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Busbar.

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Contents
INTRODUCTION
CABLE CURRENT RATINGS
CABLE POWER DISSIPATION
CABLE VOLTAGE DROP
BUSBAR RATINGS
BUSBAR VOLTAGE DROP
BUSBAR POWER DISSIPATION
CONVERSIONS
INDUCTION MOTOR STARTING
BULK POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
STATIC POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
DISCLAIMER
MAXIMUM CURRENT RATING OF ALUMINIUM BUSBARS
MAXIMUM CURRENT RATING OF COPPER BUSBARS
BUSBAR WIDTH
BUSBAR THICKNESS
BUSBAR LENGTH
BUSBAR CURRENT
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
POWER DISSIPATED
POWER FACTOR CORRECTION
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INDUCTION MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS
LOAD CHARACTERISTICS
DIRECT ON LINE STARTER
AUTOTRANSFORMER STARTER
CONSTANT CURRENT SOFT STARTER
STAR/DELTA STARTER
MOTOR CAPACITY
MOTOR SPEED
MOTOR CURRENT
CURRENT / SPEED CURVE
TORQUE / SPEED CURVE
SELECTING STARTER
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Electrical Calculations
This software package is designed to provide a suite of useful calculations for the electrical
engineer.
It includes Busbar and cable calculations Powerfactor Correction !otor "tarter "election
and #etric$i#perial conversions.
The Busbar and cable calculations provide #a%i#u# current ratings and voltage drop figures
under var&ing conditions. The Busbar calculations provide for both 'lu#iniu# and Copper
Busbars. Busbar Power dissipation for given currents are also calculated.
The Power (actor Correction calculations provide for an accurate si)ing of static power factor
correction of 'C Induction #otors. !ost selection tables are highl& inaccurate as the
variations in individual #otor designs result in a wide variation of #agnetising current.
The !otor "tarter "election calculations allows the correct starter to be #atched to an&
specific #otor and load provided the speed tor*ue curves for the #otor and load are
available.
!etric to i#perial and i#perial to #etric conversions are included for #an& of the co##onl&
used units in the electrical industr& under the topics of 'rea +ength !ass Pressure Tor*ue
and ,olu#e. !ore conversions will be added in later releases of this software.
This software is under constant develop#ent. If &ou have an& co##ents of suggestions please e#ail these to-
l#photonics.clear.net.n).
/c0 111231111
+.!.Photonics +td
P.4. Bo% 13 567
Christchurch
8E9 :E'+'8;.
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Copper Cable Current =atings
Cable ratings are based on the resistance of the cable the surface area of the cable and the
te#perature rating of the insulating #aterial. The rating applied to a cable is at a given
a#bient te#perature. ,ariation in a#bient te#perature will result in a variation of the cable
rating.
The resistance of the cable is a function of the #aterial fro# which the conductor is
#anufactured i.e. copper or alu#iniu# and the cross sectional area of the conductor.
The Cable si)e can be no#inated in either s*uare #illi#eters or in the >" '#erican 9ire
?auge. The European #etric ratings are based on figures fro# ,;E 5155 and the '#erican
9ire ?auge figures are taken fro# the 8ational Electrical Code. /8EC0
'#bient Te#perature. The air te#perature around the cable.
,entilation. (ree air #ove#ent around the cable will allow #ore cooling than cables enclosed
in conduit or trunking.

To calculate the current rating of a cable select the cable si)e and the a#bient te#perature
around the cable in degrees Celsius or (ahrenheit and the ventilation. /@In (ree 'ir@ or
@Enclosed@ in conduit or trunking.0 The current rating of a copper cable is displa&ed.
Busbar.doc Page A of 33
Cable Power ;issipation
The total Power ;issipated in the cable is dependent on the resistance of the cable itBs
length and the s*uare of the =!" current flowing through it.
The power dissipated in the cable is proportional to the s*uare of the current so if the cable
has a c&clic load the current should be the =!" current rather than the average. If the
#a%i#u# current flows for a considerable period of ti#e this #ust be used as the current to
deter#ine the #a%i#u# cable te#perature but the power dissipation is based on the s*uare
root of the #a%i#u# current s*uared ti#es the period for which it flows plus the lower current
s*uared ti#es the period it flows all divided b& the s*uare root of the total ti#e. (or e%a#ple
a cable carries a current of 755 '#ps for thirt& seconds then a current of 155 a#ps for 3555
seconds then )ero current for 3555 seconds. The power dissipation is based on an =!"
current of s*rt/755%755%35 C 155%155%3555 C 5 % 35550$s*rt/35 C 3555 C 35550 D 22.2A
'#ps.
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Cable ,oltage ;rop
The Cable voltage drop is the e%pected voltage drop on a cable circuit based on the length
and cross sectional area of the bar. 9here there are a nu#ber of cables in parallel assu#e
the cable cross sectional area is the actual area #ultiplied b& the nu#ber of cables in parallel.
i.e. A cables of 7 ## in parallel would give the sa#e resistive voltage drop as a single cable
of 35 ##.
To calculate the voltage drop of a length of cable select the cable si)e and the current
passing through the cable. The circuit configuration also needs to be specified. @"ingle Cable@
refers to the voltage drop along a single length of cable while @"ingle Phase@ refers to the
voltage drop of two e*ual lengths of cable one in the active circuit and one in the neutral
circuit. @Three Phase@ calculates the voltage drop between the suppl& and a three phase load
where three e*ual cables are used for the three phase circuits. The progra# displa&s the
voltage drop for a copper cable.
Busbar.doc Page 6 of 33
Busbar =atings
BusBar ratings are based on the e%pected surface te#perature rise of the busbar. This is a
function of the ther#al resistance of the busbar and the power it dissipates. The ther#al
resistance of the busbar is a function of the surface area of the busbar the orientation of the
busbar the #aterial fro# which it is #ade and the #ove#ent of air around it. The power
dissipated b& the bus bar is dependent on the s*uare of the current passing through it its
length and the #aterial fro# which it is #ade.
4pti#al ratings are achieved when the bar runs hori)ontall& with the face of the bar in the
vertical plane. i.e. the bar is on its edge. There #ust be free air circulation around all of the
bar in order to afford the #a%i#u# cooling to its surface. =estricted airflow around the bar will
increase the surface te#perature of the bar. If the bar is installed on its side /largest area to
the top0 it will run at an elevated te#perature and #a& need considerable derating. The actual
derating re*uired depends on the shape of the bar. Busbars with a high ratio between the
width and the thickness are #ore sensitive to their orientation than busbars that have an
al#ost s*uare cross section.
,ertical busbars will run #uch hotter at the top of the bar than at the botto# and should be
derated in order to reduce the #a%i#u# te#perature within allowable li#its.
!a%i#u# BusBar ratings are not the te#perature at which the busbar is e%pected to fail
rather it is the #a%i#u# te#perature at which it is considered safe to operate the busbar due
to other factors such as the te#perature rating of insulation #aterials which #a& be in contact
with or close to the busbar. Busbars which are sleeved in an insulation #aterial such as a
heatshrink #aterial #a& need to be derated because of the potential aging and pre#ature
failure of the insulation #aterial.
The !a%i#u# Current rating of 'lu#iniu# BusBars is based on a #a%i#u# surface
te#perature of 15 degrees C /or a 75 degree C te#perature rise at an a#bient te#perature
of 35 degrees C0. If a lower #a%i#u# te#perature rating is desired increase the a#bient
te#perature used for the calculations. i.e. If the actual a#bient te#perature is <5 degrees C
and the desired #a%i#u# bar te#perature is 25 degrees C then set the a#bient te#perature
in the calculations to <5 C /153250 D A5 degrees C.
The !a%i#u# Current rating of Copper BusBars is based on a #a%i#u# surface
te#perature of 15A degrees C /or a 6A degree C te#perature rise at an a#bient te#perature
of 35 degrees C0.
Busbar.doc Page 2 of 33
The BusBar 9idth is the distance across the widest side of the busbar edge to edge.
The BusBar Thickness is the thickness of the #aterial fro# which the BusBar is fabricated. If
the busbar is #anufactured fro# a la#inated #aterial then this is the overall thickness of the
bar rather than the thickness of the individual ele#ents.
The BusBar +ength is the total length of busbar used.
The BusBar Current is the #a%i#u# continuous current flowing through the busbar. The
power dissipated in the busbar is proportional to the s*uare of the current so if the busbar
has a c&clic load the current should be the =!" current rather than the average. If the
#a%i#u# current flows for a considerable period of ti#e this #ust be used as the current to
deter#ine the #a%i#u# busbar te#perature but the power dissipation is based on the
s*uare root of the #a%i#u# current s*uared ti#es the period for which it flows plus the lower
current s*uared ti#es the period it flows all divided b& the s*uare root of the total ti#e. (or
e%a#ple a busbar carries a current of 755 '#ps for thirt& seconds then a current of 155
a#ps for 3555 seconds then )ero current for 3555 seconds. The power dissipation is based
on an =!" current of s*rt/755%755%35 C 155%155%3555 C 5 % 35550$ss*rt35 C 3555 C 35550
D 22.2A '#ps.
The '#bient Te#perature is the te#perature of the air in contact with the busbar. If the air is
in an enclosed space then the power dissipated b& the busbar will cause an increase in the
a#bient te#perature within the enclosure.
To calculate the rating of a busbar enter in the width and thickness of the bar and the
a#bient te#perature around the bar. "elect the units as either #etric or i#perial and the
te#perature as Celsius or (ahrenheit. The progra# displa&s both the current rating of an
alu#iniu# bar of these di#ensions and a copper bar of these di#ensions.
Busbar.doc Page 1 of 33
Busbar ,oltage ;rop
The Busbar voltage drop is the e%pected resistive voltage drop on a busbar circuit based on
the length and cross sectional area of the bar. There #a& be an additional voltage drop due to
the inductance of the bar. This can beco#e particularl& i#portant at high fre*uencies and high
currents. 9here there are a nu#ber of bars in parallel assu#e the bar width is the actual
width #ultiplied b& the nu#ber of bars in parallel. i.e. A bars of A5 % 7 ## in parallel would
give the sa#e resistive voltage drop as a single bar of A5 % 35##.

To calculate the resistive voltage drop of a length of busbar enter in the width length and
thickness of the bar. "elect the units as either #etric or i#perial. and the current passing
through the bar. The circuit configuration also needs to be specified. @"ingle bar@ refers to the
voltage drop along a single length of bar while @"ingle Phase@ refers to the voltage drop of
two e*ual lengths of bar one in the active circuit and one in the neutral circuit. @Three Phase@
calculates the voltage drop between the suppl& and a three phase load where three e*ual
bars are used for the three phase circuits. Enter the a#bient te#perature around the bar as
Celsius or (ahrenheit and the progra# will check the suitabilit& of the bar for that current. The
progra# displa&s the resistive voltage drop for both an alu#iniu# bar of these di#ensions
and a copper bar of these di#ensions.
Busbar.doc Page 15 of 33
Busbar Power ;issipation
The total Power ;issipated in the busbar is dependent on the resistance of the bar itBs length
and the s*uare of the =!" current flowing through it.

The power dissipated in the busbar is proportional to the s*uare of the current so if the
busbar has a c&clic load the current should be the =!" current rather than the average. If
the #a%i#u# current flows for a considerable period of ti#e this #ust be used as the current
to deter#ine the #a%i#u# busbar te#perature but the power dissipation is based on the
s*uare root of the #a%i#u# current s*uared ti#es the period for which it flows plus the lower
current s*uared ti#es the period it flows all divided b& the s*uare root of the total ti#e. (or
e%a#ple a busbar carries a current of 755 '#ps for thirt& seconds then a current of 155
a#ps for 3555 seconds then )ero current for 3555 seconds. The power dissipation is based
on an =!" current of s*rt/755%755%35 C 155%155%3555 C 5 % 35550$s*rt/35 C 3555 C 35550 D
22.2A '#ps.
To calculate the Power ;issipation of a busbar enter in the width length and thickness of the
bar and the =!" Current passing through it. "elect the units as either #etric or i#perial. The
progra# displa&s the Power ;issipated in both an alu#iniu# bar of these di#ensions and a
copper bar of these di#ensions. Enter the a#bient te#perature around the bar in either
Celsius or (ahrenheit and the progra# will check the suitabilit& of the bar for this application.
Busbar.doc Page 11 of 33
!etric 3 I#perial Conversions
The conversions routines currentl& provide conversions for units of area length !ass
Pressure Tor*ue and ,olu#e. 9ithin these there are a range of co##onl& used #etric and
i#perial units to convert between.
To #ake a conversion fro# the @Conversions@ #enu select the re*uired conversion.
Enter a value /?reater then 10 in the left hand window and select the units to convert fro#.
Busbar.doc Page 12 of 33
"elect the units to convert to on the right hand side and the result is displa&ed in the right
hand window.
Busbar.doc Page 13 of 33
Introduction to Power (actor Correction

Power (actor correction is applied to circuits which include induction #otors as a #eans of
reducing the inductive co#ponent of the current and thereb& reduce the losses in the suppl&.
There should be no effect on the operation of the #otor itself.
Power factor correction is achieved b& the addition of capacitors in parallel with the
connected #otor circuits and can be applied at the starter or applied at the switchboard or
distribution panel.
Capacitors connected at each starter and controlled b& each starter is known as @"tatic
Power (actor Correction@ while capacitors connected at a distribution board and controlled
independentl& fro# the individual starters is known as @Bulk Correction EPage @.
Busbar.doc Page 1< of 33
Bulk Power (actor Correction
The Power factor of the total current supplied to the distribution board is #onitored b& a
controller which then switches capacitor banks In a fashion to #aintain a power factor better
than a preset li#it. /T&picall& 5.1A0 Ideall& the power factor should be as close to unit& as
possible. There is no proble# with bulk correction operating at unit& or even over corrected.
"tatic Power (actor Correction
's a large proportion of the inductive or lagging current on the suppl& is due to the
#agnetising current of induction #otors it is eas& to correct each individual #otor b&
connecting the correction capacitors to the #otor starters. 9ith static correction it is
i#portant that the capacitive current is less than the inductive #agnetising current of the
induction #otor. In #an& installations e#plo&ing static power factor correction the correction
capacitors are connected directl& in parallel with the #otor windings. 9hen the #otor is 4ff
+ine the capacitors are also 4ff +ine. 9hen the #otor is connected to the suppl& the
capacitors are also connected providing correction at all ti#es that the #otor is connected to
the suppl&. This re#oves the re*uire#ent for an& e%pensive power factor #onitoring and
control e*uip#ent. In this situation the capacitors re#ain connected to the #otor ter#inals as
the #otor slows down. 'n induction #otor while connected to the suppl& is driven b& a
rotating #agnetic field in the stator which induces current into the rotor. 9hen the #otor is
disconnected fro# the suppl& there is for a period of ti#e a #agnetic field associated with
the rotor. 's the #otor decelerates it generates voltage out its ter#inals at a fre*uenc& which
is related to itBs speed. The capacitors connected across the #otor ter#inals for# a resonant
circuit with the #otor inductance. If the #otor is criticall& corrected /corrected to a power
factor of 1.50 the inductive reactance e*uals the capacitive reactance at the line fre*uenc&
and therefore the resonant fre*uenc& is e*ual to the line fre*uenc&. If the #otor is over
corrected the resonant fre*uenc& will be below the line fre*uenc&. If the fre*uenc& of the
voltage generated b& the decelerating #otor passes through the resonant fre*uenc& of the
corrected #otor there will be high currents and voltages around the #otor$capacitor circuit.
This can result in sever da#age to the capacitors and #otor. It is i#perative that #otors are
never over corrected or criticall& corrected when static correction is e#plo&ed.
"tatic power factor correction should provide capacitive current e*ual to 25F of the
#agnetising current which is essentiall& the open shaft current of the #otor.
The #agnetising current for induction #otors can var& considerabl&. T&picall& #agnetising
currents for large two pole #achines can be as low as 25F of the rated current of the #otor
while s#aller low speed #otors can have a #agnetising current as high as 75F of the rated
full load current of the #otor. It is not practical to use a @"tandard table@ for the correction of
induction #otors giving opti#u# correction on all #otors. Tables result in undercorrection on
#ost #otors but can result in over correction in so#e cases. 9here the open shaft current
can not be #easured and the #agnetising current is not *uoted an appro%i#ate level for the
#a%i#u# correction that can be applied can be calculated fro# the half load characteristics
of the #otor. It is dangerous to base correction on the full load characteristics of the #otor as
in so#e cases #otors can e%hibit a high leakage reactance and correction to 5.1A at full load
will result in overcorrection under no load or disconnected conditions.
"tatic correction is co##onl& applied b& using one contactor to control both the #otor and
the capacitors. It is better practice to use two contactors one for the #otor and one for the
capacitors. 9here one contactor is e#plo&ed it should be up si)ed for the capacitive load.
The use of a second contactor eli#inates the proble#s of resonance between the #otor and
Busbar.doc Page 1A of 33
the capacitors.
Inverter. "tatic Power factor correction #ust not be used when the #otor is controlled b& a
variable speed drive or inverter.
"olid "tate "oft "tarter. "tatic Power (actor correction capacitors #ust not be connected to
the output of a solid state soft starter. 9hen a solid state soft starter is used the capacitors
#ust be controlled b& a separate contactor and switched in when the soft starter output
voltage has reached line voltage. !an& soft starters provide a @top of ra#p@ or @b&pass
contactor control@ which can be used to control the power factor correction capacitors.
;isclai#er
This software provides indicative ratings onl& and in no wa& is a substitute for t&pe testing of
busbar and cable s&ste#s. There are #an& para#eters which can influence the actual
te#perature rise of busbars and cables and where practical these are accounted for
however issues such as the enclosure ventilation etc will deter#ine the actual te#perature
rise achieved. 9here a busbar rating under deter#ined conditions has been #easured this
can be used as a reference and fro# this a correction factor can be derived. It is then useful
to use this software to deter#ine the effects of different bar profiles with the correction factor
applied.
Power factor calculations are li#ited to the infor#ation provided. Poor or incorrect infor#ation
will result in incorrect correction. 9here ever possible the calculations should be based on
the #agnetising current of the #otor /#ethod 10 as this is the #ost accurate calculation.
'lwa&s use *uoted or #easured values never guessGG
REMARKS
The M!"#$# C$%%ent %t"n& o' A($#"n"$# B$s)%s is based on a #a%i#u# surface
te#perature of 15 degrees C /or a 75 degree C te#perature rise at an a#bient te#perature
of 35 degrees C0. If a lower #a%i#u# te#perature rating is desired increase the a#bient
te#perature used for the calculations. i.e. If the actual a#bient te#perature is <5 degrees C
and the desired #a%i#u# bar te#perature is 25 degrees C then set the a#bient te#perature
in the calculations to <5 C /153250 D A5 degrees C.
Busbar.doc Page 17 of 33
The M!"#$# C$%%ent %t"n& o' Co**e% B$s)%s is based on a #a%i#u# surface
te#perature of 15A degrees C /or a 6A degree C te#perature rise at an a#bient te#perature
of 35 degrees C0. If a lower #a%i#u# te#perature rating is desired increase the a#bient
te#perature used for the calculations. i.e. If the actual a#bient te#perature is <5 degrees C
and the desired #a%i#u# bar te#perature is 25 degrees C then set the a#bient te#perature
in the calculations to <5 C /15A3250 D 7A degrees C.
Busbar.doc Page 16 of 33
The B$s)% W"+t, is the distance across the widest side of the Busbar edge to edge.
The B$s)% T,"-.ness is the thickness of the #aterial fro# which the Busbar is fabricated. If
the Busbar is #anufactured fro# a la#inated #aterial then this is the overall thickness of the
bar rather than the thickness of the individual ele#ents.
The B$s)% (en&t, is the total length of busbar used.
The B$sB% C$%%ent is the #a%i#u# continuous current flowing through the busbar. The
power dissipated in the busbar is proportional to the s*uare of the current so if the busbar
has a c&clic load the current should be the =!" current rather than the average. If the
#a%i#u# current flows for a considerable period of ti#e this #ust be used as the current to
deter#ine the #a%i#u# busbar te#perature but the power dissipation is based on the
s*uare root of the #a%i#u# current s*uared ti#es the period for which it flows plus the lower
current s*uared ti#es the period it flows all divided b& the s*uare root of the total ti#e. (or
e%a#ple a busbar carries a current of 755 '#ps for thirt& seconds then a current of 155
a#ps for 3555 seconds then )ero current for 3555 seconds. The power dissipation is based
on an =!" current of s*rt/755%755%35 C 155%155%3555 C 5 % 35550$s*rt/35 C 3555 C 35550 D
22.2A '#ps.
The A#)"ent Te#*e%t$%e is the te#perature of the air in contact with the busbar. If the air
is in an enclosed space then the power dissipated b& the busbar will cause an increase in the
a#bient te#perature within the enclosure.
The tot( Po/e% D"ss"*te+ "n t,e )$s)% is dependent on the resistance of the bar itBs
length and the s*uare of the current flowing through it.
Po/e% F-to% -o%%e-t"on is applied to circuits which include induction #otors as a #eans of
reducing the inductive co#ponent of the current and thereb& reduce the losses in the suppl&.
There should be no effect on the operation of the #otor itself.
Power factor correction is achieved b& the addition of capacitors in parallel with the connected
#otor circuits and can be applied at the starter or applied at the switchboard or distribution
panel.
Capacitors connected at each starter and controlled b& each starter is known as @"tatic Power
(actor Correction@ while capacitors connected at a distribution board and controlled
independentl& fro# the individual starters is known as @Bulk Correction@.
Busbar.doc Page 12 of 33
Introduction to Induction !otor "tarting
'n induction #otor is part of a s&ste# co#prising the driven load the induction #otor the
starter and the suppl&. The best starting conditions can onl& be #et if all co#ponents of the
s&ste# are correctl& engineered as a group. The driven load re*uires tor*ue to accelerate to
full speed. If insufficient tor*ue is applied to the driven load it can not reach full speed. The
Induction #otor converts current into tor*ue to accelerate the #otor. If there is insufficient
start current available the #otor can not develop enough tor*ue and the load can not reach
full speed.
To engineer the s&ste# it is i#portant to firstl& establish the starting tor*ue re*uire#ents of
the driven load. 8e%t the starting characteristics of the induction #otor should be anal&)ed in
order to establish the start current re*uired b& the #otor to develop the re*uired starting
tor*ue. ' starter can now be designed$selected to #eet the start current re*uire#ent and an
appropriate suppl& connected.
Induction #otors e%hibit a ver& low i#pedance at speeds less than their rated speed. This
results in a ver& high start current when ;irect 4n +ine EPage started. The ;irect 4n +ine
starting current is independent of the #otor load and is dependent onl& on the #otor design
rotor speed and the applied voltage. ,ariations in #otor loading will affect the start duration
onl&. T&picall& the ;irect 4n +ine starting current falls so#ewhere between AA5F (ull +oad
Current and 155F (ull +oad Current. The actual start current of a given design is deter#ined
pri#aril& b& the design of the rotor. "hallow bar rotor designs are generall& referred to as
;esign B'B rotors and are characteri)ed b& a high start current /7A5F 3 155F0 and a low
starting tor*ue /75F 3 1A5F0. ;esign BBB rotors are deeper bar rotors and t&picall& e%hibit a
starting current of /AA5F 3 7A5F0 and a starting tor*ue of /1A5F 3 355F0.
In #an& installations the #a%i#u# starting tor*ue is not re*uired and the ver& high starting
current places stress on the suppl& causes voltage disturbances and interference to other
users on the suppl&. =educed voltage starting is a #eans of reducing the start current
however a reduction in the start voltage will also reduce the starting tor*ue.
In order to achieve a useful start at a reduced starting current it is i#portant that the #otor is
able to develop sufficient tor*ue at all speeds up to full speed to e%ceed the load tor*ue at
those speeds. If the reduced tor*ue developed b& the #otor is less than the load tor*ue at
an& speed the #otor will not accelerate to full speed. "tepping the starter to full voltage at
less than full speed will result in a high current and little if an& advantage over using a ;irect
4n +ine starter. The selection of a start voltage that is too low will result in an inferior start
characteristic.
"tar$;elta EPage /9&e$;elta0 starters are open transition. 9hen the transition is #ade fro#
the reduced voltage to full voltage there is a period of ti#e when the #otor is effectivel& open
circuited fro# the suppl&. ;uring this period the #otor is effectivel& acting as a generator at a
fre*uenc& proportional to itBs actual shaft speed. 9hen the starter reconnects the #otor to the
suppl& in ;elta there is a ver& high transient current and resulting transient tor*ue which is
#uch #ore severe and da#aging than the ;irect 4n +ine starting conditions.
4ther reduced voltage starters co##onl& e#plo&ed are the 'utotransfor#er "tarter EPage
and the "olid "tate "oft "tarter EPage .
Busbar.doc Page 11 of 33
Induction !otor Characteristics
The induction #otor has two #aHor co#ponents- The =otor and The "tator. In #ost #otors
the "tator is in the outer part of the #otor and co#prises a stack of steel la#inations and two
or #ore windings. The inner part of the stator is hollow and the windings are distributed
around the inner surface of the stator i#beded in a nu#ber of slots. The windings are
organi)ed to for# two or #ore electro#agnetic poles.
The =otor is a solid c&lindrical stack of la#inations with a series of conducting bars i#beded
near the surface. The ends of these bares are shorted together b& shorting rings.
9hen the suppl& is connected to the stator windings a #agnetic field is created which is
rotating at the suppl& fre*uenc&. The field in a two pole #achine will do one co#plete
revolution per c&cle of the suppl&. ' (our pole #achine re*uires two c&cles for a co#plete
revolution and a "i% pole #achine re*uires three c&cles for a co#plete revolution.
The rotating #agnetic field developed b& the stator causes a current to flow in the short
circuited rotor winding in the sa#e #anner as the secondar& current is caused to flow in a
transfor#er. 3 infact the #otor e#ulates a transfor#er with a short circuited secondar&.
The rotor current in turn develops a rotating #agnetic field which interacts with the stator field
to develop a rotating tor*ue field in the direction of the stator field rotation. The strength of the
tor*ue field is dependent on the interaction of the two #agnetic fields and is therefore
dependent on the #agnitude of the fields and their relative phase angle.
The full voltage start current and start tor*ue curves var& tre#endousl& between different
#otor designs due to the variations in rotor designs.
In designing a #otor starting s&ste# it is i#portant to base the design on the actual #otor
being used. ' design based on @t&pical@ curves can &ield ver& erroneous results.
Busbar.doc Page 25 of 33
+oad Characteristics
The induction #otor is used to convert electrical energ& into #echanical energ&. The driven
load presents a #echanical load to the shaft of the #otor. 's the #otor is started it
accelerates the driven load fro# )ero speed to the rated full load speed of the #otor. 's the
load accelerates the tor*ue presented to the #otor shaft will var& depending on the design of
the #achine.
?enerall& the load tor*ue is e%pected to be higher at full speed than at lower speeds. "o#e
applications such as loaded conve&ors #a& re*uire a high breakawa& tor*ue to get the load
to begin to #ove fro# )ero speed.

In order to correctl& design a #otor starting s&ste# it is i#portant to know the load tor*ue
curve. The load /#achine0 design deter#ines the re*uired starting tor*ue. The #otor design
then deter#ines how #uch current is re*uired to develop that tor*ue. If the tor*ue developed
b& the #otor is insufficient the #otor can not accelerate the load to full speed.
The load tor*ue can be e%pressed in 8ewton !eters Pound (oot or as a percentage of the
#otor full load tor*ue.
(or a specific #achine it is best to alwa&s work in absolute units such as 8ewton #eters or
Pound (oot. This wa& if the #otor si)e is changed the starting characteristics and curves will
be changed auto#aticall&. 9hen relative units /F0 are used all the values need to be altered
to reflect the change in #otor (ull +oad Tor*ue.

?eneric or indicative curves can be saved in relative units /F0 to enable appro%i#ations to
be #ade where absolute details for a specific load are not available.
Busbar.doc Page 21 of 33
;irect 4n +ine "tarter
The ;irect 4n +ine /;4+0 or 'cross the +ine starter is the si#plest for# of starter for
induction #otors.
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'utotransfor#er starter
The autotransfor#er starter is an electro#echanical #eans of reduced voltage starting an
induction #otor. >suall& there are three sets of output taps allowing connection on the A5F
start voltage 77F start voltage and 25F start voltage. The starter operates b& connecting the
#otor to the reduced voltage tap for a period of ti#e and then switching to full voltage. If there
is sufficient tor*ue to accelerate the #otor to full speed at the reduced starting voltage and
the start ti#er is set long enough there will be a useful reduction in starting current and
starting tor*ue. If the tor*ue available at the reduced voltage is insufficient to accelerate the
driven load to full speed the starter will change to full voltage at less than full speed resulting
in a high start current and little or no advantage over ;4+ starting.
9here insufficient tor*ue is available to accelerate the load to full speed the starter can be
set to a higher tap increasing the start tor*ue developed.
Busbar.doc Page 23 of 33
Constant Current "oft "tarter
The Constant Current "oft "tarter is a "olid "tate "tarter e#plo&ing "C=s to control the
voltage applied to the #otor. The start current is #onitored and the voltage applied to the
#otor is controlled in a fashion to #aintain the prescribed start current until the #otor reaches
full speed.
Busbar.doc Page 2< of 33
"tar$;elta "tarter
The "tar$;elta starter is probabl& the #ost co##onl& used reduced voltage starter but in a
large nu#ber of applications the perfor#ance achieved is less than ideal and in so#e cases
the da#age and interference is #uch worse than that caused b& a ;irect 4n +ine starter.
The "tar$;elta starter re*uires a si% ter#inal #otor that is delta connected at the suppl&
voltage. The "tar ;elta starter e#plo&s three contactors to initiall& start the #otor in a star
connection then after a period of ti#e to reconnect the #otor to the suppl& in a delta
connection. 9hile in the star connection the voltage across each winding is reduced b& a
factor of the s*uare root of 3. This results in a start current reduction to one third of the ;4+
start current and a start tor*ue reduction to one third of the ;4+ start tor*ue. If there is
insufficient tor*ue available while connected in star the #otor can onl& accelerate to partial
speed. 9hen the ti#er operates the #otor is disconnected fro# the suppl& and then
reconnected in ;elta resulting in full voltage start currents and tor*ue.
The transition fro# star connection to ;elta connection re*uires that the current flow through
the #otor is interrupted. This is ter#ed @4pen Transition "witching@ and with an induction
#otor operating at partial speed /or (ull load speed0 there is a large current and tor*ue
transient produced at the point of reconnection. This transient is far worse than an& produced
b& the ;4+ starter and causes sever da#age to e*uip#ent and the suppl&.
If there is insufficient tor*ue produced b& the #otor in star there is no wa& to acellerate the
load to full speed without switching to delta and causing severe current and tor*ue transients.
Busbar.doc Page 2A of 33
=ated !otor Capacit& in I9 or in JP /horse power0.
Busbar.doc Page 27 of 33
!otor "peed rated in the nu#ber of poles.
Busbar.doc Page 26 of 33
=ated (ull load current of the !otor in '#ps.
Busbar.doc Page 22 of 33
The ;irect 4n +ine or (ull voltage start curve of the #otor. This can be e%pressed in ter#s of
apercentage of the rated full load current of the #otor or in absolute '#ps. 9here a curve for
a specific #otor is used this can be saved b& clicking on the file #enu and then save #otor.
8a#e the file with the na#e si)e and #odel of the #otor for future reference. (or a specific
#otor it is reco##ended that the values are saved in absolute for#at. /'#ps0.
Busbar.doc Page 21 of 33
Busbar.doc Page 35 of 33
Se(e-t"n& St%te%
10 Identif& the driven load and if possible obtain the starting re*uire#ents of this load.
If this load has not been used in earlier calculations &ou will need to enter the speed $ tor*ue
data into the table otherwise the data can be recalled.
20 Identif& a potential #otor and if possible obtain the starting characteristics of the #otor. 4f
particular interest are the speed $ tor*ue curve and the speed current curve for that particular
#otor. If this #otor has not been used in earlier calculations &ou will need to enter the
speed $ tor*ue and speed $ current data into the table otherwise the data can be recalled
fro# disk.
30 4pen the @!otor "tarting@ section of the progra# and fill in all the data on the #otor and
load. 9here the full data is not available enter in the locked rotor characteristics onl&. !ake
sure that the correct units are selected. 9hen the units are changed &ou are given the option
of changing the values or leaving the values as entered. (or specific load and #otor data it is
preferable to save the# as absolute units to avoid confusion. !uch of the data available is
*uoted in percentage onl&. This refers back to the #otor rating. If the data has been
previousl& entered and saved use the @(ile@ @4pen !otor@ and$or @4pen +oad@ #enu options
to select and open the relevant data file.
9hen the data is correctl& displa&ed in the table the starter options are shown in a results
panel at the botto# of the page. This panel includes the #ini#u# starter setting i.e. auto
transfor#er on the 25F tap of soft starter at 325F current.
<0 "ave the data for future usage using the @(ile@ @"ave ....@ #enu options. >se a file na#e
that is ver& descriptive to #ake it eas& to identif& this infor#ation ne%t ti#e. "ave the data in
absolute units /8! or lbft0 unless &ou wish to save the data as a generic curve that can be
applied indicativel& across a range of I9 si)es. 8B using generic curves particular& for
#otors can be ver& erroneous due to the #assive variation between #otor designs.
A0 The starting current and starting tor*ue curves for a range of starter and starting
conditions can be displa&ed using the @?raph@ #enu option.
Busbar.doc Page 31 of 33
Busbar.doc Page 32 of 33
Index
A
'#bient Te#perature 2A
'utotransfor#er starter 32
B
Bulk Power (actor Correction 17
BusBar Current 2<
BusBar +ength 23
Busbar Power ;issipation 15
Busbar =atings 6
BusBar Thickness 22
Busbar ,oltage ;rop 1
BusBar 9idth 21
C
Cable Current =atings <
Cable Power ;issipation A
Cable ,oltage ;rop 7
Constant Current "oft "tarter 33
Conversions 11
Current $ "peed curve 32
D
;irect 4n +ine "tarter 31
;isclai#er 12
I
Induction !otor Characteristics 21
Introduction 3 1A
L
+oad Characteristics 35
M
!a%i#u# Current =ating of 'lu#iniu#
Busbars 11
!a%i#u# Current =ating of Copper Busbars
25
!otor Capacit& 3A
!otor Current 36
!otor "peed 37
P
Power ;issipated 27
Power (actor Correction 26
R
=egistration 13
S
"electing "tarter <5
"tar$;elta "tarter 3<
"tatic Power (actor Correction 16
T
Tor*ue $ "peed curve 31
Busbar.doc Page 33 of 33