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DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE

ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
Unit-1
1 !"at is #a$$e% Li&it State
Limit State is a state of impending Failure Beyond which the
structure ceases its performance under service loads
2 De'ne #"ara#teristi#s stren(t"
Characteristics strength of material is defned as the value of its
strength below which not more than 5% of the test results are
expected to fall
) De'ne #"ara#teristi#s $oa%
Characteristics load clause !"#$ %S&5"'$((() means the value of
load which has a *5% probability of not being exceeded during the
life of the structure#
+he dead loads , live loads and wind loads given in %S-./5 and
seismic forces given in %S-0.*! may be ta1en as characteristics load
* De'ne Desi(n Loa%s
+he design load is determined by multiplying the characteristics
load by appropriate partial safety factors
+ !"at are t"e two t,-es o. $i&it State o. Ser/i#ea0i$it,
2e3ection
Crac1ing
1 Draw Stress Strain #ur/e .or #on#rete
4efer page no "* of %S &"5 '$(((
2 !"at is &ean 0, Cra#ke% Se#tion
%n the concrete Section there is two sides one is compression side
and another one is tension side# %f the concrete available on the
tension side doesn5t have crac1 means that section is called crac1ed
section#
3 !"at %o ,ou &ean 0, 4Mo&ent o. Resistan#e 4o. t"e
se#tion5
+he compression in steel C) 6 +ension in Concrete +) are e7ual in
magnitude but opposite in direction at any cross section # +his
0 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
couple develops a moment called 4esisting moment which is always
e7ual to the applied bending moment at the cross section
7 Assu&-tions &a%e in workin( stress &et"o%
:t any Cross section +he plane before bending is remain plane
after bending
+he tensile stress are ta1en by reinforcement alone only and
none by the concrete
+he steel reinforcement is free from initial stresses when it is
embedded in concrete
+he stress strain relationship of steel and concrete under
wor1ing load is a straight line
+he modular ratio >m5 has the value $.(?!@cbc
@cbc'8ermissible compressive stress due to bending
in concrete in A?mm
$
18 De'ne9:a$an#e% ;or< Criti#a$ se#tion
+he stress in concrete and steel increases as bending moment at
the section increases# :t one stage , they one or both) reach their
maximum permitted values # if the stresses in concrete and steel
reach the maximum permitted values simultaneously as a section,
that section is called a balanced section or Critical section
11 De'ne =n%er Rein.or#e% se#tion
Bhen the area of tension steel provided at a section is less than that
is re7uired for a balanced section, it is said to be an =nder
reinforced section# %n this case the stress in steel will reach its
maximum value frst# :t this stage the :ctual stress in concrete will
be less than its permissible stress#
12 De'ne o/er Rein.or#e% se#tion
Bhen the area of tension steel provided at a section is more than
that is re7uired for a balanced section# %n this case, the stress in
concrete will reach its maximum permissible value frst#
1) De'ne Dou0$, rein.or#e% se#tion
Bhen reinforcements are in the compression and tension Cones in a
4einforced concrete beam then it is called as 2oubly reinforced
section
1* A%/anta(es o. %ou0$, rein.or#e% se#tion ;or<
Ne#essit, o. %ou0$, rein.or#e% se#tion ;Or<!"en t"e %ou0$,
rein.or#e% se#tions resorte%5
Bhen the depth of Beam has to be restricted due to various
reasons li1e Dead room, :esthetic appearance, availability of
Space etc#
$ 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
+he compressive stress in concrete exceeds the permissible
stress and hence reinforcement is provided to ta1e care of the
9xcess stress developed
%n situation where excessive loading is applicable
1+ De'ne 4C"ara#teristi# #u0e #o&-ressi/e
Stren(t" 4 in Li&it State &et"o% ;OR< "ow an% w"en .#k o.
t"e #on#rete is %eter&ine%
Characteristic Compressive Strength fc1 is the value attained From
Compressive Strength +est of 05(mm cube, tested after $. days
curing
11 Di>erentiate :etween 4E$asti# &et"o% 4 an%
4Li&it state &et"o%?;or<Mention t"e &erits o. $i&it state
&et"o% o/er ot"er &et"o%s
+he wor1ing stress method is based on pure elastic theory, which is
not perfectly applicable for semi plastic materials li1e concrete# %n
the limit state method of analysis , the principles of both elastic as
well as plastic theories are used hence suitable for concrete
structures
+he structure designed by limit state method is safe and
serviceable under design loads and act at the same time it is
ensured that the structure does not collapse even under the worst
possible loading conditions#
2esign by limit state method is found to be economical
+he overall siCes of 3exural members arrived by limit state method
are less and hence they provide better appearance to the
structures#
Because of the modifed assumption regarding the max
compressive strain in concrete and steel, the design of compression
reinforcement for doubly reinforced beams and eccentrically loaded
columns by LS2 method gives realistic values which is not so in
wor1ing stress method
12 !"at are t"e %e&erits o. workin( stress &et"o%
0# Concrete is not elastic , :nd the stress distribution in the
concrete section is not triangular
$# +he factor of safety is applied on the stresses and the diEerent
degrees of uncertainties associated with diEerent types of
loads is not account for
!# %t is diFcult to account for shrin1age and creep by calculation
of elastic stresses
13 !"at are t"e &a@or t,-es o. Li&it States5
! 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
0# Limit State of Collapse in
Flexure
Compression
Shear
+orsion
$# Limit state of serviceability against
2e3ection
Crac1ing
Gibration
!# Hther limit states regarding
2urability
Fati7ue
Fire resistance
17 Aow %o ,ou 'n% t"e &o&ent o. resistan#e o. a 0ea&
se#tion5
:s per I'0 %s&5"'$((( moment of resistance
<
u
= 0.87 f A
st
d{1 - }
28 !"at is $e/er ar&5
+he distance between the Compressive force 6 tensile force acting
in 4einforced concrete section is called as Lever :rm it is denoted by
C
JK d ' La?!)
21 !"at is &o%u$ar ratio5 Deter&ine t"e &o%u$ar ratio at
M28 (ra%e #on#rete
%n general modular ratio defned as ratio of moduli of diEerent
types of materials# But in concrete partially ta1ing account
the long term eEect such as creep of concrete ,the modular
ratio is ta1en as$.(?!@
cbc
where @
cbc
is the permissible
compressive stress due to bending in concrete in A?mm
$
as
specifed in table $0 of %S-&5"'$(((
22 !"at %o ,ou un%erstan% 0, $i&it state o. #o$$a-se5
+he ultimate strength limit state, or the limit state of collapse, which
deals with the strength and stability of the structure under the
maximum overload it is expected to carry# +his implies that no part
or whole of the structure should fall apart under any combination of
expected overload
& 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
2) !"at %o ,ou un%erstan% 0, $i&it state o.
ser/i#ea0i$it,5
Limit state of serviceability, which deals with conditions such as
de3ection crac1ing of the structure under service loads , durability,
overall stability , excessive vibration, fre resistance, fati7ue, etc
2* EB-ress t"e s"ort ter& stati# &o%u$us o.
#on#rete ;or< !"at is t"e eB-ression re#o&&en%e% 0,
IS*+192888 .or &o%u$us o. e$asti#it,5
+he short term static modulus of elasticity of concrete 9c can be
assumed as
E#C+188 where
fc1 M characteristics compressive strength of of concrete#
But the actual value of modulus of elasticity of concrete may diEer
by N$(% from the value obtained from above e7uation
2+ Co&-are =$ti&ate $oa% &et"o% wit" E$asti#
$oa% t"eor,;!orkin( Stress Met"o%<
=ltimate load method 9lastic theory methodBS<)
%t ta1es into account the elasto'
plastic properties of materials to
decide upon the strength of a
member# %t is much close to actual
load test at failure
%t consider only the elasit properties
of the material and does not allow
to exceed the safe stresses on any
fbre
+he material are stressed to its
maximum value
+he materials are under stressed to
a great extend
+he sections are designed for
ultimate loads for which suitable
factors are assumed to get a critical
combination of various loads
anticipated
Hnly the maximum probable loads
anticipated to be born by the
members are considered
+he design procedure is based on
actual experimental observations#
the procedure stands 7uite close to
actual tests # Dowever some
suitable assumptions are made to
simplify the computation
+he design procedure is based on
the laws of mechanics
5 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
+he actual test strength of the two
materials are made use of in the
design of members
+he modular ratio m) is used in the
design of members
+he design made by this method is
economical
+he design made by this method is
uneconomical as compared to
ultimate load method
+he under reinforced sections are
designed to obtain the full strength
of materials used in 4#C#C #
constructions
<ostly the designed 4#C#C sections
are balanced or over'reinforced
+he full compressive strength of
concrete is utilised for design
purpose
+he concrete which is 7uite strong
in compression remain unstressed
%n this method both concrete and
steel are stressed full
%n this method , steel is more
stressed than concrete
=NIT92
1 !"at %o u &ean 0, t"eoreti#a$ #ut9o> -oint5
+he maximum :st re7uired for a beam is needed only where the
moment is maximum, the maximum :st may not be needed at
point along the bending member where the bending moment is
smaller, so the reinforcing bars are stopped or bend in a manner
consistent with the theoretical re7uirements for the strength of
member at some point that point is 1nown as theoretical cut'oE
point
2 !", %oes #o%e i&-ose &ini&u& an% &aBi&u& s-a#in( .or
DeBura$ rein.or#e&ent5
+he minimum limit is prescribed to avoid sudden and brittle failure
in case of accidental overload, or to ta1e care of additional tensile
forces due to shrin1age, temperature, creep or diEerential
settlement#
+he maximum limit is prescribed to avoid compression failure of
concrete before the tension failure of steel, thus ensuring suFcient
rotation capacity at ultimate limit state#
) Aow wi$$ ,ou -ro/i%e #o/er .or RCC se#tion5
+he nominal cover to be provided depends upon durability and fre
resistance
4e7uirements as per Aominal cover cl#$"#& of %S &5") # +able 0" and
0": of %S &5" provide the respective values#
:ppropriate value of the nominal cover is to be provided from these
tables for the particular re7uirement of the structure#
* Di>erentiate 0etween 4One wa, s$a0? an% 4two wa, s$a0?5
" 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
One wa, s$a0 Two wa, s$a0
:# %n one way slab main tensile
reinforcement is placed
parellel to shorter span
0# <ain 4einforcement provided
in both the direction
B# Hneway slab supported on
two sides only
$# +wo way slab supported on
four sides
C# Structural action only at one
direction
!#
2# Load carried in the direction
perpendicular to the support
&# Load will be carried in both
direction
9# +he length'to'breadth ratio is
greater than two
5# +he length'to'breadth ratio is
less than two
* !", is &ini&u& s"ear rein.or#e&ent ne#essar, in 0ea&s5
+hough the section itself having the ability to resist the shear
developed in the section , minimum shear reinforcement provided to
hold the main bars 6 also to give additional strength against the
shear# Since the shear distribution due to transverse shear will not
uniform in a beam
+ =n%er w"at #ir#u&stan#es %ou0$, rein.or#e% 0ea&s resorte%
to5
a# Bhen the member subOected to alternate external loads and
the bending moment in the section reverse
b# Bhen the member subOected to shoc1 impact or accidental
lateral load
c# Situations when the Deadroom siCe is restricted siCe of beam
restricted)
d# Bhen the beam section is continuous over several supports
e# 2ue to aesthetic appearance
f# %n situation when massive loading occur
g# %f the bending moment is heavy means we can go for doubly
reinforced beams
1 !"at is #a$$e% An#"or 0ars5
/ 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
2 !"at is t"e &ini&u& tension area o. stee$ reEuire% .or a
0ea&5
+he minimum tension area of steel re7uired as per %S code for a
beam is given by
K
:sK<inimum area of tension steel
bKBreadth of beam or the breadth of the web of
3anged beams
dK9Eective depth
KCharacteristic strength of reinforcement expressed
in A?mm
$
3 !"at is t"e &ini&u& area o. stee$ reEuire% .or a s$a05
Minimum reinforcement (cl.26.5.2.1 of IS 456)
Both for one and two'way slabs, the amount of minimum
reinforcement in either direction shall not be less than (#05 and (#0$
per cents of the total cross'sectional area for mild steel Fe $5() and
high strength deformed bars Fe &05 and Fe 5(()?welded wire fabric,
respectively#
7 !"at is t"e &aBi&u& s-a#in( o. 0ars .or s$a0s 5
+he maximum horiContal distance between parallel main
reinforcing bars shall be the lesser of i) three times the eEective
depth, or ii) !(( mm# iii)spacing calculated from formula
Dowever, the same for secondary?distribution bars for
temperature, shrin1age etc# shall be the lesser of i) fve times the
eEective depth, or ii) &5( mm#iii)spacing calculated from formula
18 !"at is t"e &aBi&u& area o. stee$ reEuire%
.or a 0ea&5
+he maximum area of tension steel re7uired must not greater than
(#(& times cross sectional area of section, for both tension and
compression reinforcement
11 !"at is t"e $i&itin( %e-t" o. Neutra$ aBis .or
Fe*1+FFe+88FFe2+8
Fe$5(K(#&!0d
Fe&05K(#&/*d
Fe5((K(#&5"d
. 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
12 !"at are t"e assu&-tions &a%e in t"e $i&it
state o. DeBure5
:t any cross section plane before bending is remain plane
after bending
:ll tensile forces are ta1en only by steel and none by concrete
+he stress'strain relationship of steel and concrete , under
wor1ing load is a straight line
+he modular ratio , m has the value $.(?!@
cbc
where @
cbc
is the
permissible compressive stress due to bending in concrete in
A?mm
$
as specifed in table $0 of %S-&5"'$(((
1) !", it is ne#essar, to -ro/i%e trans/erse
rein.or#e&ent in onewa, s$a05
+o resist the Shear stress developed in the slab 6 to avoid the shear
crac1s6 the load evenly distribute
1* De'ne e>e#ti/e wi%t" o. Dan(e% 0ea&
+he portion of slab which act acts monolithically with the
beam and which resists the compressive stress is called width of 3ange #
+he eEective width of 3ange can be calculated as per %S &5"'$((( clause
$!#0#$write'down the formulas)
1+ Distin(uis" 0etween un%er rein.or#e%
se#tion & o/er rein.or#e% se#tion5
un%er rein.or#e% se#tion o/er rein.or#e% se#tion
:mount of reinforcement provided
is lesser than the re7uired for a
balanced section
:mount of reinforcement provided
is more than the re7uired for a
balanced section
8osition of neutral axis is lies above
the critical neutral axis
8osition of neutral axis is lies below
the critical neutral axis
Aeutral axis depth is less than that
of balanced section
Aeutral axis depth is more than that
of balanced section
<oment of resistance of section is
obtained by considering the tensile
stress of steel
<oment of resistance of section is
obtained by considering the tensile
stress in concrete
Failure ta1es place suddenly Failure will not ta1es place suddenly
9conomical =neconomical due to higher amount
of steel
=nit 9)
1 List out /arious t,-es o. s"ear rein.or#e&ent5
a# Gertical stirrups,
b# %nclined stirrups,
c# Bend up bars#
* 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
2 De'ne 4:on% Stress?
Bhen the steel bars are embedded in concrete , the concrete after
setting ,adheres to the surface of the bar s and thus resist any force
that tends to pull or push the rod# +he intensity of this adhesive
force is called >Bond Stress5
P
bd
K
) !", &ini&u& s"ear rein.or#e&ent ne#essar, in 0ea&s
a# Iuard against any sudden failure of a beam if concrete cover
burst and the bond to the tension steel lost
b# 8revent brittle shear failure which can occur without shear
steel
c# Dold the reinforcement in place while pouring concrete
d# 8revent failure that can be caused by tension due to shrin1age
and thermal stresses and internal crac1ing
e# :ct as necessary ties for the compression steel and ma1e
them eEective
* !", is t"e %esi(n s"ear stren(t" o. #on#rete re$ate% to t"e
G o. tension stee$ H
t
5
+ Aow wi$$ ,ou 'n% out t"e &ini&u& s-a#in( o. s"ear
rein.or#e&ent in t"e .or& o. stirru-s
+he minimum spacing of shear reinforcement can be calculated
from
K
:svK+otal area of stirrup legs
Sv KSpacing
B KBreadth of web at level of tension steel
bS
v
KCross sectional area of the beam between
two stirrups
1 !"at is &ean 0, 0on%5
%f there is no slip in between steel and concrete means that is
called bond it can be achieved from anchoring the bars properly
and extending the bars beyond the point of maximum shear
0( 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
2 4Rein.or#e% #on#rete s$a0s are (enera$$, sa.e in s"ear an%
%o not reEuire s"ear rein.or#e&ent? @usti., t"e state&ent
+hin slabs, have more shear strength than that of thic1er slabs
as per %S &5" '$((( cl#&(#$#0#0# %t is the normal practice to choose
the depth of the slabs so that the concrete can resist the shear
without any stirrups for slab subOected to uniformly distributed
loads#
3 !"at is t"e &aBi&u& a$$owa0$e u$ti&ate s"ear in #on#rete5
+he maximum allowable shear stress ina rectangular beam is 0#5
times the average shear stress
7 !"at are t"e t,-es o. 0on%5
o Local bond
o :nchorage bond
18 !"at is &ean 0, a/era(e an#"ora(e 0on%5
+he average stress that acts along the anchorage length is called
average anchorage bond
11 De'ne 4De/e$o-&ent $en(t"?
+he length or extension that should be provided on either side of the
point of maximum tension in the steel so that the average bond
stress in not exceed is called 4De/e$o-&ent $en(t"?
12 At w"ere s"ear .ai$ure wi$$ o##ur5
Shear failure at section of beam and cantilevers without shear
reinforcement will normally occur on plane inclined at an angle !(
(
to the horiContal
1) At w"ere s"ear .or#e wi$$ 0e MaBi&u&5
Shear force will be <aximum at a distance deEective depth) from face
of support
=nit9*
1 De'ne #o$u&n
Columns are structural elements primarily subOected to axial
compressive forces 6 both the slenderness ratios lex?2 and ley?b are
greater than !
2 !rite t"e #$assi'#ation o. #o$u&n
a# Long Column
b# Short column
c# S7uare column
d# 4ectangular column
00 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
e# Circular column
f# :xially loaded column
g# :xial load with moment
) Di>erentiate 0etween t"e ter& 4e>e#ti/e $en(t"? an%
4unsu--orte% $en(t"? o. a #o$u&n
+he vertical distance between the points of in3ection of the
compression member in the buc1led confguration in a plane is
termed as eEective length le of that compression member in that
plane# +he eEective length is diEerent from the unsupported length l
of the member, though it depends on the unsupported length and
the type of end restraints# +he relation between the eEective and
unsupported lengths of any compression member is
le K 1 l
where 1 is the ratio of eEective to the unsupported lengths# Clause
$5#$ of %S &5" stipulates the eEective lengths of compression
members
* !"at are t"e a%/anta(es o. "e$i#a$ rein.or#e&ent5
:s compared to the others the helically reinforced column of
same cross sectional area the load bearing capacity is increased by 0#(5
times
+ !"at is &ean 0, 0ra#e% #o$u&n5
Columns provided with Lateral tie members to resist the
horiContal forces are called as braced columns
9L# columns of water tan1 or shear walls for the columns of tall
buildings
1 !"at is #a$$e% s"ort #o$u&n & !"at is &ean 0, $on( #o$u&n5
: compression member may be considered as short when
both the slenderness ratios lex?2 and ley?b are less than 0$ where lex K
eEective length in respect of the maOor axis, 2 K depth in respect of the
maOor axis, ley K eEective length in respect of the minor axis, and b K
width of the member# %t shall otherwise be considered as a slender
compression member#
2 !"at is &ean 0, -e%esta$
8edestal is a vertical compression member whose eEective
length le does not exceed three times of its least horiContal
dimension b cl# $"#5#!#0h, Aote)# +he other horiContal dimension
2 shall not exceed four times of b
0$ 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
3 Ca$#u$ate &ini&u& e##entri#it, .or a #o$u&n o. siIe 188&&
B *+8&& "a/in( unsu--orte% $en(t" )&
7 !"at are t"e .un#tions o. trans/erse rein.or#e&ent in
#o$u&n5 ;OR< !rite an, two .un#tions o. $atera$ ties in a RC
#o$u&n
a# +o 1eep the main bars in right position
b# +o distribute the load
c# +o resist the shear developed
d# +o avoid the buc1ling of longitudinal bars
18 !"at is t"e &aBi&u& #o&-ressi/e strain in
#on#rete in aBia$ #o&-ression5
+he maximum design strength of concrete is (#&&" fc1 when
the strain ranges from (#(($ to (#((!5# +he maximum design stress of
steel is (#./ fy#
11 De'ne 4s$en%erness ratio? o. #o$u&n
+he slenderness ratio of steel column is the ratio of its eEective
length le to its least radius of gyration r# %n case of reinforced concrete
column, however, %S &5" stipulates the slenderness ratio as the ratio of its
eEective length le to its least lateral dimension
12 !"at is t"e eEuation to 'n% t"e $oa%
#arr,in( #a-a#it, o. #o$u&n5
8u K (#&fc1 :c Q (#"/fy :sc
where 8u K factored axial load on the member,
fc1 K characteristic compressive strength of the concrete,
:c K area of concrete,
fy K characteristic strength of the compression reinforcement,
and
:sc K area of longitudinal reinforcement for columns#
1) !"at is t"e &ini&u& %ia&eter o.
$on(itu%ina$ 0ars use% in a RC #o$u&n5
+he minimum diameter of longitudinal bars used in a 4C
column is 0$mm
1* In a RC #o$u&n t"e %ia&eter o. $on(itu%ina$
0ar use% is 2+&& t"e %ia&eter o. #o$u&n is 1+8&& w"at is
t"e &ini&u& #$ear #o/er to $on(itu%ina$ rein.or#e&ent
0! 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
&( mm the cover to the longitudinal
reinforcement shall not less than &(mm or dia of bar whichever is greater
1+ State t"e &et"o%s re#o&&en%e% 0, t"e IS
*+1 to esti&ate t"e e>e#ti/e $en(t" o. #o$u&ns
Clause $5#$ of %S &5" stipulates the eEective lengths of
compression members vide :nnex 9 of %S &5")#
11 !"at are t"e t,-es o. $oa%in( on #o$u&ns5
a# :xial Load
b# :xial Load with =niaxial moment
c# :xial Load with Biaxial moment
12 De'ne uniaBia$ 0en%in(
%f the column is subOected to bending moment in one direction
only then it is called as uniaxial bending
13 !"at is t"e &ini&u& an% &aBi&u& -er#enta(e o.
stee$ a$$owe% in RCCo$u&n5
(#.% and &%
17 !"at are t"e &ini&u& nu&0ers o. $on(itu%ina$ 0ars in
re#tan(u$ar an% #ir#u$ar #o$u&ns5
+he minimum numbers of longitudinal bars in rectangular
columns is & Aos
+he minimum numbers of longitudinal bars in circular columns
is " Aos
28 !"at is t"e a&ount o. $on(itu%ina$ rein.or#e&ent in a
-e%esta$5
(#05% of cross'sectional area of the pedestal
21 Aow %o ,ou #$assi., a #o$u&n as $on(5
%f the ratio of the eEective Length to the both lateral dimension of the
column is less than 0$ means the column is called as Short Column 6
Ireater than 0$ means termed as Long column
22 Gi/e eBa&-$e o. #o$u&ns t"at are in -ra#ti#e su0@e#te%
to unaBia$ an% 0iaBia$ 0en%in(
0& 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
ELEMENTS
2 Mark Question &Answers
all internal columns C0a to C0f) will be designed for axial force only#
+he side columns C$a to C$O) will have axial forces with uniaxial
bending moment, while the four corner columns C!a to C!d) shall
have axial forces with bi'axial bending moments
05 6 8 4 9 8 : 4 9 2 B; < r # S # = ma r 2 # % # 2 , < # 9 , < % S + 9 # ,