW Nuclear Unit - Baseline
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Case 4 - 1165MW Nuclear Unit - Final Setting
0.87
0.01 6
2
0.98
WATTS
TEST OUT
PSS OUT
GEN TERM F
POSTLIM OUT
GEN TERM V
0.86
0.006
10
2
0
0.97
0.85
0.002
0
- 2
-2
0.865
0.008
15
4
1
0.975
0.855
0.004
5
0
-1
0.965
0.845
0
-5
- 4
0
0
0
0
0
0
x10
-4
x10
-3
x10
-3
8
8
8
8
8
8
4
4
4
4
4
4
12
12
12
12
12
12
18
18
18
18
18
18
2
2
2
2
2
2
10
10
10
10
10
10
16
16
16
16
16
16
6
6
6
6
6
6
14
14
14
14
14
14
20
20
20
20
Time (Sec) Time (Sec)
20
20
0.96
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Case 5
SCT/PPT
Phase
Compensation
Requirements
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
0.1 1 10
53 MW
41 MW
28 MW
14 MW
7 MW
stabilizer phase compensation
Frequency (Hz)
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
r
e
e
s
)
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Case 5:
On-Line Step
Test
with PSS Off
59.99
60.00
60.01
60.02
G
e
n

F
r
e
q
(
H
z
)
0
80
160
240
F
i
e
l
d
(
V
d
c
)
250
270
290
310
330
0 5 10 15
Time (seconds)
F
i
e
l
d
(
A
d
c
)
51
53
55
57
A
c
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r
(
M
W
)
-12
-8
-4
0
R
e
a
c
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r
(
M
V
A
r
)
13.8
13.9
14.0
14.1
14.2
T
e
r
m
i
n
a
l

V
(
k
V
)
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Case 5:
On-Line Step
Test with PSS
On
60.00
60.01
60.02
60.03
G
e
n

F
r
e
q
(
H
z
)
55
56
57
58
59
60
A
c
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r
(
M
W
)
-8
-4
0
4
8
R
e
a
c
t
i
v
e

P
o
w
e
r
(
M
V
A
r
)
0
50
100
150
200
250
F
i
e
l
d
(
V
d
c
)
-3
-2
-1
0
1
0 5 10 15
Time (seconds)
P
S
S
+
T
e
s
t
(
%
)
14.0
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
T
e
r
m
i
n
a
l

V
(
k
V
)
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Case 6: Off-Line Step of Reference Test
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Case 6: On-Line Step of Reference Test - PSS Off
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Case 6: Off-Line Step of Reference Test PSS On
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
Power System Stability
A function of fast protective relaying
PSS is used to provide damping to prevent
power system oscillations
Provide damping via excitation control
PSS has little effect on first swing stability, but
restores damping lost by adding high initial
response excitation systems
Many different stabilizing schemes exist - focus
on integral of accelerating power
GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION
QUESTIONS?