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Maybelle B. Animas, R.

Nurse II- Imus I

First Aid
The immediate care given to a
person/victim who has suddenly become
ill or has been injured.
Role of First Aider
Bridge the gap between the time of the accident
and the arrival of the physician.
Ends when medical assistance begins.
Doesnt intend to compete with or take place of
the physician.
Objectives of First Aid
To prolong life
To alleviate suffering
To prevent further or added injury
Characteristic of a Good First Aider
Observant- notice all signs
Resourceful- make best use of all things
Gentle- shouldnt cause pain
Tactful- shouldnt be alarming
Sympathetic- should be comforting
Medical tape
Tongue depressor

First Aid kit
Rubbing Alcohol
Povidone Iodine
Hydrogen Peroxide
Cotton swab
Band aid
Gauge pads
Bandage (triangular) Elastic
Roller bandage
Safety pins

Conditions Requiring First Aid
- caused by a sudden
fall in the supply of
blood to their brain that
results in the temporary
loss of consciousness.

Signs & Symptoms
Ringing in the ears
Blurred vision

Conditions Requiring First Aid
First Aid
Lay the person flat on the
ground. Elevate the legs
to coax more blood into
your brain.
If person is on chair, push
his head down between
his knees.
Loosen tight clothing.
Avoid crowding the
Call a doctor if necessary.
Conditions Requiring First Aid

-occurs when a small blood
vessel in the lining of the
nose bursts. It very common
in children and often result
from harmless activities such
as your child picking their
nose, blowing it too hard or
too often or from getting
knocked on the nose during
First Aid
Sit down and lean forward
Pinch the lower part of the
nostrils just below the bony part
of the nose for 10minutes while
breathing through the mouth.
Release nostrils slowly, repeat
procedure if bleeding continue.
Do not touch or blow the nose for
about 24hrs. Do not pact the
affected nostrils with cotton.
Bring patient to hospital if

Break in the
continuity of a tissue
either external or

Closed (internal)
Open (external)

Signs & Symptoms
Uncontrolled restlessness

Closed Wound
The types of closed wounds are:
Contusions, more commonly known
as bruises, caused by a blunt force
trauma that damages tissue under
the skin.
Strained Muscles- Over-stretching of
muscles that have not been
sufficiently warmed-up (could be
called "cold" muscles).
Sprained Ligament- Sudden force
causing joint to move beyond its
natural range of movement e.g. to
break one's fall at speed during an
activity such as ice-skating.

First Aid
Rest the affected area
Ice application or cold
Compression over the
affected area
Elevate the affected area
above the heart
Open Wound
Abrasions (grazes), superficial
wounds in which the topmost layer of
the skin (the epidermis) is scraped off.

Lacerations are jagged, irregular, or
blunt breaks or tears in the soft

Avulsion is forcible separation or
tearing of tissue from the victims
Incised wounds, or cuts in-body tissues are
commonly caused by knives, metal edges, broken
glass, or other sharp objects commonly cause
incised wounds, or cuts, in-body tissues.

Puncture wounds are caused by a sharp object
that penetrates the skin.

Open Wound
The major principles of open-wound
treatment are to:
Control bleeding.
Direct pressure
Prevent further contamination of the
wound (wound dressing & bandaging)
Immobilize the injured part.
Stabilize any impaled object.

First Aid
a medical condition in which there is a break in the
continuity of the bone. A bone fracture can be the
result of high force impact or stress, or trivial injury
as a result of certain medical conditions that weaken
the bones
Types of Fracture
Greenstick fracture: an incomplete
fracture in which the bone is bent.
Transverse fracture: a fracture at a
right angle to the bone's axis.
Spiral fracture: a fracture in which
the break has a curved or sloped
Comminuted fracture: a fracture in
which the bone fragments into
several pieces.
Compound fracture - meaning the
bone ends are no longer touching.
Signs and Symptoms
Pain and swelling at the fracture site.
Tenderness close to the fracture.
Paleness and deformity (sometimes).
Loss of pulse below the fracture, usually in an extremity (this
is an emergency).
Numbness, tingling or paralysis below the fracture (rare; this
is an emergency).
Bleeding or bruising at the site.
Weakness and inability to bear weight.

First Aid
Initial treatment for fractures of the arms, legs, hands
and feet in the field include splinting the extremity in
the position it is found, elevation and ice.
Immobilization will be very helpful with initial pain
Bandages have three key uses: applying pressure to
bleeding wounds; covering wounds and burns; and
providing support and immobilization for broken
bones, sprains, and strains. These includes gauze,
triangular, Elastic, and tubular bandage.
Head Top (for head injuries)
Fold the base at least 2-3
Place folded base aligned with
Pull back and cross-over at the
back, tucking apex beneath
Pull both ends in front/secure
with a square knot at the
center of the folded base/tuck
Pull down apex (tuck sides
Tuck apex neatly at cross-over
Chest Bandage
Apex at the shoulder of
injured part
Pull back folded base and
secure with square knot at
the center indention of the
Knot/tie longer end with
Hand Bandage
Place the hand in the
middle of the triangular
bandage with the wrist at
the base of the
Place the apex over the
fingers and tuck any excess
material into the pleats on
each side of the hand
Cross the ends on top of
the hand, take them
around the wrist, and tie
them with a square knot.

Arm Sling
Place folded base vertically
One arm, with pointed
directly under the elbow of
injured arm
Lower ends of base at the
side of the neck using a
square knot
Make several twist with
apex and tie a knot
Hide the knot
Underarm Sling
Same procedure as arm
sling except that the lower
end of the base is tucked
under the injured arm.
Secure end of base and
apex with a square knot
the center indention at the
Cravat Bandage for Forehead
Place the center of the
cravat over the compress
covering the wound.
Carry the ends around to
the opposite side of the
head, cross them. Bring
them back to the staring
point and tie them.
Place the center of the cravat over the
compress covering the wound.
Carry the ends around to the neck, cross
them. Bring them back to the starting point
and tie them loosely.

Cravat Bandage for the Neck
Use the wide cravat. Start with the
middle of the cravat over the
compress covering the cheek or
the ear.
Carry one end over the top of the
head and the other under the
Cross the ends at the opposite
Bring the short end back around
the forehead and the long end
around the back of the head.
Tie them down over the compress
Cravat Bandage for the Cheek or Ears
Cravat Bandage for the Eye
Lay center of the first cravat
over top of he with the front
end falling over uninjured
Bring second cravat around
head, over eyes, and over
loose ends of first cravat. Tie
in front
Bring ends of first cravat back
over top of head, tying there
and pulling second cravat up
and away form uninjured eye.
Cravat for Elbow
Bend arm at elbow and
place center of cravat at
point of elbow
Bring ends up and across
each other in overlapping
spiral turns. Continue one
end up arm and the other
end down forearm.
Bring ends to front of elbow
and tie.
Cravat for the Knee
Start on top of the knees.
Cross over and twist 2-3
times under the knee.
Cross over on top/pull
ends to opposite sides.
Secure with a square knot
under the knee
Cravat for the Forearm, Arm, Leg and
Place center of cravat over the
Begin ascending turns wit
upper end and descending
turns with lower end, with
each turn covering two-third
of preceding turn until
dressing is covered.
Terminate by tying both ends
in square knot.

Shoulder Armpit Cravat
Start at the armpit.
Cross-over at injured
Tie at the opposite armpit
(side of front)