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Key Stage 3 Science

Food and Digestion Unit


Food and Digestion Unit
From KS2:
Statement Description
Sc2 1a That the life processes common to humans and other animals include
nutrition, movement, growth and reproduction.
Sc2 2a About the functions and care of teeth.
Sc2 2b Food for activity and growth, and the importance of an adequate and
varied diet for health.
Sc2 2c That the heart acts as a pump to circulate the blood through vessels
around the body, including through the lungs.
Unit Overview:
stablish prior learning!
o The seven life processes
o "uman organs
o #onsider how organs wor$ together
forming organ systems.
o %plain the functions of different organ
systems.
o Focus on digestive system & structure
and function.
o #onsider the components of a healthy
diet and what these components are used
for.
o %plain where the different components
are digested, using $nowledge of
en'ymes.
Food and Digestion [!SSO" #$
%ig &'estion: (o')d a *'man )ive wit*o't a stomac*+
esson O,-ectives
Science content Science s.i))s /rans0era,)e s.i))s
State the names and
locations of the main human
organs.
%plain how these organs
wor$ together to enable
humans to carry out the
seven life processes.
#ollaborate with others to
wor$ towards common goals
()*TS+.
,or$ with others (SA*+.
Key 1ords
-rain. -reathing System. #irculatory System. /igestive System. %cretory System.
"eart. 0ntestine. 1idneys. *iver. *ungs. 2ervous System. 3rgan. 3rgan System.
Stomach
2eso'rces:
*aminated posters of human torso with laminated organs and labels.
-lue tac$.
"uman torso model.
,or$sheets & "uman -ody outline and "uman 3rgans to stic$ onto outline.
3rgan Systems ,ordsearch.
Scissors, glue and colouring pencils.
esson 3)an
STA4T4
1. Students wor$ in groups to stic$ organs and labels in the correct positions on the
human torso. 3bserve students to assess prior learning. 56 mins7
2. /iscuss names and locations of organs, using human torso model to show 8/ version
of organs. 56 mins7
9A02
1. :sing wor$sheets (;"uman -ody< and ;"uman 3rgans<+, students wor$ individually to
cut out organs and stic$ in the correct place on the human body and label. 516 mins7
2. As$ students for the names of the seven life processes (94S =42>24=+. As$
students which organs enable the human body to carry out the process of ;nutrition<.
Students colour the organs on their wor$sheet that carry out ;nutrition< in the same
colour. Tell students to discuss in pairs which organs they thin$ are needed for the
processes of ;respiration< and ;e%cretion<. Ta$e feedbac$ and tell students to colour
organs appropriately. 516 mins7
8. 0ntroduce the term ;organ system< and as$ students if they $now the name of the
system that carries out the process of ;nutrition<. Add a $ey to wor$sheet to show
which organs are parts of each system. 51? mins7
)*2A4@
1. Students complete wor$sheet ;3rgan systems wordsearch<. 51? mins7
4ssessment Opport'nities
3bserving students during starter activity.
*istening to and responding to ideas during discussions.
"otes
Food and Digestion [!SSO" 2$
%ig &'estion: (o')d a *'man )ive wit*o't a stomac*+
esson O,-ectives
Science content Science s.i))s /rans0era,)e s.i))s
State which organs ma$e up
the digestive system and
describe their functions.
:se an e%isting model or
analogy to e%plain a
phenomenon.
Assess themselves and
others, identifying
opportunities and
achievements ()*TS+.
0nvite feedbac$ and deal
positively with praise,
setbac$s and criticism
()*Ts+.
=ive and receive feedbac$ &
as individuals, class or group
(SA*+.
Key 1ords
Anus. Appendi%. =ullet. =ut. Faeces. *arge 0ntestine. 4ectum. Small 0ntestine.
Stomach
2eso'rces:
,or$sheets & #omic Strip, The /igestive System.
Scissors and glue.
*aminated cards & Sequencing /igestion.
Food sample, equipment to model Aourney through digestive system (see teacher<s
instruction sheet & ;9odelling the /igestive System<+.
esson 3)an
STA4T4
1. %plain that we are now focusing on one organ system & The /igestive System.
2. Assess students< current understanding of digestion. 0n pairs students complete a
comic strip to e%plain what they thin$ happens during digestion. 51? mins7
9A02
1. As$ some groups to e%plain their comic strips to the rest of the class. As$ the rest
of the class questions on each presentation, to which they can indicate whether they
agree with the ideas suggested by holding up green, orange or red cards. 51? mins7
2. *in$ the ideas discussed bac$ to the organs identified last lesson B as$ students
for the names of the main organs that ma$e up the digestive system. Additional
organs that were not discussed in the previous lesson may need to be added. ,rite
the organ names on the board. 56 mins7
8. =ive students wor$sheet ;The /igestive System<. Students label the organs of the
digestive system and match organ names to functions. 51? mins7
C. 9odel the Aourney through the digestive system (see sheet ;9odelling the
/igestive System< for suggestion of how to do this+ & as$ for student volunteers to
help at various stages of the model. Duestion students throughout. 516 mins7
)*2A4@
=ive students sets of cards and as$ them to sequence them to e%plain what happens
during digestion. 51? mins7
4ssessment Opport'nities
*istening and responding to ideas during discussions.
3bserve students during card sort activity.
"otes
At this stage of the unit, students will not have covered the food groups, therefore
only refer to en'ymes as helping to brea$ food down. n'ymes will be covered in
detail later in the unit.
(omic Strip to !5p)ain Digestion
6ode))ing t*e Digestive System
!7'ipment:
)lastic funnel
*ong balloon, end cut off
4ubber glove, one finger cut off
8?cm hose>rubber tube
3ne leg of a pair of tights
*arge bea$er
Tape and scissors
#lothes pegs
Spoon
-rown coloured cereal, mil$, Auice
Diagram:
Se7'encing Digestion
Food goes into the mo't*.
The teeth chew the food.
The food is mi%ed with
saliva.
,hen we swallow, the food
goes down the g'))et to
the stomac*.
0n the stomach, the food
mi%es with acid and
en'ymes. The acid and
en'ymes help to brea$
down the food.
The food leaves the
stomach and goes into the
sma)) intestine. 0t is mi%ed
with more en'ymes to
brea$ it down even more.
:seful substances from
the food pass into the
blood.
Food that we cannot
digest goes from the small
intestine into the )arge
intestine. "ere water
passes out of the
undigested food into the
blood.
:ndigested food from the
large intestine is stored.
This solid waste passes out
of the an's.
The Digestive System
3n the diagram below, write in the name of the organ that each line is pointing to. :se
these words!
rect'm sma)) intestine stomac* mo't* g'))et )arge intestine
2ow cut out the bo%es at the bottom of the page showing the functions of these organs.
Stic$ the correct bo% underneath the correct organ name.
,ater is absorbed here. Faeces are stored here. Ta$es food to the stomach.
9ore en'ymes are added
here, to complete digestion.
The soluble food is
a,sor,ed.
Food is ground up here and
mi%ed with sa)iva.
The food is churned up with
strong acid here and
en8ymes.
Food and Digestion [!SSO" 3$
%ig &'estion: 1*at is in a s)ice o0 ,read+
esson O,-ectives
Science content Science s.i))s /rans0era,)e s.i))s
State the names of the
seven components of a
balanced diet and provide
e%amples of foods that are
good sources of starch and
sugar.
%plain how foods can be
tested for the presence of
starch and sugar.
/escribe and record
observations
systematically.
Support conclusions, using
evidence ()*TS+.
,or$ with others, e.g. to
investigate, e%periment
(SA*+.
Key 1ords
-alanced /iet. -enedict<s solution. #arbohydrate. /iet. Fat. Fibre. 0odine. 9ineral.
)rotein. Starch. Sugar. Eitamin. ,ater
2eso'rces:
Duestions and score grid for "ealthy ating Duestionnaire.
Food samples.
quipment for starch and sugar food tests.
esson 3)an
STA4T4
1. As$ students questions from the "ealthy ating Duestionnaire. Students record
yes>no answers.
2. 4ead out score for each question, students calculate their total score.
8. %plain what scores mean. As$ students to give indication of score using red,
orange and green cards. 516 mins7
9A02
1. /iscuss certain questions from questionnaire and obtain names of food groups from
discussion. .g. As$ students why they would not score well if they eat chocolate
every day & fat content. why they would score well if they eat fruit every day &
vitamin content. ,rite names of food groups on board. Students record in a table
with two columns & ;food group< and ;good sources<. *eave ;good sources< column blan$
to complete later. 51? mins7
2. )rovide students with method for starch and sugar tests. %plain that they will
carry out tests to find out whether certain foods contain these carbohydrates. As$
students to suggest what columns they will need in a results table. /raw table on
board for students to copy. 56 mins7
8. Students carry out food tests and record results. (Shorten practical if necessary
by giving each group of students a different food sample to test and pool results+.
52? mins7
)*2A4@
1. 3btain feedbac$ from students. /iscuss whether results were as e%pected.
2. Fill in carbohydrate & starch and sugar & rows in table to show good sources of
these groups. /iscuss other good sources. 51? mins7
4ssessment Opport'nities
*istening and responding to ideas during discussions.
3bserving students during practical, questioning individuals>groups.
"otes
9ea)t*y !ating &'estionnaire
Questions
1. Do you usually eat breakfast?
2. Do you eat cereal for breakfast?
3. Do you have a drink before you come to school?
4. Do you eat any fruit at breaktime?
5. Do you eat crisps at breaktime?
6. Do you eat chocolate or sweets at breaktime?
. Do you drink a fi!!y drink at breaktime?
". Do you usually eat chips for lunch?
#. Do you usually eat a cake or bur$er for lunch?
1%. Do you usually eat some chocolate at lunchtime?
11. Do you usually eat a piece of fruit at lunchtime?
12. Do you eat sandwiches for lunch?
13. Do you eat brown&wholemeal bread?
14. Do you eat any fresh ve$etables durin$ the day?
15. Do you eat any fresh fruit durin$ the day?
16. Do you eat some meat or cheese durin$ the day?
1. Do you eat cakes every day?
1". Do you eat sweets every day?
1#. Do you add e'tra salt to your food?
2%. Do you drink some milk every day?
Score Grid
Start with a score of 25. Add or subtract points for each yes reply,
following the grid below:
1 (1
6
)3
11
(2
16
(2
2 (2 7
1
12 (1 17 )1
3 (1 8 )3 13 (1 18 )2
4 (2 9 )1 14 (3 19 )1
5 )1 10 )2 15 (2 20 (1
Scores:
1%*2% +ou need to think about what you,re eatin$. -o stay healthy you need to cut down on all that
fattenin$ food and eat much more fresh fruit and ve$etables.
2%*3% +our diet is fairly well balanced but don,t be tempted by the fattenin$ foods. even if they look
$lamorous.
3%*4% +ou are eatin$ on the ri$ht lines to stay fit. /ake sure you $et enou$h of the ri$ht foods and
don,t be tempted to lose too much wei$ht.
Food and Digestion [!SSO" :$
%ig &'estion: 1*at is in a s)ice o0 ,read+
esson O,-ectives
Science content Science s.i))s /rans0era,)e s.i))s
)rovide e%amples of foods
that are good sources of
protein and fat.
%plain how foods can be
tested for the presence of
protein and fat.
/escribe and record
observations
systematically.
Support conclusions, using
evidence ()*TS+.
,or$ with others, e.g. to
investigate, e%periment
(SA*+.
Key 1ords
-alanced /iet. -iuret solution. #arbohydrate. /iet. Fat. Fibre. 9ineral. )rotein.
Starch. Sugar. Eitamin. ,ater
2eso'rces:
Food samples.
quipment for protein and fat tests.
esson 3)an
STA4T4
,rite the $ey words below on the board and tell students that they are going to play
;splat<. 51? mins7
)rocedure
B As$ two volunteers to stand facing each other on either side of the words.
B 0nvite another student to define one of the $ey words without using it.
B The winner is the first volunteer to splat the correct $ey word with their hand.
B The winner should stay on and the student who defined the $ey word should replace
the other volunteer.
1ey words! protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, fibre, minerals, iodine, starch, sugar,
balanced diet.
9A02
1. 4ecap the wor$ from the previous lesson on testing for starch and sugar. %plain
that during today<s lesson students are going to test for fat and protein using the
same food samples as before. 56 mins7
2. )rovide students with method for protein and fat tests. As$ students to design
their results table, using previous lesson<s wor$ as a guide. 51? mins7
8. Students carry out food tests and record results. (Shorten practical if necessary
by giving each group of students a food sample to test and pool results+. 52? mins7
)*2A4@
1. 3btain feedbac$ from students. /iscuss whether results were as e%pected.
2. Fill in protein and fat rows in table to show good sources of these groups. /iscuss
other good sources.
8. /iscuss good sources of remaining food groups & fibre, water, vitamins and
minerals & and record in table. 516 mins7
4ssessment Opport'nities
*istening to and responding to ideas during discussions.
3bserving students during practical, questioning individuals>groups.
9omewor.
Tell students to collect the labels from seven foods & each one high in at least one of
the seven nutrients needed by the body. -ring to ne%t lesson. (0f they are unable to
collect the label they should record information in their boo$s and bring a picture of
the food+.
"otes
Food and Digestion [!SSO" ;$
%ig &'estion: 1*y do we need to eat+
esson O,-ectives
Science content Science s.i))s /rans0era,)e s.i))s
%plain what the main
components of a balanced
diet are used for.
)lan and carry out research
()*TS+.
)rovide constructive
support and feedbac$ to
others ()*TS+.
#ommunicate with others
(SA*+.
Key 1ords
-alanced /iet. #arbohydrate. /iet. Fat. Fibre. 9ineral. )rotein. Starch. Sugar.
Eitamin. ,ater
2eso'rces:
*arge sheets of paper.
=lue.
)ictures of different foods.
Access to computers with 0nternet.
esson 3)an
STA4T4
)repare a classroom display as a collage to show e%amples of foods which are good
sources of each of the seven nutrients. :se the labels collected by the class for
their last homewor$, as well as the pictures to give e%tra support. Students could be
given the opportunity to e%plain their homewor$ labels and where they fit in. 51?
mins7
9A02
1. Split students into F groups and tell them to carry out research into a particular
food group B give each group a different group to research. They should find out
what it<s needed for, how much is needed, where it can be found, etc. Say that they
can use diagrams to help e%plain their ideas. %plain that, at the end of the lesson,
each group will be as$ed to present their findings to the rest of the class and that
every student must play some part in the presentation. 52? mins7
2. As$ each group to present their findings. 3ther pupils should peer assess each one
and pic$ out three strengths and one feature which could have been improved. (-e
careful to ensure that the criticism isn<t about the students themselves, but about
the content of their presentations.+ 52? mins7
)*2A4@
1. As$ students to help complete a summary on the board & table with columns for
food group, how much is needed, what it is needed for. (This could be done after each
group<s presentation+.
2. Students record summary. 51? mins7
4ssessment Opport'nities
)eer assessment & students comment on each group<s presentation.
9omewor.
/esign a menu to show the food which a specified person should eat in a single day to
stay healthy. =ive different students different types of people (e.g. an elderly man, a
pregnant woman, a runner, a toddler, a builder, a vegetarian, a "indu+. Tell pupils to
thin$ about what that particular person needs which ma$es them different, and then
what foods would be appropriate to provide for those needs. Students should record
everything that the person would eat and drin$ during a single day.
"otes
Food and Digestion [!SSO" <$
%ig &'estion: 1*y does ,read taste di00erent a0ter c*ewing+
esson O,-ectives
Science content Science s.i))s /rans0era,)e s.i))s
%plain where each food
group is digested, with
reference to action of
en'ymes.
:se an e%isting model to
e%plain a phenomenon.
Support conclusions,using
reasoned arguments and
evidence ()*TS+.
Key 1ords
Absorbed. Amylase. -lood. #arbohydrase. n'yme. *ipase. )rotease. Salivary =land.
Small 0ntestine. Stomach
2eso'rces:
*aptop connected to 0nternet and interactive whiteboard.
9odel small intestine & Eis$ing tubing, starch solution, amylase, water bath,
equipment for starch and sugar tests.
,or$sheet & /igestion a recap
esson 3)an
STA4T4
1. 0nvite volunteers to play ;/igest Duest< game (located on websiteB
http!>>www.teachnutrition.org>default.asp%GSection0dH1FI+ on interactive
whiteboard to review path through digestive system.
2. 4eview components of balanced diet with questioning. 516 mins7
9A02
1. Show models>pictures of starch, sugar, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals. /iscuss
the differences between them, e.g. sugar, vitamins, and minerals consist of small
individual molecules, whereas starch, protein, and fat all consist of long complicated
molecules. As$ students where in the digestive system food is absorbed. /iscuss
structure of small intestine including presence of villi. As$ students to predict and
e%plain which molecules would be easily absorbed. /iscuss the role of fibre in the
diet and e%plain that our bodies are unable to brea$ this down, so it is passed out of
the body as faeces. 51? mins7
2. %plain the model small intestine and set up as a demonstration. *eave apparatus
for 2? mins. 56 mins7
8. 9eanwhile, e%plain the role of an en'yme & acting li$e a pair of scissors to cut up
large chain molecules into smaller soluble ones. Show the model>pictures of starch,
protein and fat molecules again and say the scissors (amylase>protease>lipase+ brea$
them down into glucose, amino acids and fatty acids. All of these small molecules are
soluble and can be absorbed into the bloodstream. /raw diagrams to illustrate.
/iscuss whereabouts in the digestive system each nutrient is bro$en down. 51? mins7
C. Students complete wor$sheet, recapping the organs of the digestive system and
their functions. 51? mins7
)*2A4@
1. #ollect results from e%periment and e%plain what it shows. 51? mins7
4ssessment Opport'nities
*istening to and responding to ideas during discussions.
9omewor.
1. Tell pupils to chew a piece of bread for 6 & 1? minutes. They should then write
down what happens and try to e%plain why. (-read should taste sweeter as starch is
bro$en down+.
2. ,rite up model intestine e%periment.
"otes
Food and Digestion [!SSO" =$
%ig &'estion: 1*at *appens to a c*eese sandwic* w*en it is eaten+
esson O,-ectives
Science content Science s.i))s /rans0era,)e s.i))s
%plain the Aourney of a
cheese sandwich through
the digestive system.
:se $ey scientific
vocabulary in written
wor$.
Key 1ords
Absorption. Anus. #arbohydrate. /igestion. /issolve. n'yme. Fat. =ullet.
"ydrochloric Acid. *arge 0ntestine. *iver. 9outh. )rotein. 4ectum. Small 0ntestine.
Stomach. Teeth
2eso'rces:
The Journey of a #heese Sandwich assessed tas$
Secondary resources & te%tboo$s, library boo$s.
esson 3)an
STA4T4
0ntroduce the tas$ and discuss ideas for how it could be completed. /iscuss food
groups contained within a cheese sandwich. 56 mins7
9A02
Allow pupils to complete the tas$ individually, with access to secondary resources
(class notes, te%t boo$s, library boo$s+. 56? mins7
)*2A4@
/iscuss progress so far. 56 mins7
4ssessment Opport'nities
#ompleted tas$s should be collected in to be mar$ed according to criteria.
Alternatively, students could selfBassess or peerBassess according to criteria.
9omewor.
Students may need e%tra time to complete the tas$ at home.
"otes
This lesson could be completed as an e%tended homewor$ tas$.