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T A B L E 16,-METHODS

OF AVERAGING DATA

LVlien a number of measurements are made of any quantity variatioils \vill he found.
The question is: \Vhat is tlie best represcnt3t:ve value for the quantity thus mea.wrctl :
and how shall the precision oi the iiieasiireiiiciits be stated? The arithmetic iiicaii of all
the readings is generally taken a s the hest value. T o tell soiiictliiiiK almut tlie Iwecision
of the final result any one of five measures of variation which arc tliscu.sctl i n hooks dealiiip
with this subject may be given. These measures of deviation arc':
fi = probable error
a = the average deviation (from the arithmetic nicaiil
u = the standard deviation
1/11 = the reciprocal of tlie modulus of precisicm
k / z v = the reciprocal of the "precision constant"

Of these precision indexes the standard deviation. u. is most easily computctl. For the
set of observed values .rl, .r2..x,, of equal weight. the u for a siiiqlc observation is given hy
Z(.r - .r)?

$1

and for the mean by


u=

-1

-:4
=

v I1

-(.I'
r

I Z(.r-.r)?

--(X--.i-)*

Il(11-1)

I,.r):

112

The ratios of these precision indexes to one another for a iiornial (or Gaussian)
distribution are :
p : t i : u : 1 11 : i: 'it' : : 0.376936 : 1 *\;
: \,-)
: 1.000 : \'r
or roughly as p : n : u : 1/11 : k i t ' : : 7 : 8 : 10 : 14 : 25
Most experimental data can be represented by an equation of sonic form. One (it' thc
recommended methods for determining the coefficients oi such equations is the use of a
least-squares solution. This means that an attempt is niadc t o find values icir the coefficients
such that the sum of the squares of the deviations oi tlie cxpcriniciital points irom the
resulting curve has the least possible value. Certain tahles arc of help in making such
solutions (Tables 16-26), and reference shouitl be made to books or pspers on this suhjcct
for their use.
Xri example of one niethod of finding tlic cocfiicients of such sclcctctl equations (based
on "Treatment of Experimental Data," by \Vorthing and Gefiner. published h>- \\-ilcy.
1933) follows.
P a r t 1,-Least

squares adjustment of measurements of linearly related quantities

Let, Q,, Q,. . . QI. be the k adjusted, but initially unkno\vn, values of the lincarly related
quantities. Let S,,
S2.. . S,,
be I i (> 1:) measured values oi Q's or o i linear combinations
of two or more, Q's.
Let &, &. . . A , $ be the adjustments or corrections that m i s t be applied to tlic iiieasii~cd
s ' s to yield consistent least-squares values for the Q's. See below for a simple illustration.
As O / J S C ~ P * O ~ ~cqircitiorrs
OII
we have

................................

+.

n,,Q, /bQ2 . ./:,,QI. - s,,= A,,


of which n i . O i . . . k i are constants. whose values are ircquciitly
1. - 1. or 0.
~ r r s foriiied. For equally \veiglitccl
From the observation equations k riorrrrol c . ~ ] l / ~ i l i ~ are
observed values of S.they arc
r ~ r o l l c ) Ir o i n i i ~ . r 1 7 , c - i ~ ~ ~ 2. . illt/;,ic)k- rll,.yii = o
">,lli1Qj [Fil!$lQ2i! ! ~ , c , l c : l. +. . I / l , / : i l ~ ) I . - r 1 7 , S j l = 0
(2)

+
+

+.

.......................................................
r k i ~ i l ( _+
) l r/:ir~ilQ,+ i i ~ i ~ ~ ; +.
l c ).. .i/:rl:ilch
l
-rk,sil =0

SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

OF AVERAGING D A T A (continued)

T A B L E 16.-METHODS

38

of which, as representative bracketed L 1 coefficients, we have


[atat] = alal azaz a3a3 .. .a,,a,
[acbrl= a161 a262 a3b3 . .anBn
[ a l X l l = a,X, azXz aaX3 . .anXn

+ + +
+ + +.
+ + +.

(3)

.....................................
[ktatl = klal + hzaz + k3a3+ ...knan
Solutions of equation (2) yield'the least-squares adjusted values of

Qi,

Qz...ex.

For unequally weighted values of X , that is wl, wz,. . .wnfor X , X z . . .Xn, the rrornral
equations become

+
+

[ w t a ~ a t l Q ~ [wtatbtlQ2
[ ~ i b c a < l Q i [wtDtbtlQZ

+ [zvtatctIQ3+.. . [ W C ~ ~ -~ ~[wcatXtl
I Q X =0
+ [ ~ , b t ~ i l Q+..
3 .[ ~ r b t l ~ ~ l [Q~ ~t b t X i=
l 0

(4)

.....................................................................

+.

~w~k~aclQ
[ wl l h ~ b t l Q z I W ~ ~ ~ C ..~twthtktlQkI Q ~
of which

[ w t a d = zphalal
[zv~acbtl
= walbl

+ w z ~ a+z w3a3a3+ ...wnana8,


+ zfia2bY+ w3a3b3+. . .twnanbn

IwtkcXtl = 0

(5)

............................................
[wtk+atl= wlklal + wIkza2+ w3ksar+. . .wnknan
The weights wl, m . . .w,, associated with the Xi, X Z . . . X , and with the successive observation equations are taken as inversely proportional to the squares of the probable
errors (or of the standard deviations) of the corresponding X's. It is customary to take
simple rounded numbers for the proportional values. A precise set of 28, 50, 41, and 78
may be rounded to 3, 5, 4, and 8.
As a simple application, consider the elevations of stations B, C, and D above A. Let
those elevations in order be Q1, Q2,and Q3. Let the quantities measured and the observed
elevations be such as to yield the following observation equations :

Qz - Q 3 -12 ft = A5
Qi - Q3 - 5 ft = A6
Th coefficients al, b ~ and
,
are obvious. Substitution

are seen to be 1, 0, and 0. The values of the other coefficients


equation (2) yields for the normal equations
3Qz- Q a Q36ft=O
(7)
- Qi 3 Q 2 - Q 3 - 39 ft = O
- Qi - Q z 3Q3 13 ft = 0

Solutions of equation ( 7 ) yield 91 ft, 174 ft, and 44 ft for the elevations of B, C, and D
above A.
P a r t 2.-Least-squares

+ bx,

equations of the type y = a


observed (x,y) values

to represent a series of

For equally weighted pairs of (x,y) of which the errors of measurement are associated
with the determinations of the y's

of which

SMITHSDNIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

T A B L E 16.-METHODS

OF A V E R A G I N G D A T A (concluded)

39

The probable errors of the a and the b of equation (8) are given by

For unequally weighted measurements of which the errors of measurement are associated with the determinations of the y's,
Z w l x i l Z w , y i - Z w ix & v i xt y i
a=
Z z w Z w l x l z - (Zzehxr ) Z

Where the erroi s of measurement are associated with the x-determination only, the corb'y can be obtained by merely
responding coefficients of an equation of the type x = a'
interchanging x and y in equation ( 8 ) .
Where the errors of measurement are associated with both the x - and the y- determinations, the expressions are complicated."

Worthing, A. G . , and Geffner, J., Trcatment of experimental data, p. 259, John Wiley and Sons,
New York, 1943. Used by permmion.

+ cxz + dx3 to

equation of the type y = a


bx
series o f observed (x, y ) values

P a r t 3.-Least-squares

represent a

For the general case involving irregularly spaced x-values, the formulae for a, b, c , etc.,
are very complex." However, for the case of equally weighted observations with errors
of measurement associated entirely with the y-values in which succeeding x-values are
equally spaced, the mechanics of the computations for least-squares constants are very
greatly simplified, thanks to tables computed by Baily and by Cox and Matuschak.Ia The
procedure requires a change of the x-variable to yield a new X-variable with a zero-value
at the midpoint of the series. I n case of an even number of terms, the shift is given by
x-x
4x

X,= -

(11)

of which Ax is the even spacing between successive x-values; and, if the number of terms
is odd, the shift is given by
-

x o = x4x/2
--x

(12)

The further procedure consists in determining the appropriate summations indicated in


Table 17, the appropriate k-terms given as a function of the number of terms n in Tables 19
and 20, combining the appropriate summations and k-terms, to give parameters for the
equation y = f ( X ) , and finally transferring the function to the original coordinate system
to yield y = f i ( x ) .
How to apply the simplified procedure to determine the coefficient of x2 in the leastcxz to represent the xy values of the first two columns of
squares equation y = a bx
the following tabulations is shown in the remainder of the tabulation.

+ +

(set)

(cm)

3
6
9
12
15
18

12.0
20.6
33.7
51.1
72.9
99.1

_-

-5
-3
-1
1
3

+
+
+5

289.4

-X2Y
(cm)

300.0
185.4
33.7
51.1
656.1
2477.5

-__

3703.8

C' = k5ZX2y - krZy


n=6
k5 = 16,741,071 X
k 4 = 19,531,250X lo-*
kJZX2y= 6.2005 cm
krZy = 5.6523 cm
c' = 0.5482 cm
Ax = 3 sec
c = 4c'i ( A x ) = 0.244 cm/sec2

67, 1YZI; Worthing, A. G . ,


I4 Birge, R . T., and Shea, J. D., Univ. California Puhl. Math., vol. 2,
and Geffner. J., Treatment of experimental data, p. 250, John Wiley and gins, New York, 1943.
Baily, J. L., Ann. Math. Statistics, vol. 2, p. 355, 1931.
'"Cox, G. C., and Matuschak, Margaret, Journ. Phys. Chem., vol. 45, p. 362, 1941.

SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

40
T A B L E 17.-SHOWING
T H E MAKE-UP O F T H E CONSTANTS O F T H E LEASTSQUARES EQUATION O F T H E T Y P E y = a
bx
cx2 dxS FOR EQUATIONS OF VARYING DEGREES W H E N T H E ABBREVIATED M E T H O D O F
BAILEY AND O F COX AND MATUSCHAK IS U S E D *

+ +

This method is applicable only when succeeding values of x have a common difference
and a r e equally weighted. T h e independent variable, changed if necessary, must have a
zero value at the midpoint of the series with succeeding values differing by unity if the
number of terms is odd and by two if even. Values for the various k's, as computed by
Cox and Matuschak, are to be found in Tables 14 and 20.

J'or

references, see footnotes 15 and 16, P. 39.

L U ES O F P =

TABLE 18.-VA

P, the probability of an observational error having a value positive or negative equal to


hZ
or less than x when h is the measure of precision, P =
e-'"''zd(hx) * I t a = (tntax')
v'T
0
where nz = no. obs. of deviation A x .
hx
0.0

.I
.2
.3
.4
0.5

.6
.7
.8
.9
1.o

.1

.2
.3
.4
1.5

.6
.7
.8

.9
2.0

.I
.2
.3
.4
2.5

.6
.7
.8

.9

,01128 .02256 .03384 .04511 ,05637 ,06762


.11246 ,12362 .I3476 .I4587 .I 5695 .16800 .I7901
,22270 .23352 24430 .25502 .26570 .27633 .28690
.32863 .33891 .34913 .35928 .36936 ,37938 ,38933
.42839 .43797 .44747 .45689 .46623 .47548 ,48466

7
8
9
.07886 .09008 .lo128
.I8999 .20094 .21184
,29742 ,30788 ,31828
,39921 .40901 ,41874
,49375 .SO275 51167

.52050
,60386
.67780
.74210
.79691

.52924
.61168
,68467
.74800
.80188 ,80677

3 4 9 4 .56332 ,57162
.63459 ,64203 ,64938
.70468 .71116 .71754
.76514 ,77067 .77610
,81156 .81627 32089 ,82542

,57982 ,58792 .59594


,65663 .66378 ,67084
.72382 ,73001 ,73610
,78144 ,78669 .79184
,82987 .83423 ,83851

.84270
.88021
.91031
.93401
,95229

.84681 .85084
.a353 .88679
.91296 .91553
,93606 .93807
.95385 .95538

3.5478 .85865
188997 .89308
.91805 .92051
.94002 .94191
.95686 ,95830

.86977
90200
.92751
.94731
,96237

.86244
,89612
,92290
,94376
.95970

,86614
.89910
.92524
,94556
,96105

.96611 ,96728
,97635 .97721
.98379 .98441
.98909 .98952
39279 ,99309

.96841
.97804
.98500
.98994
.99338

.96952
.97884
.98558
.99035
,99366

.97059
.97962
.98613
.99374
.99392

,99532
.99702
,99814
.99886
.99931

.99572
,99728
,99831
.99897
.99938

99591
.99741
.99839
.99902
.99941

.99609 ,99626 .99642


9 7 5 3 .99764 ,99775
,99846 .99854 ,99861
.99906 9 9 11 9 9 1 5
.99944 .99947 .99950

,99552
,99715
.99822
.99891
.99935

,97162 .97263
.98038 .98110
,98667 .98719
,99111 ,99147
.99418 ,99443

.87333
,90484
,92973
.94902
.96365

,87680
90761
,93190
.95067
.96490

,97360 ,97455 ,97546


.98181 ,98249 ,98315
.98769 .98817 .98864
,99182 .99216 ,99248
,99466 .99489 ,99511
,99658
.99785
.99867
.99920
,99952

,99673
,99795
,99874
.99924
,99955

.99688
,99805
,99880
.99928
.99957

99.59 ,99961 .99963 .99965 .99967 ,99969 .99971 .99972 .99974 .99975
99976 .99978 ,99979 .99980 .99981 .99982 ..99983 .99984 ,99985 .99986
9 9 8 7 .99987 ,99988 .99989 .99989 .99s50 . 9 W 1 ,99991 ,99992 .99992
.99992 .99993 ,99993 .99994 .99994 .99994 .99995 .99995 .99995 ,99996
99996 S9996 999% .99997 ,99997 .99997 .99997 ,99997 .99997 .99998

.99998
3.0
-

.99999

.99999 1.00000

SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

v)

T A B L E 19.-VALUES
O F T H E CONSTANTS, k,, E N T E R I N G LEAST-SQUARES SOLU TION S, U SIN G T H E A B B R E V I A T E D
M E T H O D O F B A I L Y A N D O F COX A N D M A T U S C H A K , W H E N T H E N U M B E R OF TER MS, n, IS O D D *

z
D
Q

T h e numbers in parentheses show the negative powers of 10 by which the adjacent numbers must he multiplied in order to obtain appropriate 12"'s.

To illustrate, 1 : ~for I G = 13 is 54,945,055 x lo-''.

ka
4

I
Im
(D

3
- 5
n 7
9
11

k4

kx

kG

3333 3333(8)
2000 0000
1428 5714
1111 1111
9090 9091(9)

so00 OOOO(8)
1000 0000
3571 4286(9)
1666 6667' '
9090 9091(10)

1000 OOOO(7)
4857 1429(8)
3333 3333
2554 1126
2074 5921

1000 0000(7',
1428 5714(6,
4761 9048(9)
2164 5022
1165 5012

1500 OOOO(7)
7142 8571(9)
1190 4762
3246 7532(10)
1165 5012

9027 7778(8)
2625 6614
1143 3782
6037 9435(9)

2361
3240
8277
2881

1111(8)
7407(9)
2166(10)
3779

6944 4444(9)
4629 6296(10)
7014 5903(11)
1618 7516

13
15
17
19
21

7692
6666
5882
5263
4761

5494 5055
3571 4286
2450 9803
1754 3860
1298 7013

1748 2517
1511 3122
1331 2693
1189 7391
1075 5149

6993 0070(10)
4524 8869
3095 9752
2211 4109
1634 5211

4995 0050(11)
2424 0465
1289 9897
7371 3696(12)
4457 7848

3584 6098
2304 5899
1570 2041
1118 3168
8248 9 7 0 ( 10)

1214 0637
5830 6799 ( 11)
3081 6420
1752 5617
1056 2015

4856 2549(12)
1745 7125
7166 6093(13)
3257 5497
1605 1694

23
25
27
29
31

4347 8261
4000 0000
3703 7037
3448 2759
3225 8065

9881
7692
6105
4926
4032

9813
9024
8352
7774
7270

6646(9)
1546
4904
0700
7048

1242 2360
%51 8357(11)
7662 8352
6179 7058
5056 1230

2823 2637
1858 0453
1263 1047
8828 1512(13)
6320 1537

6259
4862
3852
3104
2538

6672
4382
2974
2076
1485

8445
4692
2728
1650
1032

33
35
37
39
41

3030
2857
2702
2564
2439

3342 2460
2801 1204
2370 7918
2024 2915
1742 1603

6828
6437
6088
5775
5493

6552
3464
5061
5692
2589

4189
3510
2970
2535
2181

4620 6166
3441 1799
2605 2658
2001 6066
1558 2829

2102 4471
1760 7811
1489 3734
1271 0408
1093 4097

1084 7991
8073 4407(13)
6108 7522
4691 0081
3650 4910

6655 2091(15)
4402 0942
2979 8791
2059 2661
1449 7581

43
45
47
49
51
-

2325 5814
2222 2222
2127 6596
2040 8163
1960 7843

1510 1178
1317 5231
1156 3367
1020 4082
9049 7738(12)

5237
5004
4790
4595
4414

2849
1234
8525
0295
5960

1890 7166
1649 3485
1447 3875
1277 1066
1132 5285

1227 7380
9778 7451 (14)
7866 2362
6385 5329
5227 0545

9474
8263
7250
6396
5671

2875 1015
2289 2527
1841 0171
1494 1103
1222 7830

1037 9428
7545 3288( 16)
5561 9852
4152 6134
3136 9497

3077
6667
3529
1579
9048

3030
1429
7027
1026
0244

4229( 11)
3077
0061
1084
2581

For references. see footnotes 15 and 16. 1). 39

3590
0035
0030
3684
5961

0791
3545
7423
7316
6983

1490(11)
1159
1033
2170
3855

0719(12)
3595
5336
4076
0296

6606(14)
0337
9299
5625
7049

3
!

T A B L E 20.-VALUES
OF T H E CONS T ANT S , k,, E N T E R I N G LEA ST-SQU A R ES SOLU TION S, U S I N G T H E A B B R E V I A T E D
M E T H O D O F B A I L Y A N D OF COX A N D M A T U S C H A K , W H E N T H E N U M B E R O F T E R M S , n, IS E V E N *

z
z
P
-0

The numbers in parentheses show the negative powers of 10 by which the adjacent numbers must be multiplied in order to obtain appropriate kn's.

b
r01
Im n

4
6
8
10

2500 OOOO(8)
1666 6667
1250 0000
1000 0000

5000
1428
5952
3030

0000(9)
5714
3810(10)
3030

6406
3945
2890
2289

12
14
16
18
20

8333 3333(9)
7142 8571
6250 0000
5555 5556
5000 0000

1748
1098
7352
5159
3759

2517
9011
9412(11)
9587
3985

22
24
26
28
30

4545 4545
4166 6667
3846 1538
3571 4286
3333 3333

32
34
36
38
40

3125
2941
2777
2631
2500

42
44

2380
2272
2173
2083
2000

-4

46
48
50
-

kz

k3

ks

k4

7812
1953
7812
3906

5030(9)
1250
5000(10)
2500

1562
1674
3720
1183

1897 3214
1621 0938
1415 5506
1256 5104
1129 7349

2232
1395
9300
6510
4734

1429
0893
5952(
4167
8485

4682 8172(12)
2146 2912
1094 1877
6046 8266( 13)
3560 0365

2823 2637
2173 9130
1709 4017
1368 3634
1112 3471

1026
9402
8675
8052
7513

2784
3164(9)
3091
8846
9509

3551 1364
2731 6434
2146 2912
1717 0330
1395 0893

2205
1425
9539
6578
4655

OOOO
1765
7778
5789
0000

9164
7634
6435
5471
4690

2229( 12)
4194
0064
0581
4315

7042
6627
6258
5927
5630

7390
2213
0624
9058
8741

1148
9574
8062
6853
5774

8971
1423(12)
4358
0703
0602

3369 1996
2486 7902
1867 7458
1424 7547
1102 0751

9524
7273
9130
3333
OOOO

4051
3523
3083
2713
2400

5355
6081
5646
8515
9604

5362
5118
4895
4690
4503

2160
0477
1643
8968
0048

5073
4411
3859
3396
3004

0520
3495
9309
7392
8077

8632
6839
5475
4424
3607

For references, see footnotes 15 and 16, p. 39.

2500(8)
3125
6250
0625

SOOO(9)
1071(10)
2381(11)
7121

6748
2052
0720(14)
6704
4704

5332 ( 15)
3016
0792
7580
2121

7118 055619)
4870 756iiio)
9732 7441(11)
2964 3389

8683
2411
2630
5058

5556( 10)
2654(11)
4714( 12)
5988(13)

1149 4485
7125 6741(10)
4725 9399

1146 6157
5186 5517(
2622 0143
1440 7871
8448 3844( 3)

1348
4463
1722
7465
3540

9597
4695(14)
7426
2181(15)
8149

1790
1375
1079
8629
7006

5616
4794
5940
5508( 11)
8080

5218 8071
3364 5781
2248 0302
1548 2276
1094 4042

1805 8156
9775 0702( 16)
5561 6779

5767
4803
4043
3436
2944

1532
7846
7597
0952
4203

7913
5836
4380
3339
2582

1009(14)
2361
6481
8722
2837

1290 8811
8431 4304(17)
5643 7105
3861 1239
2693 8074

2542 3116
2210 2564
1933 6316
1701 3314
1504 8177

2021
1601
1281
1035
8439

9092
3580
5606
4426
3542(15)

1912 8753
1380 2431
1010 5351
7497 7742( 18)
5631 4922

6336
1126
4196
2040

8056(8)
7499
3534(9)
1329

jjoi iiig

2031 9424

T A B L E 21.-VALUES
e=

log e

1.0157
.0317
.0645
.lo52
.1175

0.00679
.01357
.02714
.04343
.04825

0.98450
.%923
.93941
.SO484
39484

1/3
1/2
3/!

1.1331
.1536
.1814
.2214
.2840

0.05429
.06204
.07238
.08686
.lo857

0.88250
.86688
.84648
.81873
.77880

3!2
7/;

1/64
1/32
1/16
1/10
1/9

:$
1/6
1/5
1/4

43

O F ex A N D e- A N D T H E I R L O G A R I T H M S
e-

9/4
5/2

e-=

1.3956
.6487
2.1170
.7183
3.4903

0.14476
.21715
.32572
.43429
.54287

0.71653
.60653
.47237
.36788
.28650

4.4817
5.7546
7.3891
9.4877
12.1825

0.65144
.76002
.86859
.97716
1.08574

0.22313
.17377
.13534
.lo540
.08208

5/4

T A B L E 22,-FURTHER

log @

e*

V A L U E S OF P

This table gives the values of the probability P, as defined in Table 18, corresponding to
different values of X / Y where r is the probable error. The probable error Y is equal to

0.47694/12.

0.0

.OooOo

.05378
.lo731
.16035
.21268

.01076
.06451
.11796
.17088
.22304

.01614
.06987
.12328
.17614
.22821

.02 152
.07523
.12860
.18138
.23336

.02690
.08059
.13391
.18662
.23851

.03228
.08594
.13921
.19185
.24364

.03766
.09129
.14451
.19707
.24876

.04303
.09663
.14980
.20229
.25388

.04840

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4

.00538
,05914
.11264
.16562
.21787

.15508
.20749
.25898

0.5

.26407
.31430
.36317
.41052
.45618

.26915
.31925
.36798
.41517
.46064

.27421
.32419
.37277
.41979
.46509

.27927
.32911
.37755
.42440
.46952

.28431
.33402
.38231
.42899
.47393

.28934
.33892
.38705
.43357
.47832

.29436
.34380
.39178
.43813
.48270

.29936
.34866
.39649
.44267
.48705

.30435
,35352
.40118
,44719
.49139

.30933
.35835
.40586
.45169
.49570

1.o

.50000
.54188
.58171
.61942
165498

.50428
.54595
.58558
.62308
.65841

so853
.55001
.58912
.62671
.66182

.51277
55404
.59325
.63032
.66521

.51699
.55806
.59705
.63391
.66858

.52119
.56205
.60083
.63747
.67193

,52537
.56602
.60460
.64102
.67526

,52952
.56998
.60833
.64454
.67856

.53366
.57391
.61205
.64804
.68184

.53778
.57782
.61575
.65152
.68510

1.5

.68833
.71949
.74847
.77528
.79999

.69155
.72249
.75124
.77785
30235

.69474
.72546
.75400
.78039
30469

.69791
.72841
.75674
.78291
30700

.70106
.73134
.75945
.78542
.80930

,70419
,73425
.76214
.78790
.81158

.70729
.73714
.76481
.79036
31383

.71038
.74000
.76746
.79280
.81607

.71344
.74285
.77009
,79522
.81828

.71648
.74567
.77270
.79761
.82048

,82266
.84335
.86216
.87918
29450

32481
.84531
.86394
88078
.89595

32695
34726
A6570
,88237
,89738

32907
.84919
.86745
38395
.89879

.83117
.85109
.86917
,88550
.90019

A3324
A5298
37088
,88705
.90157

,83530
.85486
.87258
,88857
.90293

33734
35671
.87425
39008
.90428

.83936
.85854
.87591
39157
.90562

.84137
.86036
.87755
.89304
.90694

,90825
92051
.93141
.94105
,94954

.90954
.92166
.93243
.94195
.95033

.91082
.92280
.93344
.94284
.95111

.91208
.92392
.93443
.94371
.95187

.91332
.92503
,93541
.94458
.95263

.91456
,92613
.93638
.94543
,95338

.91578
.92721
.93734
.94627
.95412

.91698
.92828
.93828
.94711
.95484

.91817
,92934
.93922
.94793
.95557

.91935
,93038
.94014
.94874
.95628

0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

2.0

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3

.95698 .%346 .96910 .97397 .97817


.99302 99431 .99539 .99627 ,99700
.99926 . 9 m 3 .99956 .99966 . w 7 4

SMlTHSONlAN PHYSlCAL TABLES

50197

.98176 .98482 .98743 .98962 .99147


.99760 .99808 .99848 .99879 .99905
.99980 .99985 .99988 .99991 .99993

44

TABLE 23.-VALUES

OF T H E FACTOR 0.67454=

This factor occurs in the equation ra = 0.6745


observation, and other similar equations.
I2

d..s
-

for the probable error of a single

10
20
30
40

0.2248 0.2133
.1547 .1508
.1252 .1231
.lo80 .lo66

0.6745 0.4769 0.3894


.2034 ,1947 ,1871
.1472 .1438 .1406
. E l 1 .1192 ,1174
.I053 .lo41 ,1029

0.3372 0.3016 0.2754 0.2549 0.2385


.1803 .1742 .1686 .1636 .1590
.1377 .1349 .1323 ,1298 .1275
.1157 .1140 .1124 .1109 .lo94
.lo17 .lo05 .W94 .0984 ,0974

50

0.0964 0.0954 0.0944 0.0935 0.0926


.0878 .0871 .0864 ,0857 ,0850
.0812 .0806 .(I800 .0795 .0789
.0759 .0754 ,0749 .0745 ,0740
,0715 .0711 ,0707 .0703 ,0699

0.0918 0.0909 0.0901 0.0893 0.0886


.0843 .0837 ,0830 .0824 .0818
.0784 .0779 .0774 .0769 ,0764
,0736 .0732 .0727 .0723 ,0719
.0696 .0692 .0688 .0685 .0681

00

60
70
80
90

TABLE 24.-VALUES

OF T H E F A C T O R 0.6745

This factor occurs in the equation ro = 0.6745


arithmetical mean.
n

40
50

60
70
80
90

___
1) for the probable error of the

0.4769 0.2754 0.1947


.0587 .0540 .0500
.0314 .0300 .0287
.0214 .0208 .0201
,0163 .0159 .0155

0.1508 0.1231 0.1041 0.0901 0.0795


.0465 0435 .OM9 .0386 .0365
.0275 .0265 .0255 .0245 0237
.0196 .0190 .0185 .0180 .0175
,0152 .0148 .0145 .0142 .0139

0.0136 0.0134 0.0131 0.0128 0.0126


.0113 .0111 .0110 .OlO8 ,0106
.0097 .OW6 .0094 .0093 .0092
.0085 .0084 .0083 .0082 .0081
,0075 .0075 .0074 .0073 ,0072

0.0124 0.0122 0.0119 0.0117 0.0115


,0105 .0103 .0101 .0100 .0098
.0091 .0089 ,0088 .0087 ,0086
,0080 .0079 .0078 ,0077 .0076
.0071 ,0071 .0070 .0069 .0068

00

10
20
30

0.0711 0.0643
.0346 .0329
.0229 .0221
.0171 .0167

SMITHSONIAN PHYSICAL TABLES

T A B L E 25.-LEAST

45

SQUARES

of the factor 0.8453

Part 1.-Values

This factor occurs in the approsimate equation

zlvl
for the probable
= 0.8153 ___
d n ( n - 1)

error of a single observation.


1

11

10
20
30
40

0.0891 0.0806
.0434 .0412
.0287 .0277
.0214 .0209

0.5978 0.3451 0.2440


.0736 .0677 ,0627
.0393 .0376 .0360
,0268 .0260 .0252
.0204 .0199 .0194

0.1890 0.1543 0.1304 0.1130 0.0996


.0583 ,0546 .0513 .0483 .0457
,0345 ,0332 ,0319 .0307 .0297
.0245 ,0238 .0232 .0225 .0220
,0190 .0186 .0182 .0178 .0174

50

0.0171 0.0167 0.0164 0.0161 0.0158


.0142 ,0140 .0137 ,0135 .0133
.O 122 .0120 .0118 ,0117 .0115
.0106 .0105 .0104 .0102 .0101
.0094 .0093 .0092 ,0091 .0090

0.0155 0.0152 0.0150 0.0147 0.0145


.0131 ,0129 .0127 .0125 .0123
,0113 ,0112 .0111 .0109 .01M
.0100 .0099 .0098 .0097 .OW6
.0089 .0089 .0088 .0087 .0086

00

60

70

80
90

---===
ndn -1
This factor occurs in the approximate equation yo = 0.8453 z(v( for the probable
Part 2.-Values

of 0.8453

ndgi

error of the arithmetical mean.


1

I1

-1
7

10
20
30
40

0.0282
.0097
.0052
,0034

0.4227 0.1993 0.1220


0.0243 ,0212 ,0188 .0167
.0090 .0081 ,0078 .0073
,0050 ,0047 .0045 .0043
.0033 .0031 .0030 .0029

0.0845 0.0630 0.0493 0.0399 0.0332


.0151 ,0136 .0124 .0114 .0105
.0369 .0065 .0061 .0058 .0055
.0041 .0040 .0038 .0037 .0035
.0028 .0027 .0027 .0026 .0025

50

0.0024 0.0023 0.0023 0.0022 0.0022


.0018 .0018 .0017 .0017 .0017
,0015 ,0014 ,0014 .0014 ,0013
.oo12 .oo12 .oo11 -0011 .oo11
,0010 ,0010 .0010 .0009 .0009

0.0021 0.0020 0.0020 0.0019 0.0019


.ON6 ,0016 .0016 .0015 .0015
.0013 .0013 .0013 ,0012 .0012
.oo11 .0011 .0010 .oo10 .0010
.0009 ,0009 ,0009 ,0009 .a009

00

60
70
80
90

SMlTHSONlAN PHYSICAL TABLES