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QATAR GENERAL PETROLEUM CORPORATION

TECHNICAL DIRECTORATE
Technical Services Department
Engineering Standard ES.2.06.0001
Electrical Installation
Recommended Practices
- Revision A -
Status Indicator Date Signature
Prepared ENE/732 AUG 99 Original signed by ENE/732
Checked ENE/73 AUG 99 Original signed by ENE/73
Approved EE AUG 99 Original signed by EE
AC7SC0AB0
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Custodian
3.0 Purpose
4.0 Application
5.0 Preface to ES.2.06.0001
5.1 Extracts from the preface to ES.2.03.0001
6.0 Project Documentation
6.1 Sources of documents
6.2 Application of documents
6.3 Standards, codes and regulations
7.0 Service and Environmental Conditions
7.1 Ambient temperature for design purposes
7.2 Meteorological information for general use
7.3 Special requirements for equipment installed in hazardous areas
7.3.1 Area classification
7.3.2 Selection and installation of equipment
7.4 Contractors responsibility for safety on site
7.5 Test records
7.6 Visual inspection
7.7 Scope of testing at site
7.7.1 Installation contractor
7.7.2 Manufacturer of new equipment
7.7.3 Requirements of a particular project
7.8 General requirements for testing cables
8.0 Switchboards and Motor Control Centres
8.1 Preliminary checks
8.2 Installation
8.3 Post-installation un-energised testing
8.4 Post-in energised testing
8.5 Commissioning energised testing
8.5.1 Protection relays
8.5.2 Electrical functional testing
8.5.3 High voltage testing
8.6 Testing when cabling is complete
8.6.1 Consumers
8.6.2 Incomer circuit breakers
8.6.3 Bus-section and bus-coupler circuit breakers
9.0 Transformers
9.1 Preliminary checks
9.2 Installation
9.3 Post-installation un-energised testing
9.4 Post-installation energised testing
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9.5 Commissioning energised testing
9.5.1 High voltage testing
9.5.2 Switching into normal service
10.0 Turbine Driven Generators
10.1 Division of discipline responsibilities
10.2 Preliminary checks
10.3 Installation
10.4 Post-installation un-energised testing
10.4.1 Generators without unit transformers
10.4.2 Generators with unit transformers
10.4.3 Auxiliary equipment
10.5 Post-installation energised testing
10.6 Commissioning energised testing
10.6.1 High voltage testing
10.6.2 Testing control systems
10.6.2.1 AVR controller
10.6.2.2 Governor controller
10.6.3 Running on open-circuit
10.7 Synchronused with other sources
11.0 Engine Driven Generators
11.1 Division of discipline responsibilities
11.2 Preliminary checks
11.3 Installation
11.4 Post-installation un-energised testing
11.4.1 Generators without unit transformers
11.4.2 Generators with unit transformers
11.4.3 Auxiliary equipment
11.5 Post-installation energised testing
11.6 Commissioning energised testing
11.6.1 High voltage testing
11.6.2 Testing control systems
11.6.3 Running on open-circuit
11.7 Synchronised with other sources
12.0 HV Motors
12.1 Division of discipline responsibilities
12.2 Preliminary checks
12.3 Installation
12.4 Post-installation un-energised testing
12.5 Post-installation energised testing
12.5.1 Shaft coupling
12.6 Commissioning energised testing
12.6.1 High voltage testing
12.6.2 Testing control systems of synchronous motors
12.6.3 Starting time and starting current
13.0 LV Motors
13.1 Preliminary checks
13.2 Installation
13.3 Post-installation un-energised testing
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13.4 Post-installation energised testing
13.5 Commissioning energised testing
13.5.1 Shaft coupling
13.5.2 Running lightly loaded
14.0 Drying Out Generator and Motor Windings
15.0 Packaged and Skid Mounted Equipment
15.1 Preliminary checks
15.2 Installation
15.3 Post-installation testing and commissioning
16.0 Cables and the Installation of Cables
16.1 Laying of cables in all installations
16.1.1 Qualified cable jointers and supervision
16.1.2 Site modifications to the design
16.1.3 Cable drums and drum schedules
16.1.4 Basic installation practices
16.1.4.1 Cables supported on racks or trays above or below ground
16.1.4.2 Cleating and securing cables
16.1.4.3 Cable transits
16.1.4.4 Cables protected at ground level
16.1.4.5 Conduit installations
16.2 Laying of cables in land-based installations
16.2.1 Cables laid directly in the ground
16.2.2 Cables laid in pipes or ducts
16.2.3 Derating cables for environmental conditions
16.3 Laying of cables in platform-based installations
16.3.1 The use of conduit systems
16.4 Glanding and termination of cables
16.5 Special considerations for installing 33Kv (and above) cables
16.5.1 Site considerations
16.5.2 Additional requirements for cables laid direct in ground
16.5.3 Additional requirements for cables drawn into ducts
16.5.4 Cables at road-crossings and in areas accessible to vehicles
16.5.5 Cables supported on poles and in buildings
16.5.6 Terminations for 33kV (and above) cables
16.5.6.1 Power cables
16.5.6.2 Terminating and jointing conductors
16.5.6.3 Cable identification
16.5.6.4 Stand off insulators
16.5.6.5 Cable route markers above ground
16.5.6.6 Concrete cable tiles
17.0 Batteries, D.C. and A.C. Uninterruptable Power Supply Systems
17.1 Safety
17.2 Terminology
17.3 Vented lead acid batteries
17.4 Vented nickel-cadmium batteries
17.5 Sealed lead acid batteries
17.5.1 Operational restrictions
17.5.2 Battery room temperature
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17.6 Battery rooms and their equipment
17.6.1 Electrical equipment
17.6.2 Maximum charger rating in a battery room
17.6.3 Non-electrical equipment
17.7 Preliminary checks for batteries
17.7.1 Delivery of batteries to site
17.7.2 Unpacking and assembling the cells
17.8 Charger units
17.8.1 Preliminary checks
17.8.2 Installation
17.8.3 Post-installation testing and commissioning
17.9 Inverter units
17.9.1 Preliminary checks
17.9.2 Installation
17.9.3 Post-installation, testing and commissioning
17.10 Distribution Board
18.0 Lighting and Small Power
18.1 Normal Lighting
18.2 Emergency lighting
18.3 Escape lighting
18.4 Additional requirements for platform-based installations
18.5 Location of lighting and distribution switchboards and circuit switches
18.5.1 Zone 1 and Zone 2 Hazardous areas
18.5.2 Unclassified areas
18.5.3 Ligthing and distribution isolation and control
18.5.4 Lighting and small power switches in all areas
18.6 Lighting installation considerations
18.7 Types of lighting fittings
18.8 Illumination levels
18.9 Road lighting
18.10 Choice of lamps, luminaires and holders
18.10.1 Lamp holders for tungsten filament lamps
18.10.2 Lamp holders for tubular fluorescent lamps
18.10.3 Lamp holders for high pressure mercury discharge and metal halide lamps
18.10.4 Lamp holders for sodium lamps
18.10.5 Portable luminaires
18.10.6 Low voltage discharge and fluorescent lighting
18.10.7 High voltage discharge lighting and signs
18.11 Small power outlets
18.12 Navigation aids for platform-based installations
18.13 Inspection and testing lighting and socket outlet systems
19.0 Earthing Systems
19.1 Basis of design
19.1.1 Extracts from QES-E-10
19.1.1.1 Faults on electrical equipment and systems
19.1.1.2 Lightning strikes
19.1.1.3 Build-up of static electric charge
19.2 Practical requirements
19.2.1 Earthing and bonding connections
19.2.2 Plant and equipment earthing and bonding
19.2.3 Packaged equipment
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19.2.4 Cable armour termination
19.2.5 Cable dielectric screens
19.2.6 Instrument system earthing for platform-based installations
19.2.6.1 Instrument room power and instrumentation earthing
19.2.6.2 Earthing to provide a reference potential for computing, telecommunications and instrument
equipment.
19.2.6.3 Intrinsically safe barrier earthing
19.2.6.4 Instrument screen earthing
19.2.7 Pipe flanges
20.0 Overhead Lines
20.1 Soil tests
20.2 Pole and insulator erection
20.2.1 Poles and steelworks
20.2.2 Line sections
20.2.3 Plans, profiles and pole schedules
20.2.4 Pole numbering
20.2.5 Danger plates
20.2.6 Pole earthing
20.2.7 Insulators, switches, surge arrestors and fuse isolators
20.2.8 Stays
20.2.9 Anti-climbing guards
20.3 Conductor erection
20.3.1 Planning and schedules
20.3.2 Damage
20.3.3 Running-out blocks
20.3.4 Back staying of poles
20.3.5 Conductor lengths and joints
20.3.6 Conductor hauling devices
20.3.7 Jointing
20.4 Conductor sagging and tensioning
20.4.1 Method
20.4.2 Anchoring and damping
20.4.3 Removal of suspension snatch blocks
20.4.4 Jumper-loops
20.5 Sag and tension charts and templates
20.5.1 Sag and tension erection charts
21.0 Approval to Deviate
22.0 Revision History Log
23.0 Bibliography
APPENDICES
A Abbreviations
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B Technical definitions
C List of standards used for electrical engineering and equipment
C.1 International Electrotechnical Commission (Europe)
C.2 Institute of Petroleum (UK)
C.3 International Standards Organisation (Worldwide)
C.4 British Standards Institution (UK)
C.5 American Petroleum Institute (USA)
C.6 CIGRE (France)
C.7 Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association (UK)
C.8 Electricity Council (UK)
C.9 Verband Deutscher Electrechniker (W.Germany)
C.10 Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers Inc. (USA)
C.11 Miscellaneous References from the UK
C.12 QGPC electrical equipment and systems standards (Qatar)
C.13 Periodic Revision of Reference Documents
D Recommended Limits for Test Results
D.1 Cautionary note
D.2 Insulation resistance tests
D.2.1 Cables
D.2.2 New switchgear and motor control centres
D.2.3 Generators and motors
D.2.4 Liquid filled power transformers
D.3 High voltage tests
D.3.1 New switchboards and motor control centres
D.3.1.1 Reference standards
D.3.1.2 Power frequency tests
D.3.1.3 D.C. tests
D.3.2 Power transformers
D.3.3 Generators and motors
D.4 Polarisation index tests for HV generators and power transformers
D.5 Measurement of earth electrode resistance
D.5.1 Resistance of the general mass of earth
D.5.2 Single vertical rod earth resistance
D.5.3 Multiple vertical rod earth resistance
D.5.4 Methods of measurement
D.5.5 Results to be achieved
E. Technical Particulars of 33 kV Overhead Line and Cable
E.1 Introduction
E.2 Schedule-overhead line-general characteristics
E.3 Schedule-overhead line-design conditions
E.4 Schedule - 33kV cables - technical particulars
E.5 Schedule-clearances-internal to line
E.6 Schedule-clearances-external to line
E.7 Schedule-phase conductor-technical particulars
E.7.1 Phase conductor characteristics
E.7.2 Tensioning details
E.8 Schedule-earthwire conductor-technical particulars
E.8.1 Earthwire conductor characteristics
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E.8.2 Tensioning details
F. Temporary Electrical Installations
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ENGINEERING STANDARDS
- ELECTRICAL -
ES.2.06.0001
AMENDMENT RECORD
Rev. No. Date Amendment Section Page
A.1
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1.0 Introduction
This is an engineering standard that gives details about the recommended practices to be used
in new and existing electrical installations.
Note that any changes to this document from its last revision are highlighted by a bold
vertical bar to the left of each area of change. Should there be a need to consult this
documents change history log, refer in the first instance to its custodian (EE). References
made throughout this standard are numbered inside square brackets [ ] and may be found in
the Bibliography of Appendix C.
2.0 Custodian
The Custodian of this standard is EE, who is responsible for the accuracy and quality of its
contents and for its future revisions, where these are required to reflect industry trends or
changes to QGPC business practices.
3.0 Purpose
This document shall be used in the engineering and design of land-based plants and platforms
and floating facilities in the sea around Qatar.
4.0 Application
The electrical engineering recommended practices described in this document shall be applied
to the engineering and design of QGPC power systems and their components. These practices
shall be applied to obtain the most suitable technical application and the economical
installation, testing and commissioning of the equipment required for these power systems.
5.0 Preface to [ES.2.06.0001]
This document describes the practices required for the installation and commissioning of
systems and equipment at QGPC sites, in accordance with the philosophy of engineering
described in [ES.2.03.0001] and its references. All parties involved in the design and
installation of a plant for QGPC shall use this document to achieve the installation standards
required by QGPC.
This document shall be used in the design and installation of land-based plants, and platforms
located in the sea around Qatar.
To avoid confusion in the use of the terms on-shore and off-shore in general, and in
connection with Halul Island in particular, the following terms will be used instead :-
Land-based installations (LBIs). All plants installed on the mainland of Qatar. All plants
installed on Halul Island.
Platform-based installations (PBIs). All plants installed on elevated platforms or moored
vessels located in the sea or waters around Qatar.
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All installations (AIs). Means that the equipment described applies to both land-based
and platform-based installations.
The primary purpose of this document is to describe the approach needed to be adopted by the
QGPC Engineer and the CONTRACTOR when a new plant, or modifications to an existing
plant, reaches the stage when its equipment is to be installed and made ready for operation. In
some sub-sections cross-references are made to other documents for further reading or for
sources of data. Hence the practices for all future installations should be similar.
The companion document [ES.2.03.0001] is a necessary reference for background
information. These two documents, [ES.2.03.0001 and ES.2.06.0001], address the same
subjects but for different objectives. Consequently, duplication of material has been reduced to
a minimum, and cross-referencing has been adopted so that the reader can obtain a complete
understanding of a particular subject.
The QGPC document [ES-E-040, to be re-numbered] covers commissioning of electrical and
non-electrical equipment. Volume 2 covers the electrical equipment and gives descriptions of
various special tests e.g. injection testing of relays, dielectric and polarization index testing.
This document is divided into sections which concentrate on particular types of equipment,
and in approximately the order in which these main individual items of equipment would be
required to be on the site, e.g. switchgear, transformers, generators. Cables and their systems
follow because they are common to all electrical equipment on a site. Overhead lines are
described as the last main item because they are involved only with land-based plants, and
they are a specialized subject. Overhead lines are normally projects in their own context, and
invariably interface with a major plant at the boundary or battery limits, see [ES.2.03.0001].
For the purposes of this document the following definitions of terms and interpretations shall
apply regardless of any meaning the words may have in other respects.
Shall: The word shall is to be understood as mandatory.
Should: The word should is to be understood as being strongly
recommended.
QGPC : Is the party which initiates the project and ultimately pays for
its design and construction. QGPC will generally specify
technical requirements. QGPC may also include and agent or
consultant to act for QGPC.
CONTRACTOR : Is the party which carries out all aspects or part of the design,
engineering, procurement, construction and commissioning of
the plant. QGPC may sometimes undertake all or part of the
duties of the CONTRACTOR.
Manufacturer/ Is the party which manufactures or supplies equipment.
Supplier
Document : As used in [ES.2.06.0001], this refers to standards,
recommended practices, guidelines, data sheets, drawings,
schedules etc. issued by QGPC that are required to enable the
engineering and design work to be completed by the
CONTRACTOR.
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Note 5.a: - See Appendix B for definitions of particular technical words
and expressions.
5.1 Extracts from the Preface to [ES.2.03.0001]
This document sets out to establish the QGPC philosophy required for the design and selection
of electrical systems and equipment, in accordance with the latest international standards and
industrial installation practice. All parties involved in the engineering and design of a plant for
QGPC shall use this document to achieve the standards required by QGPC.
The primary purpose of this document is to describe the approach or philosophy needed to be
adopted by the QGPC engineer and the CONTRACTOR when a new plant is being
considered, or when modifications are proposed to an existing plant. In many sub-sections the
reasoning behind a QGPC requirement is outlined or explained, or a reference to further
reading is given. Hence a similar design for all plants should be achieved.
The companion document is [ES.2.06.0001] which concentrates on how equipment is installed
after it has been designed, manufactured and delivered to site. These two documents,
[ES.2.06.0001] and [ES.2.03.0001], address the same subjects but for different objectives.
Consequently, duplication of material has been reduced to a minimum, and cross-referencing
has been adopted so that the reader can obtain a complete understanding of a particular
subject.
In addition the specifications listed in Appendix C, sub-section C.11, describe the essential
technical features that QGPC require from the manufacturers of particular items of equipment
e.g. generators, switchgear, motors, power transformers. These documents develop the basic
principles set out in [ES.2.03.0001] into more detail, and are intended to be the Project
Specifications. In this regard the CONTRACTOR should not need to prepare his version of
[ES.2.03.0001], but he may need to prepare a version of [ES.2.06.0001] for the installation of
a particular project.
6.0 Project Documentation
6.1 Sources of Documents
A project that requires the installation of equipment will provide two basic types of documents
for the erection, testing and commissioning of the equipment. These are :-
a) Detail design documents created by the CONTRACTOR who has been responsible for
the engineering and design of the equipment and associated systems.
b) Equipment documents created by the manufacturer for his particular item of equipment.
In general the documents in b) will be included with the deliverable documents in a). The
CONTRACTOR shall check the suitability and completeness of the b) documents before they
are delivered to site.
The documents in a) will contain installation detail drawings, supporting descriptive material
and procedures particular to the installation.
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Note 6.1a :- This document, [ES.2.06.0001], shall be a major reference document
during the detail design phase of the project, see paragraph one of 5).
The CONTRACTOR should maintain a written record of any significant deviations from the
practices described in this document. The record should include for example, minutes of
meetings, letters, facsimiles, telexes and the like that have been communicated with QGPC.
6.2 Application of Documents
The documents that shall take precedence over any others shall be those created and delivered
by the CONTRACTOR for the particular project, and which should have been reviewed by
QGPC during the detail design phase of the project.
In the absence of suitable documents at site when the installation work is due to commence,
[ES.2.06.0001] shall be referred to for guidance where appropriate. The CONTRACTOR
should then create suitable documents for immediate use and recording purposes to the
satisfaction of QGPC.
6.3 Standards, Codes and Regulations
Many of the principles of this document are based on the [IEC 364] and [IEC 79] publications
or the CENELEC equivalents, e.g. [HD 384] and [EN 50.014] up to and including [EN
50.020]. The entire electrical installation shall be suitable for the environmental influences and
climatic conditions as specified by QGPC, See [Appendix E of ES.2.03.0001]. Furthermore,
the contents of this document and of the standards and publications referred to herein shall be
adhered to, except where amended by specific requirements given by QGPC to a particular
installation and as far as is permitted under the statutory requirements of the State of Qatar.
Electrical equipment and materials shall comply with the relevant specifications and data
sheets or M.E.S.C (Group Materials and Equipment Standards and Code) specifications,
which in turn shall be generally considered as supplementary to IEC equipment standards.
CENELEC or national standards of Qatar may be used in lieu of IEC standards for the design
and engineering of the electrical installation provided they are no less stringent in their total
requirements.
Where BSI standards are quoted, their IEC equivalent documents may also be used.
Appendix C herein gives a list of IEC and other standards that are generally encountered in
electrical system design and equipment manufacturing.
In the event of contradiction between the requirements of QGPC specifications and IEC,
CENELEC, BS, or national standards the former shall prevail, subject to satisfying statutory
obligations. The SI unit system shall be used throughout design work. Electrical symbols shall
conform to IEC except where specified by QGPC. Electrical equipment numbering shall
conform to QGPC standards. All documentation shall be prepared, copied and delivered in the
English language.
7.0 Service and Environmental Conditions
See Appendix E of [ES.2.03.0001] for full details.
7.3 Special Requirements for Equipment Installed in Hazardous Areas
7.3.1 Area classification
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All installations should be classified into hazardous and non hazardous areas as fully
described in [ES.2.03.0001, Appendices F and H].
An Area Classification Drawing(s) should be prepared showing these areas, using the
procedure referenced in [ES.2.03.0001, Appendix H, sub-section H.4]. These drawings should
also indicate the gas group and temperature classification of the gases likely to be present in
the area.
Note 7.3.1a:- Area classification should be a joint exercise involving operations,
mechanical, electrical, instrument, safety and loss prevention
disciplines as appropriate.
7.3.2 Selection and installation of equipment
The selection and installation of equipment in hazardous areas should be in accordance with
[ES.2.03.0001, sub-section 7.2, Appendices F and H].
7.4 Contractor Responsibility for Safety on Site
The CONTRACTOR will be responsible for inspection and testing the equipment and cables
that he has installed.
The CONTRACTOR will be responsible for taking all necessary safety precautions, the
supply of all necessary labour and testing equipment, the replacement of all equipment and
sundries, e.g. fuses damaged during testing and the maintenance of the installation until such
time as it is taken over by the QGPC.
Wherever possible no piece of equipment e.g. power switchboard, shall be energised until all
work on it has been completed. Where this is not possible the CONTRACTOR must take all
the precautions necessary to ensure the safety of personnel who continue to work on the
equipment. No equipment shall be energised without prior permission of Electrical
Department of QGPC and the obtaining of any necessary permits. All outgoing circuits shall
be isolated and padlocked in the off position and suitably worded caution boards shall be
prominently displayed.
Wherever possible final inspection and testing should be carried out immediately prior to
commissioning equipment and leaving it in its normal operating condition. Equipment that is
left in a de-energised condition should be subjected to such tests as are deemed to be necessary
by QGPC. This shall be carried out immediately prior to energising to prove that it is in a
satisfactory condition.
The CONTRACTOR is recommended to maintain close liaison with the QGPC inspector so
that inspection and testing may be carried out as the installation and making-off of cable ends
proceeds. This will eliminate the need to re-open terminal boxes and enclosures and disconnect
cables after the installation has been completed. Failure to comply with this will render the
CONTRACTOR carrying out the tests liable for all costs involved in subsequent
disconnection and reconnection required for testing purposes.
Under no circumstances shall a circuit be energised or commissioned prior to its being
inspected and tested.
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Primary injection shall be prefered for all tests where this is normally possible. Where this is
impractical secondary injection may be used, but this must be agreed in writing with QGPC in
advance of the testing being commenced. The CONTRACTOR shall provide all the testing
equipment in either situation.
7.5 Test Records
Accurate records shall be kept of all tests made and their records shall include : -
Details of the equipment or circuit tested.
The test(s) made.
The results of the test(s).
Where appropriate, the commissioning checks made and the results of them.
The signatures of the representatives of the CONTRACTOR and QGPC who witnessed
and approved the tests.
All tests shall be recorded on test sheets provided by the CONTRACTOR. Where special tests
are required and no suitable test sheet is available, a suitable test procedure and sheet shall be
produced by the CONTRACTOR and submitted to QGPC for approval prior to being
implemented.
The test sheets shall be completed by the CONTRACTOR and approved by QGPC. The
CONTRACTOR shall submit the test report to QGPC in quintuplicate within one month of
the tests being carried out.
The QGPC document [ES-E-040, to be re-numbered] contains detailed procedures for special
tests e.g. phase testing of windings, injection testing of protective relays, high voltage testing.
It also contains standard test sheets that can be used if the CONTRACTOR has not prepared
similar sheets.
7.6 Visual Inspection
The installation shall be subjected to a thorough visual inspection to check every part of it
complies with the specifications, standards and drawings; and that a high and acceptable
standard of workmanship has been achieved. In particular:-
Equipment shall be checked for correct identification, rigidity of fixture, freedom from
physical defects, completeness of assembly and installation.
Cables and conductors shall be checked for correct sizing, termination identification,
security of fixtures, defects, termination and freedom from kinks and general damage.
The installation shall be checked for its suitability with respect to the area classification.
Check of internal and external cleanliness and the sealing or greasing of flanges.
Following the completion of commissioning the proper fixing of cover plates shall be
rechecked.
7.7 Scope of Testing at Site
Tests on site shall include, but not limited to, the tests specified hereunder and shown on the
test sheets.
Additional tests shall be carried out as necessary to ensure that every item of equipment and
part of the installation is capable of satisfactorily performing its function.
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No testing shall be undertaken until the appropriate visual inspection has been satisfactorily
completed.
Part of the practice of installation is the testing of equipment. As far as electrical equipment is
concerned the testing can be broadly divided into the following categories :-
Preliminary checking.
Post-installation un-energised testing.
Post-installation energised testing.
Commissioning energised testing.
Testing when cabling is complete.
The party, or parties, responsible for carrying out the testing depends to some extent on the
nature of the project e.g. completely new plant, extension to an existing plant, replacement of
equipment, old equipment involved, new equipment, major or minor technology involved.
These parties can be divided as follows :-
Installation contractor.
Manufacturer of equipment.
Independent testing contractor.
QGPC maintenance department.
This document mainly concerns the activities of the first two parties, i.e. the installation
contractor, the manufacturer of the installed equipment.
Testing shall include calibration.
Tests that are necessary to retain the manufacturers guarantee will be conducted in
accordance with instructions from the electrical equipment manufacturer. In the absence of
specific manufacturers instruction (MI), electrical site tests will be limited to those
hereinafter specified for the various materials and equipment. An inspection shall generally be
required and it should consist of the combined physical and material defects prior to, during
and after the energizing of an electrical installation.
7.7.1 Installation contractor
The equipment listed below may be regarded as being less sophisticated than those listed in
7.7.2 and consequently it should normally be handled by the Installation Contractor in
cooperation with QGPC.
The following tests should be performed by the Installation Contractor : -
Generators rated below 750kW.
Motors rated below 750kW .
Cables rated 600V and less.
Batteries and chargers.
Lighting and small power systems.
Earthing and bonding systems.
Distribution boards.
Overhead lines.
Power transformers rated below 500kVA .
Hazardous area equipment.
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Trace heating.
Cathodic protection.
Operational and functional testing of all systems prior to energising equipment.
7.7.2 Manufacturer of new equipment
The equipment listed below may be regarded as being more sophisticated than those listed in
7.7.1 and consequently it should normally be handled by the manufacturer in cooperation with
the Installation Contractor and QGPC.
The following tests (and calibrations) should be performed by or under the supervision of the
manufacturer or authorized manufacturers representative : -
High voltage generators.
Low voltage generators rated 750kW and above.
Switchboards and motor control centres, including protection relays.
High voltage neutral earthing resistors.
Power transformers rated 500kva and above.
High voltage busducting and busbars.
Cables rated for voltages above 600v.
Supervisory, control, scada, dcs equipment.
Motors rated 750kw and above.
Power management systems.
Variable speed controllers for motors.
Ups equipment rated 100kva and above.
Special purpose equipment.
7.7.3 Requirements of a particular project.
The division of responsibilities listed in (7.7.1) and (7.7.2) should be reviewed for the
requirements of a particular project, and should be approved by QGPC before the equipment
is purchased.
7.8 General requirements for testing cables
Cables are common to all installations. It is prefered that no cable should be tested until it has
been fixed in position and particular attention should be paid to cable rigidity at terminal
points. See also 16.1.3 for testing cables that are still on their drums as delivered to site.
LV cables should be individually tested after they have been terminated but, wherever
possible, before they are finally connected.
HV cables shall be tested only when they have been terminated and connected.
If disconnecting links are provided in terminal equipment, they should be removed before the
cable tests are carried out and be replaced immediately following completion of the cable tests.
In the case of HV cables where disconnecting links are not provided in the terminal equipment
prior assurance must be obtained in writing from the supplier to ensure that the full cable test
voltages specified below can be applied to the connected equipment, e.g. motor windings,
switchgear cable spouts and C.T. chambers etc.
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The test voltages which may be applied to existing cables must be arranged by discussion
between all interested parties.
No instrument cable may be tested without the prior approval of the QGPC Instrument
Inspector. To test an instrument cable it may be necessary to disconnect the instrument prior
to carrying out insulation resistance tests on the cable.
Under no circumstances shall any insulation test, bell testing set or other high or low voltage
test be applied to semi-conductor equipment; and all such equipment must be disconnected
prior to carrying out insulation resistance tests on the associated cables.
The CONTRACTOR carrying out the tests will be held responsible for any damaged caused
by the test voltages.
See also 16.1.3.
8.0 Switchboards and Motor Control Centres
8.1 Preliminary Checks
Large switchboards are often delivered in units of three or four cubicles. Check the largest
unit for dimensions and ensure that it can be transported from its storage location to its
permanent location.
Check the permanent location for : -
Dimensions against those of the switchboard manufacturer.
Main cable access ways and channels.
Auxiliary cable access ways and channels.
Fixing points and base frame levelling.
Lifting facilities and access overhead.
Screeding and circuit breaker truck or trolley and access are correct.
Earthing connections are installed.
Supply connections for space heaters.
Check the switchboard nameplate details, tag numbers, cubicle names etc. are correct.
Check the manufacturers instructions (MI) for advice about moving the switchboard into its
permanent location e.g. removal of circuit breakers, temporary fixing of items to prevent
movement and damage within the structure.
8.2 Installation
Installation shall be in accordance with manufacturers instructions (MIs).
Special tools and equipment recommended by the manufacturer shall be supplied, and
maintained in good condition for use when required.
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All bolted connections within the equipment shall be checked for tightness, particularly busbar
connections including correct alignment and connections of interconnecting busbars, to the
torque settings recommended.
Before any cables are connected to the equipment, or insulating compounds added, insulation
checks shall be carried out on all main and control circuits. These shall include high voltage
tests on main connections between phases and earth to ensure that a breakdown of insulation
has not taken place during installation. Follow the manufacturers instructions carefully, and
disconnect all devices, which could be harmed by the test voltages e.g. electronic measuring
circuits.
Bond the switchboard to its earthing facility in the switchroom e.g. cables to switchroom
busbar from the switchboards earth busbar.
Check the bonding details with those described in [ES.2.03.0001].
8.3 Post-Installation Un-Energised Testing
Functionally check all mechanical operations e.g. racking in and out circuit breakers, safety
shutters move into their correct positions, earthing switches, mechanical interlocks of earthing
devices, interlocks for truck positions, open-closing-rewinding mechanism springs.
Test the earth bonding continuity at the various joints using a DUCTOR or similar test
instrument and record the results.
Test the continuity of the main busbars and risers at their main joints. Record the results.
8.4 Post-Installation Energised Testing
Most switchgear will require low voltage supplies for tripping, closing, spring winding,
indication and protection relays. Arrange for suitable permanent or temporary supplies, D.C.
and A.C. of the correct frequency, to be available so that pre-commissioning functional checks
and the setting-up of relays and controls can be carried out.
Apply an insulation resistance (IR) test to the circuit incomers for the above mentioned
auxiliary supplies, with their switching devices in their closed position. Refer to MI for the
lowest IR test voltage to use. Disconnect any electronic devices that may be damaged by an IR
test. Record the results.
Functionally check all electrical operations at each cubicle e.g. open, close, rewind spring,
trip, relays and their tripping circuits (see also 8.5.1), electrical interlocks such as solenoid
bolts in earth switch circuits.
Check all electrical indicating lamps, LEDs, and the like for each cubicle. Voltmeters,
ammeters, wattmeters, power factor meters cannot be tested at this stage. Refer to MI for the
scope of testing that can be carried out.
Record any malfunctions and arrange for their rectification or the replacement of the defective
components.
The above may also be described as pre-commissioning tests.
8.5 Commissioning energised testing
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8.5.1 Protection relays
Arrange for suitable permanent supplies so that the protection relays can be energised.
Refer to MI for all testing to be carried out for commissioning each cubicle.
At this stage the consumers main and auxiliary cables need not be laid or connected to the
switchboard for the purpose of initially setting up the protection relays. This is a matter of
project planning and urgency, and can be recorded as partial-commissioning.
For each relay to be set-up check the following against the project design documents, the
manufacturers documents and equipment as installed : -
Relay description, type number, feature option code numbers, features required.
Current transformer secondary current.
Current transformer ratio and burden va.
Current transformer accuracy class.
Voltage transformer secondary voltage.
Voltage transformer ratio and burden va.
Voltage transformer accuracy class.
Similar details of any interposing current or voltage transformers.
Similar details of any transducers used on the circuit,
e.g. winding temperatures of generators, motor, transformers.
Auxiliary supplies.
A Protection Relay Schedule and the switchgear data sheets should show the above details.
Carry out secondary current injection tests, with voltage circuits also energised as appropriate
for the tests. Refer to the test equipment MI for details of how to select, inject and interpret the
readings. Set up each relay in accordance with the relay MI and check the relay response
against at least 5 current values well spread over the characteristic of the relay, assuming a
time dependent form. For definite time and instantaneous relays set up the desired values and
check their actual threshold responses using the injection equipment.
Record all results and malfunctions. Arrange for malfunctions to be corrected or replaced.
Where the project documentation calls for primary injection current testing then this shall be
carried out in preference to secondary injection testing.
8.5.2 Electrical functional testing
If the functional testing in (8.4) has been carried out over one month before the tests in (8.5)
are to be carried out then a representative number of cubicles of each type e.g. generator,
feeder, motor, shall be re-tested.
8.5.3 High voltage testing
Where high voltage A.C. or D.C. testing of the busbars, risers and switching device
components is required the details of test voltages and durations shall be obtained from the MI
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in the first instance, or if not available from the documents of (6.1.a) . These tests shall be
kept to a minimum to avoid unnecessary stressing of the system insulation.
The safety precautions given in (8.6.2) shall be used.
8.6 Testing when Cabling is Complete
8.6.1 Consumers
The word consumer herein refers to the load connected at the far end of a cable, e.g. a motor,
a distribution board, another switchboard, a UPS.
At this stage it is assumed that the consumer has been installed and its pre-commissioning test
have been completed. Similarly the main and auxiliary cables are assumed to be laid,
terminated and tested.
The cable shall be tested at this stage for : -
Earth loop resistance.
Earth continuity of its armouring.
Earth continuity of its insulation screens where appropriate.
See Appendix D for typical values of the resistances that should be obtained. Refer to the
cable MI or data for particular requirements. Refer to the consumer MI for particular
requirements.
Carry out the following checks before energising the consumer : -
Visit the consumer and visually check that any moving parts are free to move, terminal
boxes are covered, earthing bonds are in place.
Warning and safety signs are fixed and clearly visible.
Safety barriers are in place.
Couplings of rotating machines are coupled or uncoupled in accordance with the specific
requirements of the project or the manufacturer. This is necessary to check the direction
of rotation.
Couplings are covered with a proper metallic guard.
Locate a competent person at the site of the consumer to observe all activities during the
test.
Carry out an insulation resistance test of the consumer and its cable(s) from the
switchgear cubicle outgoing terminals, to verify that no faults are present prior to
energising the cable(s).
Energise the consumer for the first time by manually (not by automatic control) closing its
circuit breaker or contactor. Refer to the consumers MI for details of this part of the testing
procedure, e.g. duration of first energisation, what needs to be checked and measured, how
much load can be applied, with or without the coupling coupled.
Check the instruments and read-outs at the switchboard e.g. current per phase, relay response
if any.
Record all relevant details.
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8.6.2 Incomer circuit breakers
At this stage it is assumed that the source of supply has been commissioned and its main
cables energised up to the incoming terminals of the switchboard. The incoming circuit
breaker shall have been racked out, or if this is not possible pad-locked in its OFF position.
Carry out the following before energising the busbars of the switchboard : -
Withdraw or lock OFF all outgoing circuit breakers and contactors.
Place warning and safety signs on the incoming cubicle and other clearly seen areas
nearby e.g. entrance to the switchroom.
Place a safety barrier around the access area to the cubicle.
Allow only authorised persons to be present.
Carry out an insulation resistance test of the busbars, to verify that no faults are present
prior to energising them.
Energise the busbars for the first time by closing the incoming circuit breaker manually at the
switchboard. Refer to the switchboards MI for details of this part of the testing procedure e.g.
duration of first energisation, what needs to be checked and measured.
Check the instruments and read-outs at the switchboard e.g. current per phase which should be
negligibly small, busbar line voltages, relay response if any.
Record all relevant details.
8.6.3 Bus-section and Bus-coupler circuit breakers
These circuit breakers and their adjacent busbars can be energised as part of the programme
for the incomer circuit breakers.
When one section of the busbars is being energised for the first time the bus-section or bus-
coupler adjacent to it can be kept un-locked but switched OFF.
After the procedure of (8.6.2) is completed the bus-section or bus-coupler circuit breaker can
be closed to energise the adjacent busbar.
Check the voltages measured for both sections of busbars, i.e. either side of the circuit
breaker.
Record all relevant details.
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9.0 Transformers
9.1 Preliminary checks
Check the dimensions of the largest part of the transformer and ensure that it can be
transported from its storage location to its permanent location. Check whether or not it has
wheels or needs rollers to move it.
Check the permanent location for : -
Dimensions against those of the transformer.
Main cable access ways and channels.
Auxiliary cable access ways and channels.
Busducting access ways, connections and method of support.
Fixing points and base frame levelling.
Access overhead.
Bunding arrangements, if appropriate.
Earthing connections are provided for the base frame and terminal boxes.
Fire water systems have been installed, if appropriate.
Erect a safety fence.
Check the nameplate details, connection notation, winding arrangements and phasing, tag
numbers, ratings etc. are correct.
Check that all auxiliary devices are provided e.g. pressure relief valve, Buchholz surge device,
conservator tank, temperature detectors, tap-changer, forced air fans, fan control system,
breathers, earthing arrangements.
Check that there are connections to enable an external transformer oil filtering/vacuum unit to
be used.
Check that the gland plate is non-magnetic metal if single core cables are to be used.
Check the MI for advice regarding moving the transformer into its permanent location e.g.
with or without insulting oil, with or without the radiators.
Check that a sufficient quantity of new topping-up transformer oil of the correct type is
available.
9.2 Installation
Transformers used on QGPC sites will frequently be of the liquid filled type, either as
hermetically sealed or as conservator units. Dry types with epoxy resin encapsulated windings
are suitable for special locations where the liquid could be a disadvantage.
Auto-transformers for power applications shall not be used, unless approved in writing by
QGPC during the detail design phase of the project.
A bund shall be provided for all liquid filled transformers located in both land-based and
platform-based installations. The bund shall have a base and walls that are leak proof, and
shall have been duly inspected for being leak proof. The bund volume shall equal the liquid
volume plus a 25% safety margin. The bund shall be provided with a simple but effect means
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of draining the liquid to temporarily connected equipment designed for the purpose e.g. pump
connection, pipe with a locked-off valve, pipe with a suitable plug.
For bunding of transformers, see also [ES.2.03.0001, section 11].
For transformers located indoors there shall be a system of fire and smoke detection. Before
the transformer is energised the fire and smoke system shall be tested.
For transformers located outdoors they shall be surrounded by a purpose designed fence. The
fence shall be bonded to the station earth and the earthing arrangements tested before the
transformer is energised. For fencing design see [ES.2.03.0001 sub-section 7.1]. The fence
shall be at least 2 metres high, and provided with an access door and pad-locking facilities.
The transformer base frame shall be bonded to the station earthing system from two steel
bosses welded at diametrically opposite corners. All main and auxiliary terminal boxes
attached to the transformer shall be bonded to the base frame or directly to the station earthing
system. All other attachments which are bolted to the main structure of the transformer shall
be bonded to the main structure or base frame if there is insufficient bolting to provide a
reliable path for earth currents. [ES.2.03.0001] gives guidance on the design of earthing and
bonding.
Liquid filled transformers of the sealed type will be delivered filled with liquid and no topping
up or dielectric testing should be necessary, but refer to the MI follow as appropriate e.g.
sampling the liquid. However, transporting the transformer to its permanent position should be
carried out with extra care due to the large volume of liquid it contains, and damage that this
may cause if the transformer receives sudden mechanical impacts or shocks, eg bumped down
by a crane.
Liquid filled transformers of the conservator type will probably be delivered empty of liquid,
unless they are small units. Upon arrival at site they should be filled with liquid as soon as
possible. They shall be stored at all times away from direct sun-light whilst they are empty.
The handling and transfer of the oil shall be in strict accordance with the MI and QGPC safety
practices.
The liquid shall be carefully checked before the transformer is filled that it is the correct liquid
for the purpose. Several samples from the storage vessels shall be taken and tested in a
laboratory for content of water and impurities, and tested for dielectric strength.
The dielectric and impurities checks shall be performed : -
When the liquid first arrives on site.
Two weeks prior to being filled into the transformer.
One day prior to being filled into the transformer.
If the transformer arrives on site filled with liquid then the above shall apply but be related to
the day of energisation.
The minimum voltage stress for the dielectric tests on insulating oils and liquids, without
breakdown, shall be 30000 Volts D.C. (for silicone liquid) with a 40 mil gap as per [ASTM-
D-1816, BS 148 or IEC 296]. The associated procedure shall be as described in Note 9.2.a
unless the transformer MI states otherwise.
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The liquid shall be filled into the transformer from a heated, vacuum, filter and pump unit;
specially designed for the purpose. The heat and vacuum will degas the liquid during the
filling process. The filler unit MI shall be used for the filling procedure.
Once the transformer is filled the liquid shall be allowed to settle and breath before the
transformer is energised.
If the transformer is not energised within a period recommended in the MI then sampling and
testing shall be repeated just prior to energisation.
Bushings shall be vented and checked for leaks.
Completely assembled, factory-sealed-tank transformers shipped with an insulating liquid
successfully passing the dielectric strength tests without filtering, may be put into service after
inspection if the cold coil insulation resistance between windings and between windings and
ground tests above the minimum values shown in the table below. In the event that the
insulation resistance value falls below the minimum acceptable value, given in the Table
D.2.4.A of Appendix D, the transformer coils must be dried.
Coils for factory sealed-tank-transformers shipped with an insulating liquid failing the
dielectric strength (before filtering) and coils for tank type transformers shipped separately
without insulating liquid must undergo an out-of-liquid short-time megger test for insulation
resistance to ground and to other windings at a temperature between 60-70 C. The out-of-
liquid insulation resistance must measure above one megohm per thousand volts of rated line
voltage. Coils with insulation resistance values failing this requirement must be dried.
In the event that drying is necessary the transformer coils will be heated to a temperature of
60-70C for a period of 24 hours by circulating current through the windings from a variable
temporary supply. This may be accomplished by short circuiting either windings (HV or LV)
and impressing between one and one-half percent of nameplate voltage, (at normal frequency)
across the other. Current should be limited to one-fifth of the rated normal full load current by
a rheostat in series with exciting winding, or by using a suitable auto-transformer. As the
maximum coil temperature is approached, the circulation current should be gradually reduced
until a steady temperature condition is reached within the 60-70C range.
The transformer tank and all fittings shall be inspected and tested for adequate sealing to
prevent leakage of insulating liquid, entrance of moisture and loss of inert gas protection
before the transformer is energized. During a leakage test the transformer tank shall not be
subjected to a pressure greater than the amount specified on the nameplate. If there is no
nameplate pressure specified, a test pressure of 5 psi will be used. A vacuum shall be pulled
on the tank and the dew point of the gas measured. A hot gas recirculation shall continue until
manufacturers recommended values are reached. The liquid dielectric will be slowly pumped
into the sealed transformer until the correct liquid level is reached. Additional nitrogen shall be
added to the tank until the pressure reads 5 psi. Joints, connections, and gaskets will be
checked with chalk dust to detect leaks. Any appreciable leakage will cause a pressure drop
within a few hours.
A dielectric adsorption test shall be made winding-to-winding and winding-to-ground. A sixty-
second test shall be made, unless the transformer is larger than 1500 kVA or if the windings
are rated above 15kV in which case a ten-minute test shall be run. The polarization index shall
be computed as the ratio of the sixty-second to the thirty-second reading, or the ten-minute to
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the one-minute reading, as appropriate. Test voltages shall be in accordance with Appendix D.
The absorption test polarization index should be above 1.5 or 2.5 respectively, unless an
extremely high value is obtained at the end of the shorter time limit that when doubled will not
yield a meaningful value with the available test equipment.
Pressure gauge readings for sealed tank transformers shall be taken for two different
temperatures, differing over as wide a range as possible. Manufacturers design pressure
requirements shall be checked.
Note 9.2.a: - New liquid dielectrics shall be tested for dielectric strength with a
standard testing device consisting of a test cup, instrument, control and
high voltage power supply. The test cup internals shall support two
spherically capped electrodes, separated by a 40 MIL gap minimum.
Sixteen ounces of liquid will be required for the test. After the electrode
spacing has been checked with a standard round gauge, having a
diameter of 0.04 inch., the electrodes will be locked in position. After a
suitable rinsing procedure, the test cup will be immediately filled with
the liquid sample to be tested. The liquid should be at a temperature
between 20-30C. During the test the uniform rate of applied voltage
increase should be about 2,000 volts per second. One breakdown
should be made on each of 5 fillings, of the test cup. Any individual test
which deviates the average by more than 25% will be test recorded and
replaced by an additional test. The average of the first five tests within
the allowable deviation will be taken as the dielectric strength of the
liquid. PCB liquid shall not be used in any type of transformers.
The power cable terminations may be one of the following types, but standardised for the
project : -
Elastimold, also called Euromold or Bi-mold, plug and socket types. These shall be
certified for the rated voltage and short-circuit duty at the terminal box.
Heat shrink types manufactured by Raychem.
Busducting may be used for the higher current winding of the transformer, but it shall be fully
fault rated for at least one second when a bolted three phase fault is applied across its
terminals. It shall be rated at the highest ambient temperature and when exposed to direct sun
light at the hottest period of the year. Busducting shall be designed and provided with
expansion connections at both ends to allow for its casing to expand with ambient temperature
and the conductors to expand with the heat produced by their current. See [ES.2.14.0019] for
the specification of busducting systems.
9.3 Post-Installation Un-Energised Testing
Functionally check the mechanical operation of the off-load tap changer, if fitted, and the oil
drainage and filling devices. Check that any venting devices are not blocked.
Test the earth bonding continuity at the various joints using a DUCTOR or similar test
instrument and record the results.
The cables or busducting used on the lower voltage windings will normally have large cross-
sectional areas and often several in parallel per phase. Check that all conductor connections to
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the transformer phase connections are tightly bolted. Refer to the MI for details of torque
settings.
At this stage the higher voltage winding need not be terminated to its supply cables.
Test the continuity of the terminations. Record the results.
The above may also be described as pre-commissioning tests.
9.4 Post-installation energised testing
Arrange suitable temporary A.C. supplies for test equipment, and the fans if fitted.
The following checks and tests shall be carried out with the use of the low voltage supply.
Check the data for correct phase rotation and polarity.
If provided, check and test current transformers for turns ratio (using primary current
injection), polarity and winding connections.
Perform ratio tests on all tap positions. Turns ratio test results should not deviate more than
one-half of one percent (0.5%) from calculated ratio.
When making primary-to-ground measurements, e.g. insulation resistance, high voltage A.C.
or D.C., all secondary terminals and tanks must be connected to ground. Likewise, the
primary terminals and case must be connected to ground when making secondary-to-ground
measurements. Primary and secondary terminals and case shall be connected to ground when
making neutral-to-ground measurements. Any deviation from this procedure shall be reported.
Perform polarity and phase relation tests on rated voltage connection.
If provided, check operation of cooling fan relay, circuit and fan rotation.
Inspect high and low voltage bushings and lightning arrestors for cracks, chips, etc. Remove
all dust, dirt, or foreign matter and polish the porcelain.
Tap changers shall be manually operated and set at their proper setting in accordance with the
load flow or voltage profile studies.
9.5 Commissioning Energised Testing
Arrange for suitable permanent high voltage and auxiliary voltage supplies to be available so
that the windings may be energised in their normal state for a prolonged duration, i.e. longer
than for only the testing period.
Refer to MI for all testing to be carried out for commissioning the transformer as a complete
unit.
At this stage the primary cables and secondary cables, or busducting, shall have been tested
and terminated and shall be ready for permanent service.
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Note 9.5.a: - Their tests shall have included, earth loop resistance, earth continuity
of cable armouring, earth continuity of cable insulation screens where
appropriate.
Note 9.5.b: - See Appendix A for typical values of the resistances that should be
obtained. Refer to cable MI or data for particular cable requirements.
9.5.1 High voltage testing
Where high voltage A.C. or D.C. testing of the windings is required the details of the test
voltages and durations shall be obtained from the transformer MI, in the first instance, or if
not available from the documents of (6.1.a) ). These tests shall be kept to a minimum to avoid
unnecessary stressing of the transformer and cable insulation.
The safety precautions given on (8.6.2) should be used at the switchboards and labels,
barriers, pad-locking etc. used at the transformer enclosure. Allow only authorised persons to
be present.
Record all test and inspection results.
9.5.2 Switching into normal service
Close the primary circuit feeder circuit breaker at the upstream switchboard to energise the
transformer and its main power cables.
Check that the secondary circuit is energised in all phase conductors. This can be achieved by
observing the voltmeters at the downstream switchboard, or by using insulated probes or test-
sticks at the circuit breaker cubicle. If test-sticks are used then special safety precautions
shall be used, and the test-sticks MI applied.
10.0 Turbine Driven Generators
Turbine driven generators are usually HV machines of a rating greater than 750kW . In most
cases QGPC high voltage generators will be driven by gas-turbines. Steam turbines may
occasionally be used.
In general the generator will be supplied as part of the gas-turbine manufacturer's contract
purchase order. Some of the generator auxiliary functions will be interfaced with those of the
gas-turbine auxiliary functions.
Before any checking or testing is carried out the CONTRACTOR shall carefully study all the
manufacturers documents, especially those relating to pre-commissioning and testing.
The CONTRACTOR shall plan the work to be done and in so doing liaise closely with the
gas-turbine manufacturer, the generator manufacturer, and the site representative of the
principal. QGPC shall approve the plan and scope of work.
The following descriptions shall be regarded as the minimum work to be carried out by the
CONTRACTOR.
The generator may arrive on site in one of two forms : -
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a) Integral part of a skid mounted package, i.e. for ratings below about 30 MW.
b) Separate unit for subsequently attaching to the gas turbine. In this case the civil
foundation design would be more complex than that for a skid mounted package. The
setting up and physical alignment of the generator would also be a more complicated task
Most of QGPC generators should be of the a) type. Consequently, this document will
concentrate on this type, although much of the information will be applicable to the b) type.
10.1 Division of Discipline Responsibilities
The CONTRACTOR shall clearly separate the responsibilities of the electrical, instrument
and mechanical personnel involved. As a guide the following basic tasks are separate : -
TABLE 10.1.A
Discipline responsibilities
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Function Electrical Instrument Mechanical
Shaft alignment 2 1
Frame fixings 2 1
Bearings 2 1
Lubrication system 2, 3 1
Water cooling system 2, 3 1
Purging air system 2, 3 1
Cooling air system 2, 3 1
Fire and gas systems 1
Fuel system 3 1
Inlet and exhaust systems 1
On skid cabling, electrical 1
On skid cabling, instruments 1
Skid edge terminal boxes 1 2
Motor terminal boxes 1, 3
Generator main terminal boxes 1
Skid earthing and bonding 1
Generator earthing and bonding 1
Generator protection transducers 1
Generator instrument transducers 2 1
Shaft vibration monitoring 1 2
Bearing temperature monitoring 1 2
Excitation and AVR controls 1
Governor control panel 2 1
Winding temperature monitoring 1 2
1 = main discipline responsible for the function
2 = discipline with an interest in the function
3 = motors and their cables.
10.2 Preliminary Checks
The storage and transfer of the skid mounted generator should be the responsibility of the
mechanical discipline. All dimensional checking should have been carried out at the factory
testing and inspection of the generator when it was separate from the turbine, or later when it
was coupled to the turbine.
Check all the name plate details of the generator for, voltage, current, frequency, winding
connections, tag numbers, ratings etc, against the project documents.
Check the name plate details of the auxiliary motors for, voltage, current, rated power, power
factor, efficiency, frequency etc against the project documents. Check that standby auxiliaries
have been installed e.g. standby lube oil pump, and whether they need a D.C. supply.
Remove all inspection covers on the generator main frame and inspect the internals. Replace
the covers if no defects are found.
Remove all terminal box covers on the generator, the auxiliary motors and the skid-edge
terminal boxes. Store them in a clean place, and ensure the gaskets are not damaged.
10.3 Installation
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Before the generator is energised by its exciter and the shaft run at speed, the fire, gas and
smoke systems shall be tested.
The generator frame shall be bonded to its base frame at two points which are spaced
diagonally across the corners. The points on the base frame shall be large welded bosses, each
capable of accepting a 12 mm dia bolt for the bonding cable.
All auxiliary motors, power terminal boxes and other electrical items which are bolted to the
base frame or extensions to it shall be bonded to the same structure using green/yellow
insulated stranded cable. [ES.2.03.0001] give guidance on the design of earthing and bonding.
The skid frame should normally be fixed to its foundation as follows : -
For land-based installations by bolts grouted into the concrete foundations.
For platform-based installations by welding to the main decking beams.
In either case the skid frame shall be provided with two large welded bosses, each capable of
accepting a 12mm dia bolt for the bonding cable. The bosses shall be at diagonally opposite
corners of the skid frame. The bonding cables shall bond these bosses to the main station
earthing system. For an LBI this shall be the cable connected ring network and earthing
electrodes. For a PBI this shall be a specially located earthing busbar, mounted on insulators
and provided with link connectors for testing the earthing resistance. For both cases see
[ES.2.03.0001] for details, earthing designs and sizing of components.
All on-skid cables shall be run on trays and shall be in accordance with the temperatures and
environment within the skid e.g. high ambient temperature, adjacent to hot surfaces, fire
retardance, fire resistance, see [ES.2.03.0001]. Check the fixing of these cables to their trays,
and their tag numbering.
10.4 Post-Installation Un-Energised Testing
Test the earth continuity at the joints of the main bonding connections and record the results.
Generators having large ratings will require several cable cores connected to each phase
terminal in the main terminal box. Alternatively, busducting shall be used. The generator may
be provided with two main terminal boxes, one for the phase terminals and the second for the
star point end of the phase terminals and the neutral connection terminal. The second box will
usually contain current transformers for protection relays and AVR control signals. The first
box may contain current transformers if a unit transformer accompanies the generator.
10.4.1 Generators without unit transformers
Most QGPC generators will not need unit transformers because they will feed their
switchboards directly at the same voltage.
Because the generated current is usually relatively high the cable or busduct connection will
be bulky and difficult to disconnect for testing. In some cases disconnecting links may have
been provided in the terminal boxes to facilitate testing.
The cables or busducting shall be installed and appropriately tested before being connected to
the generator or its circuit breaker. This shall have been planned in advance by the
CONTRACTOR.
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Assuming therefore that the main connections should not be disconnected they should then be
checked for tightness and electrical continuity. Record the results, and refer to the generator
MI for a comparison of results.
10.4.2 Generators with unit transformers
When a unit transformer is required the rating of the generator will be high and consequently
the stator current will be unusually high. The result will be a complicated and bulky
termination system both at the generator and at the transformer primary winding. It will be
undesirable to disturb these connections.
The cables or busducting shall therefore have been fully tested before being connected to the
generator and transformer terminals.
This shall be carefully planned in advance by the CONTRACTOR.
Check all connections for tightness and electrical continuity. Record the results, and refer to
the generator and transformer MIs for a comparison of results.
10.4.3 Auxiliary equipment
Check in test records that all the necessary cables have been laid, terminated and tested.
All pre-commissioning testing of auxiliary equipment shall be carried out in the manner
described in the document under the appropriate sub-section e.g. motors.
Check that the current transformers are installed and have been connected, but not short
circuited with links or temporary wires.
Check that the NER, if required, and the external star point to earth circuit has been installed
and fully tested.
10.5 Post-Installation Energised Testing
Arrange A.C. supplies so that test equipment can be used.
Check that all auxiliary motors and control systems can be operated in normal service from
their permanent switchgear.
Check the phase sequence connections of the generator complete with its stator cables and unit
transformer, and that these correspond with those at the associated main circuit breaker and
switchboard busbar system.
Check that the notation is correct i.e. L1, L2, L3. Table 10.5.A may be used in the absence of
other design information.
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Table 10.5.A
Phase sequence notation
QGPC preference L1 L2 L3
UK origin Red Yellow Blue
European origin U V W
R S T
USA origin A B C
1 2 3
Use low voltage test equipment to test for the following functions: -
Polarity of current transformers.
Ratio of primary and secondary currents in cts.
Continuity of power connections.
Earth loop impedance, if not covered previously under cable or auxiliary equipment tests.
Indication from measuring circuits at all locations e.g. UCP, CCR, switchboard.
Calibrate if necessary to ensure all readings are the same.
Loop test instrumentation and measurement circuits, if not covered by tests by non-
electrical disciplines.
Insulation resistance of embedded temperature detectors in stator windings and bearings.
Run auxiliary motors and their systems for a long time, particularly the lubricating oil, jacking
or barring gear, cooling water systems; so that leaks and malfunctions can be corrected and
the cleaning and filtering can be completed. Replace filters prior to final commissioning.
Record any malfunctions.
10.6 Commissioning Energised Testing
Arrange supplies to be available so that the windings may be energised in their normal state
for a prolonged duration, i.e. longer than the testing period.
Refer to MI for all testing to be carried out for commissioning the generator as a complete unit
with its turbine and control systems.
Check that all cables and auxiliary systems have been tested and put in to normal service.
Check that all high voltage cable armouring and insulation screens have been earthed at their
correct locations, and have been tested for earth loop resistance. Refer to cable MI or data for
particular requirements.
10.6.1 High voltage testing
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Where high voltage A.C. or D.C. testing of the generator stator windings, stator circuits, unit
transformer windings is required the details of the test voltages and durations shall be obtained
from their respective MI. Since several manufacturers are involved with different types of
equipment connected together, care shall be exercised to ensure that the selected test voltage
magnitude is the lowest for the common circuit. The factory acceptance routine test records
shall also be reviewed for comparison of test voltages and test results.
Check the various MIs for the methods and procedures to be used.
The safety precautions given in (8.6.2) should be used at the main switchboard, and labels,
barriers, pad-locking etc. also used at the generator and unit transformer. Allow only
authorised persons to be present. Do not close the main circuit breaker at this stage. Record
all test and inspection results.
10.6.2 Testing control systems
The two main control systems of the generator will be the voltage control by the AVR and the
speed control by the governor.
10.6.2.1 AVR controller
The AVR shall be tested and commissioned by the manufacturer or his designated
representative, using methods and procedures specific to the AVR.
The QGPC shall ensure that the following functions are tested and demonstrated to his
satisfaction : -
The full range, or span, of the AVR set-point shall be demonstrated by indicating the
stator terminal voltage on open circuit, preferably by using the panel voltmeter at the
main circuit breaker cubicle.
That the reactive power droop and gain settings give stable responses for a step change in
the AVR set-point. Adjust if necessary. Record all AVR settings and results using a pen
or photographic recorder.
Check that the AVR current compounding circuit is switched into circuit and functions
correctly.
Set the AVR to function on droop control at between 4% and 5%, not on isochronous
control.
Check that the auto-manual change-over functions operate smoothly, and that no large
changes in the terminal voltage occurs.
10.6.2.2 Governor controller
The governor shall be tested and commissioned by the manufacturer or his designated
representative, using methods and procedures specific to the governor.
QGPC shall ensure that the following functions are tested and demonstrated to satisfaction: -
The full range, or span, of the governor set-point shall be demonstrated by indicating the
stator terminal frequency when the main circuit breaker is open. This shall be preferably
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be by using the panel frequency meters at the main switchboard or GCP, or by a shaft
speed tachometer permanently fixed in the TCP.
That the active power droop and gain settings give stable responses for a step change in
the governor set-point. Adjust if necessary. Record all governor settings and results using
a pen or photographic recorder.
Finally set the governor to function on droop control at 4%, not on isochronous control.
10.6.3 Running on open-circuit
After the tests of (10.6.2) have been completed run the turbo-generator on no-load open-
circuit for as long as possible or as recommended by the MI, noting that gas-turbines do not
normally run in this mode. This will ensure that all the electrical circuits are stable, free of
malfunctions and have been subjected to their rated voltages without faults nor breakdown in
insulation.
10.7 Synchronised with the Other Sources
After the generator has run successfully on open circuit it shall be shut-down and prepared for
synchronising to the supply i.e., the running busbars.
Before this can take place the power system shall be arranged to have a substantial load, so
that the new generator can be controlled in such a manner as to deliver power into the system
immediately after it has been synchronised. Hence, one or more existing or running generator
shall already be loaded to load factors in the order of at least 40% each. This should ensure
that the new or incoming generator will take up a reasonable level of load without reducing
the load on the running generators to too low a level (which could lead to poor operation e.g.
hunting, reverse power relay operation, low forward power relay operation).
The same reasoning can be applied if the running system is supplied by a grid source e.g.
MEW 132kV network.
The contractor shall liaise with QGPC to carefully plan this procedure.
When the synchronisation procedure is ready to be carried out, the generator shall be started
and run up under control of its automatic sequence controllers, but not under auto-
synchronising control.
The first synchronisation process shall be MANUALLY controlled. For this the voltage and
frequency shall be adjusted by the manual operator. When the synchronizing instruments
indicate a suitable moment to synchronise, the operator shall close the circuit breaker and
almost immediately raise the governor set-point and the AVR set-point by a small amount.
These adjustments should ensure that the generator delivers active power and reactive power
at a good power factor (0.7 to 0.9 p.u. lagging) and that the reverse power relay or low
forward power relay operation does not respond and trip the generator.
At this stage the generator can be controlled to take up more load, refer to the MI for a
recommendation for loading levels during commissioning.
If the MI does not restrict the initial level of loading, then the automatic load sharing
capabilities of the governor and AVR should be demonstrated. In this situation the generator
set-points can be adjusted so that the generator takes its equal portion of the load compared
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with the other generators. One of the other generators can then be manually adjusted to take
more and less than its initial equal share. When these adjustments are made the other
generators (including the new generator) are not adjusted. Readings of voltage, frequency,
active power, reactive power and current are taken for each generator when the old
generator is adjusted.
If the new generator has had its control systems properly set up, then its changes in active and
reactive powers for a common change in busbar frequency and voltage should be the same,
ideally, or at least very similar. If all the readings are taken simultaneously and with pre-
calibrated instruments then it should be possible to calculate the actual droop of each
generator and turbine that run in synchronism.
After these tests have been completed the new generator shall be un-loaded, its circuit breaker
opened and then allowed to run idle. The auto-synchronisation shall then be tested. In order to
achieve this it may be necessary to shut down the turbo-generator, because the auto-
synchronisation may be part of the sequential start and run-up process.
The turbo-generator shall then be run up in its auto-synchronising mode, which should not
require manual intervention. Whilst this process takes place the testing personnel shall
carefully observe the UCP and CCR indications, in particular when the voltage and speed are
almost correct for synchronisation, and just after the circuit breaker closes. Upon closure the
generator controls should increase the load on the generator, and if provided switch in the
automatic load sharing control loop so that all the running generators become equally loaded
with active and reactive power.
Load the generator to approximately 10% to 15% of rating, and carry out a load rejection
test by tripping the main circuit breaker. Check that the generator responds correctly and
smoothly, and settles at almost rated voltage and speed.
11.0 Engine Driven Generators
Engine driven generators are usually, but not always, LV machines of a rating equal or less
than 750kW . In most cases QGPC low voltage generators will be driven by diesel engines,
and will run in an island mode i.e. not in parallel with others or the grid.
In general, the generator will be supplied as part of the engine manufacturers contract
purchase order. Some of the generator auxiliary functions will be interfaced with those of the
engine auxiliary functions.
Before any checking or testing is carried out the CONTRACTOR shall carefully study all the
manufacturers documents, especially those relating to pre-commissioning and testing.
The CONTRACTOR shall plan the work to be done and in so doing liaise closely with the
engine manufacturer, the generator manufacturer, and the site representative of QGPC. QGPC
shall approve the plan and scope of work.
The generator should arrive on site as an integral part of a skid mounted package.
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11.1 Division of Discipline Responsibilities
The CONTRACTOR shall clearly separate the responsibilities of the electrical, instrument
and mechanical personnel involved. As a guide the basic tasks are separated as shown in
Table 10.1.A for turbo-generators, a similar approach is applicable.
11.2 Preliminary Checks
See (10.2).
11.3 Installation
See (10.3).
Note 11.3.a: - The diameter of the earthing boss bolts shall be at least 12 mm.
11.4 Post-Installation un-Energised Testing
See (10.4).
11.4.1 Generators without unit transformers
See (10.4.1).
11.4.2 Generators with unit transformers
See (10.4.2). I t should be most unlikely that an engine driven generator would have a unit
transformer, it would be a special package.
11.4.3 Auxiliary equipment
See (10.4.3).
11.5 Post-Installation Energised Testing
See (10.5).
11.6 Commissioning Energised Testing
See (10.6).
Note 11.6.a: - Most engine driven generators will operate at LV, in special cases the
voltage may be HV e.g. when rated 1000kW and above.
11.6.1 High voltage testing
See (10.6.1) and Note 11.6.a above.
Check the various MIs for the methods and procedures to be used.
The safety precautions given in (8.6.2) should be used at the main switchboard and labels,
barriers, pad-locking etc. also used at the generator. Allow only authorised persons to be
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present. Do not close the main circuit breaker at this stage. Record all test and inspection
results.
11.6.2 Testing control systems
See (10.6.2), (10.6.2.1) and (10.6.2.2).
11.6.3 Running on open-circuit
After the tests of (11.6.2) have been completed run the engine driven generator on no-load
open-circuit for as long as possible or as recommended by the MI. This will ensure that all the
electrical circuits are stable, free of malfunctions and have been subjected to their rated
voltages without faults nor breakdown in insulation.
11.7 Synchronised with Other Sources
See (10.7), the basic principles apply, but in most situations there will not be other generators
to synchronise with, only the normal incoming feeder from a transformer. Engine driven
generators will normally be single units intended for island operation. They are normally
installed for standby, emergency, essential or black-start duties.
However, at least the engines need to be started regularly so that they can be relied upon when
needed. Consequently, they should be provided with synchronising facilities, which shall be
manual or automatic depending upon the duty of the generator. The generator shall therefore
be tested for manual and auto-synchronising to the supply.
12.0 HV Motors
Most of the HV motors installed in QGPC plants will be induction motors of the caged rotor
type, designed for direct-on-line (DOL) starting. Occasionally, variable speed motors (VSDS)
will be required and these will normally be the cage rotor type, synchronous motors may be
used for very large drives e.g. 5000kW and above. For the purposes of installation, testing and
commissioning the approach should be the same for both induction and synchronous motors.
The synchronous motors will require some extra testing and commissioning of their rotors and
rotor controllers. These would be special application motors and so they would normally be
commissioned under the supervision of the motor or driven machine site representative, and
the rotor equipment would be included.
The minimum rating of HV motors shall normally be for industrial and hazardous area
applications. HV motors shall be the manufacturers standard design to duty type S1, in BS
4999 Part 112, Design D.
In general HV motors shall be installed, tested and commissioned using similar procedures
that apply to HV generators of ratings up to approximately 10MW. In most cases the motor
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should be a part of a skid mounted package and supplied with the purchase order of the
complete package.
Before any checking or testing is carried out the CONTRACTOR shall carefully study all the
manufacturers documents, especially those relating to pre-commissioning and testing.
The CONTRACTOR shall plan the work to be done and in so doing liaise closely with the
driven machine manufacturer, the motor manufacturer, and the site representative of QGPC.
QGPC shall approve the plan and scope of work.
12.1 Division of Discipline Responsibilities
See (10.1), most of the functions will be the same, but less extensive.
12.2 Preliminary Checks
See (10.2), replace generator with motor
12.3 Installation
See (10.3), replace generator with motor.
Note 12.3.a: - Many motor applications do not have dedicated fire, gas and smoke
systems, but they may be located in areas which have overall systems.
12.4 Post-Installation un-Energised Testing
See (10.4), (10.4.1) and (10.4.3) replace generator with motor.
Note 12.4.a: - Some applications may have HV motors fed from HV switchboards
which have rated voltages above 11kV e.g. 33kV . In these situations
the motor will be provided with a unit transformer of comparable kVA
rating, therefore the approach described in (10.4.2) shall apply.
12.5 Post-Installation Energised Testing
See (10.5), replace generator with motor.
12.5.1 Shaft coupling
Note 12.5.1.a: - The last function to perform shall be to disconnect the shaft coupling
without disturbing the motor on its footings, if this is possible. Refer to
the driven machine MI to find out whether or not the machines shaft
can be run in either direction, and if so for how long a period. Some
driven machines must not be run in a reverse direction under any
circumstances, because damage can be done to e.g. thrust bearings,
dry-gas seals, gearboxes.
Note 12.5.1.b: - If Note 12.5.1.a confirms that reverse rotation is not permitted, then the
motor shall be moved along its mountings to allow the coupling to be
split. The feet of the motor shall be temporarily clamped to the base
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frame so that the motor frame does not move when its shaft is allowed
to rotate.
Note 12.5.1.c: - Where motors have insulated bearings it is recommended that their
shaft induced voltage be measured at full speed.
12.6 Commissioning Energised Testing
See (10.6), replace generator with motor.
12.6.1 High voltage testing
See (10.6.1), replace generator with motor.
12.6.2 Testing control systems of synchronous motors
In the case of synchronous motors additional testing shall be required for their rotor excitation
system. The excitation of the rotor will be regulated by a controller which will have a purpose
specific to the motor and the nature of the driven machine. It may be designed to regulate : -
Supply power factor between limits.
Shaft torque to prevent pull-out from synchronism.
A function of the driven machine characteristics.
Check that any control settings e.g. gain, damping, upper limits, have been fixed in
accordance with the motor MI.
During the final commissioning tests when the motor drives its machine the functions of the
excitation controller shall be carefully checked.
Readings of instruments at the UCP, CCR and the switchboard shall be taken and recorded on
test data sheets. Adjustments shall be made to obtain the best performance from the motor
driven machine.
13.0 LV Motors
The maximum rating of LV motors shall normally be 250kW for industrial and hazardous
area applications. For special cases the maximum rating may be increased subject to carefull
calculation of volt-drop on starting and accelerating torque during the run-up period. LV
motors shall be the manufacturers standard design to duty type S1, in [BS 4999 Part 112],
Design D for ratings above 40 kW and Design N for ratings lower than 40 kW.
No modifications shall be made to hazardous area motors and their terminal boxes by the
driven machine supplier or the site contractor. If upon inspection it is found that post-factory
modifications have been made then the motor shall be rejected, replaced and the replacement
delivered to site at no cost to QGPC.
Hazardous area motors shall have their cables terminated through Ex(d) glands. The entry
dimensions and threads in the terminal boxes shall be made by the manufacturer in his factory,
and should have been inspected during the factory acceptance tests, if such tests were required
by QGPC. The terminal boxes should be of the type of protection Ex e for motors that will
be installed in a Zone 1 area. See [ES.2.14.0030 and 0035 for motors].
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Hazardous area certification, type test certificates and routine test reports shall be made
available to QGPC by the manufacturer, as part of the purchase order documentation. These
certificates shall be included in the documentation from the CONTRACTOR. The QGPC
certification requirements are described in [ES.2.03.0001, section 7.5].
Electrical discipline engineers shall liaise with the mechanical discipline engineers on site who
are responsible for the driven machine unit or package. Testing and commissioning of the
complete unit or package shall be a planned and coordinated activity.
13.1 Preliminary Checks
The following guidance shall apply to minor motor-machine units of a few kilowatts through
to packaged and skid mounted assemblies of several hundred kilowatts.
Check the name plate details of the motor for voltage, currents, frequency, winding
connections, tag numbers, ratings, etc, against the project documents.
Check the name plate details of the hazardous area details, i.e. type of protection (n, e, d),
gas group (IIB, IIC), temperature class (T3, T4, etc).
Check that any auxiliaries have been installed e.g. winding temperature detectors, anti-
condensation heaters, and that their cables have been terminated.
Remove all terminal box covers. Store them in a clean place, and ensure the gaskets if used
are not damaged.
13.2 Installation
The motor frame shall be bonded to its base frame at one point which shall preferably be near
the main terminal box. The point on the base frame shall be a welded boss, capable of
accepting a suitable diameter bolt for the bonding cable.
All motors, power terminal boxes, and other electrical items which are bolted to the base
frame or extensions to it shall be bonded to the same structure using green/yellow insulated
stranded cable. [ES.2.03.0001] gives guidance on the design of earthing and bonding.
13.3 Post-Installation un-Energised Testing
Test the earth continuity at the joints of the main bonding connections and record the results.
Motors having large ratings or long route lengths of cables may require several cable cores
connected to each phase terminal in the main terminal box. The motor may be provided with
two main terminal boxes, one for the phase terminals and the second smaller one for the
internal auxiliaries e.g. condensation heater, winding temperature detectors.
13.4 Post-Installation Energised Testing
Arrange for suitable supplies for test equipment.
Check the phase sequence connections of the motor complete with its stator cables, and that
these correspond with those at the associated main circuit breaker and switchboard busbar
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system. Check that the sequence is correct i.e. L1, L2, L3 is preferred. Table 10.5.A may be
used in the absence of other design information.
Use low voltage test equipment to test for the following functions: -
Continuity of power connections of large motors.
Earth loop impedance, if not covered previously under cable or auxiliary Equipment
tests.
Insulation resistance of the windings.
Insulation resistance of embedded temperature detectors in stator windings and
condensation heaters.
13.5 Commissioning Energised Testing
Arrange for suitable permanent low voltage supplies to be available so that the windings may
be energised in their normal state for a prolonged duration, i.e. longer than for only the testing
period.
Refer to MI for all testing to be carried out for commissioning the motor as a complete unit
with its driven machine.
Check that all cables and auxiliary systems have been terminated, tested and put into normal
service.
Check that all cable armouring has been earthed , and have been tested for earth loop
resistance.
13.5.1 Shaft coupling
Note 13.5.1.a: - The last function to perform should be to disconnect the shaft coupling
without disturbing the motor on its footings, if this is possible. Refer to
the driven machine MI to find out whether or not the machines shaft
can be run in either direction, and if so for how long a period. Some
driven machines must not be run in a reverse direction under any
circumstances, because damage can be done to e.g. thrust bearings,
seals, gearboxes.
Note 13.5.1.b: - If Note 13.5.1.a confirms that reverse rotation is not permitted, then the
motor shall be moved along its mountings to allow the coupling to be
split. The feet of the motor shall be temporarily clamped to the base
frame so that the motor frame does not move when its shaft is allowed
to rotate.
13.5.2 Running lightly loaded
LV motors usually have rolling element bearings. In order to verify that these bearings have
not been damaged in transit to site, or by ingress of water, the motor shall be run uncoupled or
unloaded for a minimum period of 2 hours. During which time the bearing caps shall be felt or
measured for surface temperature, and listened to for loud or irregular noise patterns.
During or at the end of this test the starting time and current shall be checked against the
motor data sheet.
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14.0 Drying out Generator and Motor windings
During the post-installation energised testing processes the insulation resistance tests may
indicate that the windings are damp. Dampness may be due to a prolonged period of standing
idle prior to commissioning, and the variations in daily temperature and humidity could have
caused an accumulation of condensation inside the machine.
It is generally advisable, and is often recommended by manufacturers, that the anti-
condensation heaters are energised during these long idle periods. This is not always a
practical proposition where many motors are installed. However, HV and large LV motors
and generators should be heated if possible, by using temporary low voltage supplies.
Machine windings shall be dried out by supplying heat from electric strip heaters, from heat
pumps or by passing current through machine windings until a sufficiently high and steady
insulation resistance is obtained. When current is applied through the windings, it shall not
exceed the nameplate rating. The use of DC current is recommended where the natural
inductive reactance of a winding is high, but care must be taken when applying and removing
the DC current to avoid arcing and high induced voltages.
The temperature maintained during the drying out process should not exceed the
following : -
a. Class B Insulation
By a thermometer 90C
By resistance bridge or 110C
a thermal-sensitive resistor
b. Class F Insulation
By a thermometer 115C
By a resistance bridge or 135C
a thermal-sensitive resistor
The applied voltage to produce drying current for synchronous and induction machines should
not exceed 10% of the nameplate voltage and should not cause more than 60% of nameplate
full load current to pass through the windings. The voltage may be increased to 15% of
nameplate, after a low insulation resistance increases to half of the minimum value.
The insulation resistance shall be periodically recorded during the drying out process. In large
high voltage machines the initial cold coil resistance value will be high (20 megohms 20C,
see Note 14a). As the drying process continues and water vapor is boiled out from the
internals of the machines, the insulation resistance will rapidly fall to a minimum (6 megohms
90C, see Note 14a). As the drying process nears completion the insulation resistance will
reverse its downward trend and settle at a steady higher value (12 megohms 90C, see Note
14a). As the coils cool, after the drying process has been completed, the insulation resistance
will rapidly rise (150 megohms 20C, see Note 14a).
Note 14a: - Values are for comparative purposes only.
A period of 24 hours will usually be found sufficient for drying machines rated above about
250kW.
Less time will be required for drying smaller machines.
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15.0 Packaged and Skid Mounted Equipment
In this section the terms packaged and skid mounted equipment general means equipment
which is not predominately electrical in function. It may only have a few low voltage small
rating motors or heaters, e.g. chlorine gas generators, potable water purifiers, packages with
cooling fans.
15.1 Preliminary Checks
See (13.1) and apply the procedures as appropriate.
15.2 Installation
See (13.1) and apply the procedures as appropriate. The skid frame, should normally fixed to
its foundation as follows : -
For land-based installations by bolts grouted into the concrete foundations.
For platform-based installations by welding to the main decking beams.
In either case if the skid is large its frame shall be provided with two large welded bosses,
each capable of accepting a 12mm dia bolt for the bonding cable. The bosses shall be at
diagonally opposite corners of the skid frame foot print. The bonding cables shall bond these
bosses to the main station earthing system.
All on-skid cables shall be run on trays and shall be in accordance with the temperatures and
environment within the skid e.g. high ambient temperature, adjacent to hot surfaces, fire
retardance, fire resistance, see [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section (9.7)]. Check the fixing of these
cables to their trays, and their tag numbering.
15.3 Post-Installation Testing and Commissioning
Arrange for suitable for test equipment, and for operating the package in its normal state for a
prolonged period.
Generally the necessary testing will be : -
Insulation resistance measurement of cables, heaters and motors.
Functional testing of switches and controls.
For devices and systems beyond the above scope, see the manufacturer's MI and follow the
recommendations given therein.
16.0 Cables and the Installation of Cables
This section mainly covers power cables. Small control cables eg cross-section area of
conductors 6mm
2
and less, in twin or mutli-core formation, and instrument cables of all
formations are not covered in detail in this section. However their laying, glanding and
terminating procedures will in general be very similar to power cables. Terminating and
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testing special cables such as, telecommunication cables, digital networking cables, fibre
optical cables, shall be strictly in accordance with the cable manufacturers MI; and shall be
supervised by the more appropriate engineering discipline.
16.1 Laying of cables in all installations
16.1.1 Qualified cable jointers and supervision
The CONTRACTOR shall provide qualified and experienced supervisors to oversee and
manage the day-to-day laying and installation of cables, and their termination at the
appropriate time in the project plan. The qualifications and experience of each level of
supervision e.g. manager , supervisor, foreman, jointer shall be approved by QGPC before the
work commences.
The termination and jointing of all HV cables should be carried out using Raychem equipment
and heat shrink sleeving, See also (16.5) for 33kV cables which also applies to the termination
and jointing of all HV cables except in special cases such as HV motors and HV generators
which may have Elastimold or Bi-mold connectors.
All installation of cable racks and ladders and the digging of trenches, preparation of road
crossings etc. shall be within the scope of work of the CONTRACTOR. The CONTRACTOR
shall therefore manage and supervise the work.
16.1.2 Site modifications to the design
Before racks and trenches etc., are installed the CONTRACTOR shall carefully review the
design and engineering documents and survey all aspects of the intended routes. Care shall be
taken to identify obstructions which have not been accounted for in the design documents. The
CONTRACTOR shall offer a solution to overcome an obstruction which shall be discussed
with, and approved by, QGPC before the work is started.
The approved modification shall be recorded and the CONTRACTOR shall mark-up all
drawings accordingly.
If detailed drawings are not available from the project documentation then QGPC standard
drawings shall be used as the basis of the work. The CONTRACTOR shall develop the
necessary drawings from the QGPC standard drawings and submit them for approval by the
site representative of QGPC.
16.1.3 Cable drums and drum schedules
The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for the economical use of cables, and for the testing
of cables wound on drums before the cable is taken and cut from the drums. Early detection of
faulty cables shall be carried out regularly by the CONTRACTOR.
The CONTRACTOR shall create an accurate cable drum schedule in relation to the carefully
planned take-off of cables during the project. The random or unplanned take-off of cables
from new drums is strictly prohibited.
The CONTRACTOR shall keep accurate and carefully updated records of the status of cable
drums, for example : -
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The details and quantities of all drums that are on the site on the first day of the project.
Drums that have not been delivered.
Drums that are due to be delivered, and an expected delivery schedule.
Drums and cables that have been badly damaged and need replacing.
Drums incorrectly delivered e.g. details do not match the purchase order.
Drum labels unreadable, damaged, incorrect or unusable.
Drums to be ordered in the short term and in the long terms, in particular large cross-
section single core cables and specially constructed cables.
All drums shall be stored in a secure compound which shall be kept locked when not in use,
and which the CONTRACTOR shall keep in a clean and tidy state. Empty drums shall be
returned to the supplier if this is part of the suppliers purchase order contract. If the drums
are not refundable they shall be removed from the project site.
The CONTRACTOR shall ensure that the labels on each drum are kept readable at all times,
and the details on the labels adjusted as the cable is taken-off.
16.1.4 Basic installation practices
Instrument and control cables shall not be grouped with power cables particularly where there
is a possibility of induced pick-up affecting the signal. Power cables shall be laid in groups
according to their operating voltage level and main incoming supply cables shall be laid in a
segregated position. See the QGPC Standard Drawings.
All cables shall be run in continuous length from point of origin to destination. Tee joints in
cables shall not be permitted. Straight joints shall be permitted only under exceptional
circumstances and with the approval of QGPC.
Where three-phase power cables terminate in boxes fitted to switchgear, transformers etc.
phase colours and the letters L1, L2 and L3 shall be identified on the outside of all boxes
indicating physical arrangements of the internal connections. The cable boxes shall be marked
such that no error can occur when replacing cable after removal for inspection or
maintenance.
Single core high voltage cables shall be identified from other power cables by a red outer
sheath. Where these cables run above ground they should be securely cleated to ladder-rack or
tray using trefoil cleats with suitable insulating material to prevent the cable sheath or cover
being in direct contact with the supporting clamp or steel work. The cables should, where
possible, be transposed every 30 metres to prevent induced currents flowing in the armouring
of adjacent cables. Where these cables pass through cable transits brass inserts shall break the
paths of circulating currents in the transit frame. Similarly gland plates should be of non-
magnetic material. Failure to observe these instructions will cause considerable heat build up
in the frame or gland plate.
Single core cables when laid in trefoil formation shall be braced by non-magnetic clamps
placed at no greater than 3 metre intervals along the cable routing, and shall be laid on
separate racks or in separate trenches.
Where cables are not to be immediately terminated the cable shall be labeled and sealed with
heat shrinkable cable end seals. Such single core cables shall be installed in trefoil cleats
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spaced at 0.9 metre on straight horizontal runs and on vertical runs the spacing shall be 1.1
metres for outside diameter 40mm - 50mm, see [IEC 364].
Where single core cables are used for AC circuits which are rated in excess of 20 amperes:
The armour, if any, shall be of nonmagnetic material.
If installed in steel conduits, or pipes, or steel casing the cables shall always be so
bunched that the cables of all phases and the neutral (if any) are in the same conduit, pipe
or casing.
Magnetic materials shall not be used between single core cables of a group. Where these
cables need pass through steel plates, all the conductors of the same circuit should pass
through a non-ferrous plate or gland so that there is no magnetic material between the
cables, and the clearance between the cables and magnetic material shall not be less than
75mm, and
Such cables should be so arranged that the inductive effects of the group are substantially
eliminated.
Single core cables of any AC circuits should, if possible, always be in contact with one
another. Where this is not practical the distance between two adjacent cables shall not be
greater than the diameter of one cable.
Where single core cables having a current rating greater than 250 A are installed adjacent to a
steel deck, bulkhead or structure the distance between the cables and the deck or bulkhead
should be at least 50mm.
Cables will be coiled and protected so that they are not liable to damage during the period
between laying and eventual termination.
Where cables are coiled for any reason whatsoever the minimum bending radius shall be
strictly observed.
Where abandoned or redundant cables are encountered these shall be removed and scrapped
and deleted from records and drawings.
Cable route cross sections drawings shall be produced as part of the As-Built drawing
exercise and shall include any existing cables which are identified and numbered.
16.1.4.1 Cables supported on racks or trays above or below ground
Cable racks, ladders and supports shall preferably be GALVANISED CORTEN A grade
steel. Galvanising shall be as required in [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section 10.1.1]. QGPC shall
approve any other material including all grades of stainless steel and GRP.
Where stainless steel-racks, ladders and supports are to be used the grade of steel shall be
316.
For high corrosion areas UPVC covered stainless steel or GRP cable trays shall be used.
Racks and trays shall be supported by methods and at intervals given in the design documents
of the project. These documents shall include calculation sheets for heavily loaded racks or
trays. The calculations shall indicate: -
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The source of data for specific loading on the rack or tray in kilograms per metre run for
the span concerned, i.e. manufacturers catalogue references.
Utilisation factor for the rack or tray, so that any spare capacity can be used.
The calculated deflection at a point mid-way between the most widely separated
supports.
If the CONTRACTOR proposes to add a significant number of cables onto a rack or tray,
then the weight loading calculations shall be revised or made from basic principles. These
calculations shall be issued to QGPC for review. If the loading is significantly increased then
the CONTRACTOR shall add extra supports under the racks or trays.
Cables trays which are subjected to sea water spray or any other corrosive material shall be of
GRP or stainless steel
Cables run in pre-formed trenches or in floor void spaces such as switchgear rooms shall be
run on cable trays.
All cables which are not buried, installed in ducts or drawn into conduit shall be installed on
racks or trays unless otherwise specified. All cables shall be run and clipped with regard to
neatness of appearance. Multiple runs are to be arranged so that cables entering or leaving the
run do so in a logical manner.
All tray work shall be galvanized steel, light duty (2mm) on Halul Island and heavy duty
(3.2mm) for platforms, adequately supported and of sufficient strength to eliminate sagging
when carrying the maximum number of cables, even if only one cable is to be installed.
Galvanising shall be as required in [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section 10.1.1].
For crude oil storage tanks stainless steel trays shall be used including stainless steel nuts and
bolts.
All bends, tees, etc. shall be of the type made by the proprietary tray or rack manufacturer so
that the ladder tray or rack shall form a rigid integrated system.
The design and spacing of tray work support, the fastening and clipping shall be in accordance
with the [IEC 364].
Notwithstanding any provision in the drawings or in any of the specified standards, single runs
of cable shall be supported on tray work or in single channel uni-strut. The clipping of single
cable runs to steelworks, walls etc. without tray work shall not be permitted.
Where it is necessary to cut or drill ladder rack the raw edges shall be ground smooth and
treated with galvafroid, or close equivalent, protective paint.
Covers shall be fitted to cable tray installed outside or where cables are susceptible to
mechanical damage. The cover shall also be used to protect the cables from direct sun light.
Earth cables shall be run separately from power, control and instrument cables on tray work
and shall be securely clipped. Two or more earth cables on tray work may be clipped together.
No cables shall be laid direct in concrete or in plaster. Galvanized conduit or PVC pipes shall
be used in concrete and galvanized steel conduit or PVC ducting with galvanized steel capping
for plaster.
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16.1.4.2 Cleating and securing cables
Cables laid on tray work etc. shall be clipped so that crossovers in the cable route are kept to
a minimum and the spacing of the cable clips, saddles etc., ensures a neat and workmanlike
appearance to the completed installation.
Cable cleats, saddles etc. shall be of non-corrodable materials, of sufficient width not to
damage the cables (min. 15mm) and strong enough to hold the cables firmly in position.
All permanent cable tie wraps shall be PVC coated stainless steel.
Multi-core H.V. cables shall be installed in non-magnetic cleats, the cleats being spaced not
more than 650mm. The cables shall be installed touching and the they shall form a single
layer.
Multi-core L.V cables below 35mm overall diameter may be bunch strapped using PVC
coated stainless steel straps suitable for a marine environment in groups not exceeding 200mm
wide at 1500mm intervals on horizontal runs. L.V cables exceeding 35mm overall diameter
shall cleated at intervals of 300mm. L.V cables may be tiered up to three layers.
Cable cleats for horizontal runs on multi-core cables shall be flame retardant glass filled nylon
type with approved studs, nuts and back nuts. On vertical runs a nylon or nylon or epoxy
coated aluminum cleat of approved make with approved fixing shall be used at 3000 mm
intervals interspersed with glass filled nylon cleats.
For MICC cables recommended tools shall be used, all glands and terminations for MICC
cable shall be of the Zone 1 ECHA type irrespective of location.
Care must be taken with seals to ensure that air or dirt is not trapped in the MICC pot seal by
the sealing compound. A minimum period of 24 hours shall elapse between marking off a pot
seal and the testing of the associated wiring. Where the PVC sheath is cut back to make the
joint the cutting back must be kept to a minimum, particularly if the cable is installed on the
outside of the platform. Open blade knives (Stanley knives) shall not be used to remove PVC
sheath as damage to the copper sheath can occur. Vibration and aging will ultimately cause
fracture and subsequent water ingress.
The plastic sealing compound for MICC pot seals shall be 135 degrees C grade. Exe ECHA
equipment requires the use of Exe type of pot seal.
MICC cables are not recommended for offshore use where vibration can be a problem. Where
vibration is likely cables shall be of low smoke and fume (LSF), flame retardant type.
16.1.4.3 Cable transits
Where cables pass through fire walls, blast walls, floors or ceilings from safe areas to
hazardous areas or through walls floors or ceilings to open air the hole shall be formed by
means of an approved transit frame and sealed by means of the approved filler block. For
individual cables the certified seal type may be used.
It is essential that in order to maintain the integrity of the cable transit as a gas tight seal the
filler blocks used are the correct size for the particular cable, and that the cable is
perpendicular to the frame for a minimum distance of 100mm either side of the frame.
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Where single core A.C. cables rated in excess of 20A, pass through transits the filler plates
used should be brass and the magnetic path of the frame should be broken by brass insert.
16.1.4.4 Cable protection at ground level
In all instances when cables emerge from the ground out of trenches or through decks they
shall be mechanically protected. This may take the form of galvanized steel pipes, heavy duty
GRP or PVC pipes or cable tray with covers (where cables emerge on to trays). Protection
should be provided to at least 300mm above the finished grade. The tubes should be secured
to ensure they do not move when the final grade finish is being applied.
Provision should be taken at both ends, by a suitable bush to protect them so that no
possibility of damage to cables can occur. The protective pipe shall then be sand filled to
25mm from the top of the tube and then weather sealed using an approved bitumastic
compound unless a proprietary approved transit is being used. Cable bending radii limitations
shall be observed such that contact with the ends of the kick tubes is kept to a minimum to
avoid pressures that might deform or damage the cable sheath or conductors.
Kick plates are to project 650mm above the finished floor level. The edges of the plates are to
be bushed such that they do not damage the outer sheath of the cables.
16.1.4.5 Conduit installations
No conduit of less than 20mm dia shall be used.
Generally all conduits shall be heavy duty PVC cast in situ or where surface mounted shall be
heavy gauge seam welded galvanized steel conduit.
All conduit accessories shall be manufactured in accordance with [BS 31, BS 4568 or IEC
614] as applicable.
Surface mounted conduits shall be laid in straight lines with neat bends and sets which shall
permit ease of drawing in cables.
No conduit shall have more than two right angle bends without a draw-in box. All conduits
shall be installed with fish wires to permit easy wiring.
Conduits buried in concrete floors and walls shall be run neatly but advantage shall be taken
of direct routes from point to point to avoid excessive bending of conduits.
Where conduits are sunk in walls, care shall be taken to choose routes to follow runs which
avoid excessive chasing of walls and which can be anticipated when the conduits are covered
over.
Bends or sets in conduits shall be made cold without altering the section of the conduit using a
proper bending machine designed for the purpose of bending electrical conduits, not water
pipes or other types of pipes. Such bends or sets and any other portion of the conduit from
which the finish has been removed shall be painted with galvafroid, or close equivalent,
protective paint. This includes all metallic conduit couplings, joints and teeth marks from
vices and hand tools.
Excessive use of running couplings shall not be permitted. Conduits shall be so arranged that
running couplings are kept to a minimum.
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Conduits, except where buried in plaster or concrete, shall be fastened into position with
heavy duty spacing (stand off) saddles fixed at intervals not exceeding 1200mm with
additional saddles as necessary at bends.
Where condensation is likely to occur inside the conduit it shall be provided with drains at the
lowest points in its run.
Conduits in plaster or concrete shall be secured by holdfasts or crampits spaced at intervals
not exceeding 200mm and have not less than 12.5mm covering over the uppermost projection
of any holdfast coupling etc.
Where conduits enter distribution boards, busbar chambers, boxes etc. of any kind not having
threaded spout outlets hexagonal smooth bore male brass bushes and screwed sockets shall be
used.
The conduit system, after erection shall be mechanically and electrically continuous
throughout and each section shall be tested for continuity (unless installation is HGSD/PVS)
before any cables are installed.
Conduits shall be arranged so that inspection or draw in points are not required where
conduits are sunk in walls, concrete or plaster.
Surface mounted conduits shall have draw-in points every 6 to 7.5 metres of straight run or
after not more than two right angle bends, or two offsets, or combination of any two such
points when provided exclusively for draw-in purposes shall be inspection couplers.
The maximum number of cables run in one conduit or pipe should be such as to permit easy
drawing-in. In no circumstances should the number and sizes of cables installed be such that a
space factor of 40% is exceeded.
This space factor applies to installations where the cables are not to be drawn round more
than two 90 degree bends conforming to [BS4568 Parts 1 and 2] or the IEC equivalent, as
applicable; where there are more than two such bends, an appropriate reduction in the number
of cables drawn in should be made.
Cables supplying currents to the motor operating an electric lift or hoist should not be run in
the same conduit or pipes as the cable used in connection with the control and safety devices
of the lift or hoist.
Each box at an outlet position for a clock, socket, switch etc., shall be fitted with an earth
terminal.
16.2 Laying of Cables in Land-Based Installations
Cables shall be laid in pre-cast concrete cable ducts, laid direct in the ground complete with
protective covers, drawn into pipes or ducts, laid in troughs or on racks, supported on trays,
conduits or cleats as required in accordance with the following clauses.
Labels and markers used outdoors or buried in the ground shall be made from non-corrodable
materials approved by QGPC. Their letters and numbers shall not fade or disappear due to
their environment or the passing of time. This type of label and marker is called the LABEL
herein.
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16.2.1 Additional requirements for cables laid directly in the ground
These additional requirements shall apply in particular to areas outside the boundary limits of
a processing plant e.g. distribution network between plants and power stations.
Cable trenches shall be excavated so as to comply with the relevant standards and the
requirements of the QGPC Standard Drawings. [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section (10.2.5.3)] gives
the recommended dimensions for trenches normally expected to be needed in QGPC
installations. Excavated material shall be deposited a minimum of 1 metre away from the
trench.
Where necessary any existing cables encountered in the trench shall be realigned to
accommodate the new cables.
Cables shall be laid in parallel with no twists or crossovers. Under no circumstances shall any
cable be subjected to a bending radius less than the minimum recommended by the
manufacturer.
After any cable has been laid, and until the whole of the cables to be laid in the trench have
been covered with cable tiles, see (16.5.6.6), no sharp edged tools shall be used in, or allowed
to fall into, the trench. Rollers used during the pulling of cables shall have no sharp projecting
parts liable to damage the cable sheaths.
Single core cable, when laid in trefoil formation, shall be braced by non-magnetic clamps
placed at 3 metre intervals along the cable routing, and should be laid in separate trenches or
racks.
The initial layer of cables shall be laid on a bed of fine sand 50-100mm deep. Upon the
completion of each layer the cables will be labeled with lead tags with cable tag identification
at 5m intervals before covering with an additional layer of sand which shall be compacted by
hand over and around the cables to a level 100mm above the top of the upper most cable and
across the full width of the trench. In each layer where cable tiles are required they shall be
carefully centered over and 75mm above the cables forming the layer, each tile being fully
interlocked with its adjacent tiles over the full width of the cable trench.
Cable tiles shall be impact resistant. Alternative materials may be used for tiles instead of
concrete, provided the material has the same or higher impact strength and resistance to
deterioration in the buriel environment.
Plastic yellow cable marker tape shall be laid directly above each layer of cable tiles or be
incorporated as part of the cable tile before further back filling of the trench.
Substitute material and any finished surface or paving shall be reinstated.
Sections of the cable trench which may be required to be left open for the duration of the work
shall have its sides lined with timber shutters and necessary cross bracings to avoid trench-
collapse and at road crossings or path crossings the trench top shall be covered by steel plates
of sufficient strength to allow heavy mechanical equipment to cross. All trench spoil shall be
removed from site to ensure a clean and tidy working area.
Pre-cast concrete cable markers incorporating white / black / white LABELS shall be installed
along the route of direct buried cables, at duct and joint positions, at all places where the route
changes direction and on straight routes at distances not exceeding 50 meters. The LABELS
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shall indicate the cable laid, by cable number, and their voltage and the route direction and
change where necessary.
16.2.2 Cables laid in pipes or ducts
All pipes and ducts which are to be laid directly in the ground shall be non-metallic and shall
not be deteriorated by the soils surrounding the ducts or pipes. Unless otherwise specified,
ducts and pipes shall be provided by the CONTRACTOR.
Cables drawn into pipes or ducts shall be in good condition. Any loose matter from the ducts
shall be removed by drawing through a mandrel of slightly less diameter than the duct
immediately before pulling in the cables. Generally one cable may be installed in each cable
duct. Any lubricant used shall have no deleterious effect on the cables. Any ducts or pipes not
used shall be sealed with approved plugs as soon as the duct is installed. Ducts used shall be
sealed with an approved sealant to prevent water, dirt, and vermin ingress, as soon as the
cable is installed.
Where new ducts are to be constructed no less than six spare ducts shall be incorporated for
future cables.
On poorly defined roads or roads without kerbs the cable duct crossings are to have their
limits defined by the use of substantial painted kerbs with foundations.
The position of cable ducts and details of sealing arrangements shall be shown in the
installation drawings.
16.2.3 Derating cables for environmental conditions
During the course of a project the CONTRACTOR will probably need to select the size and
type of cable for a permanent consumer e.g. due to as-built changes, additional consumers.
[ES.2.03.0001 sub-sections (9.7.8) and (10.2.4)] shall be used as the basis for calculating the
correct size of cable to be used.
16.3 Laying of Cables in Platform-Based Installations
The laying of cables on PBIs is mostly by the use of cable trays or ladder racks. Generally
trays shall be used indoors or in sheltered areas.
Heavy duty ladder racks shall be used indoors and outdoors for supporting a large number of
cables, and outdoors only where the area is subject to seawater spray and corrosion.
Most of the requirements of (16.1.4.1) shall apply to platform installations.
Trays and racks shall be bonded for earthing as described in (19.2.2).
16.3.1 The use of conduit systems
The use of conduit in PBIs shall not be allowed for main distribution cables. The only
situations that qualify for using conduit are: -
Skid mounted package units, where conduit is the preferred choice of the manufacturer,
and no alternative has been given.
Accommodation and living quarters, but subject to the approval of the principal.
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16.4 Glanding and Termination of Cables
The ends of every conductor shall be securely anchored by means which contain all the
strands of the conductor.
The ends of every conductor having a nominal cross-sectional area exceeding 2.5 sq.mm
should be provided with soldering sockets or with compression-type sockets or with
substantial mechanical clamps. Cable sockets and clamps should be of such dimensions and
design that the maximum current likely to flow through them will not cause the temperature of
the cable insulation to be exceeded.
The means of fixing conductors in terminals should be capable of withstanding the thermal
and dynamic effects of short-circuit currents.
Soldering fluxes containing acid or otherwise corrosive substance shall not be used.
At ends of cables the insulation shall not be removed further than is necessary having regard
to the type of termination used.
The braid, metallic sheath, or other covering over the insulation, including tape (if any) in
contact therewith, should be cut back at least 13mm from the end of the insulation in cable up
to 13mm diameter (measured over the insulation) and at least 25mm from the end of the
insulation in cables of greater diameter. The covering over the insulation should not be cut
back beyond the point of entry to the terminal box or fitting.
Where joints in cables are to be made the equivalent electrical and mechanical properties of
the cable are to be maintained. In damp situations the joint is to be watertight.
Stress relieving cones or sleeving shall be used on all HV cable termination and the joint shall
be made in the manufacturers recommended manner.
All cores shall be set straight. Care shall be taken to ensure that the sheath and armour are cut
back the correct amount to suit the compression gland provided.
Glands shall be certified for use in hazardous and non-hazardous areas as appropriate, see
[ES.2.03.0001, Appendix H, Table H.3.A].
The supporting of cables shall be such that no weight is taken on the termination and the cable
armouring is to be properly finished within the compression gland.
Glands shall be complete with appropriate earth tag (clearance hole entry) and an outer PVC
shroud. Red sealing washers shall be fitted to all glands except MICC glands.
Control and instrument conductors terminating at stud type terminals shall be fitted with
approved type crimping lugs or claw washers.
Where multi-core cables are loomed within panels, the cores of each cable shall be loomed and
laced individually. Each cable shall be strapped back to supports within the panel individually.
All cores shall have sufficient lengths to reach the farthest terminal on the respective terminal
block.
All cable cores including unused cores shall be terminated. Cable identification markers,
LABELS, shall be fitted at each end of the cable run near the termination, where cables enter
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and leave pipes, enter and leave transits and at intervals of 3 metres on cables laid in racks,
trays, under ground or in pre-casts concrete cable ducts. The cable markers,LABELS, shall be
of plastic, Critchley or similar, and shall be attached by nylon or plastic, self locking tie
wraps.
Cable markers, LABELS, in underground trenches shall be of lead strip wrapped around the
cable at every 5 metre interval. The cable number and size shall be punched on the lead strip.
Cable core identification will be achieved using an interlocking ferrule of the appropriate
diameter. Ferrules shall be continuous rings, not split or clip-on type. Ferrules shall be
capable of being slid-off the core without needing to remove the core crimping lug. This
relates mainly to control and instrument cables. The ferrule will be engraved with a letter or
number. Where the cable core is too large to accommodate a ferrule, then coloured PVC tape
(red, yellow or blue) will be used to identify the phase colours. A PVC sleeve of the
appropriate phase colour may also be used. The minimum length of the tape or sleeve will be
25mm.
Full insulation tests shall be made on the cable before final connection to the equipment, see
Appendix A for testing data.
The correct phase rotation and connection of power cables as per colour code shall be adhered
to. Particular care is to be taken in the case of large conductors where subsequent correction
may be difficult. See (10.5) and its Table 10.5.A.
Every precaution will be taken to ensure that the enclosure of terminal boxes is watertight and
all gaskets correctly fitted. Flameproof terminal boxes shall be sealed against water ingress
using an approved compound (Chemodex) or one-and-a-half layers of DENSO tape. Note
the use of weatherproofing tape with ECHA equipment shall take account of its Gas Group
rating as follows : -
Gas Group II A One layer of tape is acceptable.
Gas Group II B Seek advice.
Gas Group II C Tape not to be used under any circumstances.
16.5 Special Considerations for Installing 33kV (and above) Cables
Cable having rated voltages of 33kV and above will normally be used for LBIs. These cables
may also be used in conjunction with overhead lines in remote locations eg road crossings,
substations, switching stations, where the environmental conditions are severe.
Aspect not covered in this sub-section should be found in (20.1) through (20.4), or in
[ES.2.03.0001].
In respect to 33kV (and above) cables, the CONTRACTOR shall supply a qualified cable
jointer provided by a company having a valid Grade A license issued by the Electricity
Department of the Ministry of Electricity and Water of the State of Qatar, and shall have a
minimum of 2 years active service to carry out all cable termination and jointing work.
The CONTRACTOR shall ensure that this cable jointer is familiar with the techniques of
jointing and terminating XLPE insulated cables, and in particular shall confirm he has
attended a Raychem training course and list his subsequent experience in the methods of
terminating cables using heat shrink sleeving as in the Raychem system and other close fitting
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moulded elastomeric terminations such as the Elastimold or Bi-mold system of
components. He shall be certified by Raychem for completing 33kV terminations and joints.
The termination and jointing of all 33kV cables should be carried out using Raychem
equipment and heat shrink sleeving.
16.5.1 Site considerations
The CONTRACTOR shall include for all work associated with cabling irrespective of the
installation method used and including termination work at terminal poles, 33kV switchgear
and control panels and transformers.
The arrangement of cables and all methods of installation shall be in accordance with this
standard and approved by QGPC.
Unless otherwise directed by QGPC all cables shall be laid in the manner described in
[ES.2.03.0001, sub-sections of 10.2.5.3] under existing buried obstructions including cables
and pipe work. This reference also recommends the minimum clearances to be used.
Each cable shall be run in one continuous length and straight-through joints will not be
permitted unless specifically authorized QGPC. All cable lengths are to be measured and
confirmed at site prior to cutting by the CONTRACTOR, see (16.1.3).
Where joints cannot be avoided they shall be adequately supported and each joint shall be
clearly labeled in an approved manner to indicate the cable number and the joint number.
LABELS shall be used.
Where the armour wires of plastic insulated cables constitute the earthed metallic shield, such
wires shall be effectively bonded across the joint in an approved manner. The electrical
resistance of such bonds shall not exceed that of an equal length of armour wires. Suitable
care shall be taken to ensure that the bond contacts do not deteriorate in service.
The CONTRACTOR shall deal with and dispose of any accumulated water to prevent any
risk of cables and other materials laid in the excavations or trenches.
He shall provide dewatering pumps and appliances required and shall carry out the necessary
pumping and bailing. Any water that may be present in the trenches shall be disposed of by
the CONTRACTOR before cables or other materials are laid.
16.5.2 Additional requirements for cables laid direct in ground
The exact location of each trench shall be to the approval of QGPC.
Trenches shall be kept as straight as possible and each trench shall be excavated to an
approved formation and dimensions, and shall have vertical sides, see QGPC Standard
Drawings, and [ES.2.03.0001 sub-section (10.2.5.3)].
The bottom of each trench shall be firm and of smooth contour. Where a change in level of the
trenches is necessary the bottom of the trench shall rise or fall gradually. The rate of rise or
fall shall be approved.
When the excavation of trenches has been accurately executed, notice shall be given by the
CONTRACTOR to QGPC. Laying of cables and backfilling shall not be started until the
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CONTRACTOR has obtained sanction from QGPC to proceed with the work. Inspection by
QGPC shall not be unreasonably delayed.
The CONTRACTOR shall perform all hand excavations, protection and other work as
specified herein or as required to locate existing utilities or services within the limits of the
Contract, or at off-site locations as designated by QGPC and in accordance with the
requirements of all contract documents. The existing utilities and services referred to herein
shall include, but shall not be limited to gas and oil pipelines electrical (both power and
lighting), water and such others as may be encountered under the Contract for the work to be
done.
The CONTRACTOR shall excavate trenches to a depth given in the QGPC Standard
Drawings, and [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section (10.2.5.3)], and after completion of cable laying
shall backfill and re-instate the surface. It is the responsibility of the CONTRACTOR to
ensure that he is acquainted with the nature of the ground conditions prevailing in the area
concerned and shall include for any and all types of excavation and backfill on an as found
basis. He shall also furnish an adequate supply of fine sand or approved fine sifted sabkha,
graded and thoroughly washed. The CONTRACTOR shall lay cables direct in the ground in
the following manner.
A thickness of no less than 250 mm of sand or finely ground sabkha shall be placed at the
bottom of the trench to form a bed for the cables. After the cables have been laid to the
approval of QGPC they shall be covered with additional fine sand or finely ground sabkha
well punned over and around the cables to a level of no less than 250 mm above the top of the
uppermost cable. Mechanical punners shall not be used for this work. (Note that the
thicknesses of the sand or finely ground sabkha is more than for lower voltage cables, as
described in (16.2.1)).
The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for ensuring that the net thermal resistivity of the
material surrounding cables shall not rise above 2.5 deg. K.m/W, under all site conditions.
Account shall be taken of any fall in moisture content of soil arising from seasonal variations,
and of local heating due to cable dissipation. The CONTRACTOR shall include any special
backfill materials, including stabilizing additives such as cement, in order to ensure
compliance with this clause.
Before the commencement of backfilling, the CONTRACTOR shall test the material for
backfilling the area surrounding the cables, i.e. item 6 on QGPC document QA-40-414. The
CONTRACTOR shall measure the grain size distribution, Proctor density, thermal properties
and moisture content of this material before placing it in the trench. The CONTRACTOR
shall not start to backfill the trench before the selected material has been approved by the
QGPC. Scalping can be used as a backfilling material provided that it has a proven thermal
resistivity of less than 2.5 deg. K.m/W.
Concrete cable tiles, shall be supplied by the CONTRACTOR, and shall be carefully centred
over the cable.
The remaining part of the trench shall then be backfilled allowing for settlement. No excavated
foundation material or heavy rocks shall be used for this purpose. Backfill shall be imported
as necessary.
After any cable has been laid and until the whole of the cables to be laid in the trench have
been covered with their protective covers, no sharp metal tools, such as spades or fencing
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stakes, shall be used in the trench or placed in such a position that they may fall into the
trench.
Rollers used during the laying of the cables shall have no sharp projecting parts liable to
damage the cables. The procedure for unwinding and pulling the cables shall be approved by
QGPC.
16.5.3 Additional requirement for cables drawn into ducts
Any ducts or pipes not used shall be sealed by plugs supplied by the CONTRACTOR before
backfilling, or at the end of the Works.
The ducts shall be water and vermin proof sealed in accordance with the requirements of
QGPC.
16.5.4 Cables at road-crossing and in areas accessible to vehicles
At all road crossing and designated areas, the cables shall be installed in underground conduit
ducts embedded in concrete as directed by QGPC.
The conduit for the underground cable road crossings shall be made up from 6 inch diameter
nominal bore galvanized screwed and coupled pipe to be laid with a minimum of 1 metre
cover and to extend 1 metre beyond the kerb at each side of the road. The conduit ends shall
be free of sharp edges and be plugged and made water-tight, using a suitable mastic type
substance before the conduit end trenches as backfilled.
All tarmac road surfaces are to be re-instated to the satisfaction of QGPC.
See also [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section 10.2.5] for the design of trenches and the avoidance of
pipes and pipeline crossings.
16.5.5 Cables supported on poles and in buildings
All main power cables shall be installed in tubes, cleats or ladders fixed at intervals shown on
the drawings and the arrangement of cables shall be generally as shown on these drawings.
All power cables within the Dukhan power station 33kV switch room and basement shall be
installed on new heavy duty steel ladder work provided by the CONTRACTOR to the
approval of the QGPC.
In cases where cables or their supports must be fixed to structural metalwork, care should be
taken to avoid eccentric load transfer to beams or other structural metal. Also local
overloading or deformation of structure must be avoided.
Cables shall be laid with a 2 metre loop at the base of all terminal poles to allow for future
reconnection.
16.5.6 Terminations for 33kV (and above) cables
The CONTRACTOR shall terminate and connect up the cables to the overhead line
equipment, 33kV switchgear and control panels as specified. This shall include the drilling of
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gland plates and vermin barriers, fitting of all cable terminal glands, core identification tape,
cable lugs, tape, LABELS and all other miscellaneous material and equipment, including
termination kits for 33kV cables, as necessary to complete the termination.
Termination kits will be supplied by the CONTRACTOR.
The CONTRACTOR will be responsible for checking his work and setting-to-work the
completed installation.
Air-insulated type termination kits and stand-off insulators for terminal poles will be provided
by the CONTRACTOR.
16.5.6.1 Power cables
The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for the correct phase sequence and connections in
accordance with the information supplied by the QGPC.
Particular care is to be taken where subsequent correction may be difficult.
Phase tests will be carried out by the CONTRACTOR and if found necessary the
CONTRACTOR shall carry out reversal of phase connections.
Where insulated glands are provided, the CONTRACTOR shall ensure that the insulation is
maintained after jointing the cable and shall, if required, demonstrate this to the satisfaction of
QGPC.
The tails of multi-core cables in air insulated terminations are to be identified by a band of
approved tape or LABEL of appropriate colour over the self-sealing tape.
16.5.6.2 Terminating and jointing of conductors
The tools for making compression joints must be those recommended by the manufacturer of
the lugs and ferrules, shall be approved by QGPC.
For stud type of terminals, all conductors shall be connected with the approved crimped lugs
provided by the CONTRACTOR.
Where clamp type terminals are used the conductor shall be terminated with ferrules.
Not more than one conductors shall be terminated in each clamp.
Where dissimilar metal joints are necessary, care shall be taken by the CONTRACTOR to
avoid subsequent electrochemical reaction at the joint, by utilizing the appropriate bimetallic
lugs provided by the CONTRACTOR. Where such lugs are not available, or not appropriate,
then the CONTRACTOR shall as an alternative make the joint by adopting such means as bi-
metal interface shims, tinning and the use of approved proprietary brands of jointing
compound.
16.5.6.3 Cable identification
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At each end of a cable run, identification markers, LABELS, shall be provided and fitted in a
suitable position under the cable termination. Identification markers, LABELS, shall also be
fitted where cables enter and leave ducts or pipes.
The material of the markers and of the labels and fastening shall be such as to avoid corrosion
due to incompatibility of material and surroundings, to ensure permanent legibility., see
definition of LABEL.
16.5.6.4 Stand off insulators
Terminal poles shall be fitted with Raychem insulators. These shall be provided and installed
by the CONTRACTOR.
16.5.6.5 Cable route markers above ground
See (16.2.1). LABELS shall be used where necessary.
16.5.6.6 Concrete cable tiles
Hydraulically pressed cable tiles (covers) shall be pre-cast and constructed with good quality
cement with aggregate not exceeding 9.5 mm nominal size. The covers shall be efficiently
compacted in the mould with the exposed face off level and have the ends designed to provide
an interlocking facility to resist lateral displacement after installation. The width of the cable
tiles shall not be more than 500 mm to enable easy lifting.
If economically viable the CONTRACTOR may submit for consideration an alternative
proposal for plastic cable covers. Any proposal should be accompanied by full specification
for the covers proposed.
17.0 Batteries, D.C. and A.C. Un-interruptible Power Supply system
17.1 Safety
Batteries are potentially dangerous devices for two reasons. Firstly they often have exposed
terminals which can be accidentally short circuited. Short circuits will generally produce
sparks of molten metal which can burn skin and blind eyes. Fires can also be produced from
sparks. Secondly their electrolyte can cause burning of skin and damage to eyes if splashed or
badly handled. Protective clothing and eye protection shall be used when handling electrolyte
and filled cells. Only authorised personnel shall handle batteries, cells and electrolyte.
17.2 Terminology
This section covers the permanent installation of batteries and UPS systems.
The batteries may be installed in the following forms : -
Small capacity batteries should usually be placed inside a cubicle, cabinet, or partitioned
section of the charger unit of a UPS.
Large capacity batteries should usually be placed in a purpose designed battery room.
Batteries shall be of the following types : -
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Vented lead-acid complying with [IEC 896].
Vented nickel-cadmium complying with [IEC 623].
Valve-regulated gas recombination lead-acid complying with [IEC 896].
The following terminology shall apply to batteries described in QGPC documents : -
A vented type battery is one in which the products of electrolysis can be replaced and which
may release gas whilst operating on charge or overcharge.
A sealed type battery is one which the products of electrolysis cannot be replaced and is
capable of operating in charge, overcharge or discharge without releasing gas.
A semi-sealed type battery is one which is capable of operating on charge, overcharge and
discharge without releasing gas. It is designed to recombine the gas produced on overcharge.
This type may be permitted wherever space limitations do not allow construction of a separate
battery room provided batteries are designed and manufactured with a recombination facility.
No modification of the battery shall be permitted.
A battery bank is a number of individual battery cells connected in series to obtain the
necessary system voltage, or in parallel to obtain the required ampere-hour capacity.
Note 13.2a: - For all QGPC installations the battery bank shall be connected in
series. Batteries or cells shall not be connected in parallel to raise the
ampere-hour capacity of the battery system, unless cells of the required
ampere-hour capacity are not manufactured. In this unusual situation
the connection arrangements of the cells shall be approved by QGPC.
A battery stand is a purpose built stand or shelf or a set of shelves to support groups of cells
in their permanent location. The stand may consist of several tiers if the battery requires many
cells. The stand may be made of hard fine grain wood appropriately treated to withstand the
effects of the electrolyte and vapour released, or steel appropriately pointed, see also (17.6.3).
17.3 Vented Lead Acid Batteries
These shall generally be considered for use where the ampere-hour capacity of each cell
exceeds 400Ah.
These batteries shall be maintained throughout their expected life, which should be in the
order of 15 to 20 years if the ambient conditions surrounding the cells is kept below 40 deg C.
They are robust and reliable.
The electrolyte is diluted sulphuric acid mixed into distilled and demineralised water.
When it is necessary to change the electrolyte or to top-up the cells the correct concentration
of acid in water should be used for the particular type and manufacture of the cells. The cell
MI should be referred to for preparing the electrolyte.
Gell-type electrolyte shall not be used.
17.4 Vented Nickel-Cadmium
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These shall generally be considered for use where the ampere-hour capacity of each cell
exceeds 400 Ah.
These batteries shall be maintained throughout their expected life, which should be in the
order of 20 to 25 years if the ambient conditions surrounding the cells is kept below 40 deg C.
They are robust and reliable, and are not damaged if completely discharged.
The electrolyte is usually diluted potassium hydroxide mixed into distilled and demineralised
water.
When it is necessary to change the electrolyte or to top-up the cells the correct concentration
of alkali in water should be used for the particular type and manufacture of the cells. The cell
MI should be referred to for preparing the electrolyte.
Gell-type electrolyte shall not be used.
17.5 Sealed Lead-Acid Batteries
These shall generally be considered for use where the ampere-hour capacity of each cell is
below 400Ah.
These cells require no maintenance throughout their expected life. Their expected life should
be in the order of 10 years if certain operating conditions are not regularly exceeded. They are
robust and reliable but will be badly damaged if allowed to become discharged to a low level.
The electrolyte is diluted sulphuric acid, in distilled and demineralised water.
It is not possible to top-up the cells.
17.5.1 Operational restrictions
The life expectation of the sealed lead-acid cells will be considerably reduced if the ambient
temperature surrounding them is allowed to exceed 20 deg C, as shown below in Table
17.5.1.A.
Table 17.5.1.A
Life Expectancy
For guidance only
Cell Temperature, deg C Life Expectancy, years
20 10 (nominal)
25 8
30 5
35 3.5
40 2.5
Sealed batteries shall not be boost charged. The chargers shall be specified without boost
charging facilities, and shall be designed especially for sealed batteries. Boost charging will
cause excessive gas to be generated in the cells. The pressure relief valves will allow this gas
to escape in order to prevent the casing of the cell from splitting. The gas represents part of
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the electrolyte and hence will be lost and unable to be replaced. The capacity of the cells will
then be permanently reduced.
Sealed batteries shall be float charged, at a current determined by the allowable cell charging
voltage. The minimum discharge voltage shall not be less than 1.8 volts/cell. The maximum
charging voltage shall not be greater than 2.27 volts/cell. These two limits shall be monitored
and alarmed by the charger.
17.5.2 Battery room temperature
The weather where QGPC plants will be located in the future is such that the ambient
temperature in batteries rooms will exceed 20C, if uncontrolled. The temperature in a room
for sealed-batteries shall be carefully controlled by a HVAC system.
The battery charger shall receive an analogue signal which measures the battery room
temperature. This signal shall be used in the control system of the charger and shall give an
alarm to the operator when a pre-set alarm temperature is reached.
17.6 Battery Rooms and their Equipment
17.6.1 Electrical equipment vented
Acid and alkali vented batteries shall not be located within the same battery room, and should
not both be used in the same QGPC plant.
For rooms in which vented batteries are located there shall be a dedicated HVAC system, or
part thereof, for the removal of battery emitted gases and vapours. The atmosphere shall be
assumed to be corrosive. The HVAC shall not recirculate the air. Inlet air shall be taken from
the HVAC source. The exhaust air shall be removed by a ventilation fan.
All electrical fixtures and fittings e.g. light fittings, luminaires, circuit breakers, switches, fire
and gas detectors, hazard warning lights, sirens, shall be suitable for operating safely in a
hydrogen gas atmosphere and be selected for Group II C Gases and Temperature Class T6.
The construction of devices shall be at least EEx(e) and IP54.
Batteries shall be provided with 2-pole, IP54, EEx(de), IIC, T6 circuit breakers, which shall
be located as close to the battery main connections as possible.
The cables between the battery terminals and the battery circuit breaker shall be : -
Flexible stranded cores.
Double insulated (EPR/EPR or EPR/CSP).
Unarmoured.
The battery circuit shall be unearthed, but monitored by a sensitive earth leakage device in the
charger.
Battery terminals and interconnecting links shall be covered with insulating boots.
17.6.2 Maximum charger rating in a battery room
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The charger of any type of UPS or battery installation shall not exceed 2kW if the charger and
its batteries are to be located in the same room. This 2kW power rating shall be determined by
multiplying the maximum charging current by the nominal voltage of the battery.
Batteries connected to a charging device with a power output within the range of 0.2kW to
2kW may be installed in accordance with one of the following alternatives : -
In a battery room.
In a locker room.
In a box or locker in a machinery or similar space.
Open, in a machinery space or similar space, provided that they are given suitable
protective covers.
Batteries connected to a charging device with a power output of less than 0.2kW may be
installed in accordance with one of the following alternatives : -
Open, if protected from falling objects.
In a battery box in any suitable place.
No battery compartment shall form a means of access to any other compartment.
17.6.3 Non-electrical equipment
Battery rooms shall only be used for locating batteries and their associated equipment. They
shall not be used as store rooms or warehouses for any equipment, whether or not associated
with batteries.
Large capacity vented batteries shall be mounted on purpose designed steel stands. They shall
be : -
Strong enough to bear the weight of the filled cells.
The lowest shelf shall be at a height above ground no less than one metre.
Highly resistant to corrosion, lead lined trays shall be considered.
If several shelves are required they shall be off-set so that the lower cells can be easily
accessed from above e.g. to check and top-up electrolyte.
Rigidly constructed. For PBIs they shall withstand shock forces, and sudden sideways or
horizontal movements of the floor.
All paint used shall be corrosion resistant.
All fittings and attachments shall be non-corrodable.
Large permanent notice board(s) shall be located on entrance doors and on inside walls to
warn of No Smoking.
All metal parts of stands, frames, columns which are near to the battery terminals and links
shall be protected with an electrical insulating material.
17.7 Preliminary Checks for Batteries
17.7.1 Delivery of batteries to site
Vented, flooded batteries are those in which the cell plates are fully covered with liquid
electrolyte, not gel-type electrolyte.
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Vented, flooded batteries shall be supplied complete with ready-mixed liquid electrolyte which
shall be appropriate for the cell ambient temperatures of maximum 40 deg C and minimum 5
deg C.
Vented, flooded battery cells shall be supplied as follows : -
Delivery by land transport.
Nickel-cadmium cells shall be supplied filled and charged.
Note 17.7.1a: - If nickel-cadmium cells cannot receive a commissioning charge within
3 months of leaving the factory, then alternative delivery forms shall be
specified, i.e. filled and discharged or dry and discharged.
Lead-acid cells shall be supplied dry and charged. Liquid electrolyte shall be delivered
with the battery in suitable sealed containers.
Note 13.7.1b: - If lead-acid cells can receive a commissioning charge within 2 months
of leaving the factory, then the cells may be supplied filled and charged.
Delivery by ship.
Nickel-cadmium cells shall be supplied dry and discharged.
Lead-acid cells shall be supplied dry and charged.
Liquid electrolyte shall be supplied with the battery in suitable sealed containers.
Valve regulated (sealed) lead-acid battery cells shall be supplied filled and charged. These
cells must receive a commissioning charge within 3 months of leaving the factory. Air-
freighting of cells shall be considered as an alternative to sea-freight if these commissioning
requirements cannot otherwise be met.
17.7.2 Unpacking and assembling the cells
Only authorised personnel shall handle filled and pre-charged batteries, and they shall take
proper safety precautions against spilling of electrolyte and short circuiting terminals. This
applies to individual cells and cells connected to form the battery. The personnel shall
carefully read the battery manufacturer's MI before handling them or moving them from their
storage location.
The dimensions of each type of cell shall be carefully checked, together with the total number
of cells delivered including and spares cells. The number of cells in each group of cells shall
be established and the overall dimensions, including spaces between cells, checked against the
drawings of the stand, cubicle or box.
Battery stands may be delivered in a dismantled form. They shall be erected in their final
location, properly fixed to the floor of the room, and all assembly bolts fully tightened .
Metallic stands shall be bonded to the local earthing system, and to each other if located
adjacent to each other. Lining materials shall then be installed.
Check the open-circuit voltage of each cell before placing the cells on the stands.
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Batteries shall be placed on the stand shelves in accordance with the plan drawing which
should show the orientation of the cell terminals and intercell links. The intercell links shall be
attached in a sequence recommended in the MI, in order to achieve the safest method of
assembly.
Bolt-down or clamp the cells in position.
Install the battery-to-charger cables after the charger is located in its final position.
Install the battery 2-pole circuit breaker at a convenient time before the above cables are
installed.
If deemed necessary re-charge the battery from a suitable temporary D.C. source, in
accordance with the battery manufacturers MI.
17.8 Charger Units
Charger units may be one of the following : -
Free-standing unit for simply charging batteries e.g. engine starting batteries.
Part of a D.C. UPS consisting of a charger, battery bank, D.C. distribution board.
Part of an A.C. UPS consisting of a charger, battery bank, inverter, A.C. distribution
board.
17.8.1 Preliminary checks
A charger unit can be a physically large item and so its dimensions shall be checked to ensure
that it can be manipulated from its storage location to its permanent location.
Check the permanent location for : -
Dimensions against the plan and elevation drawings.
Cable access.
Fixing points of the base frame.
Ventilation provided in the room.
Earthing connections are installed.
Check the charger name plate details, tag number, tag name, ratings etc.
17.8.2 Installation
Install the charger in accordance with the manufacturers MI. Disconnect circuits which could
be damaged by test instruments e.g. a Megger.
Bond the charger to its earthing facility in the room.
Terminate all associated cables, after each has been tested for insulation resistance.
17.8.3 Post-installation testing and commissioning
See (15.3) and apply the procedures as appropriate.
Ensure that the charger-to-battery cables have been terminated and tested, including the 2-pole
battery circuit breaker, see (17.6.1).
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Arrange the charger to be energised from its permanent supply, and charge the battery in the
float charge mode.
Whilst the charger is operating check all its functions and if possible its alarms and
displays : -
Boost charging, if specified, see (17.5.1).
Condition monitoring system, if specified.
Start-up and shut-down, this may be involved with the inverter if specified.
Protective devices and circuits e.g. overcurrent, low output voltage, high output voltage.
Tripping of the 2-pole battery circuit breakers from the protection circuits.
Battery room temperature monitoring system, see (17.5.2).
17.9 Inverter Units
17.9.1 Preliminary checks
See (17.8.1).
17.9.2 Installation
See (17.8.2).
17.9.3 Post-installation testing and commissioning
See (15.3) and apply the procedures as appropriate.
Ensure that the battery-to-inverter circuits have been terminated and tested, this will usually
be internal cables or busbars between the charger and inverter cubicles when installed as a
suite of cubicles.
Arrange the charger and the by-pass circuit breaker to be energised from their permanent
supplies.
Test and commission the charger before testing the inverter.
Functionally check circuit breakers and protective relays, if possible, before energising the
main power input circuits of the inverter. Follow the inverter MI carefully when the inverter is
energised.
Whilst the inverter is operating check all its functions and if possible its alarms and
displays : -
Overload of inverter.
Frequency out of range.
Output voltage out of range.
Short-circuit current limiting.
Inverter out of synchronism with by-pass supply.
Static switch functions, on, off, faulted.
Cooling fans failed.
17.10 Distribution Board
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The output distribution boards for UPSs will usually be one of the cubicles of the UPS. The
board will comprise switch fuses or MCCBs.
Check that each sub-circuit has a current rating in accordance with the design drawings and
purchase order documents.
Check that the distribution board has been cabled internally and externally, and has been
bonded to earth.
Functionally check the sub-circuit switching devices before energising the busbars of the
distribution board.
Commission each sub-circuit as required by the project plan.
Lock-off all switching devices that are not to be energised.
18.0 Lighting and Small Power
This section covers the installation of lighting and small power systems in existing and new
plants.
Plant areas shall be provided with various lighting systems to maintain safety and good
visibility under both normal and abnormal plant operating conditions. The intensity of lighting
shall be in accordance with [Appendix N of ES.2.03.0001]. These systems are divided as
follows : -
Normal lighting
Emergency lighting
Escape lighting
18.1 Normal lighting
This system shall be fed from the normal mains power system. It shall provide approximately
70% of the total illumination in an area of the plant.
18.2 Emergency lighting
This system shall normally be fed from the normal main power system, but in the event of a
mains power failure, it shall be changed over automatically to the emergency power system. It
shall provide approximately 30% of the illumination.
Note 18.2 a: - The emergency power system shall be fed by an emergency generator,
usually driven by a diesel engine. This generator shall feed the
emergency switchboard. The sub-circuit from this switchboard will
feed emergency power to particular consumers, some of which will be
emergency lighting systems.
18.3 Escape Lighting
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For the lighting of escape ways under emergency conditions, adequate lighting fittings shall be
provided to illuminate areas, access ways, etc. to permit safety of movement of personnel.
These fittings shall be capable of maintaining the minimum lighting level for a period of 60
minutes after the loss of all the electrical power supplies. The reserve power being taken from
batteries installed within the fitting.
These fittings shall also be used to maintain a lighting level of approximately 20 lux in control
rooms, electrical rooms and other designated areas.
Note 18.3 a: - Normal outdoor lighting under operational conditions shall be photocell
controlled. Only lighting fittings forming the normal and emergency
lighting shall be included in the illumination design requirements.
18.4 Additional Requirements for platform-based installations
Design of the emergency and escape lighting system shall fulfil the following functions: -
(1) Escape light fittings shall be installed at the following locations : -
Every exit doorway.
Every sleeping cabin (see paragraphs (3) and (5) below.
External escape ways (stairways and walkways).
Internal escape ways (escape routes in modules or deck areas, living quarter
corridors, lounge, dining room and gaLley).
Embarkation area (access to helideck, and survival craft stations).
Muster areas (helicopter waiting room, cinema, lounge, dining room and the
emergency response team muster points).
(2) Escape lighting shall be an ECHA type suitable for use in a Zone 1 area and shall
normally be fitted with an electronic emergency power supply unit housed with the
fittings. During a power failure, the output shall be maintained for about 90 minutes
operation. For unmanned installations, a 90 minute battery duration may be
insufficient. In these cases, an essential battery bank of 24 hour duration may be
considered.
(3) Escape light fittings installed in sleeping cabins shall only illuminate when there is
a loss of A.C. supply to its integral battery charger.
(4) In addition to escape lighting, emergency lights shall be provided to fulfil the
following two requirements : -
Firstly, to allow for limited operational lighting for inspection, testing, emergency
support, and the starting of the emergency generator.
Typical areas and duties are : -
Obstruction lights.
Perimeter lights.
Key area emergency lighting.
On vent stacks and crane booms.
On helideck (also on the windsock).
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Installation or process control room, radio room, offshore installation
managers (OIMs) office, crane access ladders.
These emergency lights shall be an ECHA type Zone 1 approved fittings with key
area emergency lights engineered to the same criteria as escape light fittings, ie
with integral battery support of 90 minutes duration.
Secondly, to allow for minimum operational lighting in other areas, to provide
minimum life support, and allow for the restart of the main generator(s).
Typical areas are : -
Main switchgear and generator rooms.
Galley, dining room and other areas in the living quarters.
Workshops and utility areas.
These emergency lights shall be selected and installed as per the hazardous area
classification for the particular area.
(5) Portable emergency lighting units shall be provided at the exit doors of all non-
hazardous area modules, including emergency accommodation.
Those areas will include : -
Installation control centre.
Switchgear room.
Generator room.
Utility areas.
Emergency team muster points.
The OIMs office.
Each unit shall comprise a fixed wall-mounted trickle charger and accumulator-
powered hand-lamp ECHA type suitable for use in Zone 1 hazardous areas. Each
unit shall be kept on trickle charge when not in use and shall receive its power direct
from a distribution board supplied from the emergency generator. The accumulator
will have a battery capacity of 6 hours.
(6) All lighting circuits shall be switched via double pole switches.
(7) Special lighting shall be given consideration in areas beyond the utilisation of normal
lighting, e.g. gauge lights.
(8) Specific consideration shall be given to the use of floodlight luminaires which
illuminate the sea beneath the lifeboats, vent stack structure, (narrow beam) and
other obstructions.
(9) The preferred kind of floodlighting is high-pressure sodium, except where (e.g. on
helidecks) instant relight is required. Typical areas where floodlights can be
employed in preference to numerous fluorescent luminaries are open or high-bay
production and utility areas, wellheads, cranes, overside legs and moorings,
underside and obstructions.
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18.5 Location of Lighting and Distribution Switchboards and Circuit Switches
18.5.1 Zone 1 and Zone 2 Hazardous areas
Where it is possible lighting and small power switchboards feeding sub-circuits in these areas
shall be located in unclassified areas.
Circuit cables from these distribution boards shall be routed into the hazardous areas and
terminated in to an approved terminal box.
A separate terminal box for each service (i.e. emergency, normal, duty sockets outlets etc.)
shall be provided.
18.5.2 Unclassified areas
These are defined as Unclassified under all normal and abnormal conditions.
Lighting and small power switch boards feeding sub-circuits wholly in unclassified areas shall
be located in an unclassified area.
18.5.3 Lighting and distribution isolation and control
Distribution feeds to lighting and small power switchboards and sub-circuits shall have
complete means of isolation preferably by an isolating switch having sufficient number of
poles to isolate all phases and the neutral.
18.5.4 Lighting and small power circuit switches in all areas.
Incoming supply switching at the distribution boards shall be controlled by 4 pole switches
and shall include a lock off facility.
Outgoing circuits from the distribution boards shall be switched by double pole miniature
circuit breakers and provided with padlocking facilities for maintenance purpose.
Lighting circuits for one or more areas may be run in a common multi core cable terminated in
a junction box within an area. The circuits may then be sub-divided in the junction box to
supply circuits within that area or in other areas. Gauge glass lighting shall be fed from a local
auxiliary lighting circuit (non-photocell controlled)
18.6 Lighting Installation Considerations
Lighting fitting shall be supplied at 240V, 50Hz, single phase from a 415V, 3 phase, 4 wire
lighting and small power switchboard fed from the main distribution system. The lighting
circuits should be arranged to give a balanced load within practical limits across the three
phases at the distribution boards. See also [ES.2.03.0001, section 9.8 and Appendix N].
Fittings for normal and essential lighting shall be rated for the LV 3-phase 4 wire supply of
the plant. The supply shall normally be taken as a 1-phase, phase-to-neutral, supply. The
manufacturers standard lighting equipment shall be used. In plants where the LV voltage is
440V, the corresponding phase-to-neutral voltage will be 254 volts. Some types of lighting
fittings may not function continuously at 254 volts if their rated voltage is 220 or 240 volts.
Care shall be taken to specify the correct voltages and their corresponding frequencies. See
[ES.2.03.0001 sub-section (8.3.1)].
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An alternative design for a LV system using 440V is to use small power transformers to
produce 240 volts for an associated lighting distribution board. Depending upon the total
lighting load these transformers should be single or three-phase units.
Lighting installations shall be designed to avoid stroboscopic effects.
Circuits shall be protected in the phase side only of the A.C. sub circuit.
The circuit arrangement of lighting fittings shall be such that when one circuit is isolated, the
complete area is not in darkness.
Final sub-circuits for fluorescent lighting shall not be loaded to more than 1,800 VA.
The allowable volt drop shall be 5% and shall be determined at the furthest light fitting in a
sub-circuit from a lighting distribution board, with all sub-circuits switched ON and fully
loaded.
Wiring between lighting fittings shall be done using a looping method between fittings.
Junction boxes shall be avoided if possible.
Earthing lighting fittings and associated wiring shall be as described in the lighting
specification.
Lighting fittings should be so located that maintenance and lamp changing can be effected
without use of ladders or other equipment.
Generally, fluorescent lighting in white colour shall be used for area lighting.
Lighting fittings shall not be located directly over equipment having exposed moving parts.
In selecting locations and mountings for lighting fittings, considerations shall be given to
efficient illumination and the uniform distribution of lighting.
At least 4 rechargeable hand torches, gas tight nickel cadmium battery operated, shall be
operated in each sub-station. Hand torches shall be Ex d ECHA type suitable for zone 1
areas.
One charging unit with 4 sockets shall be provided in each substation. Charging unit shall be
made of sheet metal box, industrial pattern equipped with a built in time-clock to
automatically switch over from rapid charge to trickle charge.
18.7 Type of Lighting Fittings
The types of lighting fittings shall be selected from the following list. The type selected will
depend on the design requirement and the location.
ECHA types shall be selected for hazardous area applications.
a) Fluorescent 2 x 40 watt - Industrial weatherproof fittings.
b) Fluorescent 2 x 40 watt - Ex e certified and weatherproof fittings.
c) SON - T flood lighting Ex e certified fittings.
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d) Tungsten Halogen Ex e certified fittings.
e) 60 Watt incandescent bulkhead weatherproof fittings. Certified for use in zone 1,
hazardous areas.
f) High pressure sodium lamps are acceptable for use in QGPC plants.
g) Low pressure sodium lamps are prohibited for use in hazardous areas.
h) However, low pressure sodium lamps are used for street lighting in Dukhan
township and are therefore permitted since their cap is different from the cap of the
high pressure sodium lamp.
i) Escape lighting units shall comprise self-contained equipment with 60 minutes
battery autonomy and Ex d or Ex e type group IIA, IIB or IIC, temperature class
T3, T4 or T5 depending on area concerned.
18.8 Illumination Levels
See [ES.2.03.0001, Appendix N].
18.9 Road Lighting.
All roads located inside the premises of the new fence shall be provided with adequate
lighting.
The lamp post carrying the lantern shall be fitted with a base plate fixed by means of anchor
bolts.
A pipe sleeve shall be incorporated in the concrete base to allow passage of the supply cables
into the pole. The base of the pole shall have a terminal block suitable for a tee type
connection from large cross-section cables, and other devices necessary for the control of the
lamp. The base of the pole shall have a weatherproof access plate or lid so that easy
termination and maintenance can be carried out. See also [ES.2.03.0001, sub-sections 9.8 and
10.3].
Lanterns shall be supplied with 240V between phase and neutral. They shall be protected by a
fuse on the phase wire and a plug or link on the neutral wire. Supply cable from lighting
distribution board (415V, 3 Phase 4 Wire) shall run along road verges to the base of the lamp
post.
Lantern supplies shall be balanced between each phase. Switching of road lighting shall be by
means of light sensitive cell and contactor.
Collapsible poles shall be used in areas where access for maintenance is limited.
18.10 Choice of Lamps, Luminaries and Holders
18.10.1 Lamp holders for tungsten filament lamp.
For Tungsten filament lamps, lamp holders shall be of the standard types shown in Table
18.10.1.A and shall normally be used on low voltage and extra low voltage circuits only.
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Tungsten filament lamps having a rating exceeding those shown in Table 18.10.1.A shall not
be fitted in the type of lamp holder indicated.
Miniature lamp holders E10 shall not be used for circuit voltages in excess of 24V and small
lamp holders B15s, B15d, and E14 shall not be used - for circuit voltages in excess of 130
volts, unless they are of ceramic or are insulated from earth.
In bath rooms, wash places, laundries, galleys and similar places where those parts of lamp
holder likely to be touched by a person replacing a lamp shall be constructed or shrouded in
insulating material, and fitted with a protective shield.
Note: 18.10.1a: - The use of totally enclosed luminaires is preferred.
Moulded insulated bayonet type (B22) lamp holders shall comply with Section 5 of [BS 52]
and bear marking BS 52 except where the lamp holder is likely to attain a temperature in
excess of 135 deg C in which case it should be of the heat resisting type complying with
[Section 7 of BS 52] and bear the marking BS 52H.
Where centre contact bayonet of Edison type screw lamp holders are used on single pole and
neutral systems, the outer or screwed contact should be connected to the neutral conductor.
Table 18.10.1.A IEC designation for lamp-caps and lamp holders
Description
1
Designation
2
Max. size of
lamp watts
3
Max. voltage
of circuit
4
Bayonet B.22 100 254
Normal (B.C)
Small (single contact) B 15s - 130
(SCC)
Small (double contact) B 15d - 130
(SBC)
Screw E40 1500 -
Goliath (GES) E27 200 -
Medium (ES) E14 - 130
Small (SES) E10 - 24
Miniature (MES)
Lamp holders should not be connected to circuits having excess current protection of rating
exceeding the appropriate value stated in Table 18.10.1.B. This does not apply where lamp
holders and their wiring are enclosed in earthed or incombustible insulating material, or where
separate fuse protection is provided.
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Table 18.10.1.B Excess current protection of lamp holders
Type of Lamp holder
(as designated in BS 5042)
Maximum rating of fuse or miniature
circuit-breaker protecting the circuit
Amperes
Small bayonet (B 15) 5
Small Edison Screw (E 14) 5
Bayonet (B 22) 15
Bi-pin (G 13/23) 15
Bi-pin (G 13/35) 15
18.10.2 Lamp holders for tubular fluorescent lamps
Lamp holders for tubular fluorescent lamps (except for Ex e - type, luminaires) should be
Bi-pin and comply with [BS5042, Part 4]. Lamp holders must either adequately support the
tube to withstand normal service vibration or alternatively, the tube should be separately
supported.
18.10.3 Lamp holders for high pressure mercury discharge and metal halide lamps
Lamp holders for high pressure mercury discharge and metal halide lamps should be as
follows : -
Lamp Type Holder IEC Designation
High pressure mercury (MBF)
and metal halide (MBI) up to 125W ES E 27
High pressure mercury (MBF) and metal
halide (MBI) 250W and above GES E 40
Linear Metal Halide (MBIL) RX 7s RX 7s
18.10.4 Lamp holders for sodium lamps
Lamp holders for sodium lamps should be as follows : -
Lamp Type Holder IEC Designation
Low pressure sodium (SOX) BC B22
Low pressure linear (SLI/H) Bi-pin G13/35
High pressure (SON and SON-T up ES E27
to and including 120W
High pressure linear (SON-L) RX7s RX72
Thermal requirements of luminaires should be in accordance with [BS 4533]. The cable
connected to a lamp holder terminal of a tungsten lamp fitting should be insulated or sleeved
to withstand 150 deg C continuously, e.g. glass or silicone rubber insulated.
Lamps in positions involving more than ordinary risk of mechanical damage should be
installed in luminaires of substantial construction and should be protected against such
damage.
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Enclosures for lamps of all types, including shades or guards, should be of materials which do
not support combustion.
All luminaires should be appropriate for the service they are required to perform and the
definitions used to describe them should be as defined in [BS 4533] or IEC equivalent.
18.10.5 Portable luminaires
Portable luminaires should be provided with lamp holders which are either completely
shrouded in insulating material or so protected by metallic guards insulated from the holders
that no live parts can be touched.
Open-type portable hand lamps should comply with [BS 4533, Part 2, Section 2.3], or IEC
equivalent.
18.10.6 Low voltage discharge and fluorescent lighting
Every inductor, capacitor and starter should comply with the following British Standards as
appropriate:
[BS 2828, BS 4782, BS 3772, BS 4017] or IEC equivalents.
Where control gear is mounted remotely from the lamp, i.e., not within a luminaire, any metal
case, where used, of individual components should be earthed and the terminals shrouded or
enclosed. This apparatus should be fixed as close to the lamp as practicable in an accessible
and ventilated position.
Lamps and lamp auxiliaries intended to operate on frequencies other than 50Hz or 60Hz or
from D.C. supplies should achieve similar safety and, where possible, performance
requirements as specified in all the appropriate British Standards or equivalent IEC standards.
Circuits should be capable of carrying the total steady current, viz. that of the lamp(s) and any
associated gear and also their harmonic currents. Where more exact information is not
available, the demand in volt-amperes may be taken for the purpose of this clause as the rated
lamp watts multiplied by not less than 1.8. The neutral conductor in every discharge-lighting
circuit should be of the same cross-sectional area as that of the phase conductor(s).
Note 18.10.6a: - The multiplier referred to in the above clause, is based on the
assumption that a circuit is corrected to a power factor of not less than
0.85 lagging, and takes into account control-gear losses and harmonic
currents.
18.10.7 High voltage discharge lighting and signs
Discharge lighting installations in which voltages exceeding 650V RMS measured on open
circuit are used, should comply with [BS 559] or IEC equivalent.
Note 18.10.7a: - In all high voltage discharge lighting circuits, particular attention must
be paid to all aspects of safety, especially accessibility of unauthorized
persons, provision of danger-notices and effective means of isolation.
18.11 Small power outlets
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The small power circuits should usually be those for convenience socket outlets. In this sub-
section welding sockets may be included.
The following shall apply to an installation : -
1) In non-hazardous indoor areas (i.e. living quarters, utility areas, offices, stores,
workshops and switchgear rooms), convenience socket outlets shall be installed
where required.
2) In hazardous areas single-phase and three-phase-and-neutral power outlets must be
kept to a minimum and be specifically justified for a required item of portable
production equipment, e.g. a compressor for recharging lifeboat air-bottles.
3) Single-phase and three-phase-and-neutral outlets for construction and maintenance
purposes in hazardous areas shall be supplied from an isolator and junction box with
all gland holes blanked off.
4) Outlets referred to in paragraphs (2) and (3) above shall be Zone 1 certified, fitted
with padlocking facilities and trip-interlocked with the fire and gas shut-down
circuit.
5) All outlets referred to in paragraphs (1), (2), (3) and (8) in this Section shall have
30mA earth leakage protection fitted to the distribution board. Welding supplies will
require less sensitive earth fault protection, and 100mA should be considered
to avoid spurious tripping.
6) The single-phase outlets referred to in paragraph (2) above shall have double-pole
switches, and the three-phase-and-neutral (TPN) outlets referred to in paragraphs
(2) and (3) above shall have four-pole switches.
7) Plugs for each voltage level shall be non-interchangeable.
8) Socket outlets for small power in industrial areas shall be 110V, centre tapped to
earth at source.
9) 254V/240V domestic socket outlets should be fitted only in the accommodation area.
18.12 Navigation Aids for Platform-Based installations
Navigation aids shall be provided on all offshore structures as described in [ES.2.03.0001,
Appendix R]. In the case of an existing structure or an existing multi-platform complex, the
designer shall be responsible for taking into account the existing navigation aids equipment
and for ensuring compatibility, e.g. synchronising the flashing of lights, synchronising the
sounding of audible fog signals.
18.13 Inspection and Testing Lighting and Socket Outlet Systems
The installation CONTRACTOR shall perform the following inspections and tests upon all
completed lighting systems installed.
Check lighting and lighting circuits to determine that they are essentially complete and
operable.
Check that emergency lighting circuits are complete and operable.
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The instant restart of all applicable lighting fixtures shall be tested to ensure proper operation.
All lighting and socket outlet transformer taps shall be adjusted to obtain rated voltage at full
load operation. Typically, the transformer primary tap used will be 2.5% below normal
voltage.
Check and record, on area plot plans, lighting levels at grade, around all pumps, control
stations, valve manifold, major equipment access area platforms, stairs, ladders, control
panels, etc.
Lighting levels shall be checked minimum of two (2) hours after sunset to verify adequate
lighting levels. Lighting deficiencies shall be brought to the attention of QGPC and additional
fixtures added.
Check the correct orientation of Live, Neutral and Earth connections at each single phase
socket outlet.
Check that the three phase of 3P-N and 3P-N-E sockets rotate in the correct direction and are
connected to the correct pins.
Check the operation of the earth leakage circuit breaker feeding a sub-circuit by connecting a
suitable resistance between a phase and earth. A specially made or purchased test instrument
shall be used for this purpose.
Test the earth loop impedance of the sub-circuit cable system.
19.0 Earthing System
19.1 Basis of design
The basis of design for dynamic and static earthing systems is described in detail in
[ES.2.03.0001, section 10.4]. The differences in approach for land-based and platform-based
installations are emphasized in this reference.
In this document, [ES.2.06.0001], only those aspects that particularly relate to the installation
site practices are described, so as to avoid conflicting information with [ES.2.03.0001].
However, the following subsection (19.1.1) is taken from [ES.2.03.0001] in order to
emphasize the concepts involved, but not the detail design.
The effects of passing electric current through the human body are described in detail in [IEC
479, Part 1].
19.1.1 Extract from [ES.2.03.0001]
Danger from Electric Shock and /or ignition from flammable atmospheres by electrical sparks
may occur if a surface can attain a voltage which is different from its surroundings. Where the
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electrical resistance from one surface to another is too high this voltage difference can be
caused by : -
i) Faults on electrical equipment and systems.
ii) Lightning strikes.
iii) Build up of Static Electric Charges.
Low values of resistance are required to protect against faults and lightning strikes but
relatively high values will afford protection against static charge. The intention is to ensure
that voltage difference between adjacent metalwork (and for land based installations
metalwork to ground) under electrical fault, lightning strike or static discharge conditions is
kept to a level that is not dangerous to human life nor likely to cause sparks in a flammable
atmosphere or otherwise cause damage.
Normally, petrochemical plants, oil refineries and offshore platforms are constructed of
significant quantities of steel which inherently provides low resistance paths sufficient to
ensure dangerous voltages do not arise. However, where this cannot be guaranteed, the
conductive surfaces must be purposely bonded together and connected to earth to achieve a
suitably low resistance.
To achieve the required degree of protection it is normal practice to follow the guidance of the
following national codes : -
BS code of practice [BS 7430].
IEE regulations for electrical installations latest Edition. (The equivalent IEC standard
is [IEC 364]).
[BS 6651] (Formerly CP 326). The protection of structures against lightning.
[IP model code of safe practice part 15 electrical (1991)].
19.1.1.1 Faults on electrical equipment and systems
[BS 7430] gives overall guidance on the provision of earthing systems for power generation
and distribution networks. The IEE Regulations provide detailed guidance on all aspects of the
earthing and bonding of electrical apparatus and equipment. A key requirement is to ensure
that the impedance between exposed conductive surfaces of the electrical apparatus (including
any conductive surfaces nearby and within the proximity of human touch) and the fault
current earth return path to the source of supply, are low enough for the fault current to
operate the supply cut off device quickly and without giving rise to dangerous voltages.
To provide the necessary degree of protection, relatively low impedance earth return paths are
required (maybe as low as 0.2 ohm). In practice these are usually readily achievable via the
steel decks of offshore installations where the inherently low resistance of metal to metal
construction provides a low impedance path and largely eliminates the need for earthing and
bonding conductors. However, if the earth return path is not sufficiently low, there is a
possibility that a fault on a piece of electrical equipment could produce a dangerous voltage on
itself or adjacent metalwork and therefore under these conditions low impedance bonding
conductors must be provided.
In addition bonding conductors are often required between modules and support frames,
especially skiddable drilling modules, portable and transportable equipment and similar
situations where a permanent earth return path cannot be guaranteed.
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For onshore installations reliable low values of impedance can normally only be achieved by
supplementing any inherent earth return paths (e.g. the metallic armour of cables) with a
network of copper earthing and bonding conductors. The earthing network is formed by
conductors bolted between the exposed surfaces of the equipment and its surroundings
(including the earth) and additionally connected back to the source of supply and its cut off
device.
In addition to being of low impedance the earth return paths for electrical equipment must be
electrically and mechanically robust and capable of carrying fault currents for the duration
required to operate fault protection equipment without deterioration.
Metal work that is not part of the earth return path and which would become live due to a
fault on associated electrical equipment must also have a rebust and sufficiently low
impedance path to the earth return path. Where practical or economic factors prevent robust
or sufficiently low impedance being achieved or guaranteed, e.g. metal cladding of thermal
insulation on an electrically heat traced pipeline, fault protection equipment of the sensitive
earth leakage current detection type must be used.
The correct impedance, current carrying capacity and robustness of the earth paths must be
proven by testing before plant and equipment is commissioned and thereafter must be
regularly and tested to ensure that unacceptable deterioration has not taken place.
Thus for faults on electrical equipment, low impedance earth return paths to the source of
supply and between associated metal work and earth, supported by earthing and bonding
conductors where necessary, are essential to protect the equipment against electric shock
hazard and prevent arcing and sparking.
19.1.1.2 Lightning strikes
[BS 6651] provides detailed guidance on protection from the effects of lightning strikes.
Lightning discharges to the earth or sea are attracted to any protruding metalwork and give
rise to a very high electrical current and severe magnetic forces. [BS 6651] requires the
resistance of the lightning conduction path or paths from the top of the structure to the earth to
be a maximum of 10 ohms and nearby metal work to have low resistance to the main lighting
conductor path to prevent side flashing.
The intention is to conduct the high current of a lightning strike to the earth without building
up dangerously high voltages between elements of the structure or allowing the strike to cause
sparks within the frame work of the structure. In practice offshore platforms and most land
based oil and petrochemical plants are constructed of large steel beams and steel reinforced
concrete that are of sufficient strength to resist the magnetic forces of the strike and have
inherent resistance to earth much lower than the 10 ohm maximum. The highest electrically
conducting point of the structure produces a conical zone of protection beneath it. Usually no
special conductors are required for offshore or onshore steel structures (Apart from extra
earth electrodes for some 'Dry Ground' installations onshore).
The normal metal to metal contact of welded and bolted structures is of sufficiently low
resistance to prevent side flashing. However, care must be taken to ensure good electrical
continuity across painted surfaces and any conductive surface likely to be insulated from the
main structure that is in the vicinity of the expected current paths e.g. Acoustic Cladding.
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Resistance values of up to 0.1 ohm are acceptable between adjacent surfaces and should be
obtained by permanent metal to metal welding, riveting, clamping or screwing, that becomes
an integral part of the arrangement, in preference to copper bonding straps etc.
19.1.1.3 Build-up of static electric charge
The [IP Code] covers in detail how static electricity can be generated and what precautions
should be taken to prevent static charge build up. The main hazard in the oil and gas industry
is from static discharge that can cause a gas ignition and explosion. The energy levels of a
static charge are not sufficient to cause danger to life but an unexpected static shock may
cause a more serious accident.
The code recommends that the resistance between conductive surfaces including the earth
should not exceed 1 Meg ohm (1,000,000 ohms). This is sufficiently low to prevent an electric
charge accumulating. In practice it is extremely unlikely for any part of the metallic structure
of an offshore or onshore plant to be insulated to such a degree, bearing in mind the provisions
made for faults on electrical equipment and lightning protection as outlined above. A survey of
the electrical conductivity of pipe cladding has shown that even on relatively old installations
resistances remain sufficiently low.
However, increasing use is being made of plastic sealants and paints having inherently high
electrical insulating properties in equipment construction and corrosion prevention coatings.
Consequently, in areas where these are to be used and where there is the likelihood of a static
charge being generated, the designer must ensure that a continuity of 1 Meg ohm or less is
achieved by permanent metal to metal welding, riveting, clamping or screwing, that becomes
an integral part of the arrangement, in preference to copper bonding straps. This includes
metallic thermal and acoustic cladding, especially that on heavily painted surfaces and any
isolated conductive surfaces where subsequently, during construction or maintenance, a
resistance greater than 1 Meg ohm is found then the continuity to earth should be improved in
a permanent manner as detailed above.
Where the plant, equipment and supporting structures comply with the earthing and bonding
requirements for electrical protection and lightning protection there should be no instances
where further earthing against static charge is required. However, there may be some areas
where static charges are likely to be generated e.g. by a high pressure gas or steam leak or
water jet, they must be identified and addressed to ensure continuities or 1 Meg ohm or less
are achieved.
19.2 Practical requirements
The following clauses state the general practical requirements for making robust high
continuity earthing and bonding connections and gives specific instances of where, in practice,
an earthing or bonding cable or alternative arrangement is required.
19.2.1 Earthing and bonding connections
An earthing and bonding cable shall be terminated or connected using crimped lugs, serrated
spring washers (star washers), nut and locknuts and should be protected at the connection
points by the use of corrosion preventive grease (chemodex or approved equivalent). All
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connections shall be mechanically and electrically effective with precautions being taken to
prevent electrolytic action between dissimilar materials in wet and salt laden conditions.
Where earthing or bonding is achieved by means of equipment fixing or holding down bolts
the metal surfaces shall be cleaned and a star washer inserted under the nut or head of the
bolt so that the equipment is effectively earthed.
Exothermic reaction welding methods approved by the principal may be used for the
connection of earthing conductors including Tee joints, earthbar through joints, and
connections to cable trays.
Each earthing and bonding cable shall be identified with a label and recorded on a cable
schedule for maintenance records.
Bonding or earthing conductors shall be single core stranded annealed copper conductors as
specified by M.E.S.C. listings, and [ES.2.14.0070]. The size of conductor selected shall be
sufficient to remain below the maximum permissible conductor temperature under fault
conditions and sufficient to resist physical damage at its location.
19.2.2 Plant and equipment earthing and bonding
Equipment that is bolted, clamped, screwed riveted or welded to structural part of the earthing
system equipotential plane, in an electrically and robust manner does not need additional
earthing and bonding cables.
Free standing equipment which is neither bolted, clamped, screwed, riveted nor welded to a
structure which is part of the earthing, system shall be bonded by means of a cable connection.
This includes : -
Equipment that is electrically isolated from the structure by its mountings e.g. Rubber
anti-vibration mountings
Skid mounted equipment. e.g. Generators and transformers
Tanks and vessels which are directly connected via their supports, either welded or bolted to
the platform structure do not require bonding cables.
Each main switchboard, motor control centre or control panel shall be furnished with a
continuous earth bar running the entire length of the equipment to which all sections of the
metal enclosure including cable boxes, gland plates, etc. shall be bonded.
The equipment earth bar shall have separate bolted earth connections having isometric thread
size (at least M10) at each end of the bar for connection to earth.
The frames of electrical motors for use in flammable areas shall be suitably constructed to
avoid sparking due to circulating currents in their frames and shall be provided with an earth
stud for bonding to the main earth. Where terminal boxes on large motors have gaskets fitted
the box should be earthed to the frame earth.
Large H.V motors of unit construction may require bonding across bolted faces of the frame
to eliminate circulating currents.
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Where cable rack and tray is not sufficiently connected to earth by metal contact as an integral
part of the construction it shall be bonded to earth at about 25 meter intervals, at each end and
where it is not electrically bonded together. Bonding is not required across bolted fish plate
metal to metal joints.
Where HVAC ducting is not sufficiently connected to earth by metal to metal contact as an
integral part of the construction it shall be bonded together and connected to earth at about 25
meter intervals and at each end.
The resistance to earth of this common earthing resistance grid shall be as low as practicable,
but at least such that in the case of earth faults the electrical protective devices shall prevent
shock hazard potentials on any part of the equipment which is not part of the electrical
circuits.
For portable and mobile equipment, with exposed conductive parts likely to be held in the
hand, the following correlation between duration and voltage shall not be exceeded: -
Table 19.2.2A Endurance time for electric shock
For AC For DC
Continuous Less than 50 V 110 V
5 seconds 50 V 110 V
1 second 75 V 110 V
0.5 seconds 90 V 110 V
0.2 seconds 110 V 110 V
0.1 seconds 150 V 110 V
0.05 seconds 220 V 110 V
0.03 seconds 280 V 110 V
Earth wires shall be of the standard copper green/yellow PVC covered type, suitably sized to
cope with fault current level and fault clearing time. For mechanical reasons main earth wires
shall be at least 50 sq. mm., branch earth wires 10 sq. mm., unless adequate mechanical
protection is provided by other means, e.g. wire installations in conduit, or earth conductors
forming part of a cable, allowing a smaller size.
The connections between earth electrode and conductors shall be so executed that easy
inspection and testing of the earth resistance of each individual electrode, without
disconnecting any part of the earthing system, is possible.
The earth bar in the distribution board shall be connected with two earth wires each suitable
for 100% duty to the above-mentioned common earthing grid.
19.2.3 Selection of components
The components shall be suitable for their particular application as regards their rated
voltages, rated currents, service life, making and breaking capacities, short circuit strength,
etc.
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The components having a short circuit strength and/or a breaking capacity insufficient to
withstand the stresses likely to occur at the place of installation shall be protected by means if
current-limiting devices, for example fuses or circuit breakers. When selecting current-limiting
deviced for built-in switching devices, account shall be taken of the maximum admissible
values specified by the manufacturer of the apparatus, having due regard to coordination.
Components incorporated in the distribution board shall, in their design and construction,
comply with the corresponding IEC standards.
Plugs of different rated currents or voltages shall not be interchangeable, so as to avoid errors
in connection.
Connections for three-phase plugs shall be made in such a way as to retain the same order of
phases.
The socket outlets and plugs used outdoors shall have a degree of protection as given in
[ES.2.03.0001, Appendix H, Table H.3.A], both when the plug is removed or fully inserted.
Where metallic cladding is not sufficiently connected to earth by metal to metal contact as an
integral part of construction it shall be bonded together and connected to earth at about 25
meter intervals and at each end.
All metallic wall cladding shall be adequately earthed where required via the fixing
arrangement or by earth bonding straps.
19.2.4 Packaged equipment
Earthing and bonding of electrical equipment to packaged skids shall be the responsibility of
the package vendor. However, the skid shall be provided with two (minimum size M10) earth
studs, diagonally opposite to each other for connection to the earthing system only where the
skid holding bolts etc. do not provide a satisfactory inherent metal to metal connection.
For offshore installations the bonding of all vessel or tank internals such as floating covers,
stirrers etc. shall be the responsibility of the package vendor.
19.2.5 Cable armour termination
The armour of single core cables must be earthed at one end only to avoid induced circulating
currents flowing longitudinally in the cable armour. Also to avoid standing voltages in
hazardous areas the earthing should be at the hazardous area or load end. To achieve this
either insulated Island Type mechanical cable glands or insulated gland plates shall be used
at the supply end.
All multicore power cable armour shall be connected to earth at both ends of the cable. This
will be achieved using conventional mechanical cable glands complying with [BS 6121].
Gland entry threads screwed into enclosure gland plates satisfy this requirement.
If the cable, or the circuit it is feeding, is protected by a core balance current transformer
arrangement an insulated gland must be used at the supply end of the cable and the armour
connected to earth. This cancels the electromagnetic effects of earth currents in the cable
armour on the current transformer.
Revision A
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Metallic cable glands complying with [BS 6121] entering metallic termination boxes or
enclosures shall be considered as adequately bonded by virtue of their direct contact through
the entry threads. However, where glands enter through clearance holes the inner face of the
enclosure shall be cleaned and a star washer shall be fitted under the back nut.
For larger size glands installed in untapped gland entries where star washers may not be
available the earthing shall be obtained by the use of gland earth tags. Bonding of gland earth
tags shall be completed with 16sq. mm. minimum stranded copper single core cable with green
and yellow sheath.
Non metallic enclosures such as polypropylene junction boxes, push button stations etc., shall
be fitted with internal brass or equivalent metal inserts to provide cable armour continuity.
Where internal inserts are not available and an earth return path or equipotential bond is
needed, earth tags shall be installed externally and connected together.
The use of tapped entries into sheet metal enclosures to terminate cable glands is not
permitted.
Where armoured flexible cables are used, an earth continuity conductor of nominally half the
cross sectional area to the largest associated current carrying conductor shall be provided
where it is necessary to bond the armour to earth.
Where cables are glanded into devices which are activated from within a vessel or tank the
armouring of such cables shall be bonded to the vessel or tank close to the point where the
device enters the vessel or tank.
A means of bonding all internal metalwork within non-metallic electrical enclosures shall be
provided. This bonding may be achieved by an earth wire run within the cable, or by local
bonding to the structure. All metallic glands on each enclosure shall be connected to the
earthing system.
19.2.6 Cable dielectric screens
High voltage cables contain screens to reduce the effects of electric stress for both single and
three core H.V. cables. The dielectric screen shall be connected to earth at one end only. The
point of the bond shall be at the load only. The screen at the supply end shall be carefully
dressed and kept well clear of earthed parts of the switchboard. The cable termination kit
manufacturer shall provide an appropriate set of instructions to cover this aspect.
19.2.7 Instrument system earthing for platform-based installations
Measurements taken at offshore installations have revealed typical resistance across the
platform in the order of 100 micro-ohms and because of this the complex earthing
arrangements found on land based installations are not required. The platform deck can
therefore be regarded as an equi-potential plane. Power system and instrumentation system
earth connections to the deck need only have a minimum 5 metre separation. Earth bar
supports shall be welded to the deck at each geographical location, e.g. the installation control
center, to which all instrument earths shall be connected.
19.2.7.1 Instrument room power and instrumentation earthing
A power earth bar shall be installed in the instrument room and connected to local deck steel
work by two 70 sq. mm cables. All equipment and cabinet frames shall be connected to this
bar to provide power system earthing and bonding.
Revision A
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An instrument earth bar shall be installed and connected to the deck steel work by two 70 sq.
mm cable not less than 5 meter away from the power earth connection. Instrument earthing
and bonding shall be connected to this bar which may be regarded as the local deck earth bar
referenced.
19.2.7.2 Earthing to provide a reference potential for computing, telecommunications and instrument
equipment
All earthing to provide reference potentials for instrumentation shall be made by connection to
a deck earth bar local to the equipment. (The deck provides a far lower conductive path to
other associated equipment than a cable). Earth bars shall be provided in the relevant cabinets
for this purpose and shall be connected to the local deck earth bar by two 35 sq. mm cables.
19.2.7.3 Intrinsically safe barrier earthing
All instrumentation cabinets containing intrinsically safe barriers, where barrier earthing
outside a hazardous area is a requirement of the certification, shall contain an earth bar which
shall be connected to the local deck earth bar by two 35 sq. mm cables. The QGPC
Instrumentation Engineering department shall be consulted for the details pertaining to the
earthing of instruments and intrinsically safe systems.
19.2.7.4 Instrument screen earthing
Screens with associated drain wires are built into instrument cables to reduce interference
from other equipment, mainly large power equipment. The drain wires shall be connected to
earth at one end so that pick up on the screen will be limited to electromagnetic radiation and
not induction or conduction e.g. circulating currents will not flow.
As radiation effects will be low, energy associated with standing voltages at the non-earthed
end will be small. Earth connections will therefore be made to the local deck earth bar in the
instrument room where significant fluctuations in the earth potential due to large currents are
less likely. Screen drain wires shall be earthed in cabinets at an earth bar provided for this
purpose. It will be connected to the local deck earth bar by two 35 sq. mm cables.
19.2.8 Pipe flanges
In general pipe flange bonding is not required since an effective contact is attained through
flange faces and bolts. However, in the case of insulated flanges braided earth straps shall be
provided on the pipe work for bonding each section in accordance with specific requirements
of the design. (Bonding across insulated flanges may affect impressed current cathodic
protection or may induce corrosion of dissimilar metals).
20.0 Overhead Lines
20.1 Soil Tests
Soil tests shall be carried out by penetrometer tests for all terminal, section and angle poles as
well as for intermediate poles as necessary at frequent intervals along the specified route in
order to determine pole foundation design and earthing requirements.
Details of tests and the interpretation of results shall be provided for the approval of QGPC.
Revision A
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Surveying and soil testing procedures shall be submitted to QGPC for approval before any
work commences. Soil surveys shall be carried by a local Land Survey Company, approved
by QGPC.
The results of the Mackintosh Prospector test previously conducted at the original
Dukhan/Fahahil No. 1 interconnector poles C27, C40, C127 and C160 indicated a lateral
ultimate passive pressure at these locations of approximately 50,000 kg/m/m depth and a
normal bearing pressure of approximately 35,000 kg/m2.
Typical foundations for use in such conditions are indicated on QGPC drawing No. QA-40-
409. These details shall be given to the CONTRACTOR as basic information and in no way
absolves the CONTRACTOR from his responsibilities for determining the actual site
conditions at each new pole location and determining the design of appropriate pole
foundations to meet requirements of the Outdoor Climatic Conditions and Technical
Particulars given in the General Specification for the particular project.
The CONTRACTOR when carrying out erection along the approved routes shall be deemed
to have included for any extra work necessary in the circumstances described in (a) and (c)
below or to avoid the hazard described in (b) below : -
a) Difficult ground conditions, including limestone, sandstone, rock and soft sand.
b) Abnormal pollution by dust, salt and oil or gas combustion.
c) Unusual spans across Jebel and rock escarpments.
20.2 Pole and insulator erection
20.2.1 Poles and steelworks
The method of erection shall ensure that no part or parts are unduly strained and that all poles
are in place and properly fitted before any work such as the running of conductors is
commenced. Galvanized steelworks shall not be modified on site by drilling or cutting, unless
approved by QGPC.
All poles shall be complete with all necessary steelworks, insulators, isolators, surge arresters
and all other items to complete, prior to stringing of conductor.
All holes that align through both components of double angle (back to back) members shall be
filled by fitting a bolt, with suitable packing washer between components. All spare holes (e.g.
holes for alternative position of supplementary fittings) in double angle members shall be
included in this requirement.
Each pole shall be erected such that after taking the stresses imposed by the overhead line
when complete, it shall be vertical. The whole of the concrete muff and the pole to height of
300 mm above the muff shall be painted with two coats of black Bituminous paint.
20.2.2 Line sections
Section poles, angle poles and terminal poles shall be installed as specified on the appropriate
drawings.
20.2.3 Plans, profiles and pole schedules
Revision A
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The sample of profile drawings and full set of line schedule drawings shall be attached by
QGPC to the specification for the particular project. A complete set of profile drawings shall
be produced by the CONTRACTOR.
During the progress of the works, the CONTRACTOR shall record on approved schedules
and scaled maps such particulars as will allow an accurate reference to be made subsequently
in case of faults or projected modifications to the lines and underground cables.
Any shifting of pole location from those proposed in the profile drawings shall be subject to
the approval of QGPC.
The maps shall show the exact position of every pole with approved reference marks so that,
in conjunction with the schedules, the types of pole, foundations, insulators, positions of
tension joints, etc., can be ascertained quickly.
Routes of all underground cables and position of all cable joints and route markers shall also
be recorded and marked on the as-built drawings.
Sketches shall be provided to delineate boundary positions to poles and other features which
cannot be clearly indicated on the maps.
20.2.4 Pole numbering
Each pole shall have two sets of identification letter and number plates in both Arabic and
English. These will be supplied by QGPC.
20.2.5 Danger plates
A danger plate as shown on QGPC drawing No. QA-40-402 shall be installed on all poles.
These will be furnished by QGPC together with stainless steel banding as required.
20.2.6 Pole earthing
Each steel pole shall be connected to a separate approved earthing point connection, as shown
on QGPC Drawing No. QA-40-409. See also [ES.2.03.0001, section 10.4].
The CONTRACTOR shall satisfy himself as to the nature of ground conditions, which
frequently comprises solid and fragmented rock.
Where it is necessary to carry out drilling to achieve the pole footing resistance value specified
below, a bore hole having a minimum diameter of 75 mm shall be drilled to a depth of 2
meters below the summer water table for the specified pole location and the earth rods shall be
connected together by connectors until summer water table is reached. The earth rod shall be
well compacted with firm material, obtained by the CONTRACTOR from the local cement
works. The CONTRACTOR shall be aware of the likelihood of difficult ground conditions at
high locations, i.e hard rock, which shall necessitate the use of rock breaking equipment.
In addition to an earth electrode, poles having switches shall have a ground bed, and in such
cases a trench or rectangular excavation shall be made. The conductor shall be laid on and be
covered by well compacted clay ( obtainable from the local cement works) prior to backfilling
and compacting with Rockwell or sand. Bentonite may be used instead of clay.
All these and all other earthing systems shall be approved by QGPC.
Revision A
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The footing resistance shall be measured at every pole prior to the stringing of the earthwire.
The maximum intermediate pole footing resistance to the general mass of earth shall be 20
ohms, unless otherwise agreed by QGPC in writing.
An earthing system shall be installed at all cable tee-off angles, sections, transformer poles
and terminal poles sufficient to ensure the combined pole footing and earth electrode resistance
at each location does not normally exceed 4 ohm. A total earth resistance of 10 ohms may be
acceptable under special circumstances where the step and touch potentials can be controlled
by installing a surface grid, which has a large area, and several ground rods, see
[ES.2.03.0001, sub-section 10.4.1].
The earth resistance of each pole shall be recorded on the appropriate QGPC line schedules
drawing No. QA-40-392. The schedules shall also record the number of rods installed, their
depth and whether driven or drilled and filled, and their tag numbers.
The tops of all electrodes shall be at least 500 mm below the surface of the normal reinstated
ground level and the joint between the electrode and the copper conductor shall be suitably
weather proofed (e.g. Denso tape).
The top of the electrode with associated earth cable connection shall be installed in a suitable
concrete inspection pit with removable cover, as shown on QGPC drawing QA-40-409.
Connection of earth conductors to the pole terminal shall be by bolted lugs and subsequent
bitumastic protection. The CONTRACTOR shall submit details of his proposals and include
for drilling lug palms.
20.2.7 Insulators, switches, surge arrestors and fuse isolators
Extreme care shall be exercised in the transporting, handling, uncrating and erection of
insulators switches, surge arrestors and isolators, to prevent chipping or cracking of the
porcelains or damage to the mechanisms.
Before erection, all porcelain insulators shall be wiped clean and visually examined for
damage to the porcelain, cement, caps and retaining clips. Ball sockets must be free of sand or
grit before the ball is inserted. Any damaged units shall be replaced before installation and
QGPC shall be notified.
The erection procedure shall be such that the insulator strings are not deformed and no loads
other than normal conductor tensions are applied to the insulator string. Insulators shall not be
subjected to impact at any time.
Replacement for retaining clips or split pins shall be of similar material to the original. Split
pins shall be stainless steel.
20.2.8 Stays
The CONTRACTOR shall install the pole stays in accordance with QGPC drawing No. QA-
40-410 where required on the layout drawings for angle, section, and terminal poles. In all
cases, the stayplate or block shall be undercut into undisturbed ground and placed to provide
the maximum uplift resistance. The rod must be slotted in soil that it is in line with the stay
strand.
Revision A
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Where multiple stays are used plates should be installed with sufficient space between them to
ensure an adequate quantity of undisturbed ground exists in the line of pull of the stay to
ensure a safe anchorage.
20.2.9 Anti-climbing guards
The CONTRACTOR shall install the anti-climbing guards in accordance with QGPC drawing
No. QA-40-403 as required on the pole layout drawings. The barbed wire shall be tightened to
the satisfaction of QGPC.
20.2.10 Road crossings for 33kV overhead lines
Where a 33kV overhead line crosses a road there will be a potentially dangerous situation in
which tall road traffic such as travelling cranes may touch or become very close to the live
lines. To minimise the risk to human life and to disruption of supply it shall be necessary to
install a road crossing guard at either side of the crossing. The design of the road crossing
guard is given in the QGPC drawing Dukhan Fields - General Arrangement of Road
Crossing Guard - 33 kV O/H Line, No: - 843 - 4000 - Sheet 1 of 1 Revision B, dated
18.04.95. This drawing gives location details of road-side warning notices, signs, label
wording, foundation details and critical dimensions of poles and stays.
20.3 Conductor Erection
20.3.1 Planning and schedules
The CONTRACTOR shall submit to QGPC for approval a fully detailed account of his
proposed stringing procedure, including temporary staying to such poles as may be necessary.
The line or earth conductors shall not at any time come into contact with any obstacle, such as
walls, pipelines, fences or buildings and shall only come in contact with the ground when at
rest. Non-metallic lagging shall be used whenever the conductor touches the ground.
Where the ground is boulder-strewn or rocky, or other impediment exists, which in the opinion
of QGPC may lead to damage to the conductors when laying out by conventional methods, the
CONTRACTOR shall employ an approved method of pilot wire stringing to keep the
conductor off the ground during stringing operations.
Trestles and other supporting equipment will also be supplied by the CONTRACTOR and
used to ensure that the conductors are not pulled along the ground.
20.3.2 Damage
In the case of damage to individual wires of a conductor during erection, repair sleeves may be
permitted at the discretion of QGPC and subject to no repair sleeve being nearer than 1.2 m to
any conductor fitting.
20.3.3 Running-out blocks
Conductor running out blocks shall be inspected for for the goodness of condition, shall be
free-running and of an approved material and design to avoid damage to the conductor.
20.3.4 Back staying of poles
Revision A
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Any necessary temporary guying of poles for running out and sagging the conductors shall be
the CONTRACTORs responsibility.
20.3.5 Conductor length and joints
The full use of the conductor lengths shall be made in order to reduce the number of joints to a
minimum. The number and span location of phase and earth conductor tension joints shall be
approved by QGPC in writing and must be avoided within individual sections of the overhead
line. There shall be not more than one such joint per conductor in any one span. Tension joints
shall not be less than 15 metres from the nearest suspension or tension clamp.
No tension joints shall be used : -
a) In sections between tension poles of less than three spans.
b) In spans over buildings or pipes.
c) In any span immediately adjacent to a span as described in (b) above, unless the pole
between such a span and adjacent spans is equipped with tension insulators.
The position of a joint shall be recorded on the appropriate QGPC line schedules drawing No.
QA-40-392.
20.3.6 Conductor hauling devices
The conductor, joints and clamps shall be erected in such a manner that no bird-caging, over-
tensioning of individual wires or layers, or other deformation or damage to the conductor shall
occur.
Clamps or hauling devices shall, under erection conditions, allow no relative movements of
strands or layers of the conductors.
If required by QGPC, this property shall be demonstrated by actual tests.
20.3.7 Jointing
All conductor connections and clamps shall be treated with approved jointing grease
immediately before final assembly of the fittings to prevent galvanic corrosion between
dissimilar metals and to inhibit aluminum surface oxidation.
The outer layer of the conductor along the length of the joint shall be wiped clean, coated with
grease, wire brushed through the grease and then assembled in the fitting after a further liberal
application of grease.
20.4 Conductor Sagging and Tensioning
20.4.1 Method
All phase conductors shall be erected strictly in accordance with the erection sag tables given
in Appendix E.
Earthwire conductors shall be sagged to parallel the phase conductors in accordance with the
erection sag tables also given in the same Appendix. Immediately after conductors have been
erected and clamped-in, the sag shall not depart from the sag given in the erection charts by
more than minus 4%.
Revision A
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At the end of the maintenance period the specified ground clearance of 6 metres plus the
conductor creepage allowance shall not be infringed. In addition, the sag of any phase
conductor shall not depart by more than 150 mm from the mean sag of all the phase
conductors in the same span.
Where required by QGPC, prior to the issue of the Certificate of Completion, the
CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for checking that the relative sags of such conductors
and earthwires are within the specified tolerance and supplying the principal with a record of
same.
Such checks shall be carried out at selected points along the route as requested by QGPC.
Clearances between conductors and ground and between jumpers and structures shall be
checked by the CONTRACTOR during erection and before handing over the line.
The CONTRACTOR shall provide suitable dynamometers, sighting boards and levels
suitably mounted for clamping to pole steel works and other approved apparatus necessary for
the proper checking of the work.
Dynamometer should be certified by a recognized testing authority and approved by QGPC
prior to use.
During the progress of the work the CONTRACTOR shall record on approved schedules, the
particulars of the sagging of conductors on each section routes. These schedules shall show
the pole numbers of the section, individual span lengths, the equivalent span, the design and
erection sags together with the mean actual sag of the phase and earth conductors as well as
the temperature, and the dates of the stringing and checking.
At the end of each contract, six sets of these schedules shall be handed to QGPC with the as-
built drawings.
20.4.2 Anchoring and clamping
Each conductor shall be clamped at intermediate poles as soon as possible after having been
tensioned off. Where conditions are such that delay is unavoidable the CONTRACTOR shall
take precautions to prevent damage to the conductors but in any case the line should be
clamped in at line poles not later than 48 hours after having been tensioned off at section
poles.
The application of the tension clamps shall be carried out at the pole top by use of a come-
along of approved design.
Tension gauging marks on the conductors shall be applied with white cotton tape which shall
be removed on completion of fitting the tension-clamps.
20.4.3 Removal of suspension snatch blocks.
The transfer of conductors from snatch blocks to post insulator clamps shall not be effected
before completion of tension insulator clamps.
20.4.4 Jumper - loops
Jumper-loops shall conform to the requirements of the internal wire clearances in the schedule
of clearances Internal to Line for the particular pole design and shall be cut to length such
Revision A
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that the loop arcs at the points of departure from tension clamps are naturally tangential to the
tension clamp departure angle.
20.5 Sag and Tension Charts and Templates
20.5.1 Sag and tension erection charts
Samples of erection sag and tension tables for line and earthwire conductor shall be included
in the appendices of the particular project specification or scope of work. A full set of these
tables shall be made available to the CONTRACTOR upon award of the contract for the
work.
21.0 Approval to Deviate
Strict compliance with this standard guideline is required. Any deviation must obtain prior
written approval from its custodian.
22.0 Revision History Log
A record or log shall be kept of the revision history of each engineering document, and be
incorporated in the documents accompanying electronic readme file [5]. In this way, there
should be no need for a history log to be included in a document only details of its latest
approved revision need be shown (note that the readme file will contain information about the
particular operating system + application software versions which were used to create the
documents electronic file: it can also include help pages in the form of background notes
and explanations, where such details are considered of benefit to its reader).
The following is recommended for the contents of a documents revision history log:-
Revision Number 0,1,2,3, etc.
Prepared By/Date Name or reference indicator and date (ddmmmyy)
Checked By/Date Name or reference indicator and date (ddmmmyy)
Approved By/Date Name or reference indicator and date (ddmmmyy)
Reason For Change Short description, with change request reference if available.
Release/Date Release/transmittal reference and date (ddmmmyy)
23.0 Bibliography
[1] ISO216 : 1989, 1
st
Edition Writing Paper and Certain Classes of Printed Matter
Trimmed Sizes A and B Series.
[2] ES.0.10.0001, Rev 0 Standard Database Key Words & Phrases
[3] ES.0.10.0002, Rev 0 Standards Database Acronyms
[4] ES.0.07.0010, Rev 0 Engineering Document Classifications
[5] ES.0.06.0021, Rev 0 Electronic ReadMe Files.
At the time of publication of this standard the revision of each of the above references, as
they cross-relate to the revision of this document, were valid. As all reference are subject
to change from time to time, the reader is required to first check with the custodian of
this document to find out the latest cross-revision status with respect to the above
bibliographic list.
Revision A
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Revision A
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APPENDIX A
ABBREVIATIONS USED IN QGPC
ELECTRICAL DOCUMENTS
A A
A Amperes, amps.
A.C. or AC or a.c. Alternating current or voltage.
ACB Air circuit breaker.
ACSR Aluminium conductor steel reinforced.
ADD Approved for detail design.
AFC Approved for construction.
AI All installations.
ANSI American National Standards Institute.
API American Petroleum Institute.
ASTA Association of Short-circuit Testing Authorities.
ASME American Society for Testing and Materials.
Auto or (A) Automatic operation or control.
AVR Automatic voltage regulator.
AWA Aluminium wire armour.
B B
B or b Electrical suseptance.
Bar or bar Pressure in atmospheres.
BASEEFA British Approvals Service for Electrical Equipment in Flammable
Atmospheres.
BICC British Insulated Calander Cables Ltd.
BSI, BS or CP British Standards Institution, or its publications.
Btu British thermal unit.
C C
C Electrical capacitance.
CAD Computer aided design.
CB Circuit breaker.
CCR Central control room.
cct. Circuit.
CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization.
CIGRE _____________________________________________
CONTRACTOR The party contracted with the PRINCIPAL to carry out and complete
the Scopes of Work described in this document.
cont. Continuous quantity.
COR CU Corrugated copper.
Cos Power factor.
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CPU Central processing unit.
CSA or csa Cross sectional area
CSP Chlorosulphonated polyethylene.
CSS Computerised synchronising system.
C.T. or CT Current transformer
CU Un-tinned copper
CUWB Copper wire braid.
D D
d Day
D.C. or DC or d.c. Direct current or voltage.
DCS Distributed control system.
deg C Thermal temperature in degrees Celcius or Centigrade.
deg F Thermal temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.
deg KThermal temperature in degrees Kelvin.
DIN Verein Deutscher Ingenieure
DMT Definite minimum time.
DnV Det Norsk Veritas (Norway).
DOL or D.O.L Direct-on-line starting of induction motors.
E E
E Earth or ground.
ECHA Equipment certified for hazardous areas
EHV Extra high voltage.
ELV Extra low voltage, less than 51 volts.
EMA Ethylene methyl acrylate.
EMI Electromagnetic interference.
EMF or e.m.f Electromotive force.
EPDM Ethylene propylene diene monomer.
EPR Ethylene propylene rubber.
ERM Electronic restart module.
ESD Emergency shut down.
EVA Ethylene vinyl acetate.
Ex Excitation (of a generator or motor field windings).
Ex( ) or Ex Certification symbol for hazardous area equipment.
EEx( ) or EEx Certification symbol for hazardous area equipment, with Europian
harmonisation of standards.
F F
F , f or Hz Frequency.
Freq Frequency.
FAT Factory acceptance testing.
Fig. Figure.
Revision A
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FLEX Flexible, used for cables.
G G
G or g Electrical conductance, or ground.
GCB Gas circuit breaker.
GCP Generator control panel.
GIS Gas insulated switchgear.
GRP Glass reinforced plastic.
GSWA Galvanised steel wire armour.
GSWB Galvanised steel wire braid.
GTG or GT Gas turbine generator.
H H
h or hr Hour.
HCL Hydrogen chloride, gas or acid.
HF High frequency.
HGSD/PVS _____________________________________________
HOFR Heat and oil resisting, flame retardant.
HV High voltage, above 600 volts.
Hz Frequency in cycles per second, or Hertz.
I I
I Current in amperes.
IAC or Iac Alternating current.
IDC or Idc Direct current.
IDMT Inverse definite minimum time.
IDR Inter discipline review.
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission.
IEE The Institution of Electrical Engineers of U.K
IEEE The Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers of U.S.A.
IFA Issued for approval.
IFC Issued for comments.
IFT Issued for tender.
I/O Input or output signals or quantity.
inst. Instantaneous quantity.
int. Intermittent quantity.
IR Insulation resistance.
IS Intrinsically safe signal, circuit or equipment.
ISO International Standards Organisation.
IP Institute of Petroleum (UK).
IP Ingress protection code, see IEC 529.
IS Intrinsically safe signal, circuit or equipment.
Is/In or IS/IN Ratio of starting current to running current.
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ISO International Standards Organisation.
J J
J Energy in joules or Newton-metres.
J Current density, amps/mm2
K K
KEMA Short circuit testing authority in The Netherlands.
km Length in kilo-metres.
kpm Kilo-metres per hour.
kV or kU Kilo-volts.
kVA Kilo-volt-amperes.
kVAr Reactive kilo-volt-amperes.
kW Kilo-watts.
L L
L Electrical inductance in Henries.
L Line or lower control direction.
LBI Land based installations.
Ibs Weight of a substance in pounds
LDF Low density foam.
LED Light emitting diode.
LEL Lower explosive limit
LF Low frequency.
LHS Left hand side.
Lloyds Lloyds Register of Shipping (UK).
LNG Liquified natural gas.
loc or (L) Local operation.
LPG Liquified petroleum gas.
LSDS or LSS Load shedding system.
LSF Low smoke and fumes, applied to cables and wires.
LSLH Low smoke low halogen.
LSRS or LSR Load sharing system.
LV Low voltage, 51 to 599 volts.
L1, L2, L3, N Preferred notation for line and neutral voltages and currents.
M M
m Length or dimension in metres, or month.
mA Current in milli-amperes.
man or (M) Manual operation.
MB High-pressure mercury, without phosphor coating.
MBF High-pressure mercury, with phosphor coating.
MBFR High-pressure mercury, with phosphor coating and internal reflector.
MBI High-pressure discharge with metallic halides.
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MBIF High-pressure discharge with metallic halides, with phosphor coating.
MBR Double-ended linear arc tube.
MBTF Combination of MBF lamp and a filament lamp.
MCB Miniature circuit breaker.
MCC Motor control centre.
MCCB Moulded case circuit breaker.
MCF Switch-start lamp, also used for tubular fluorescent lamps in general.
MCFE Starterless lamp, coated with silicone.
MCFA Starterless lamp, with earth strip, mainly used in cold environments.
MCR Maximum continuous rating.
M.E.S.C. Material Equipment Stores Catalogue.
MESG Maximum experimental safe gap.
MEW Ministry of Electricity and Water, of Qatar.
Mhos Unit of electrical conductance or admittance.
MI Manufacturers instructions, see also MICC.
MIC Minimum ignition current.
MICC Mineral insulated calander cable.
MIMIC Mimic display panel.
mm Length or dimension in milli-metres.
MMI Man machine interface.
MMSCF Million standard cubic feet of a gas.
Mole % Molecular weight in %.
MSW Module steelwork.
MT Mica glass tape.
MV Medium voltage.
mV Voltage in milli-volts.
MVA Mega-volt-amperes.
MVAr Reactive mega-volt-amperes.
MW Mega-watts.
N N
N or n Number of items e.g. generators installed.
N or n Number of turns in a winding.
N or n Neutral terminal or line.
N-1, or M Number of items e.g. generators running.
NBR Nitrile butadiene rubber.
NC or N/C Normally closed switching device.
NEC National Electric Code (USA).
NER Neutral earth resistor.
NFPA
National Fire Protection Association (USA).
NO or N/O Normally open switching device.
NOx Nitrogen based gas emissions.
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NTS Not to scale.
O O
O Open, off or stop.
OC or O/C Over-current or open circuit.
OCB Oil circuit breaker.
OF or O/F Over-frequency.
OHL or OHLine Overhead line.
Ohms Unit of electrical resistance or impedance.
OL or O/L Over-load.
OSHA Occupational Health and Safety Administation (USA).
OV or O/V Over-voltage.
P P
P or W Active power, watts.
p or s Laplace operator in mathematics, for transfer functions.
PC Programmable controller or personal computer.
PCB pcent Percentage (%).
PCR Plant change request.
PBI Platform based installations.
PB Lead metal.
PBWB Phosphor bronze wire braid.
PBCU or TCU Tinned copper
P & ID Piping and instrument diagram.
PF or pf Power factor.
Ph or ph Phases of an electrical circuit.
pk or peak Peak value of an instantaneous quantity.
PLC Programmable logic controller.
PMS Power management system.
POL Polyethylene.
PRINCIPAL QGPC who is contracted with the SUPPLIER and who pays for the
works.
PTP Polyethylene terephtalate.
PTFE Polytetra fluoro ethylene.
pu or p.u. Per-unit.
PVC Polyvinyl chloride.
PVDF
Polyvinylidene fluoride.
Q Q
Q Reactive power, volt-amperes-reactive.
QGPC Qatar General Petroleum Corporation.
Revision A
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Q-TEL Qatar Telecom company.
R R
R or r Electrical resistance.
Rad or rad Angular displacement in radians.
RCU Remote control unit.
ref. or REF. Reference.
rem or (R) Remote operation.
RES Request for engineering services.
RHS Right hand side.
RMS Root mean square.
RMU Ring main unit.
RTD Resistance temperature detector.
RTU Remote transmitter unit.
Rx Receiver.
S S
S Reactive power, volt-amperes-reactive.
s or p Laplace operator in mathematics, for transfer functions.
s Slip of a rotating machine with respect to 1.0 pu.
SBM Single bouy mooring.
SC or S/C Short circuit.
SCADA Supervisory control and data acquisition system.
SCF Standard cubic feet of a gas.
SCR Screened, or silicon controlled rectifier or thyristor.
SDR Single discipline review.
SECT Skin effect current trace heating.
SELV Safety extra-low voltage.
SLI Double-ended , linear arc tube.
SON Diffused ellipsoidal outer bulb, single-ended lamp.
SON-T Clear tubular outer bulb, single-ended lamp.
SON-TD or -L Clear tubular outer bulb, double-ended lamp.
SON-R SON lamp, with internal reflector.
SOL CU Solid copper.
SOX U-shaped arc tube, single ended lamp.
SOx Sulphur based gas emissions.
SP Single phase.
sq Square, e.g. sq mm is square milli-metres.
sq2 Square root of 2.0 = 1.414214
sq3 Square root of 3.0 = 1.732051
SSR Synchronisation check protection relay.
STG Steam turbine generator.
STR CU Stranded copper.
SWA Steel wire armour.
Revision A
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SWBD Switchboard.
SWGR Switchgear.
SYNC or Sync Synchronising.
Revision A
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T T
T or t Time, usually in seconds.
Td Time constant in seconds for the quantity d.
TDRM Time delayed restart relay.
temp. Temperature.
TG Turbo-generator, gas or steam.
TOP Gas-turbine operating temperature. (hot-end blade temperature)
TCP Gas-turbine control panel.
TLX Cold starting tubular fluorescent lamp, with single pin caps.
TPN Three phase and neutral power supply.
Tran. or Tx Transformer.
Tx Transmitter.
U U
U or V Voltage
UC or U/C Under-current.
UCP Unit control panel.
UEL Upper explosive limit
UF or U/F Under-frequency.
UHF Ultra high frequency.
UI or U/I Under-current.
UL or U/L Under-load.
UL Underwriters Laboratory (USA).
UNO Unless noted otherwise.
UPS Uninterruptible power supply unit.
UV or U/V Under-voltage.
V V
V or U Voltage or volts.
VA Voltamperes.
VAC or Vac Alternating voltage.
VAr or Var Reactive volt-amperes.
VDC or Vdc Direct voltage.
VDE Verband Deutscher Electrechniker (W. Germany).
VDI Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (W. Germany).
VDU Visual display unit.
VHF Ver high frequency.
VSD or VSDS Variable speed drive systems.
V.T. or VT Voltage transformer.
v/v Comparison by volume, per-unit.
W W
W or P Active power, watts.
w Frequency in radians per second.
wdg. Winding of a machine or transformer
WHRU Waste heat recovery unit.
X X
X or x Electrical reactance.
XLPA Cross linked polyalkene.
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XLPE Cross linked polyethylene.
Y Y
Y or y Electrical admittance.
y Year.
Z Z
Z or z Electrical impedance.
Numerical Numerical
1P or SP Single phase.
3P Three-phase supply.
3P-N Three-phase and neutral supply.
3P-N-E Three-phase, neutral and earth supply.
2W Two wire supply.
3W Three wire supply.
4W Four wire supply.
Revision A
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APPENDIX B
TECHNICAL DEFINITIONS
Unless otherwise stated the technical definition of most of the electrical words used in the QGPC
electrical documents can be found in IEC 50.
B.1 Extra Low Voltage (ELV)
Defined for QGPC purposes as : - A voltage normally not exceeding 50V between
conductors, and not exceeding 30V a.c. or 50V d.c. between any conductor and earth.
B.2 Low Voltage (LV)
Defined for QGPC purposes as : - A voltage exceeding Extra Low Voltage but not
exceeding 600V, whether between conductors or any conductor and earth.
B.3 Medium Voltage (MV)
QGPC has deleted the use of MV in future, from January 1999, and raised the LV limit to
600V.
B.4 High voltage (HV)
Defined for QGPC purposes as : - A voltage normally exceeding 600V, whether between
conductors or between any conductor and earth.
B.5 Essential service
A service, which, when failing in operation or when failing if called upon, will affect the
continuity, the quality or the quantity of the product.
B.6 Non-essential service
A service that is neither vital nor essential.
B.7 Installed capacity, 25-40-060, IEC 50
The sum of the rated powers of equipment of the same kind (generators, transformers,
converters, etc.) in an electrical installation.
B.8 Standby capacity
The capacity provided for the purpose of replacing that which may be withdrawn from
service under planned or unplanned circumstances.
B.9 Firm capacity
The installed capacity less the standby capacity.
B.10 Spare capacity
The difference between firm capacity and the maximum calculated (peak) load.
Revision A
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B.11 Certificate of conformity
Document issued by a testing station and approved by a national or other appropriate
authority. The document shall state that a prototype or test sample and its specification have
a level of safety which is equivalent to that of an electrical apparatus that complies with the
requirements of one or more types of protection. These requirements shall be as laid down
in a national or international standard, e.g. IEC, CENELEC, BS, VDE, etc.
B.12 Declaration of conformity
Document issued by the manufacturer stating that the electrical apparatus complies with the
requirements of one or more types of protection for use solely in locations where the danger
is limited.
B.13 Vital service
A service, which, when failing in operation or when failing if called upon, can cause an
unsafe condition of the process and/or electrical installation, jeopardize life, or cause major
damage to the installation.
B.14 Test report
Document prepared by the manufacturer indicating in detail the tests and verifications to
which the electrical apparatus has been subjected and their results.
B.15 Certified electrical apparatus
Certified electrical apparatus is apparatus for which a certificate of conformity or a
certificate of inspection has been issued by a recognised certifying authority that specialises
in the particular type of equipment and its application, e.g. short-circuit testing, hazardous
area certification, ingress protection.
B.16 Marking
Data put on the apparatus by the manufacturing giving information for safe use of the
apparatus, e.g. hazardous area Zone suitability.
B.17 Switch gear (switchboard), IEC 277
A general term covering switching devices and their combinations with associated control,
measuring, protective and regulating equipment, also assemblies of such devices and
equipment with associated interconnections, accessories, enclosures and supporting
structures, intended for use in connection with generation, distribution and conversion of
electric power.
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APPENDIX C
LIST OF STANDARDS USED FOR ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING AND EQUIPMENT
Note Ca : References in { } brackets supersede the original references.
Note Cb : 96 / 97 = published in 1996 and amended in 1997.
89 / 2ed = published in 1989 and is the second edition.
Note Cc : Add to all IEC references 60000 e.g. IEC 34 becomes IEC 60034.
C.1. International Electrotechnical Commission (Europe)
REF DATE 19XX DESCRIPTION
Published
/ amended
see Note Cb
IEC 27 Part 1 : Letter symbols to be used in electrical engineering.
IEC 34 Rotating electrical machines.
Parts 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 14 in particular.
96 / 97 Part 1 : Rating and performance.
72 / 96 Part 2 : Methods of determining losses and efficiency.
85 / 95 Part 4 : Methods of determining synchronous machine quantities.
91 Part 5 : Classification of degrees of protection provided by
enclosures for rotating machines.
91 Part 6 : Methods of cooling rotating machinery.
92 Part 7 : Symbols for types of construction and mounting
arrangement.
72 / 96 Part 8 : Terminal markings and direction of rotation.
80 / 95 Part 12 : Starting performance of single-speed three-phase cage
induction motors for voltages up to and including 660 V.
96 Part 14 : Mechanical vibration of certain machines with shaft
heights 56 mm and higher.
IEC 38 83 / 97 IEC standard voltages.
IEC 43 Recommendations for alternating current watt-hour meters.
{IEC 521} {88}
IEC 50 International electro-technical vocabulary. [65 sections]
IEC 51 Recommendations for direct acting indicating electrical measuring
instruments and their accessories.
84 Part 2 : Special requirements for ampere-meters and voltmeters.
IEC 56 87 / 96 High-voltage alternating-current circuit breakers.
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IEC 59 38 Standard current ratings.
IEC 60 High voltage test techniques.
89 / 2ed Part 1 : General definitions and test requirements.
94 / Part 2 : Measuring systems.
76 / Part 3 : Measuring devices.
77 / Part 4 : Application guide for measuring devices.
IEC 71 Insulation co-ordination.
93 / 7ed Part 1 : Definitions, principles and rules.
76 / 2ed Part 2 : Application guide.
82 / Part 3 : Phase-to-phase insulation co-ordination.
Principles, rules and application guide.
(Superseded by Part 1, 7

th edition).
IEC 72 -1 91 / 91 Dimensions and output ratings - frame numbers 56 to 400.
IEC 72 - 2 90 / 90 Dimensions and output ratings - frame numbers 355 to 1000.
IEC 73 96 / 96 Indicating lamps.
IEC 76 Power transformers.
76 / 94 Part 5 : Ability to withstand short circuit.
IEC 79 Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres.
98 / 98 Part 0 : General requirements.
98 / 98 Part 1 : Construction and verification test of flameproof
enclosures of electrical apparatus.
83 / 83 Part 2 : Electrical apparatus with type of protection p.
97 / 97 Part 5 : Sand-filled apparatus.
95 / 95 Part 6 : Oil-immersed apparatus.
90 / 93 Part 7 : Increased safety e.
95 / 96 Part 10 : Classification of hazardous areas.
91 / 91 Part 11 : Construction and test of intrinsically safe and associated
apparatus.
82 / 82 Part 13 : Construction and use of rooms or buildings protected by
pressurisation.
96 / 96 Part 14 : Electrical installations in explosive gas atmospheres
(other than mines ).
87 / 87 Part 15 : Electrical apparatus with type of protection n.
90 / 90 Part 16 : Artificial ventilation for the protection of analyser(s)
houses.
96 / 96 Part 17 : Recommendations for inspection and maintenance of
electrical installations in hazardous areas (other than
mines).
92 / 92 Part 18 : Encapsulation m.
IEC 83 97 / 97 Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use.
IEC 85 84 / 84 Recommendations for the classification of insulating materials in
relation to their thermal stability in service.
IEC 88 Standard rated current ( 2 to 63A ) of fuse links for LV
Revision A
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{IEC 269} {86 / 95 fuses.
IEC 92 Electrical installation in ships.
IEC 92-3 65 / 84 Part 1 : Cables (construction, testing and installations)
IEC 92-101 94 / 4ed Part 101 : Definitions and general requirements.
IEC 92-352 79 / 94 Part 352 : Choice and installation of cables for low-voltage power
systems.
IEC 92-353 88 / 1ed Part 353 : Single and multicore cables with extruded solid insulation
for rated voltages 0.6/1 kV.
IEC 92-354 94 / 1ed Part 354 : Single- and three-core power cables with extruded solid
insulation for rated voltages 6 kV, 10 kV and 15 kV.
IEC 92-359 87 / 1ed Part 359 : Sheathing materials for shipboard power and
telecommunication cables.
IEC 92-375 77 / 1ed Part 375 : Shipboard telecommunication cables and radio -frequency
cables. General instrumentation, control and
communication cables.
IEC 92-376 83 / 1ed Part 376 : Shipboard multicore cables for control circuits.
IEC 92-505 84 / 3ed Part 505 : Special features Mobile offshore drilling units.
IEC 99 Surge arresters.
withdrawn 91 Part 1 : Non-linear resistor type gapped surge arresters for a.c.
systems.
Part 2 : Metal-oxide surge arresters without gaps for a.c.systems.
IEC 112 79 Method for determining the comparative and the proof- Tracking
indices of solid insulating material under moist conditions.
IEC 113 Diagrams, charts and tables.
IEC 120 84 Dimensions of ball and socket coupling of string insulator units.
IEC 129 84 / 96 Isolators and earth switches above 1000 volts
IEC 146 Semiconductor converters.
91 / 3ed Part 1 : Specifications of basic requirements.
74 Part 2 : Semiconductor self-commutated converters.
IEC 156 95 Insulating liquids - Determination of the breakdown voltage at power
frequency.
IEC 157 LV switchgear and controlgear.
{IEC 947} {90} Part 1 : Contactors
IEC 158 LV control gear for industrial use.
{IEC 947} {90} Part 1 : Contactors.
IEC 182 71 Basic dimensions of winding wires.
IEC 183 84 / 90 Guide to the selection of high-voltage cables.
IEC 185 87 / 90 Current transformers.
IEC 186 87 / 95 Voltage transformers.
Revision A
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IEC 189 Low-frequency cables and wires with PVC insulation and PVC sheath.
86 / 92 Part 1 : General test and measuring methods.
IEC 214 89 On load tap changers
IEC 227 Polyvinyl chloride insulated cables of rated voltages up to and
including 450/750 V.
93 Part 1 : General requirements.
79 / 85 Part 2 : Test methods.
IEC 228 78 / 93 Conductors for insulated cables.
IEC 247 78 Measurement of relative permittivity, dielectric dissipation factor and
d.c. resistivity of insulating liquids.
IEC 251 Methods of test for winding wires.
{IEC 851} {96} Part 1 : Enamelled round wires.
IEC 255 and Electrical protection relays.
BS 142 89 Part 3 : Single input energizing quantity measuring relays with
dependent or independent time.
77 Part 5 : Insulation tests for electrical relays.
88 Part 6 : Measuring relays and protection equipment.
90 Part 8 : Thermal electrical relays.
80 Part 12 : Directional relays and power relays with two input
energizing quantities.
80 Part 13 : Biased (percentage) differential relays.
82 Part 16 : Impedance measuring relays.
84 Part 20 : Protection (protective) systems.
94 Part 23 : Contact performance.
IEC 265 High-voltage switches.
98 Part 1 : High-voltage switches for rated voltages above 1 kV and
less than 52 kV.
IEC 269 Low-voltage fuses.
and BS 88 86 / 94 Part 1 : General requirements.
IEC 270 81 Partial discharge measurement.
IEC 277 Definitions for switchgear and control gear. withdrawn
IEC 282 High-voltage fuses.
98 Part 1 : Current-limiting fuses.
95 / 97 Part 2: Expulsion and similar fuses.
IEC 287 82 / 93 Calculation of the continuous current rating of cables (100 % load
factor)
IEC 292 LV motor starters.
{IEC 947} {90}
{Part 4 - 1}
Revision A
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IEC 298 90 / 94 High-voltage metal-enclosed switchgear and controlgear.
IEC 309 Plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes.
88 / 2ed Part 1 : General requirements.
89 / 2ed Part 2 : Dimensional interchangeability requirements for pin and
contact-tube accessories.
94 Part 3 : Particular requirements for plugs, socket-out-lets,
connectors and appliance inlets for use in explosive gas
atmospheres.
IEC 331 70 Fire resisting characteristics of electric cables.
IEC 332 Tests on electric cables under fire conditions.
93 / 3ed Part 1 : Test on a single vertical insulated wire or cable.
89 Part 2 : Test on a single small vertical insulated copper wire or
cable.
92 / 2ed Part 3 : Tests on bunched wires or cables.
IEC 337 Control auxiliary switches, relays and pushbuttons.
{IEC 947-5-1} {97}
IEC 341 Push button switches. See IEC 947-5-1.
withdrawn
IEC 354 91 / 2ed Loading guide for oil immersed transformers.
IEC 363 72 Short-circuit current evaluation with special regard to rated short
circuit capacity of circuit-breakers in installations in ships.
IEC 364 Electrical installations of buildings.
92 Part 1 : Fundamental principles.
93 Part 3 : Assessment of general characteristics.
many sub-sections Part 4 : Protection for safety.
many sub-sections Part 5 : Selection and erection of electrical equipment.
IEC 376 71 / 74 Specification and acceptance of new sulphur hexa-floride.
IEC 383 Insulators for overhead lines with a nominal voltage above 1000 V.
93 Part 1 : Ceramic or glass insulator units for a.c. systems -
Definitions, test methods and acceptance criteria.
93 Part 2 : Insulator strings and insulator sets for a.c. systems
Definitions, test methods and acceptance criteria.
IEC 408 Low-voltage air-break switches, air-break disconnectors
{IEC 947} {90} and fuse combination units.
{Part 3 }
IEC 409 81 Guide for the inclusion of reliability clauses into specifications for
components (or parts) for electronic equipment.
IEC 414 73 Safety requirements for indicating and recording measuring
instruments and accessories.
Revision A
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IEC 417 73 / 1ed Graphical symbols for use on equipment. Index, survey and
compilation of the single sheets. Note, there are 12 supplements.
IEC 420 90 High-voltage alternating current switch-fuse combinations.
IEC 433 98 Characteristics of string insulator units of the long rod type.
IEC 439 3ed Low voltage switchgear and control gear assemblies.
93 / 96 Part 1 : Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies.
91 / 2ed Part 2 : Particular requirements for busbar trunking systems.
93 / 1ed Part 3 : Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and
controlgear assemblies intended to be installed in places
where unskilled persons have access for their use
distribution boards.
95 / 1ed Part 4 : Particular requirements for assemblies for construction
sites (ACS).
98 / 1ed Part 5 : Particular requirements for assemblies intended to be
installed outdoors in public places (CDC).
IEC 445 88 Identification of apparatus terminals and general rules for a uniform
system of terminal marking, using an alphanumeric notation.
IEC 446 89 Identification of insulated and bare conductors by colours.
IEC 470 74 / 75 High-voltage alternating current contactors, Amendment No. 1.
IEC 473 74 / 79 Dimensions for panel-mounted indicating and recording electrical
measuring instruments.
IEC 478 Stabilized power supplies, d.c. output.
74 Part 1 : Terms and definitions.
86 / 2ed Part 2 : Rating and performance.
IEC 479 94 Effects of current on human beings and livestock
Part 1 : General aspects.
IEC 502 94 Extruded solid dielectric insulated power cables from 1 kV up to
30kV.
IEC 529 89 Classification of degrees of protection provided by enclosures. ( IP
Code ).
IEC 536 76 Part 1 : Classification of electrical and electronic equipment with
regard to protection against electric shock.
92 Part 2 : Guideline to requirements for protection against electric
shock.
IEC 540 Test methods for insulations and sheaths of electric cables
withdrawn and cords (elastomeric and thermoplastic compounds).
IEC 549 76 High-voltage fuses for the external protection of shunt power
capacitors.
IEC 551 87 / 95 Measurement of transformer and reactor sound levels.
Revision A
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IEC 555 Disturbances in supply systems caused by household appliances and
similar electrical equipment.
82 Part 1 : Definitions.
82 Part 2 : Harmonics.
82 / 90 Part 3 : Voltage fluctuations.
IEC 593 77 / 86 Internal fuses and internal over-pressure disconnectors for shunt
capacitors.
IEC 606 78 Application guide for power transformers.
IEC 614 Specifications for conduits for electrical installations.
94 / 2ed Part 1 : General requirements.
82 / 93 Part 2 : Particular specifications for conduits. Section one
Metal conduits.
IEC 616 78 Terminal and tapping markings for power transformers.
IEC 617 85 Graphic symbols for diagrams.
Part 1 : General information, general index. Cross reference
tables.
IEC 623 90 / 92 Vented nickel-cadmium prismatic rechargeable single cells.
IEC 632 High-voltage motor starters.
78 Part 1 : Direct-on-line full voltage starters.
IEC 644 79 Specifications for high voltage fuse links for motor circuit
applications.
IEC 662 80 / 94 High pressure sodium vapour lamps.
IEC 664 Insulation coordination within low-voltage systems including
clearances and creepage distances for equipment.
92 Part 1 : Principles, requirements and tests.
92 Part 3 : Use of coatings to achieve insulation coordination
of printed board assemblies.
IEC 686 80 Stabilised power supplies a.c. output.
IEC 688 Electrical measuring transducers for converting a.c.electrical
quantities into d.c. electrical quatities.
97 Part 1 : General purpose transducers.
IEC 694 96 Common clauses for high-voltage switchgear and controlgear
standards. Amendment No. 1.
IEC 722 82 Guide to lightning impulse and switching impulse testing of power
transformers and reactors.
IEC 726 82 / 86 Dry type power transformers
Revision A
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IEC 742 83 / 92 Isolating transformers and safety isolating transformers.
IEC 745 Safety of hand held motor operated electric tools.
82 Part 1 : General requirements.
89+ Part 2 : 17 sections covering drills, hammers, grinders, etc.
IEC 751 83 / 95 Platinum resistance thermometer sensors.
IEC 754 Test on gases evolved during combustion of electric cables.
94 / 2ed Part 1 : Determination of the amount of halogen acid gas evolved
during the combustion of polymeric materials taken from
cables.
91 / 97 Part 2 : Determination of degree of acidity amount of gases
evolved during the combustion of polymeric materials
taken from cables by measuring pH and conductivity.
IEC 781 89 Application guide for calculation of short-circuit currents in low-
voltage radial systems.
IEC 800 92 / 2ed Heating cables with a rated voltage of 300/500 V for comfort heating
and prevention of ice formation..
IEC 801 Electromagnetic compatibility for industrial process
{IEC 1000/4/3} measurement and control equipment.
{84} Part 3 : Radiated electromagnetic field requirements.
IEC 812 85 Analysis techniques for system reliability - Procedure for
failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).
IEC 815 86 Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions.
IEC 826 91 Loading strength of electrical overhead lines.
IEC 831 Shunt power capacitors of the self-healing type for a.c. systems having
a rated voltage up to and including 1000V.
88 / 93 Part 1 : General Performance, testing and rating Safety
requirements Guide for installation and operation.
88 / 93 Part 2 : Ageing test, self-healing and destruction test.
IEC 836 88 Specification for silicone liquids for electrical purposes.
IEC 840 88 / 93 Tests for power cables with extruded insulation for rated voltage
above 30kV.
IEC 851 Methods of test for winding wire.
85 Part 1 : General.
IEC 865 Short-circuit currents - Calculation of effects.
93 / 2ed Part 1 : Definitions and calculation methods.
94 Part 2 : Examples of calculation.
IEC 871 Shunt capacitors for a.c. power systems having a rated voltage above
660V.
Revision A
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87 / 91 Part 1 : General Performance, testing and rating Safety
requirements Guide for installation and operation.
87 / 91 Part 2 : Endurance testing.
IEC 885 Electric test methods for electric cables.
87 Part 1 : Electrical tests for cables, cords and wires for voltages up
to and including 450/750 V
87 Part 2 : Partial discharge tests.
88 Part 3 : Test methods for partial discharge measurement on
lengths of extruded power cable.
IEC 896 Stationary lead-acid batteries. General requirements and methods of
test.
87 / 90 Part 1 : Vented types.
95 Part 2 : Sealed type.
IEC 898 87 / 90 Circuit breakers for overcurrent protection for household and similar
installations.
IEC 905 87 Loading guide for dry type power transformers.
IEC 906 IEC system of plugs and socket-outlets for houdehold and similar
purposes.
86 Part 1 : Plugs and socket-outlets 16A 250V a.c.
92 Part 2 : Plugs and socket-outlets 15A 125V a.c.
IEC 909 Short-circuit current calculation in three-phase a.c. systems. Third
impression 1991.
91 Part 1 : Factors for the calculation of short-circuit currents in
three-phase a.c. systems according to
IEC 909.
92 Part 2 : Electrical equipment Data for short-circuit current
calculations in accordance with IEC 909 (1988).
IEC 944 88 Guide for the maintenance of silicone transformer liquids.
IEC 947 Low voltage switchgear and control gear.
88 / 94 Part 1 : General rules.
89 / 93 Part 2 : Circuit breakers.
90 / 94 Part 3 : Switches, disconnectors, switch disconnectors, and fuse-
combination units.
90 / 94 Part 4 : Contactors and motor starters. Section One -
Electromechanical contactors and motor starters.
IEC 993 89 Electrolyte for vented nickel cadmium cells.
IEC 1000 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
IEC 1000-1-1 Part 1 : General Section 1 : Application and interpretation
92 of fundamental definitions and terms.
IEC 1000-2-1 Part 2 : Environment -- Section 1 : Description of the
90 environment Electromagnetic environment for
Revision A
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low-frequency conducted disturbances and signalling in
public power supply systems.
IEC 1000-2-2 Part 2 : Environment -- Section 2 : Compatibility levels
90 for low-frequency conducted disturbances and
signalling in public low-voltage power supply
systems.
IEC 1000-2-4 Part 2 : Environment -- Section 4 : Compatibility levels in
94 industrial plants for low-frequency conducted
disturbances.
IEC 1000-3-2 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) limits for harmonic
98 current emissions (equipment current < 16 A per phase )
IEC 1000-4-11 Part 4 : Testing and measuring techniques Section 11 :
94 Voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage
variations immunity tests Basic EMC publication.
IEC 1000-5-2 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).
97 Part 5 : Installation and mitigation guidelines - Section 2 :
Earthing and cabling.
IEC 1010 Safety requirements of electrical equipment for measurement, control,
and laboratory use.
90 / 92 Part 1 : General requirements.
IEC 1029 Safety of motor operated transportable tools.
90 Part 1 : General requirements.
IEC 1039 90 General classification of insulating liquids.
IEC 1084 Cable trunking and ducting system for electrical installation.
91 / 93 Part 1 : General requirements.
IEC 1089 91 / 97 Round wire concentric lay overhead electrical stranded conductors.
IEC 1203 92 Synthetic organic esters for electrical purposes - Guide for
maintenance of transformer esters in equipment.
IEC 1294 93 Insulating liquids - Determination of the partial discharge
inception voltage ( PDIV ) - Test procedure.
EN 50006 75 The limitations of disturbances in electrical supply networks caused by
domestic and similar appliances equipped with electronic devices.
EN 50085 Cable trunking systems and cable ducting systems for electrical
installations.
Part 1 : General requirements ratified European text.
EN 55014 93 Limits and methods of measurement of radio interference
characteristics of household electrical appliances, portable tools and
similar electrical apparatus.
Revision A
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EN 55015 96 Limits and methods of measurement of radio interference
characteristics of fluorescent lamps and luminaires.
EN 55022 94 Limits and methods of measurement of radio interference
characteristics of information technology equipment.
C.2. Institute of Petroleum (UK)
REF DATE 19XX DESCRIPTION
Published
/ amended
see Note Cb
IP 83 / 97 Model code for safe practices, Parts 1 and 8.
C.3. International Standards Organisation (Worldwide)
REF DATE 19XX DESCRIPTION
Published
/ amended
see Note Cb
ISO R 281 83 / 97 Rolling bearings - dynamic load ratings and rating life.
ISO 1680 83 / 97 Acoustics - Test code for the measurement of airborne noise emitted
by rotating electrical machinery.
ISO 1813 83 / 97 Antistatic endless V-belts-electrical conductivity- characteristics and
methods of test.
ISO 2372 83 / 97 Mechanical vibration of machines with operating speeds from 10 to
200 rev/sec. Basis for specifying evaluation standards.
Revision A
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ISO 3046/IV Reciprocating internal combustion engines: Performance.
83 / 97 Part 1 : Specifications for standard reference conditions and
declarations of power, fuel consumption and lubricating
oil consumption.
83 / 97 Part 2 : Test methods.
83 / 97 Part 3 : Specification of test measurements.
83 / 97 Part 4 : Speed governing.
83 / 97 Part 5 : Torsional vibrations.
83 / 97 Part 6 : Specification for overspeed protection.
83 / 97 Part 7 : Specification for codes for engine power.
ISO 9000 83 / 97 Quality management and quality assurance standards - guidelines for
selection and use.
ISO 9001 83 / 97 Quality systems. Model for quality assurance in design, development,
production, installation and servicing.
ISO 9002 83 / 97 Quality systems. Model for quality assurance in production,
installation and servicing.
ISO 9003 83 / 97 Quality systems. Model for quality assurance in final inspection and
test.
ISO 9004 83 / 97 Quality management and quality system elements.
C.4. British Standards Institution (UK)
REF DATE 19XX DESCRIPTION
Published
/ amended
see Note Cb
BS 116 Oil circuit breakers. (for alternating current systems above 1kV)
{BS 5311 : 1 to 7} {High-voltage alternating current circuit breakers.}
83 / 97
BS 162 Electric power switchgear and associated apparatus.
{BS 7354} 83 / 97 {Code of practice for the design of high voltage open terminal
stations.}
BS 170
{BS 5000 : 2} {Rotating electrical machines of particular types or for
83 / 97 particular applications. Part 2 : Specific
requirements or turbine type synchronous
machines.}
BS 921 83 / 97 Rubber mats for electrical purposes.
Revision A
Page 119
BS 2613
{BS 5000 : 99} {Rotating electrical machines of particular types or for
83 / 97 particular applications. Part 99 : Machines for miscellaneous
applications.}
BS 2782 Part 1 : Methods of testing plastics.
BS 2828
withdrawn
BS 4683 : 3 Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres.
{BS 6941} 83 / 97 { Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres with type of
protection N.}
BS 4782 Ballasts for discharge lamps.
{BS EN 60922 & { Auxiliaries for lamps - Ballasts for discharge lamps
83 / 97 (excluding tubular fluorescent lamps) General and safety
requirements.}
BS EN 60923} { Performance requirements for ballasts for discharge
83 / 97 lamps (excluding tubular fluorescent lamps) .}
BS 4800 83 / 97 Specification for paint colours for building purposes.
BS 4999 83 / 97 General requirements for rotating electrical machines
Part 140. Specification for voltage regulation and parallel
operation of a.c. synchronous generators.
BS 5000 83 / 97 Rotating electrical machines of particular types or for particular
applications. All parts.
BS 5099 Specification for spark testing of electric cables.
BS 5308 Instrument cables.
BS 5304 83 / 97 Code of practice for safety of machinery.
BS 5311 83 / 97 High-voltage alternating current circuit breakers.
BS 5345 83 / 97 Selection, installation and maintenance of electrical apparatus.
BS 5467 Specification for 600/1000V and 1900/3300V armoured electric
cables having thermosetting insulation.
BS 5486 86 / 90 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies.
{BS EN 60439} Parts : 1, 2, 11, 12 and 13. Mostly withdrawn.
BS 6121 89 / __ Cable glands. Part 1.
{BS EN 50014, (were the hazardous area parts of BS 5345).
50018 and 50019}
BS 6231 PVC insulated cables for switchgear and controlgear wiring.
BS 6346 83 / 97 PVC insulated cables for electricity supply.
Revision A
Page 120
BS 6387 Performance requirement for cables required to maintain circuit
integrity under fire conditions.
BS 6622 Specification for cables with extruded cross-linked polyethylene or
ethylene propylene rubber insulation for rated voltages from
3.8/6.6kV up to 19/33 kV.
BS 6651 The protection of structures against lightning.
was CP 326
BS 6724 Armoured cables for electricity supply having thermosetting
insulation with low emissions of smoke and corrosive gases when
affected by fire.
BS 6746 83 / 97 Specification for PVC insulation and sheath of electric cables.
BS 6883 83 / 97 Specification for elastomer insulated cables for fixed wiring in
ships and on mobile and fixed offshore units.
BS 6899 Specification for rubber insulation and sheath of electric cables.
BS 6941 83 / 97 Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres with type of
protection N.
BS 7211 Thermosetting insulated cables (non-armoured) for electric power
and lighting with low emissions of smoke and corrosive gases
when affected by fire.
BS 7244 83 / 97 Flame arresters for general use.
BS 7354 83 / 97 Design of HV stations Earthing.
BS 7430 91 Code of practice for earthing.
BS 7671 See IEC 364
C.5. American Petroleum Institute (USA)
REF DATE 19XX DESCRIPTION
Published
/ amended
see Note Cb
API 610 83 / 97 Centrifugal pumps for general refinery services.
API 617 83 / 97 Centrifugal compressors for general refinery services.
API 670 83 / 97 Non-contacting vibration and axial position monitoring systems.
Revision A
Page 121
C.6. CIGRE (France)
REF DATE 19XX DESCRIPTION
Published
/ amended
see Note Cb
CIGRE 89 Working Group 36.05 : Equipment producing harmonics and
conditions governing their connection to the mains power supply.
ELECTRA 123, March 1989, pp 20-37.
C.7. Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association (UK)
REF DATE 19XX DESCRIPTION
Published
/ amended
see Note Cb
EEMUA 107 Recommendations for the protection of diesel engines
83 / 97 for use in Zone 2 hazardous areas.
EEMUA 140 Noise procedure specification.
83 / 97
C.8. Electricity Council (UK)
REF DATE 19XX DESCRIPTION
Published
/ amended
see Note Cb
G 5/3 76 Limits for harmonics in the United Kingdom electricity supply
system. (Electricity Council, London).
C.9. Verband Deutscher Electrechniker (W. Germany)
REF DATE 19XX DESCRIPTION
Published
/ amended
see Note Cb
API 617 83 / 97 Centrifugal compressors for general refinery services.
VDE 0875 83 / 97 Specification for radio interference suppression of electrical
appliances and systems.
C.10. Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers Inc. (USA)
Revision A
Page 122
REF DATE 19XX DESCRIPTION
Published
/ amended
see Note Cb
IEEE 32 83 / 97 Standard requirements, terminology and test procedures for
neutral grounding devices.
IEEE 80 83 / 97 IEEE guide for safety in a.c. substation grounding.
IEEE 81 83 / 97 IEEE guide for measuring earth resistivity, ground impedance, and
earth surface potentials of a ground system.
IEEE 344 83 / 97 IEEE recommended practice for seismic qualification of Class 1E
equipment for nuclear power generating stations.
IEEE C37.2 IEEE standard electrical power system device function
83 / 97 numbers.
IEEE 519 83 / 97 Recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in
electrical power systems.
IEEE 979 83 / 97 IEEE guide for substation fire protection.
IEEE 1100 83 / 97 Recommended practice for powering and grounding sensitive
electronic equipment.
C.11. Miscelaneous references from the U.K.
REF DATE 19XX DESCRIPTION
Published
/ amended
see Note Cb
IALA 66 Recommendation for the notation of luminous intensity and range
of lights. Appendix II. Dated 16 th November 1966.
IALA 84 The definition and method of calculation of the nominal range and
usual range of a fog signal. Dated 1 st May 1984.
Dept of Survey of aids to navigation on offshore structures.
Trade UK Instructions for the guidance of surveyors (HMSO).
Dept of 84 Standard marking schedule for offshore structures as
Trade UK endorsed by the Department of Trade UK,
Appendix A, revised 1 st May 1984.
C.12. QGPC Electrical Equipment and Systems Standards (Qatar)
Revision A
Page 123
REF DATE 19XX DESCRIPTION
Published
/ amended
see Note Cb
ES-D-010 96 / A Manual Engineering Standards Draughting : Development of
Technical Documents and Drawings. (was previously numbered
ES.D.-10)
ES.2.03.0001 99 / A Electrical Engineering and Design Philosophy.
ES.2.06.0001 99 / A Electrical Installation Practices.
ES.2.05.0001 99 / A Electrical Standing Instructions.
ES.2.14.0001 - - / A Specification for High Voltage Gas-turbine Driven Generators.
ES.2.14.0002 - - / A Specification for High Voltage and Low Voltage Piston-engine
Driven Generators having Ratings above 625 kVA.
ES.2.14.0004 - - / A Specification for Low Voltage Piston-engine Driven Generators
having Ratings up to 625 kVA.
ES.2.14.0010 99 / A Specification for High Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear.
ES.2.14.0015 99 / A Specification for Low Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear.
ES.2.14.0019 - - / A Specification for High Voltage and Low Voltage Busbar Ducting.
ES.2.14.0020 99 / A Specification for High Voltage Liquid Filled Power Transformers.
ES.2.14.0022 - - / A Specification for High Voltage Cast Resin Dry Type Power
Transformers.
ES.2.14.0030 - - / A Specification for High Voltage Cage Induction Motors and
Synchronous Motors.
ES.2.14.0035 - - / A Specification for Low Voltage Cage Induction Motors.
ES.2.14.0040 - - / A Specification for A.C. Uninterruptible Power Supply Equipment,
having Ratings above 30 kVA.
ES.2.14.0042 - - / A Specification for A.C. Uninterruptible Power Supply Equipment,
having Ratings up to 30 kVA.
ES.2.14.0044 - - / A Specification for D.C. Uninterruptible Power Supply Equipment.
ES.2.14.0046 - - / A Specification for Battery Chargers.
ES.2.14.0050 - - / A Specification for Variable Speed Drive Systems.
ES.2.14.0070 - - / A Specification for Power Cables and Cable Glands.
Revision A
Page 124
ES.2.14.0072 - - / A Specification for Control, Instrumentation, Telecommunication,
Fire and Gas Cables.
ES.2.14.0080 - - / A Specification for High Voltage and Low Voltage Capacitors.
ES.2.14.0085 99 / A Specification for High Voltage Neutral Earthing Resistors.
ES.2.14.0095 - - / A Specification for Power System Studies.
C.13 Periodic Revision of Reference Documents
At the time of publication of this document the revision of each of the above references, as they
cross-relate to the revision of this document, were valid. As all references are subject to change
from time to time, the reader is required to first check with the custodian of this document to
find out the latest cross-revision status with respect to the above bibliographic list.
Revision A
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APPENDIX - D
RECOMMENDED LIMITS FOR TEST RESULTS
D.1 Cautionary note
The limiting values for test results given in this appendix are intended for general guidance,
and for application where a manufacturer has not, or cannot, provide specific limits for his
equipment. Every effort shall be made to obtain recommended limits from equipment
manufacturers, so that their equipment is not otherwise over-stressed during a particular test.
Where BSI standards are quoted, their IEC equivalent documents may also be used.
D.2 Insulation resistance tests
D.2.1 Cables
The test voltage given in Table D.2.1.A is that of the Megger instrument to be used. The
voltage shall be applied and kept constant in magnitude for no less than one minute, or longer
it the readings are moving towards a steady value.
TABLE D.2.1.A
Cable insulation resistance tests
Cable Voltage Designation
Test Voltage
Volts D.C.
Minimum Insulation
Resistance (Megohms)
Instrumentation Cables lighting
final Sub Circuits including fittings
and switches
250
500
1
1
600 1,000 10
600/ 1,000 1,000 10
1,900/ 3,300 1,000 200
3,800/ 6,600 1,000 200
6,350/ 11,000 5,000 200
8,700/ 15,000 5,000 200
12,700/22,000 5,000 200
19,000/33,000 5,000 200
D.2.2 New switchgear and motor control centers
The test voltage given in Table D.2.2.A is that of the Megger instrument to be used. The
voltage shall be applied and kept constant in magnitude for no less than one minute, or longer
it the readings are moving towards a steady value. The power switching device shall be
inserted but switched OFF.
Revision A
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TABLE D.2.2.A
Switchgear insulation resistance tests
Switchgear Voltage Volts
Test Voltage
Volts D.C.
Minimum Insulation
Resistance (Megohms)
33,000 5,000 200
11,000 5,000 200
6,600 1,000 200
3,300 1,000 200
400 1,000 100
250 500 10
110 500 10
Small wiring on H.V.
Switchgear
250 10
D.2.3 Generators and Motors
All motors and generators shall be subjected to an insulation test prior to connecting the
machine terminals to the motor feeder. A one minute megger reading taken at a machine
temperature of 40C. The reading shall not be less than the values listed in Table D.2.3.A. If
the winding is not at a temperature of 40C, the observed one minute resistance must be
reduced by multiplying the observed value by the temperature coefficient of insulation
resistance (Kt40c) found in the following table : -
TABLE D.2.3.A
Winding Temperature versus coefficient of insulation resistance
C 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Kt40c 0.065 0.09 0.13 0.19 0.25 0.36 0.50 0.70 1.0
The value of insulation resistance for low voltage motors and generators may be determined
by a single measurement.
The representative value of insulation resistance for medium and high voltage motors and
generators shall be determined by the dielectric absorption ratio calculated from two
megohmmeter readings taken during the same test. The representative value of insulation
resistance shall be the ratio of the 60 second reading to the 30 second reading.
The minimum acceptable value is 1.5 for the 60 to 30 second ratio provided the 30 second
readings equals or exceeds the requirement of Table D.2.3.B.
The minimum insulation resistance shall be as given in Table D.2.3.B.
Revision A
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TABLE D.2.3.B
Generator and motor insulation resistance tests
Generator or Motor
Rated Voltage Volts
Test Voltage
Volts D.C.
Minimum Insulation Resistance
(Megohms at 40 deg C)
11000 5000 120
6600 1000 80
3300 1000 50
415 and 440 1000 15
220 to 250 500 12
less than 220 500 10
D.2.4 Liquid filled power transformers
Completely assembled, factory-sealed-tank transformers shipped with an insulating liquid
successfully passing the dielectric strength tests without filtering, may be put into service after
inspection if the cold coil insulation resistance between windings and between windings and
earth tests are above the minimum values shown in the Table D.2.4.A. In the event that the
insulation resistance value falls below the minimum acceptable value of the table the
transformer coils must be dried.
TABLE D.2.4.A
Transformer Insulation Resistance Test Voltage
Transformer Coil Rating
Minimum Test
Voltage
Minimum Insulation
Resistance in
Megohms
0 to 600 Volts 1000 Volts DC 100
601 to 5000 Volts 2500 Volts DC 1000
5001 to 15000 Volts 5000 Volts DC 5000
15001 to 35000 Volts 5000 Volts DC 10000
Coils for factory sealed-tank-transformers shipped with an insulating liquid failing the
dielectric strength (before filtering) and coils for tank type transformers shipped separately
without insulating liquid must undergo an out-of-liquid short-time megger test for insulation
resistance to each and to other windings at a temperature between 60-70C. The out-of-liquid
insulation resistance must measure above one megohm per thousand volts of rated line
voltage. Coils with insulation resistance values failing this requirement must be dried.
Revision A
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In the event that drying is necessary the transformer coils will be heated to a temperature of
60-70C for a period of 24 hours by circulating current through the windings. This may be
accomplished by short circuiting either windings (HV or LV) and impressing one to one-half
percent of nameplate voltage, (at normal frequency) across the other. Current should be
limited to one-fifth of the rated normal full load current by a rheostat in series with exciting
winding. As the maximum coil temperature is approached, the circulation current should be
gradually reduced until a steady temperature condition is reached within the 60-70C range.
D.3 High voltage tests
D.3.1 New switchgear and motor control centres
D.3.1.1 Reference standards
All new switchgear, bus bars and circuit breakers shall be subjected to a voltage test after
erection on site in accordance with [BS 116 or 162] or their IEC equivalents, as appropriate.
The following are the relevant sections from these standards : -
BS 116 The test voltage shall be applied between phases with the circuit breaker
closed; between phases and earth and across the terminals with the circuit
breaker open.
BS 162 The test voltage shall be applied between phases and between phases and earth.
The test voltage shall be increased from its initial value as rapidly as is consistent with its
value being indicated by the measuring instrument.
During the test, one pole of the testing supply shall be connected to earth and to the frame of
the assembly.
Note D.3.1.1 a: - It may be necessary to disconnect certain auxiliary apparatus, such as
instruments, during the test.
BS 162 When forming part of the assembly under test, relays, instruments and other
auxiliary apparatus may be disconnected during voltage tests at the discretion of the
manufacturer; current transformer secondaries shall be short circuited and earthed
for tests of the main circuit and short circuited but disconnected from earth for tests
of the auxiliary circuit. Unless it has been agreed between the manufacturer and the
purchaser to combine the test with commissioning tests on voltage transformers in
accordance with [IEC 189], by the removal of primary and secondary fuses, draw
out type voltage transformers shall be excluded from the test.
In the case of extensions to existing equipment, the test values apply only when it is
practicable to test the new assembly before connection to the existing equipment. If this is not
practical then the test values shall be subject to agreement between manufacturer and
purchaser.
Revision A
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D.3.1.2 Power Frequency Tests
The test voltage shall be alternating of an available frequency between 25 Hz and 100 Hz and
approximately of sine wave form. The test voltage shall be applied for one minute and shall be
as given in Table D.3.1.2.A. However, if it is impractical to apply this value or if for any
reason the duration of the test is required to exceed one minute then the relationship between
the duration of the test and the test voltage shall be in accordance with Table D.3.1.2.B.
TABLE D.3.1.2.A
Power frequency test voltages on apparatus
(after erection on site)
Component: Rated Voltage: Site Test Voltage
Volts Volts
Circuit Breaker Up to
660 2000
3300 8600
6600 15200
11000 24000
22000 46000
33000 68000
Neutral earthing 1910 6000
circuit breaker 3810 10000
6350 15000
12700 27000
19100 40000
Operating coils - 2000
and all small wiring
Operating motors In accordance with BS 2613* or BS 170*
* [BS 2613] The electrical performance of rotating electrical machinery
[BS 170] The electrical performance of fractional horsepower electric motors
and generators
Revision A
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TABLE D.3.1.2.B
Power frequency voltage tests for durations exceeding one minute
(after erection on site )
(Table 14 of BS 116, Table 13 of BS 162)
Percentage of one-minute
Duration of Test test voltage according to Table 13
Minutes
1 100
2 83.5
3 75
4 70
5 66.6
10 60
15 57.7
D.3.1.3 D.C. Tests
The D.C. test voltage shall be applied for 15 minutes and shall be in accordance with Table
D.3.1.3.A.
For those portions of HV switchgear which cannot readily be isolated from terminals provided
for the connection of belted cables shall be capable of withstanding for fifteen minutes D.C.
test voltages of 10, 20 and 36 kV respectively between phases with the mid point of the test
supply earthed.
TABLE D.3.1.3.A
D.C. Test Voltages
(Table 15 of BS 116, Table 14 of BS 162)
Rated Voltage Site Test Voltage
Volts Volts
Up to 660 1500
3300 7500
6600 15000
11000 25000
22000 45000
33000 66000
Revision A
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D.3.2 Power transformers
Where the transformer is not of the sealed type, the oil in the main tank and conservator is to
be sampled and subjected to a high voltage breakdown test and a laboratory test for acidity as
in [B.S. 148 or IEC 296].
Power transformer windings are to be pressure tested to full peak working voltage after
installation with D.C. potential as shown in Table D.3.2.A.
TABLE D.3.2.A
Test voltages for power transformer windings
Winding Voltage Power Frequency
Test Voltage*
DC Test Voltage **
Volts Volts Volts
3300 16000 6450
6600 22000 8900
11000 28000 11200
* Phase-to-phase 1 minute duration
** Phase-to-earth 15 minute duration
For these tests the winding which is not under test shall be open circuited with one terminal
earthed.
It is usually not practicable to pressure test between phases, but if disconnecting links are
provided, this test shall be carried out.
D.3.3 Generators and motors
(HOLD, to follow)
D.4 Polarization index tests for HV generators and power transformers
A dielectric absorption test shall be made winding to winding and winding to ground where
possible. A sixty-second test shall be made, unless the generator or transformer is larger than
1500 kVA or if the windings are rated above 11kV, in which case a ten-minute test shall be
made. The polarization index shall be computed as the ratio of the sixty-second to the thirty-
second reading, or the ten-minute to the one-minute reading, as appropriate. Test voltages
shall be in accordance with Tables D.2.3.B or D.2.4.A. The absorption test polarization index
should be above 1.5 or 2.5 respectively, unless an extremely high value is obtained at the end
of the shorter time limit that when doubled will not yield a meaningful value with the available
test equipment.
Revision A
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D.5 Measurement of each electrode resistance
D.5.1 Resistance of the general mass of earth
In the design of earth electrode systems it is important to remember certain definitions of
resistance. Two particular definitions are : -
a) Earth resistance or resistance to earth
This is the resistance of the earth as seen from the surface of the electrode to the
general mass of earth. Note, the resistance of the electrode metal in this situation
is considered to be negligibly small.
b) Resistance of the general mass of earth
Consider the simplest form of electrode from a theoretical point of view - a
hemisphere with its flat surface buried flush with the ground. The total resistance of
this electrode is made up of the sum of the resistances of an infinite number of this
hemispherical shells, the surfaces of which are surfaces of equal potential while the
electrode is carrying current. These thin shells stretch from the surface of the
electrode to infinity. Consider any one of these shells. Its resistance is given by the
simple formula : -
R = p dx
a
where R = resistance in ohms
p = resistivity of soil in ohms metres
dx = thickness of shell in metres
a = surface area of shell in square metres
As the distance from the electrode is increased it is obvious that the surface area of
the shells gets very large (at 3 m radius the area of an elementary shell is 56.55m
2
;
at 6m the area is 226.2m
2
; at 9m the areas is 509m
2
). This means that even with
very high resistivities, at say, 9m the actual increment of resistance due to a thin
shell at this distance would be so very small that its addition to the total resistance
already obtained up to this point would not make any appreciable difference in the
resistance of the electrode.
The same argument applies to electrodes of any shape. It can be considered that a
distance from the electrode could be found at which the next increment of unit
distance only adds say 1% to the resistance of the electrode. Beyond this distance is
the general mass of earth, which can be assumed to have zero resistance.
Revision A
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When designing earthing systems using the ground as a main conductor a circuit
must exist. In a power system the reference point for earthing is generally taken to
be the earthed neutral or star point of the source of supply e.g. power transformer,
generator. This will be the point where fault currents remote in the power system
return to. Hence, the electrode of the neutral or star point is one of the resistances in
the circuit. At the remote location where the fault is there will be a second electrode
to earth the faulted equipment. This electrode will be the second resistance in the
circuit. The third resistance will be the general mass of earth between the boundaries
of these two electrodes, its value can be taken as zero. The fourth resistance in the
circuit will be the copper conductors between the source of voltage at the supply e.g.
transformer but behind its impedance, and the point of fault, e.g. phase cables,
busbars, cable armouring. These resistances (or more strictly, impedances) form a
series connected circuit.
In the vicinity of either electrode there will be a voltage gradient set up by the fault
current. This gradient will be a 3-dimensional shape, penetrating into the ground as
well as along the surface of the ground.
The gradient formed across the surface constitutes a danger to life by electric shock.
Hence, the gradient should be kept as small as possible by keeping the electrode
resistance as low as practical. In poor soil conditions and where very large fault
currents can flow it is essential to keep the electrode resistance small. It may be
necessary to use several electrodes in parallel, or to use a ground grid, mesh or mat.
The design of grids, meshes and mats is usually necessary in a power system
switching station where overhead lines are present. The most appropriate
international standards for the measurement of earth resistance and the design of
grids, meshes and mats are the IEEE 81-1983 and IEEE 80-1986 respectively,
which also references books and papers by G.F. Tagg.
See also [ES.2.03.0001, sub-section 10.4] for guidance in the design of grid and rod
systems.
Note: D.5.1.a: - In modern standards and literature the dimensional units of soil
resistivity are ohm-metres. Early published material used the units
ohms per cubic centimetre. Hence, care shall be taken when referring to
documents, even the MIs of test equipment for measuring earth
resistance.
D.5.2 Single vertical rod earth electrodes
For all but the most specialised earthing systems, the vertical rod type of electrode should be
used.
The standard formula for a driven rod resistance R is: -
R = (log
e
(4L/a) - 1) / (2L) ohms
Where : - L is the depth of rod material, m.
a is the radius of the rod, m.
is the soil resistivity, ohm-m.
R is the resistance of electrode, ohms.
Revision A
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For QGPC plants the soil resistivity will usually be "high" and so the rods shall be driven to at
least 5 metres, but subject to acceptable measured resistance during the driving process.
D.5.3 Multiple vertical rod earth electrodes
Several vertical rods may be driven in close proximity to each other to reduce the total
resistance. However, care shall be taken not to separate them by too small a distance, as the
improvement will be poor.
The most satisfactory method of approach to this problem is to drive an initial test rod on the
site and having obtained its resistance to earth determine the number of electrodes required for
a given resistance. Since 90 percent of the resistance to earth is situated within an area the
radius of which is roughly equal to the length of the rod, the electrodes should be spaced far
enough away from each other so as not to overlap the resistance areas of their neighbours.
With spacings equal to approximately twice the length of each electrode, each additional rod
introduces a new area of unused soil and the resistance is reduced by an amount which is
almost inversely proportional to the number of rods installed. In this way, with two electrodes
the combined resistance is roughly 50 percent of the resistance of one rod alone. With three
electrodes the combined resistance is 33 percent.
If the rods are connected together with a bare-copper conductor, this also helps to reduce the
resistance further as the conductor will generally be buried about 0.5m to 1.0 m below the
surface, and will also conduct some of the fault currents to earth. As the number of rods
increases, the effect of overlapping becomes more apparent and in general on a given area a
limit is reached at which the reduction in resistance obtained by installing additional electrodes
will not prove economical and it is necessary to extend the area of the installation to obtain an
appreciable drop in resistance.
D.5.4 Methods of measurement
The IEEE 81-1983 describes in detail a number of different methods to be used for measuring
the resistance of the electrode, and hence the soil resistivity.
All electrodes driven into QGPC sites shall be recorded and individually tag numbered. At the
time the rods are driven the following data shall be recorded : -
Ground temperature, if possible.
Diameter of the rod, mm (16mm minimum)
DRiven length of the rod, m.
Tag number.
Measured resistance.
Method used for measurements.
Unusual situations e.g. Difficulty driving the rod, sudden change
In measured resistance with depth.
Before the final location for the rod is chosen a series of test trials near to the location shall be
made and recorded. If the measuring instrument uses A.C. rather than D.C. then some
inductive reactance may be present in the results.
Several methods are available : -
Revision A
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Variation in depth method, also called the 3-point method.
2 - point method, for approximate results.
4 - point methods.
a) equally spaced or Wenner method.
b) unequally spaced or Schlumberger - Palmer method,
c) considered in IEEE 81 to be superior to a).
Fall-of-potential method, this is described in detail in IEEE 81 sub-section (8.2.1.5).
D.5.5 Results to be achieved
The value of earth electrode resistance to be achieved depends upon the equipment being
protected by the electrode. Table D.5.5.A gives the resistances to be achieved for general
applications.
TABLE D.5.5.A
Maximum earth electrode resistance for different applications
Application
Measured Resistance
Ohms
Solidly earthed star points 1.0
NER earthed star points 1.0
Lightning protection 10.0
Static bonding 10.0, see Note D.5.5c
Overhead line tower footings 20.0, see Note D.5.5a
Note D.5.5a: - Where towers or poles have cable tee-off connections, voltage
transformers for measurement and indication, switches, or other
consumer type equipment the resistance shall be reduced from 20
ohms to 4 ohm, (preferably 1 ohm if practically possible).
Note D.5.5b: - See also sub-section (16.2.6), pole earthing, for drilling bore holes to
improve footing resistance.
Note D.5.5c: - A resistance less than 1000000 ohms is acceptable, 10 ohms is a
general level to try and achieve.
Revision A
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APPENDIX E
TECHNICAL PARTICULARS OF 33 kV
OVERHEAD LINES AND CABLES
E.1 Introduction
This item includes the technical particulars which the CONTRACTOR shall take due notice
of during the erection, installation, testing and commissioning of overhead lines and cables.
E.2 Schedule - overhead line - general characteristics
UNIT DESCRIPTION VALUE
1. Nominal Line Voltage - volts R.M.S 33,000
2. No. of circuits per line 1
3. Conductor configuration Wishbone
4. No. of conductors per phase 1
5. Phase Conductor Code Name A.C. S.R. "Dog"
6. No. of earth conductors 1
7. Earth Conductor Configuration Pole top mounted affording 30
degree maximum shielding
angle to top conductor
8. Earth Conductor 7/3.25 Galvanized Steel
9. System earthing Solid
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E.3 Schedule - overhead line - design conditions
ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT VALUE
1. Conductor height above ground (minimum) m 6
2. Design span m 100
3. Conductor minimum tension (in wind at min.
Temperature)
% UTS 33
4. Line deviation angle
a) Poles without stays 0
b) Poles with stays - medium angle 0 - 60
c) Poles with stays - heavy angle 60 - 100C
5. Pole factors of safety
a) Breaking load - normal condition 2.5
b) Crippling load 1.8
6. Guy safety factor min. 2.5
7. Maximum temporary deflection under
maximum loading conditions mm 300
8. Conductor clearances
a) Line phase/phase - mid span m 1.5
b) Line phase/earth - mid span m 1.2
m 1.5
c) Jumper phase/phase m 1.2
d) Jumper phase/earth m 3.0
e) Jumper max. unsupported length
m min. 0.6
(span) m min. 0.5
f) Conductor rigid parts at poles ph/ph
9. g) Conductors rigid parts at ph/earth C 80
10. Max. Temperature of phase and earth conductors mm nil
11. Radial thickness of ice coating on conductors m/s 36.0
Max. wind velocity
12. (occuring at any temperature) N/m
2
9.53
13. Wind load on projected area of pole, insulators
and conductors
N.N.W.
80%
14. Prevailing winds Sea level to
65 mm
Altitude
E.4 Schedule - 33 kV cables - technical particulars
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ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT VALUE
1. Manufacturer
2. Number of conductors 3
3. Sectional area of conductor sq. mm 120
4. Shape of conductor circular
5. Conductor material copper
6*. Nominal diameter over conductor mm 13.1
7*. Nominal diameter over conductor screen mm 14.5
8*. Nominal diameter over insulation mm 32.1
9*. Nominal diameter over insulation screen mm 33.9
10*. Minimum insulation thickness mm 7.1
11*. Nominal insulation thickness mm 8.8
12*. Minimum average insulation thickness mm 8.0
13*. Nominal diameter over copper tape mm 34.2
14*. Nominal diameter over laid up cores mm 73.8
15*. Nominal diameter over PVC bedding mm 77.8
16*. Nominal diameter over single wire armour mm 84.1
17*. Nominal diameter over PVC mm 91.7
18*. Nominal weight of cable kg/m 13.9
Note: mark * for typical cable only
19*. Installation Conditions
-direct burial in the ground
- under the roads in ducts
- in DPS basement on ladders
- depth of laying m 0.8 nominal
20. Soil thermal resistivity km/W 2.5
21. Maximum soil temperature at burial depth C 40
22. Metallic sheath earthing solid bonding
at both ends
E.5 Schedule - clearances - internal to line
ITEM DESCRIPTION
CLEARANCE IN
METRES
1. Line phase/phase - mid span (steel air) 1.5
2. Line phase/earth - mid span 1.2
3. Jumper phase/phase 1.5
4. Jumper phase/earth 1.2
5. Jumper max. unsupported length 3.0
6. Conductor rigid parts at poles phase/phase 0.6
7. Conductor rigid parts at poles phase/earth 0.5
E.6 Schedule - clearance - external to line
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ITEM
SITUATION ABOVE WHICH CLEARANCE
MUST BE MAINTAINED
CLEARANCE IN
METERS
1. Normal ground 6.0
2. Any wall building or other structure on which a man
may stand, or on which a ladder may be placed:-
2.5
a) The specified clearances are between the l lowest
line conductor and ground or other objects
b) The clearances are to be obtained under the
conditions corresponding to:
* 80C conductor temperature steel air sag of
33 kV transmission line conductors.
* with any angle of swing of the conductor sag at
32C from the vertical between zero and 45C
it being assumed that the above mentioned sag allows
for final creep conditions.
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E.7 Schedule - phase conductor - technical particulars
E.7.1 Phase conductor characteristics
ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT
PHASE
CONDUCTOR
1. Code word DOG
2. Manufacturing standard BS215:2/70
3. Aluminum wire (No/diameter) No/mm 6/4.72
4. Steel Wire (No/diameter) No/mm 7/1.57
5. Overall diameter of Conductor mm 14.15
6. Weight of Conductor kg/km 402
7. Maximum D.C. Resistance /km 0.2733
8. Ultimate Tensile Strength kN 32.7
9. Equivalent Modulus of Elasticity daN/mm
2
7500
10. Equivalent Modulus of linear Expansion 1/C 19.8 x 10
6
11. Creep Allowance Years 10
12. Creep Compensation C 7
E.7.2 Tensioning details
ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT LINE CONDUCTORS
MWS EDS
1. Temperature C 5 32
2. Wind Pressure daN 95.3 0
3. Minimum Factor of Safety - 3 9.82
4. Stress daN/mm2 9.20 2.81
5. Tension da/N 1090 333
Note : - MWS -maximum working stress.
EDS - everyday working stress.
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E.8 Schedule -earthwire conductor - technical particulars
E.8.1 Earthwire conductor characteristics
ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT EARTH-WIRE
1. Code word St 7 /3.25
2. Manufacturing standard BS 183/72
3. Aluminum wire (No/diameter) No/mm
4. Steel Wire (No/diameter) No/mm 7 / 3.25
5. Overall Diameter of Conductor mm 9.75
6. Weight of Conductor kg/km 460
7. Maximum D.C. Resistance /km
8. Ultimate Tensile Strength kN 40.65
9. Equivalent Modulus of Elasticity daN/mm
2
18000
10. Equivalent Modulus of linear Expansion 1/C 11 x 10
6
E.8.2 Tensioning details
ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT LINE CONDUCTORS
MWS EDS
1. Temperature C 5 32
2. Wind Pressure daN 95.3 0
3. Minimum Factor of Safety - 5 10.00
4. Stress daN/mm2 14.00 7.0
5. Tension daN 813.00 406.5
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APPENDIX F
TEMPORARY ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS
F.1 Regulations
All regulations constituting the local law are obligatory. For semi-permanent parts of the site
installation, such as site offices and ancillary buildings, the local regulations, if they exist,
shall be adhered to. In absence of local regulations generally accepted standards, e.g [IEC
364] or the [IEE wiring regulations] shall be followed.
F.2 Protection of circuits
Appropriate protection shall be provided for all main and sub-apparatus and this shall be
capable of interrupting without damage any short circuit current that may occur. To this end
consideration shall always be given to the fault level of the supply.
The ratings of fuses and circuit breakers used for this purpose shall be coordinated so as to
afford discrimination in operation where necessary.
F.3 Power transformers
Power transformers needed for the mains supply shall be surrounded by a fence with locked
gates.
F.4 LV distribution boards
Each distribution board shall be provided with one or more incoming on-off switching
devices, which shall be accessible at all times.
Each outgoing feeder shall be provided with a switching device in combination with a short
circuit protection device, e.g. fuse, circuit breaker.
Switching devices shall be padlockable in the off position. Switchgear and all its components
shall be capable of withstanding the thermal and dynamic stresses resulting from the
prospective short circuit currents.
Busbars and other conductors shall be suitably sized to carry continuously the maximum
expectable currents in the rated service.
Each distribution board shall be provided with an earth bar suitably sized to carry with the
fault current and fault clearing time under the prospective short circuit conditions for a solidly
earthed system.
The distribution board shall be suitable for outdoor use, enclosure protection IP 56, and be
protected at least by a weather canopy.
The distribution board shall consist of metal or of an all-insulated material and shall be
suitable for heavy-duty requirements.
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Opening of enclosures or removing of parts of enclosures giving access to live parts (doors,
covers, etc.) shall be possible only when one of the following conditions is fulfilled : -
All live parts may be touched after opening the door or enclosure only after the supply
is disconnected and made safe at its source. By interlocking the door or doors with an
isolating switch such that they can be opened only if the isolating switch is open and only
if it is not possible to close the isolator if the door or doors are open except by releasing
the lock or by means of a tool.
If the distribution board is fitted with a device allowing authorized persons to obtain
access to live parts while the equipment is live, the interlock shall be automatically
restored when the door or doors are re-closed.
The distribution board shall include an internal barrier or shutter protecting all live parts
in such a way that they cannot be touched accidentally when the door is open. This screen
or shutter shall conform to a degree of protection of at least IP20. The screen or shutter
shall either be fixed in place or shall slide into place on its own as soon as the door, or the
enclosure, is opened. It shall not be possible to remove this screen or shutter except by
the use of a tool.
Such screens, shutters or barriers to live parts shall preferably be made of rigid transparent
insulating material and provided with a warning label.
Fuses shall be accessible only if they are offering a degree of protection of at least IP20, or
when fully isolated.
All outgoing circuits shall have sensitive earth fault type cut-out devices installed in the
distribution board. These shall include outgoing circuits feeding lighting equipment, socket
outlets or other electrical apparatus.
The sensitivity of the earth fault type cut-out devices shall be as follows : -
30 mA for circuits up to 63A.
300 mA for circuits 63A and higher.
F.5 Cabling
F.5.1 Underground temporary cables
Temporary cables buried directly in the ground shall be of a type incorporating a galvanized
steel wire armouring or braiding which is continuous and effectively earthed.
Such cables shall be buried at a sufficient depth to avoid being damaged by any disturbance of
the ground reasonably likely to occur during the construction period. Cable armouring shall be
bonded to the earth bar in the distribution board.
Underground temporary cables shall be provided along the routing with the marking
'Temporary cable, this marking shall also indicate the applicable project number.
For cable marking purposes normally non-corroding strips shall be used, each having ample
length to be wrapped twice around the cable and in which the text has been indelibly
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imprinted. In addition, routing markers shall be provided at each change of direction in the
routing and at crossings.
F.5.2 Aboveground temporary cables
Above ground temporary cables shall be fixed on site so that they are clear of building
operations or engineering construction work and so that they are not a hazard. Where possible
they are to be installed clear of passageways, walkways, ladders, stairs and the like. The use
of overhead cables on sites is deprecated but, where their use is unavoidable, overhead cables
crossing roads or routes where cranes or other mobile plant are likely to pass shall be erected
so that there is a minimum clear height of 5.8m. In areas where motor transport and mobile
plant are prohibited, cabling shall be fixed at any height above 3.5m.
Overhead cables when crossing passages, shall be bound with yellow and black-coloured
tapes. Alternatively freely moving strips of fabric or plastic may be attached to attract
attention. In some circumstances protective barriers may be required.
All cables shall be installed in such a way that they are at least 150mm clear of piped services
such as steam, gas and water. Apparatus and accessories other than lamp holders shall not be
suspended from electric cables.
All cables which are likely to be frequently moved in normal use shall be flexible, of the
heavy-duty neoprene rubber type or equivalent.
F.6. Earthing
For the purpose of earthing of the electrical system and equipment the installation shall have
one common earthing grid connected to at least two earth electrodes.
The requirements for Permanent Installations shall apply, see (19) in the main text together
[section (10.4) in ES.2.03.0001].
The resistance to earth of this common earthing resistance grid shall be as low as practicable
but at least such that in the case of earth faults the electrical protective devices shall prevent
shock hazard potentials on any part of the equipment which is not part of the electrical
circuits. For portable and mobile equipment, with exposed conductive parts likely to be held in
the hand, the following correlation between duration and voltage shall not be exceeded : -
For AC For DC
Continuous Less than 50 V 110 V
5 seconds 50 V 110 V
1 second 75 V 110 V
0.5 seconds 90 V 110 V
0.2 seconds 110 V 110 V
0.1 seconds 150 V 110 V
0.05 seconds 220V 110 V
0.03 seconds 280V 110 V
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Earth wires shall be of the standard copper green/yellow PVC covered type, suitably sized to
cope with fault current level and fault clearing time. For mechanical reasons main earth wires
shall be at least 50 sq mm., branch earth wires 10 sq mm., unless adequate mechanical
protection is provided by other means, e.g. wire installations in conduit, or earth conductors
forming part of a cable, allowing a smaller size.
The connections between earth electrode and conductors shall be so executed that easy
inspection and testing of the earth resistance of each individual electrode, without
disconnecting any part of the earthing system, is possible.
The earth bar in the distribution board shall be connected with two earth wires each suitable
for 100% duty to the above-mentioned common earthing grid.
F.7 Selection of components
The components shall be suitable for their particular application as regards their rated
voltages, rated currents, service life, making and breaking capacities, short circuit strength,
etc.
The components having a short circuit strength and/or a breaking capacity insufficient to
withstand the stresses likely to occur at the place of installation shall be protected by means of
current-limiting devices, for example fuses or circuit breakers. When selecting current-limiting
devices for built-in switching devices, account shall be taken of the maximum admissible
values specified by the manufacturer of the apparatus, having due regard to coordination.
Components incorporated in the distribution board shall, in their design and construction,
comply with the corresponding IEC standards.
Plugs of different rated currents or voltages shall not be interchangeable, so as to avoid errors
in connection., see [IEC 309 Part 2].
Connections for three-phase plugs shall be made in such a way as to retain the same order of
phases.
The socket outlets and plugs used outdoors shall have a degree of protection at least IP56,
both when the plug is removed or fully inserted.