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USADTC ltr dtd 30 May 1979
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AFATL-TR-7 62
DEVELOPMENT OF
20mm PLASTIC/ALUMINUM CARTRIDGE CASE
AAI CORPORATION
TECHNICAL REPORT AFATL-TR-74-62
MARCH 1974
D istribution limited to U . S . Government agencies only;
this report documents test and evaluation; distribution
limitation applied March 1 9 7 4 . O ther requests for
this document must be referred to the Air Force Armament
Laboratory (U LD G), Eglin Air Force B ase, Florida 3254 2.
AIR FORCE ARMAMENT LABORATORY
AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND UNITID STATES AIR FORCI
EGLIN AIR FORCE BASE, FLORIDA
..
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THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST
QUALITY AVAILABLE. THE COPY
FURNISHED TO DTIC CONTAINED
A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF
PAGES WHICH DO NOT
REPRODUCE LEGIBLYo
De v e l o p me n t Of 20mm Pl ast ic/Al umin um Cart ridge Case
Edward G. King
Matthew G. Popilc
R obert W. S chnepfe
Distribution limited to U. S. Government agencies only;
this report documents test and evaluation; distribution
limitation applied March 1974. Other requests for
this document must be referred to the Air Force Armament
Laboratory (ULDG), Eglin Air Force Base, Florida 32542.
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FOREWORD
This report documents work on the 20mm Plastic/ Aluminum Cartridge Case
performed during the period 19 April 1973 to 28 February 1974 by AAI Corporation,
Cockeysville, Maryland, 21030, under Contract F08635-73-C-0102 with the Air Force
Armament Laboratory, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. The Project Engineer for
the Armament Laboratory was Major Stephen J. Bilsbury (DLDG).
The report has been assigned AAI Corporation Engineering Report Number
ER-7792.
This technical report has been reviewed and is approved.
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ABSTRACT
Tho goals of this program were to arrive at a final design for the 20mm
plastic/ aluminum cartridge case by: (1) studying and eliminating, if possible,
the case cracking problems encountered during temperature extreme firings;
(.! ) improving case resistance to rough handling; and (3) establishing molding
process parameters for high volume production. The basic case consists of a
plastic body joined mechanically to an aluminum base forming a composite
assembly. The existing plastic/ aluminum case design was used as a basis, and
modifications were m^ de to it as judged necessary. Each modification was
followed by test firing Lo verify and record any changes in performance and
case integrity. Test firings were performed with a Mann barrel and with the
M61 automatic gun tiring at a rate of 4,300 rounds per minute. General
results were that temperature extreme firings continued to present problems
relating to case intc * ty. Numerous case modifications with accompanying
firing data have serve : o isolate various failure modes and have led to a
better understanding of certain failure occurrences. Further development will
be necessary to apply r' v -Accumulated knowledge to reduce and subsequently
eliminate oil case failures. During this program, molding process parameters
for high volume production as well as a production mold design have been
established. A complete drawing package for the production mold was prepared
and is included as Appendix II to this report. In addition, an alternate
methu of nssembling the plastic body and aluminum base was investigated and
proven feasible by firing tests. This method consisted of joining the
comoonents with a unique bonding process in place of the expensive mechanical
joint previously employed.
Distribution limited to U. S. Government agencies only; this
report documents test and evaluation; distribution limitation
applied March 1974. Other requests for this document must
be referred to the Air Force Armament Laboratory (DLDG), Eglin
Air Force Base, Florida 32542.
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(The reverse of this page is blank)
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Section
I
II
III
IV
V.
Appendixes
I
11
III
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
INTRODUCTION - 1
DESIGN DESCRIPTION 2
1. Physical Description 2
2. Performance 6
TEST METHODS 7
DEVELOPMENTAL TESTING 8
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 47
20MM CARTRIDGE CASE DRAWINGS 49
PRODUCTION MOLD DRAWINGS 55
DEVELOPMENT CASE AND MOLD DRAWINGS 79
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LIST OF FIGURES
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Figure Title Page
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4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
20mm Plastic/Aluminum Cartridge Cases . . 3
20mm Plastic/Aluminum Case Munition . , 6
20mm Plascic Cartridge Case Type 2 13
Four Feed Gate (Type 1 Case) 14
Floating Core Mold for Type 2 Case . 15
Typical Neck Failure 17
20mm Plastic Cartridge Case Type 7 18
Diaphragm Gate (Case Type 9, 35 & 36) 19
Thick Wall Neck 21
X-Ray Photograph, Straight Projectile 22
X-Ray Photograph, Stepped Projectile 23
Typical Base/Case J oint Failure 28
Shoulder Modifications 30
Tapered Internal Step (Case Type 22) 31
Fluted Neck (Case Type 22) 31
Oscilloscope Traces of Pressure Versus Time
Curves for Type 36 Plastic/Aluminum Cartridge Case .... 38
Typical Base Failures 39
Rubber Seal (Installed) 41
Mold and folding Record . , 44
20mm Plastic/Aluminum Cartridge Case Alternative
Base/Case J oint 45
Cutaway of Alternate Base/Case J oint 46
LIST OF TABLES
ible Title Page
Description of Case Changes .
Developmental Testing Results
9
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SECTION I
INTRODUCTION
This program was essentially a continuation of the work conducted previ-
ously in which basic feasibility for the 20mm plastic/ aluminum cartridge cast
was established. At the conclusion of the original effort, some problems
in case integrity remained and demanded further study. This program, therefore,
was an effort to eliminate case failures which occurred occasionally during
firings at high and low temperature extremes. Additional work on this program
included: the design of a simulated production mold; establishment of molding
prucess parameters; effort to improve rough-handling characteristics; set-up
of a complete inspection station utilizing air gages; establishment of case
dimensions and tolerances; and manufacture and delivery of a quantity of
cartridge cases.
Included in this report is a description of the 20mm plastic/ aluminum
cartridge case, explanation of test methods, a narrative describing development
testing, conclusions, and recommendations, and appendices which contain drawings
of the test and production molds and case component details.
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SECTION II
DESIGN DESCRIPTION
1. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The 20tmn cartridge case is a three-piece composite consisting of a
plastic body, an aluminum base, and an internal rubber seal. Tbe plastic
body and the aluminum base are mechanically joined by mating buttress-shaped
teeth which snap into plr.ee when the body is pressed into the base. The.
plastic body extends inside the base and insulates the tnin-walled aluminum
section containing the buttresses from contact with the hot propellant ^ ases.
The rubber seal insulates the lower portion of the b;se not covered by plastic
nd also provides a seal at the body/ base interface. Figure 1 shows two 20 r. tx <
plastic/ aluminum cases. One is cut atfay to show the internal configuration.
The 20mm case joint contains two buttresses for mechanically joining
the plastic body and the aluminum base. The molded buttresses of the plastic
body are a press tit of about 0.005 inch on the diameter with the corresponding
surfaces in the base. At assembly, the plastic body is pressed into the base
and the teeth snap into place. The fit on the plastic provides a firm joint
that resists rotational slippage and forms a watertight seal. On firing, the
plastic inside the aluminum base obturates by internal gas pressure against
the base, thus scaling the joint area from gas leakage. The joint design
allows some relative movement, between the two parts in a lengthwise direction.
If a longitudinal compressive force is applied to the case, there will be
some rearward movement of the plasti: body inside the aluminum base. The
case is made approximately G.U45 inch longer than standard from the shoulder
to the base so that at chambering the case will be compressed and shortened
by that amount. firing, the bolt deflection that occurs at peak pressure
can then be taken up by that amount of compression before any tensile loads
are applied to the joint area. This serves to reduce the stress levels in
the case that may occur from axial tension caused by bolt deflection and
decreases the possibility of failure at the joint.
The base of the cartridge case is subjected to the most severe
internal stresses of any part of the case. The extractor groove area is
unsupported by the chamber and must withstand the stresses caused by internal
gas pressure. Tests have shown 7075-T6 aluminum alloy to be the material best
suited for this purpose since it has the required mechanical properties to
withstand the high stresses imposed at firing. In addition, the low density
of aluminum makes it attractive from a weight standpoint. A detail print of
the cartridge base, AAI Drawing No. 53593-40001, is presented in Appendix I
of this report.
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Figure 1. 20mm Plastic/ Aluminum Cartridge Case
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The base contains two buttresses corresponding to those on the
plastic body for mechanically locking the two components. The thin walls of
the base expand outward at tiring to contact the chamber. The outside dimen-
sions are such that a lino-to-line contact witli the chamber will exist it
the minimum chamber and maximum base size tolerances. At the opposite dimen-
sional tolerances, maximum chamber and minimum base, a clearance of 0.004
inch on the diameter exists. The material elongation is sufficient to permit
base expansion at firing to contact the chamber walls.
The base will accept the standard M52A3B1 electric primer used in the
M103 brass cartridge case.
To prevent corrosion, a chemical film coating per MIL-C-5541 is rccom
mended for the aluminum base. It is a good electrical conductor so that the
operation of the electric primer will not be impaired.. The chemical lilm
coating can be dyed any color should color coding of the munition be desired.
The rubber seal is a molded component of silicone rubber which fits
the internal configuration of the base with an opening at the primer flash
hole. It serves to insulate the aluminum, thereby minimizing the chances of
an aluminum burn-through. The seal is inserted into the plastic body prior
to assembly with the base, and after assembly it is pushed down against the
bottom of the case. A detail drawing of the seal, AAI Drawing No. 53593-
40014, is preunLu in Appendix I.
The plastic body is an injection molded part ot giass-reinforced
2
nylon. The formulation consists of type 12 nylon resin mixed with 0.25-inch-
long glass fibers to the amount of 50 percent by weight of the total mix.
The material is marketed by LNP Corporation, Malvern, Pennsylvania. The base
resin is obtained through Mobay Chemical Company, East Brunswick, New Jersey,
from Hls of West Germany. LNP mixes the base resin with the desired glass
loading.
The outer dimensions on the plastic body provide a line-to-line
contact with the chamber at minimum chamber and maximum case tolerances and
a 0.004-inch clearance on the diameter at the opposite extremes. The joint
area diameter is molded about 0.005-inch oversize to provide for a tight fit
with the base in order to prevent rotational slippage and to affect a water-
tight seal.
1 Dow Corning Silastic Base No. 433
2 Hls resin No. L-1801
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Projectile ftuntion is accomplished with a continuous, circumfer-
ential bead that is molded into the inside surface of the case neck. The bead
mates with the crimp groove in the M55A2 projectile. The projectile is
assembled into the case neck by a pressing operation which is performed on a
standard arbor press. The projectile is inserted into the plastic case neck
and is aligned visually to preclude cocking during the pressing operation.
The projectile is then pressed into the case allowing the bead in the case to
ride nver the rear of the projectile and snap into the crimp groove. The
elongation property of the plastic coupled with the fact that the case neck
is not supported externally for this operation, allows the neck to expand
radially without cracking to provide passage of the rear of the projectile.
At tiring, with the neck supported radially by the chamber, the bead is
sheared out by the projectile. A force of 200 pounds is required to shear the
bead with the neck supported radially. A detail drawing of the plastic body,
AAI Drawing No. 53593-40002, is presented in Appendix I.
The assembled munition contains 37.0 grams of WC 870 double-base
propeliant manufactured by Olin Mathieson. The total available case volume
is 1. 38 cubic inches. The munition component weignts are:
Plastic/ Aluminum Case
(with seal)
39.3 grams 0.0866 lb
WC 870 Propeliant
M55A2 Projectile
37.0 grams
99.0 grams
175.3 grams
0.0816 lb
0.2183 lb
0.3865 lb
Figure 2 shows the assembled 20mm plastic/ aluminum case munition.
2. PERFORMANCE
The propeliant charge weight of 37.0 grams of WC 870 double-base
propeliant loaded in " be plastic/ aluminum case provided performance compara-
ble to the M103 case which is loaded to a charge weight of 39 to 40 grams.
All firings were performed with the M55A2 projectile. The following are
average velocities and pressures of both cartridge cases averaged from the
results of Mann barrel firings.
Plastic/ Aluminum
M103 Brass
Velocity
3350 fps
3350 fps
Peak Pressure
47,500 psi
51,000 psi
Presented in Section IV of this report are pressure versus time
traces obtained from firing tests of the plastic/ aluminum case.
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Figure 2. 20mm Plastic/ Aluminum Case Munition
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SECTION III
TEST METHODS
1. VELOCITY MEASUREMENT
The projectile velocity was measured using counter chronographs in
conjunction with light-sensitive velocity screens. The velocity screen con-
sists of a tungsten lumi-line tube light source which shines directly across
die projectile line of flight to a photoelectric tube. As the projectile
passes through the screen, its shadow is cast on the photoelectric tube which
then sends out an electrical pulse. The electrical pulse is used to trigger
or to stop a counter chronograph. With the start and stop screens set at a
known distance apart, the recorded time to travel thut distance will y..eld
the average velocity between screens. For these tests, two se^ s ci velocity-
recording apparatus were used. The redundant set-up was arranged with the
start and stop screen pairs 10 feet apart, with the first start screen being
20 feet from the muzzle and the second start screen 34 xeet from the muzzle.
The two readings were averaged.
2. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
To obtain pressure versus timj traces, a small hole was drilled in
the case wall corresponding in locati,n to a port in the Mann barrel chamber.
At firing, the gas pressure acts against a piston inserted in the chamber
port which, in turn, transmits the force to a quartz dynamic force trans-
ducer. The transducer sends an electrical pulse which is then read out c: ;
an oscilloscope and subsequently recorded on a Polaroid photograph. The
resulting photograph is a pressure versus time trace.
3. TEMPERATURE EXTREME TESTS
The 20mm case was tested at temperature extremes by conditioning the
loaded ammunition separately for a minimum of 4 hours at the desired tempera-
ture. All cases were tested after being stored under ambient conditions for
at least 24 hours after molding. For cold tests (-65 F), a cold chamber
operating with liquid CO was utilized. For hot tests (165 F), ~ n electrically
heated chamber was used. Both environmental chambers were equipped with
automatic temperature controls. When ready for firing, the rounds were trans-
ported to the test site in insulated containers, loaded in the M61, and quickly
fired to minimize any temperature change. Elapsed time with the rounds in the
container was about 2 minutes. Time to load the rounds from the container into
the gun and fire was about 10 seconds.
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SECTION IV
DEVELOPMENTAL TESTING
The basic design for the 20mm plasCic/ aluminum case was established under
Contract No. F8635-70-C-OOG7. The work to bo. accomplished under this con-
tract was to establish a compatible mold/ case design suitable fur production
injection molding techniques and to make improvements in the design to alle-
viate problems experienced during previous testing. The two major consid-
erations weie elimination or substantial reduction of flow lines (believed
to be the cause of occasional longitudinal cracks during cold tests) and
modification of the neck area to eliminate drop test failures.
1. CASE DEVELOPMENT
A total of thirty-six different case designs and eight different
materials were tested during this program. Five basic case configurations
were evaluated with minor physical, dimensional and molding variations being
made to each. Table I shows these basic designs and lists the changes by
case type. The plastic materials considered were selected based on satisfact-
ory performance during the last contract or were specially formulated by
F)uPont to meet the mechanical and chemical requirements for the plastic case.
As Hls 12 nylon/ 50 percent glass-impregnated appeared to be the most suitable
case material, according to test results from the previous contract, it was
used as the base line for evaluating new materials. IIuls 12 nylon/ 50 percent
glass-impregnated, used during most of the case design tests, was selected at
the end of the contract as the basis for design since none of the other
materials tested performed as well. The only change was the IIuls 12 initially
used was the Thermofil version while the final material was the LNP version.
a. Case Configuration A
The first case configuration (see Figure 3) to be designed (desig-
nated type 2) and tested was essentially the same as the case at the close of
the previous contract. The only change was the addition of a thick molded
collar to the inside of the case in the area of the neck just aft of the
projectile. It was believed that this collar would strengthen the neck and
provide support for the projectile. The added support was necessary to
prevent splitting of the thin wall neck during drop tests. The support collar
accomplished this during nose-down and base-down drop tests but failed to
strengthen the neck sufficiently for successful lateral drops. By its configu-
ration, the M55 projectile has a ratio of unsupported to supported length of
nearly seven to one. Because of this, the neck experiences a large bending
moment in a lateral drop, causing the thin wall to fail in the form of a
longitudinal split.
The gating system was also revised. The original four feed gate
[feeding the neck from the forward end (see Figure 4)] was deleted, and a
diaphragm internal gate feeding the new collar (sec Figure 5) was added.
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Projectile
Support Collar
Case Wall
(Original
Configuration)
Figure 3. 20mm Plastic Cartridge Case
(Type 2)
13
BIL': ,:,.:,. ifrtifiifcY
< 3mh"vim-
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:mmm^^tMmii^Miu$p\
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sit e^<^
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Sprue
Projectile
Retaining
Bead
Floating
Core
Projectile
Support
Collar
Figure 5. Floating Case Mold for Type 2 Case
15
e KsSxsiyMi i nti'lifffMiit^^iyir'^ir
4
- -T-" -
' .' Ui-' L-JMltJUlL-J.I -H-
This new gating method provided three desirable features. Since it fed
directly into the collar, the case would fill from the thickest part, a
desirable molding technique. The diaphragm form of gate virtually eliminated
the flow lines. Although flow lines were present in some instances, they were
faint and dissipated within one-third of a case length from the gate. An
additional advantage of this type of gate is the fact that it can be easily
punched out, leaving the finished case which is a desirable feature for
facilitating production.
In the initial stages of the contract, another of the goals was
to provide maximum velocity. To accomplish this, all of the type 2 cases
tested were loaded with the maximum propellant charge they would accommodate
(37.7 grams). This produced a velocity of 3,410 fps and a corresponding
pressure of 55,000 psi.
These first cases exhibited a weakness in the area of the neck.
Even when fired at ambient temperatures, the majority of the cases lost the
necks (see Figure b) . This, coupled with neck failures during drop tests
(previously described), necessitated a re-evaluation of the case design.
There were only two apparent solutions to the neck failures: increase the
thickness of the wall or eliminate the neck. Since the neck was as thick as
possible without modifying projectile or the chamber, it was decided to
shorten >r eliminate the neck.
b. Case Configuration B
The new configuration round (type 7, see Figure 7) incorporated
not only a shorter neck but also a revised projectile retaining bead. For
test purposes, the new head was machined out of the molded projectile support,
collar of a type 2 case. Due to the increased width it was possible to
increase the bullet pull substantially (550 pounds for the new design versus
200 pounds for the original V-groove). In addition, the new bead nearly
filled the retaining groove of the projectile and provided a more secure tit.
Pressure and velocity tests were conducted. Due to space limitations the charge,
was 37.0 grams rather than 37.3 grams previously used. Tiie resulting peak
pressure at ambient temperature was 47,500 psi with a corresponding velocity
of 3,325 fps. In testing this configuration, it was found that both the short
neck and neckless versions passed the drop test, but the short neck case still
lost the neck when fired through the M61 gun. It was believed that the
neckless version of the case offered the best solution. Although the overall
length of the round using this type of case was reduced by 0.b8 inch, tests
showed that it would still, link, delink, and cycle through the. Mbl properly.
The det-ign was reviewed, and it was determined that the loss of
charge space and subsequent loss of velocity due to recessing the projectile
was not. acceptable. Alternative solutions to solving
were suggested.
drop test fai.li
lb
mMmyiri:^'
1
'*'-^ \in\nif!mv*mmm^^*w ima,nT ,ni,
Figure (> . Typicil Neck Failuri
17
iP^H'-i^^a^--- --;,-
L ii i> Wmmmmm
Case Prior
to Modification
Figure 7 . 20tnm Plastic Cartridge Case (Short Neck Configuration)
18
JM-*~'U4*U
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19
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The internal projectile support collar was abandoned. The mold
in its original configuration (ns it was at the end of the previous contract)
was used again, except that the core was modified. The original core had an
inclined four feed gating system. The tip of the core was tapered to provide
a diaphragm gate which would feid the case from the projectile end of the neck
(see Figure 8). This accomplished two tilings. Tue diaphragm gate eliminated
2
the flow lines , and it provided more uniform distribution of glass in the
material. It was believed that *he latter would strengthen the neck enough
to pass the drop test; however, it did not.
c. Case Configuration C
Because of this, the next step taken was to increase the neck
thickness. This step, previously considered unacceptable, appeared to be the
last alternative for solving the drop test failure problem and was therefore
approved. The core was machined to decrease the inside diameter of the neck
from 0.765 inch to 0.685 inch. This increased the wall thickness of the neck
from 0.030 to 0.G7Q inch. In addition to the diameter change, the retaining
bead tested in the neckless case was added. Two types of thick neck cases
(see Figure 9) were tested. The. straight configuration (round type 10)
maintained the 0.070- inch wall thickness throughout, the full length of the
neck. This was done for strength and so that machining of the molded case
required cutting off the top. The stepped configuration (round type 11)
required an additional step (a 0.770-inch-diameter x 0.070-inch-deep counter-
bore), but provided a thin lip at the front of the cartridge which could
obturate and seal the chamDer. It also allowed material to be left on the aft
end of the projectile to insure that the rotating band remained on the projectile.
(On the unstepped projectile, nearly all the metal behind the rotating band had
been removed.)
A number of rounds of each configuration were fired fiom the Mann
barrel to determine pressures and velocities. The unstepped version had a peak
pressure of 55,400 psi and velocity of 3,450 fps; the stepped had the same
velocity but a neak pressure of 59,000 psi (37.0-gram charge foi both). The
unstepped case appeared preferable at this point.
It was decided that the integrity of the projectile after modifi-
cation should be verified. Several rounds of each configuration were fired,
and muzzle X-ray photographs were tuade (see Figures 10 and 11). Both types
functioned satisfactorily.
1 The mold was the same except that the cavity was modified
during a previous change to increase the neck 0D by 0.00* inch,
2 There was one flow line visible. This was due to a concentricity
proolem corrected later in the production mold.
20
. : : . , , . . . . . . ':.
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--"
Several rounds of both versions were fired from the M61 gun at
ambient temperatures and functioned properly. Tests with six rounds of each,
conditioned at -65 were fired. All but one of the unstepped cases failed
(four had neck separations, one had case/ base separation). All of the stepped
cases cycled without a failure. Based on these results, it was decided to
proceed with the stepped configuration.
At this time, stability calculations for the stepped projectile
were made and submitted to the Project Officer.
The CG locations and weigltts used were calculated and verified
on the physical projectiles.
The basic equation used for calculating stability was:
S =
9 ?
it*" A"
p n
2
d
5
B K j,
where: A = axial moment of inertia
-3 3
fj = air density = 2.376 x 10 slugs/ ft
n = rifling twist rate = 25.4 calibers/ turn
d = projectile diameter = 0.0654 ft
2
B = transverse moment of inertia - lb-sec" " ft
K ., = pitching moment coefficient
For stability, S must be greater than unity.
K is an experimentally determined coefficient which relates
center of pressure to the center of gravity in determining the overturning
moment of the projectile. The center of pressure (CP) will be forward of the
center of gravity (CG) in all cases. As projectile CG is moved forward toward
the CP, the overturning moment is reduced and the projectile becomes more
Ballistic Research Laboratories Report No. 620 by H. P. Hitchcock.
24
^==i^^^^^i,^^^Li^fd^^^:fjL^^>i
i^ ^ / iX,.^ *
gggyffljpg|jj!ggypaggBE|B
. ..., ..v^^..^-.
ipi Wjlg Mb-; upppsipg pwiBP^pjipjpi
stable. Most values for K are in the range of from 0.8 to 2.0. For these
M
calculations, a K = 1.14 for the standard M55A2 projectile was used. (A 20mm
ball T4 has a K = 1.14.) The CG of tiie modified projectile moved forward and
hence reduced the K. . and increased stability.
The new K ^ can be approximated by first finding the distance from
CP to CG for both projectiles.
h = .0747 + .0443a + 1.0196b + .8032c + .2459d + i52S2
where:
Substituting:
h = distance from base to CP (calibers)
a = angle of boattail = 0
b = length of boattail = 0 calibers
c = length of cylindrical part of body = 2.2 calibers
d = length of head = 1.5 calibers
e - radius of ogival arc = infinity
h = .0747 + .8032(2.2) + .2459(1.5) 2.21 calibers = 1,74 inch
The distances from the base to the CG' s are 1.05 inches for the M55A2 and
1.08 inches for the proposed projectile.
Therefore, the distances from CG' s to CP' s for both are:
Standard 1.74 - 1.05 = 0.69 inch
Modified 1.74 - 1.08 = 0.66 inch
K can be approximated by ratio:
KJ J mod x
\
std
mod
C
std
Si std
= 1.14
K , = 1.14 (41) = 1.09
M mod .69
25
,. _ iffiSli
-^*^&&*&&^
. IJ .I-,
EJBPmp p p p
The stabilities can now be calculated by substituting in the basic equation:
2 2
S = it A
> s
f. n d 15 ^
Standard M55A2
A = 3.873 x 10 lb-sec -ft
B = 2.34 x 10 lb-sec" -ft
Si
= 1.14
Substituting yields: S = 3.03
Modified M55A2
ft 9
A = 3.745 x lo" lb-sec" -ft
B = 2.204 x 10"
5
Ib-stc^ -ft
Si
= 1.09
Substituting yields: S = 3.14
By calculation, even though the axial of moment of inertia (A),
an important stabilizing factor, was reduced by decreasing projectile diameter
aft of the rifling band, this was compensated for by the forward shifting uf
the CG toward the CP. As a result, the modified projectile was more stable
than the standard M55A2.
Per the Project Officer' s request, additional Mann barrel tests
were made with the stepped cases (round type 11) loaded with the maximum
propellant charge (40.0 grams) which could be accomodated. All rounds we je
fired at ambient, and the peak pressure and velocity were determined to be
63,335 psi and 3,485 fps, respectively. Eighty percent of the cases failed
at the neck.
At this point in the development, several new materials were
available for evaluation. Several type 11 cases were molded using each
of ti.e plastics. The plastics tested were:
26
^Ls-.,^.v-."<i^;;":, .,; .:..;:;-;.""-'
il *i&MGMiA^iikc
.^41 J MPrTWtWiSEH;
zzm~3?-~ - , , ,
llnls 12 nylon/ 50 percent glass-impregnated - LNP version
Huis 12 nylon/ 50 percent glass-impregnated - Thermofil version
Dupont 6-12 nylon (high molecular weight)/ 43 percent glass-
(short) impregnated - Formula # 5066
Dupont 6-12 nylon (high molecular weight)/ 34 percent glass
(with polymer modifier) - Formula # 5067
Dupont 6-12 nylon (high molecular weight)/ 40 percent fybex " D" -
Formula # 5070
Dupont 6-12 nylon (high molecular weight)/ 20 percent fybex " D"
+10 percent mineral filler - Formula # 5071
The external dimensions of these cases were within the tolerances
specified on the drawings. The rounds were tested at -65F and +16! F by
firing i.i the M61 gun. At -65 F, both of the Hls 12 materials performed
satisfactorily, die DuPont formula 5066 had a 16-percent failure rate, and
the remaining DuPont materials had a 70- to 100-percent failure rate. The
types of failures expetienced were neck separations, base/ case separations,
longitudinal rrud;*, and multiple breaks in various directions. At +165 F,
all of the cases had neck separations (as this was considered a design problem
it was not viewed as a failure of the material), the Hls 12 (LNP) and DuPont' s
# 5066 and # 5067 all functioned properly, the Hls 12 (thermofil) haH 16 per-
cent failures, and the other DuPont materials had a 33 percent failure rate.
The. failures experienced consisted of base/ case joint separations or splits.
Based on these results, the Hls 12 nylon/ 50 percent glass-
impregnated (LNP version) was established as the standard of design and was
used in all subsequent molding.
If. was decided at this point to develop the charge which would
produce a velocity equal to that of the standard round (3380 fps). A series
of tests indicated that a charge of 36.5 grams would produce the desired
velocity with ;> corresponding pressure of 53,000 psi at ambient temperature.
The round had been experiencing various failures since the
beginning of the contract. The two failures of the plastic case were separation
of the neck from the case at the shoulder (see Figure 6) and cracking or failure
of the base/ case joint (see Figure 12). In an effort to determine the cause of
the latter, the fit of the case in the base was examined. Both drawings and
parts indicated that the aft end of the case was being flexed inward, creating
a gap between the base and cose chevrons. To alleviate this problem, the new
mold segments (the portions of the mold which form the chevrons on the case)
were designed to provide a lighter (line-to-line to 0.005-inch press) fit. In
addition to this, later modifications to the base were required to eliminate
the base/ case joint failure. Several soluLions to the neck failure problem
were tested: (1) the projectile retaining bead was machined out of several
cases as it appeared possible that the necks were being pulled off by the
27
< -. . j',=i':,. , ; . ,, . .
'. . [ . . ' . . ;
-: --,-." = _ ,m^r,VrrTr.:
liffiu^ . .
^!ft!U l. M!^^^!-W:^w^l^r
,
- '- ' " ' "" ~' >,,^^mi^^^-.
Figure 12. Typical Base/ Case Joint Failure
28
,: ;vr : ..;' ;,;i-^ ;.\iV^ .^ v
1,1. JlljlL-jyjJlLlMiipe^ lBgppg^ ^ li^ ^ ^ ^ l^ JSifa^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ' T^ -^ ---^ -: ^ ;r>: -4.iMW^ | glMfc^ ^ ^ -
projectile; (2) a stress analysis calculation of the area of the failure
indicated an insufficient thickness and the shoulder thickness was increased
accordingly (two thicknesses were tested, see Figure 13); (3) the neck thick-
ness was reduced, from 0.070 to 0.045, as it was felt that the thicker wall
was not able to obturate sufficiently fast to accept the rapid pressure in-
crease wj thout failing. None of these solved the neck separation problem.
d. Case Configuration D
The new mold was completed and the cases molded from it (type 21)
were expected to be superior in that the chevron area had been modified, as
previously explained, and the new mold was designed to allow optimum molding
pressure (15,000 psi injection and 10,000 psi hold). Pressures from the
beginning of the contract had been low (5,000 to 7,500 psi injection and
2,500 to 5,000 psi hold). The low molding pressures are believed to have
adversely affected the properties of the pl*3tic and possibly have been a
contributing factor in the neck separation problem.
Rounds using cases molded in the new mold were loaded and test
fired, in the M61 gun, at -65F and +165F. All of the cases fired cold
functioned properly. The hot rounds were less satisfactory. All of them
had neck separations, and seventeen percent had base/ case joint failures.
The joint failures were later to be solved, but the neck separations remained.
To solve the base/ case joint failure, several modifications were
tried: (1) the bases and cases were lubricated with Electrcfilm Lubribond-A
to alleviate frictional drag between the round md the chamber; (2) the base
was shortened by 0.008 inch to 0.010 inch and electroflimed (work done on a
previous contract had shown that cases which were too long broke at the base/
case joint j.n compression during chambering); and later shims were added to
the front of the case to lengthen it by 0.020 inch and 0.030 i.^ ch. (The
cases modified as noted in (2), above, had a higher failure rate than the
standard length case. The break now appeared to be a tensile rather than a
compressive failure.)
The last efforts made to eliminate the neck separation problems
consisted of (1) tapering the neck internally starting at the step in the
neck to the front end of the case (see Figure 14) to provide better obturation
and prevent gases from leaking back around the neck; (2) the inside of the
neck was machined to provide a 0.045-inch wall thickness (this was done pre-
viously but to cases molded at low pressure) as an attempt to improve obtura-
tion and to reduce pressure frontal surface area; and (3) the inside of the
neck was fluted (see Figure 15) as a compromise between the old thin wall neck
design and the more rigid thick wall.
Lengthening the case by 0.030 solved the base/ case joint failure
problem. The mold length was increased by that amount and cases subsequently
molded and fired functioned without repeating this failure. The neck
separation problem remained unsolved.
29
jii^iii^t Tin f f f t ^^il iif t iii M v , |V'
iw^U*.
'
0. 070
(Case Type 11)
Failure Line
(Befoie Modification)
(Case Type 18)
0.30
(Case Type 19)
Figure 13. Shoulder Modifications
(Scale: 2/ 1)
30
, .,. :. . ;. |. . _ . ",. ,. . ; - :. . '-. 'v.
yj"'*WiA:. '. . . ^^^^^^-^
r
-"*'. ' ' ! --. r-. . . . :-. -. . -, - :
Step Prior
to Tapering
\L>*- *
Figure 14. Tapered Internal Step
(Case Type 22)
- .070 Ref.
Figure 15. Fluted Neck (Case Type 32)
View of Neck from Front of Case Looking Aft)
31
>MMMMi(aiiiBgiiBt Mail aii^|^jj.^ -j,-,-^-
u. Case Configuration E
After a consultation with the Project Officer concerning the neck
separation, it was decided to return to the thin wall neck configuration, and
this (case type 36) was the case which was delivered. Although tiiis final
case design was identical to the configuration of the case at the close of the
last contract, it had a distinct advantage in that it was molded using a
diaphragm gate which eliminated the flow lines. The type 36 cases were tested
at -63 F, +165 F, and ambient temperatures and functio" d without a failure of
any type. These rounds were loaded with 37.0 grams, and pressure and velocity
readings were taken. At ambient temperature, the velocity was 3350 fpt. witli a
corresponding peak pressure of 47,500 psi. Typical pressure versus time curves
are shown in Figure 16.
The various case types tested, along with the test results, are
described in Table II.
2. BASE DEVELOPMENT
The physical dimensions of the base were the same as chose of the base
furnished on the previous contract with exceptions as noted in this subsection.
those
or sep
places
part o
of fil
betwee
correc
To rel
The base
used on the
arations 0.
the crack
f the progr
lets in the
n the case
ted in the
ieve the he
s used with case type 1 through type 14 were identical to
last contract. These bases suffered circumferential splits
35 inch back from the open end. (See Figure 17.) This
at the thinnest point of the first chevron. In the early
am, it was believed that this failure was a result of a lack
the chevrons (at
ID by 0.006). Ba
through 20. This
16 percev: ! . to 5.5
corners of the chevrons and the exceptionally heavy press fit
and the base (0.015 to 0.020 inch). The fillets could not be
cases already made, but they were added to the production bases,
avy press fit on existing bases, a 0,003-inch cut was taken on
an angle (4 35' ) matching the chevron joint, increasing the
ses bearing this modification were used with case types 13
modification reduced the incidence of base failures (from
percent) but did not eliminate them.
The remainder of the bases used on the contract were from the pro-
duction run. These bases were the same as those used on the previous contract.
Of 23 rounds (utilizing the production base and type 21 or 22 case) fired at
+165 F and 12 rounds fired at -65 F fired from the M61 gun, nine of the bases
were cracked circumferentially 0.35 inch from base/ case joint (at first chevron),
three separated at the same location, and three were eroded. This was a base
failure rate of 60 percent, the highest ever experienced on this contract.
The base failures had been experienced for some time, but they had
been attributed to the heavy press fit (0.015 to 0020 inch) of the case into
32
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Figure 16. Oscilloscope Traces of Pressure Versus Time Curve
for Type Plastic 36 Plastic/ Aluminum Cartridge Case
38
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figure 17 . Typical Base Failures
39
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the base and sharp fillets aivi corners on the base Since the- new cases had
been corrected dimensiunally to make the lit light ;md the production bases
had added or larger fillets and corners, the cause for the failures must have
been from aviother source, since the failures still occurred at an even higher
rate on the altered bases.
After carefully examining the bases that failed and comparing them to
bases from the previous contract which had not failed, it was determined that
the new bases were not able to distort enough to seat firmly on the sloped bolt
face. This caused them to cock in the chamber and fail circumferenttally.
Examination showed the hardness of the new bases to be the same as that of the
old bases, and the material had been certified to be the same type (7075-T6).
Another possible variation in material which might cause the brittlenjss was
the forming process for the bar stock (rolled versus extruded). It was felt
that this type of deviation was one which must be tolerated in a production
item, so a means was sought to compensate for such differences. Three processes
were employed to solve the base crack problem: (1) lubricating the base with
electro-film Lubribond A (to eliminate friceional drag between the bate and the
chamber); (2) machining d 0 45' taper on the rear surface of tbi_ base (to
provide partial contact of the base and bolt prior to distortion); and (3)
stress relieving the bases after machining. The electrofllm and the taper
worked; the stress relief did not. It was decided to solve the problem by-
using the electrofilm.
The erosion of the bases was a relatively new problem, having occurred
only when the production bases were used. It is believed that this problem
resulted fr >tn either or both of the following: (1) the brittleness of the
material wi ich caused the circumferential cracks also caused localized failures,
resulting in microscopic cracks through which the burning gases escaped; and
(2) in comparing the bases from the previous contract to the new bases, the
radius of the inside corner of the main cavity is 0.25 inch on the new bases
versus C.30 inch on the old. The drawing specifies a radius of 0.3U 0.05
inch which indicates the new cases to be within the specified tolerance, but
the loss of material due to the smaller radius is believed to be a contributing
factor to failures and erosion in that area.
A rubber seal, made of Dow Corning silicone rubber, was designed. This
seal fits in the aft end of the case (see Figure 18) and seats in the base. The
rubber seal prevents the escape of the high temperature, high pressure propell-
ant gases through cracks on the base/ case chevron joint, and this eliminates
erosion.
The bases which were delivered were electrofilm-coated and furnished
with the new rubber seal. The internal volume of the case was decreased by
0.06 cubic incites to 2.38 cubic inches by the addition of the rubber seal,,
40
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WAIJ- - nfrappPBp ijml; -
3. MOLDING CYCLE CONSIDERATIONS
Throughout the development program, ill molding of the plastic hody
was performed on a 7.3 ton, 3 ounce injection molding screw ram machine, model
number 7 5 manufactured by the New Britain Machine Company, New Britain, Conn.
The molding parameters which wore varied and tiieir effects on the : ase perform-
ance are discussed below.
a. Temperatures
The melt temperatures utilized throughout were those recommended
by the various resin manufacturers. The melt temperatures for tho various
6-12 nylon resins were in the 520 to 530 F range and for the type 12 resins in
the 480 to 490
l
F range.
b. Pressures
The injection molding cycle utilizes two pressure stages which
are preset by the operator. The first stage is the pressure during injection
of the molten plastic into the mold. As soon as the mold is filled the
machine switches to the second stage pressure which is maintained until the
gate solidifies. The second stage or dwell pressure prevents warpage and
provides dimension il stability of the molded part. The recommended pressures
for molding glass tilled nylons are 15,000 to 20,000 psi for the first stage
and 8,000 to 12,000 psi for the second stage.
The molding cycle developed on the previous contract utilized
20,000 psi for both the first and second stages. This was necessary to main-
tain the dimensions and tolerances required for successful operation of the
case under all environmental conditions. These pressures were also used when
molding case configurations A and B.
When the mold was changed to configuration C, which utilized a
full diaphragm gate to eliminate the flow lines, the cases were in the order
of 0.010 to 0.015 inch larger on the external surfaces when molded at the
original pressures. In order to mold cases which would fit in the chamber
the pressures were reduced to a pressure range of 5000 to 7000 psi for the
first stage and 2500 to 5000 psi for the second stag' ? .. Wlii lc this procedure
provided cases which would fit the chamber and allow testing to continue it
was believed that the low molding pressures adversely affected the properties
of the plastic and could have been a contributing factor in the neck separation
problem.
Tlie new mold for case configurations D and E was designed to
provide cases with the required dimensions under the recommended injection
pressures. However subsequent tests of these cases indicated that the neck
separations were a design problem and were not due to the properties of the
molded plastic material. Reducing the neck thickness from 0.070 to 0.030 inch
(configuration 1) to E) solved the neck separation problem. The previous molding
42
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pressure of 20,000 psi lor both the first and second stages was also used for
the configuration E eases to maintain the dimensions and tolerances required.
The final mold and molding record for the configuration E cases
is shown in Figure 19.
4. ALTERNATIVE BASE/ CASE JOINT
The chevron portion of the plastic aluminum cartridge is the prime area
in which improvements to facilitate manufacture and reduce cost could be made.
Machining of the close tolerance chevrons in the base represent a large part
of its manufacturing cost. The parts of the mold which form the chevrons on
the plastic case (the split mold segments) are also the parts which cause most
of the mold' s complexity.
Toward the close of the contract, the Project Officer suggested that an
alternate method of joining the plastic case to the aluminum base be investi-
gated. A successful metal-to-plastic bonding process had been developed for
a plastic rotating band on the 20mm projectile during an Air Force development
project by DeBell and Richardson Inc., Enfield, Connecticut. The plastic body
and aluminum base were also bonded by this organization.
TJ test this bond in this application, the chevrons were machined off of
several tvpc 21 cases and omitted on 50 production bases. The parti' were slip
taper fit, and the bond was along the common surface. (See Figures i0 and 21.)
Several of the cases were restrained (base mechanically held against the base)
while the rest were unrestrained during the curing operation. Tries.* cases were
designated type " R" and " U" , respectively. In rough-handling tests, both cases
performed satisfactorily. Two of each type were fired on the M61 gun at
ambient temperature. One type " U" case failed at the joint. The type " R" cases
performed well by firing and extracting without separation. Six of the type " R"
cases were then fired after conditioning at +165 F. While three of the cases
did not fire due to a gun malfunction, none of the six held together at the
bond joint. It was concluded that the bond strength or joint design was not
sufficient at the high temperature to withstand the gun handling or firing
loads. The type " R" cases performed well enough at ambient conditions to
warrant additional investigation; however, tests performed during this contract
are not conclusive.
43
MSJ MMMjaaa
-~.
OJ -te4WWWU^jp!tll|^i^J MJ p^ ^!l. l,:X,,,^lt,^^,:JIJii,:. mmiJlt,,j. . ,^l,
K D nr OLD AND M 0 L U ' N C K E C 0
| IMTE; Feb. 4, 1974
PLASTIC DEPT. 1
*D
CONTRACT NO: CW J427.01
[ TlTLi 20t l n CdSe PART NO. 5 15 9J-40002 DW G. NO. Si,-,9 3-40002, Rev. K
MOJ.U TYPE Convent ional MOLD TOOL NO. SKM-140 MOL!) VENDOR AAl
MOLD SUE 12 X X 10 MOLD W T. 2 SO Pounds NO. OF CAVITIES One
TYPE OF KNOCKOUT Mccl i NOZZLE TYPE Pressure NOZZLE RADIUS 1/2"
NOZZLE ORIFiCE 0.125 CROSS W T. SHOT i'J.2 Una. NET W T. SHOT
SPRUE ANU RUNNER W T. 22 CMS W T/100 PARTS 4b.2 Lbs. PART SIZE CU. IN. 0.880
MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS: IIULS/LNP 12 Nyl on, 5 07. F.C.
Product No. LNP-S'-IOO-K) NAT
MATERIAL VENDOR: LNP BUYER:
PRESS NO. 2-NU PRESS SIZE 75 t on - 3 o.:. PKESS TVIE Inject ion
TEMPERATURES F
REAR 4'iO
CENTER
PRESSURES PSI
INJECT 1st STACE HICII 20,000
INJECT 2ml STACE LOW 20,000
CLAW (IONS) (>0
HACK (LI.S) None FRONT 490
NOZZLE 4H MELT 490 OTHER
THROAT Hot MISC. ITEMS
MOLD STATIONARY 15 0 RELEASE None
MOLD MOVABLE 15 0 SECONDARY OPERATION
CYCLE TIME SECS. SCREW SPEED 7b KPM SCREW SIZE 1.42"
RAM CALIBRATE 7/" PAD I/o" CLAMP CLOSED 45
INJECT FORW ARD 15 RAM FORW ARD SPEED Fast
INJECT 1st STACE HIGH 2 TYPE OF CYCLE Semi-Aut o.
INJECT 2nd STACE LOW 13 Q UANTITY PARTS TO BE MOLDED 25 00
CLAMP OPEN ENGINEERING R. Schnupft ! PLANNING J. Graham
SCREW DELAY None SET UP J. Marl on OPERATOR J. Marl on
TOTAL CYCLE 70 Sumi-Aut o Hand Insert ed Spl it
Collar
SEE OVER FOR NOTES
Figure 19- Mold and Molding Record
44
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Figure 21. Cutaway of Alternate Base/Case J oint
46
SECTION V
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Sused upon Liu? numerous cist modifications and subsequent tost results,
it is evident tint temperature extreme testing remains a problem area affecting
case integrity. Case failure at low temperatures tended to be limited to a
longitudinal crack which did not impair performance or gun operation. High
temperature failures tended to be more serious due to the higher pressures and
temperatures encountered as well as the lowered mechanical properties of the
case materials at high temperatures.
Initial efforts ti. improve the case resistance to rough handling consisted
generally of increasing the thicknesses of the case wall in some areas. The
thickness of the neck was doubled. The heavier sections, while greatly improving
rough-handling resistance, tended to degrade the case integrity at firing. It
became apparent chat in some areas, particularly the case neck and the tapered
area just behind the neck, the heavier the case wall, the more severe the
failure at firing. Most of these failures were neck separations. Therefore,
a situation exists where some rough-handling resistance must be sacrificed in
order to gain case strength at firing. More development will be necessary tn
better define this trade-off and to arrive at some optimum wall thickness that
will provide an acceptable set of properties to withstand both conditions.
The occasional base failures were of two types: (1) circumferential
splits occurring at the fillet of one of tho buttresses, and (2) longitudinal
splits with a base burn-through. The circumferential splits occurred approxi-
mately 70 percent of the time when fired hot (+165 F) and 30 percent of the
time at ambient, and the burn-throughs occurred predominantly with the hot
firings since these experience much higher gas pressures and temperatures
than normal and mechanical properties of the aluminum are reduced.
The exact reasons or causes of the base failures could not be isolated
during development, but some factors known to reduce base failure incidence
have been identified. It is of critical impo-tance that the base fit closely
with the chamber with little or no clearance on the diameter to prevent
cocking which contributes to longitudinal splits and burn-th*. oughs. In machin-
ing the buttresses, it is important that the fillet radii be maintained to
avoid creating too severe a stress concentration point which could cause a
circumferential split at the buttress. The seal at the body/ base joint must
be maintained to avoid high pressure leaks which would, in the presence of
air, cause the aluminum to burn. Once the aluminum begins to burn, the
pressures and temperatures become so excessive that a base burn-through occurs.
The deformations evident on failed bases indicate the presence of tremendously
high pressures. Therefore, the rubber seal has been added internally to prevent
IP-VK S at the joint and subsequent burn-throughs. To avoid high stresses due to
friction with the chamber at firing, the outside diameter of the base is coated
with dry lubricant. This serves to eliminate circumferential splits at the
buttresses.
47
&mm*m?* u'^-m-
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H
An additional thoory concerning Che increased number of base failure: ;
during this program over those which occurred on the previous development
which established basic feasibility is one which involves the method of
production oi the 7073-T6 aluminum bar stock. On the previous program, the
bases were fabricated from drawn bar while those on this program were fabri-
cated iron extruded bar. All listed mechanical properties are the same except
for ton.- ile strength. The extruded bar used on this program lias a tensile
strength approximately 10 percent higher than the drawn bar used previously,
but this higher tensile did not improve integrity. Hardness checks proved
both types to be identical but higher than the listed hardness for 7075-To
which might have caused brittleness. Since the manufacturing processes were
different, thero is a possibility that some subtle difference existed in the
mechanical properties of the extruded bar that led to increased numbers of
failures. Because at firing the bases are highly stressed, any inherent weak-
ness would become evident in the form of failures.
It is recommended that the problem concerning the aluminum stock for the
bases, as discussed above, be investigated to determine the reason for the
failures and to establisii a specification for the proper material. ,\ continuing
investigation of new plastic resins to meet the rough handling and bring require-
ments under the extreme temperature conditions is also warrented.
As a final recommendation, it is felt that the case assembly utilizing a
bonded joint between the plastic body and aluminum base merits further investi-
gation and possibly additional development. The limited testi performed
during this program with the bonded joint was relatively succe. ail and the
design showed promise. The advantages to using a bonded joint are the elimi-
nation of the locking buttresses which, in the aluminum part, require a close
tolerance machining operation and the simplification of the. mold which produces
the plastic body.
48
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APPENDIX I
20MM CARTRIDGE CASE DRAWINGS
This appendix consists of the following 20nni cartridge case drawings:
53593-40001
53593-40002
53593-40014
53593-40003
53593-40012
Cartridge Base
Plastic Case
Rubber Seal
Case Assembly
Cartridge Assembly
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APPENDIX II
PRODUCTION MOLD DRAWINGS
ipnendix consists of the following production mold drawings:
5359 3-10031 20mm Mold Base
53593-10032 20mm Mold Core
53593-10033 20mm Mold Cavity
53593-10034 Segments
53593-10035 Cavity Retainer
53593-10036 20mm Mold Slide
53593-10037 Stripper
53593-10038 Latch Release
53593-10039 Latch
53593-10040 Latch Clevis
53593-10041 Latch Stop
53593-10042 Latch Shim
53593-10043 Stop Rod
53593-10044 Stop
53593-10045 Latch Spring
53593-1004b Slide Pin
53593-10050 20mm Mold Assembly
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APPENDIX III
DEVELOPMENT CASE MOLD DRAWINGS
This appendix consists of the following development case mold drawings;
53593-10019 Core
53593-10020 Segments
53593-10021 Inlet
53593-10022 Cavity
53593-10023 Stripper
53593-10025 Mold Assembly
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INITIAL DISTRIBUTION
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87
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INITIAL DISTRIBUTION (Concluded)
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DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA R&D
t*t tttlr tnnlw * , <f i*f 'M* ' * ** f l t . f rIf ^ . ,1 h. If.. . (t f **> ! i* . f <i*K*f irl |
J.'. I 'UM I M Kin H (I a'.V (C * HUM
UNCLASSIFIED
(I < #) ># MAIMI
AA 1 Corporal i mi
( i-i kiysvi Hi-, Mil. 21U Ml
/ft 1. IIOUI'
EVKI.Ol'MKNT iT 20mi: i PLASTIC/ALIJ MINO, CARTRIDGE CASK
* 1 . . 141*' 1 V I NO US, r>|" III rf |Hf t i** 11)1 f l t l r . /*( II
Final Report - IM April 1 *>7J to 2tf February 1V74
An IIKII. . M f . M Hait i-, multltr If f l l l Mf . Iit iiamr)
!;dw,in! c;. Kin,',
.Mat t hou G. 1'opi.k
Robert W . Schnepfe
iil i-ihl I'l t l
March iy_74 _
I uKIHXI il l i^l UNl NO
FU bJW J-C-0102
. Task No. 02
'W ork Unit No.OOts
I/IV N r. l o t At NO U* I'AGf S
' MH/Nil UH^MirUH! WUMHI Nl M
ER-7792
*f > HO U* Mit
It ii 1 t i t Ml *
l
O*< i NOIM f A*ir If l t iumhrf i (f iat IM^ r*** an #ie d
rf it * r*-|rri
AFATL-TK-74-b2
It l M 141 Ml * I ION M. l l yl Nl
h i st ri hut ion limited to 11. S. liovernmont agencies only; th' s report documents
test .nid evaluation; distribution limitation applied March 1974 . Other
requests for this document must he referred to the Air Force Armament Laboratory
(ULDC. i , liglin Air Force Base, Honda 32512.
,u*-i
T
i i Mt N i AM r NO I i
Avai l ahl e in DltC
1 . ' 'il 'Ul f il l hl Hl , Mil l l MT A I IIWl Tl
Air Force Armament Laborat ory
Air l orce Syst ems Command
I'g1 in Air ! ' oree hi,, e , Fl orida 325 -12
T he goals of. this progr. im were to arrive at a final design for the 20mn
plastic/aluminum cartridge cas-j by: (1 ) studying and eliminating, I f possible,
the eise cracking problems encountered during temperature extreme firings;
(l) I mproving case res'stance to rough handling; and (3) establishing molding
process parameters for high volimv production. Hie basic case consists of a
plastic body Joined mechanically to . in aluminum base forming a composite
assembly. T he existing plastic/. iluminum case design was used as a basis, and
modifications were madu to it as Judged necessary. Each modification was
followed by test firing to verily and record any charges in performance and
case integrity. T est firings were performed with a Mann barrel and with the
M61 automatic gun firing at a rate of 4 ,300 rounds per minute. General
results were that temperature extreme firings continued to present problems
relating to case integrity. N umerous case modifications with accompanying
firing datJ have served to isolate various failure modes and have led to a
better understanding of certain failure occurrences. Further developtient will
be necessary to apply the accumulated knowledge to reduce and subsequently
eliminate all case failures. D uring this program, molding process parameters
for high volume production as well as a production mold design have been
established. A complete drawing package for the production mold was prepared
and I s included as Appendix 1 1 to ttii. 'i report. I n addition, an alternate
method of assembling the plastic :> m'. y and aluminum base was investigated and
proven feasible by firing (esta. T his method consisted of Joining the
components With a unique bonding proi as in place of the expensive mechanical
Joint previously employed.
DD
FORM
, 1473
UNCLASSIFIED
Sri mil. 1' ' USMIH it ion
^4^iM#!!^.p^
UNCLASSIFIED
Srcut it y CUjsif ic. l io n
* E XOD
L IM H A
Plastic/Aluminum Cartridge Case
M61 Cannon
20mm Cartridge Cast-
T ypo 1 2 N ylon
U N CLAS S I FI ED
:. A
B a

tiu
^L
. I &