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This report examines the emotional intelligence level of the recently joined IL5 officers of the

Finance and Accounts department, Tata Steel Ltd. Jamshedpur; analyses the relation between
gender and emotional intelligence, with the aim to understand the training and development
needs of the employees.
Emotional intelligence is a relatively recent psychological construct that has attracted
substantial interest in both the popular literature and within academia. People, till now have
used the four functions of management which are planning, organizing, leading, and
controlling (POLC) to achieve their organizational objective. But for success in the modern
workforce, which is mostly practiced in an increasingly stressful and emotionally taxing
environment characterized by high competition, constant transformation and looming
uncertainty, EI skills provide an advantage. One researcher views The outcome of
emotionally intelligent behavior in Darwinian terms is effective adaptation (Bar-On, 2010).
In other words, EI assists an individual in adjusting and adapting to the emotions present in
their environment and to effectively solve problems in a productive manner to survive. In
fact, EI expands on Darwins manifesto on the primitive laws of survival because it allows
those equipped with the trait to not only survive, but to thrive in todays world (Bar-On,
1997; Goleman, 1998). It is important to note, that the ability to recognize and respond to
emotions are not limited to personal emotions, but to the emotions of others, as well.
Theories of intelligence in isolation fail to explain individual differences of personal success
and professional success. Therefore, much of the interest in EI is a response to the lack of
theories that can unify and integrate intelligence and personality with emotional awareness
and emotional expression to yield an understanding of successful adaptation in occupational
environments (Murphy et al., 2009).
But the problem with emotional intelligence is its lack of predictive validity. With regard to
theory related to emotional intelligence, various models have been proposed. These models
have been associated with a range of tests which purport to assess emotional intelligence and
its predictive validity. In an attempt to emphasize the importance of the role of assessment in
operationalizing emotional intelligence, Petrides and Furnham (2001) have proposed the
theory of trait EI, which is measured using a self-report test.
Also, a review of the literature on emotions and EI gives a clear idea of the significant
differences between men and women in aspects related to the emotional world. The edge that
women have over men on tests of EI has been replicated many times (e.g., Day & Carroll,
2004; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Schutte et al., 1998). This parallels the findings of an
unpublished meta-analysis of 36 studies reporting EI and gender that found a mean
correlation of 0.17, indicating that females score higher in measures of EI than men (Van
Rooy & Viswesvaran,2003). It is not surprising that women score slightly better than males
on measures of EI given that women generally have better emotional and interpersonal skills
than males, who in turn, are generally more proficient in other areas such as spatial ability.
However, not all studies have found gender differences, and more studies are needed in this
area. Bar-On (1997) for instance, found no significant gender differences on the overall EI
score, and the effect explained less than 1% of the variance. Females did score slightly better
than males for the overall average, and also for many of the EQ-i sub-scales, but it should be
noted that males scored higher on other subscales.
This report applies the concept of trait EI to measure the EI in these middle level managers of
Tata Steel and to find if the gender of the respondent plays a significant role in their EI level.
The data used in this report is gathered from questionnaires distributed via e-mail to new
incumbent IL5 officers. The questionnaire tool used for this purpose is a valid and reliable
measure developed by Nicola Schutte and her colleagues, known as the Schutte Self Report
Emotional intelligence test (SSEIT). A sample of 32 usable responses was obtained. Through
the use of various descriptive statistic methods it was found that maximum of the employees
scored an average score which was in the range of 121-131. Scores below 120 were
considered as low scores. Almost all the respondents scoring low felt that they lacked in the
factor of social emotions. A comparative analysis using t-test was done to understand if
gender differences affected emotional intelligence of the respondents and whether special
customised training sessions should be developed for the separate genders but it was noted
that there was no significant difference in the level of emotional intelligence between the two
groups at p value=0.05. Finally, with the help of a psychologist from the ethics department of
Tata Steel and my project guide, Mr. Girish Kumar certain measures were decided which
could be included in the employee training and development programme and which would
further help emotionally less competent employees.
The report concludes with an analysis of the results, which includes an effort to interpret the
scores of each respondent, comments on the implications of the findings, an evaluation of the
limits of the current investigation and recommendations for further research.

Salovey and Mayer coined the term emotional intelligence in 1990 (Salovey & Mayer, 1990).
They described emotional intelligence as a form of social intelligence that involves the ability
to monitor ones own and others. feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to
use this information to guide ones thinking and action. (Salovey & Mayer, 1990).


3.1. Objective of the Project
To measure and compare the trait emotional intelligence level of the new incumbent
male and female officers of the department and thereby determining their further
training needs.

3.2. Genesis of the Project
Earlier IQ was given much importance. But in the recent few years the scenario has
changed. It has been found that IQ by itself is not a very good predictor of job
performance. Hunter and Hunter (1984) estimated that at best IQ accounts for about
25 percent of the variance. Sternberg (1996) has pointed out that studies vary and that
10 percent may be a more realistic estimate. In some studies, IQ accounts for as little
as 4 percent of the variance.
The focus itself has shifted to emotional intelligence now where positive correlation
has been found between employees scoring high on emotional intelligence and their
performance. Corporate leaders also believe emotionally intelligent employees make
good leaders. Therefore the importance of emotional intelligence in the workplace
cannot be denied now.
Tata Steel places much importance on the physical as well as psychological welfare of
its employees. It is also much known among top organisations to provide the best
training and development programs to its employees and helps employees become
leaders. New incumbents usually suffer a lag phase when they enter the organisation.
This lag phase is usually characterised by stress, arising mostly due to the pressure to
understand the work culture and to conform to the group norms. The stress affects job
performance. The measure for emotional intelligence is done to understand if the new
joinee has overcome the lag phase and if not then to understand his training needs and
to provide it to them. The measure for the emotional intelligence of the new
employees is also done so that the top management can predict the current
performance of the employees, judge their future leadership qualities and also
understand their lacking area to organise training in such areas. This type of measure
is different from performance appraisal systems where current performance of the
employee is measured based on the job excellence rating done in the 180, 270 and 360
degree formats. The measure used is a self-report form asking the respondents to rate
themselves and thereby have a conscious hand in their own development.

3.3. Problem Definition:
The problem in this case is unuse of any clear scoring system for emotional
intelligence in the annual performance appraisal system. That does not give the
management a clear picture on the performance level of the employees since as has
been mentioned earlier performance of an individual is dependant both on his/ her EI
and IQ levels. Therefore the management is in a blind folded condition with regard to
the manner in which the employees are to be trained and developed for the betterment
of the organization as a whole.
3.4. Scope of the Project:
This project is an important one when looked at from the Organizations perspective.
That is because only if the organisation can judge its employees emotional well-being
then only can it predict what its strength is and whereby it is failing its employees,
after all less stressed and a happy employee is proven to be a productive employee.
These employees can contribute their best to the organizations growth and
sustenance. This project gives the organization a lot of concrete data regarding the
employee emotional scoring levels which can be further used to plan the training
content for the employees.

3.5. Detailed Research methodology
3.5.1. Research Tool
This research made use of the research tool Schutte Self Report Emotional
intelligence test. The Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) is a 33
item self-report measure of emotional intelligence developed by Schutte et al. (1998).
The SSEIT has been designed to map onto the Salovey and Mayer (1990) model of
EI. Items of the test relate to the three aspects of EI:
(1) appraisal and expression of emotion

(2) regulation of emotion

(3) utilisation of emotion

3.5.2. Sample Type
The sample type used is judgement sampling. Judgment sample is a type of
nonrandom sample that is selected based on the opinion of an expert. Results obtained
from a judgment sample are subject to some degree of bias, due to the frame and
population not being identical. The frame is a list of all the units, items, people, etc.,
that define the population to be studied. Advantages of judgement sampling include
low costs and less time needed to select perspective sampling group members
compared to many other alternative methods.

3.5.3. Sample Size
The total number of employees to whom the survey test form was sent was 64. Of
these only 312 respondents responded. Therefore the response rate was 50%.

3.5.4. Method of gathering data

For the data collection, I have taken the help of primary and secondary data.

Primary Sources:
As the data needed for the study as well the project was fully internal to the
organization, the source of data gathering was through primary source. Data regarding
departmental activities, employee details etc. was gained by interviewing
departmental employees. Furthermore on completion of the survey further
information regarding the respondent was gained by interviewing their colleagues. All
the respondents were IL5 managers.

Secondary Sources:
Secondary data, referred to the company profile, Literatures, journals, periodicals,
internet, intranet, etc.

3.5.5. Tools for data collection

Survey questionnaire: Survey questionnaire was filled by the respondents, which
included new incumbent IL5 managers who have joined the department from January
2011- 2014. The survey questionnaire as mentioned above is Schutte Self Report
Emotional Intelligence test (SSEIT).

3.6. Research Procedure
Given below is the procedure which has been followed for all the respondents at the
1) Selection of respondents: A list of new incumbent IL5 managers who have joined
during the annual year 2011-2014 was made. These were to be the respondents. This
sampling was based on judgement sampling. The judgement taken here was based on
the fact that as IL5 managers are at the bottom of the rung of being executives they
have much scope of improvement. Also, since these candidates have newly joined the
organisation they would be going through much emotional upheaval and for this
purpose it was decided for them to undergo the survey.

2) Introduction of the survey to the respondents: The respondents were mailed
introducing them about the Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test and by
informing them about the purpose of the survey. The form prepared was not of the
paper and pencil type and could be filled on the computer and saved. Through the
introductory e-mail the respondents were given the option of filling the form online,
saving it and reverting it back anonymously or they could choose to save the forms
with their names and to e-mail it back. All chose to be named.

3) The survey: The respondents were e-mailed the survey questionnaire form with
further briefing on how to fill the form and how to revert back. They were given two
days time to complete the process of filling the form and sending it back. At the end
of two days the candidates who have not responded were sent reminder mails.

4) Hypothesis Development: Goleman (1995) and Bar-On (1997) claimed that males
and females are different in their emotional intelligence profile. To be more specific,
some empirical studies found that females have higher level of emotional intelligence
in compare with males (Mayer and Geher, 1996; Mayer et al. 1999; Mandell and
Pherwani, 2003). On the contrary, some scholars disclosed that men have greater level
of emotional intelligence than women (Petrides and Furnham, 2000). Therefore,
present project also examines the gender differences in emotional intelligence
between employees of Finance and Accounts Department, Tata Steel Ltd. using the
following hypothesis:

H0: There is no significant difference in an overall emotional intelligence across
H1: There is significant difference in an overall emotional intelligence across genders.

5) Scoring of the filled in forms: The filled in questionnaire forms were scored as soon
as they were returned, according to the scoring system as mentioned by Schutte et. al.
The scoring has been explained in the next chapter.

6) Analysis: The survey forms were analysed using descriptive statistics such as mean,
standard deviation and t-test and with the help of Mr. Girish Kumar (Manager HRM)
and trained psychologist who is an ethics officer at Tata Steel Ltd. His name is not
disclosed here due to his desire for anonymity. An effort was made to understand
what the respondent felt was lacking in him so that the needful training could be
arranged for the same purpose.

Feedback to respondents: The respondents were called over the phone and given feedback
about their scores. They were given information about their strengths and weakness


An overview about the questionnaire though has been given in the introduction, it is
important to add few other points about the tool and the scoring system is required so as to
better understand the analysis and interpretation section.

4.1. The Questionnaire:

Schutte et al developed the present EI questionnaire known as Schutte Self Report Emotional
Intelligence test. In this set of 33 items questionnaire, representation of different categories of
the model was roughly proportionate to the Salvoy and Mayer model;
13 of the items came from among those generated for the appraisal and expression of
emotion category of the model,
10 of the items came from among those generated for the regulation of emotion
category of the model and
10 came from among those items generated for the utilization of emotion category of
the model.
Further, items reflected each of the components and subcomponents of each category,
e.g. regulation of emotion in the self, regulation of emotion in others.

As has been mentioned in the literature review section, the 33-item scale developed through
factor analysis showed good internal reliability. The scale showed evidence of validity.
Scores on the scale were related to eight of nine measures predicted to be related to the
emotional intelligence. Although Schutte et al. (1998) argued for a single-factor structure for
the self-report emotional intelligence scale (SSEIT), other researchers (Petrides & Furnham,
2000; Saklofske, Austin, & Minski, 2003) have derived a four-factor solution. According to
Petrides and Furnham (2000), the scale failed to show emotional intelligence as a single
factor. The nested four factor model as noted by Saklofske is given below. This factor model
has been considered at the time of analysis.

Fig 6 : . A nested version of the Saklofske et al. (2003) four-factor model of the SSEIT.

4.2. Scoring:
The scoring of the Schutte self-report emotional intelligence test is done based on a 5 point
Likert rating scale with 1= Strongly disagree and 5= Strongly agree. Though for questions 5,
28 and 33 reverse scoring is done i.e. 5= Strongly Disagree and 1= strongly agree. After the
scores are allotted they are added and the final scores are noted.
4.3. Respondents:

In the current survey, 32 respondents completed the questionnaire out of 64
employees to whom the questionnaire was sent over e-mail i.e. a response rate of 50
% was observed.
All the received filled-in questionnaires were deemed to be usable.
The mean age of the population was 25 years and all the respondents were of the
manager position with their current tenure with Tata Steel being from 1-3 years.
The respondents are divided as follows:

MALE 22 Executive (IL5)
FEMALE 10 Executive (IL5)

The mean EI scores were 130.16 (S.D. = 10.75) with the range of score being from
112- 150.
As has been proved through previous literature review, the women in the sample
scored higher (M=132.625, SD = 10.70) than their male counterparts (M= 129.27,
SD= 10.75).
But on analysis on using t-test at p=0.05, following results were obtained:

Table 2: Results of F-Test.
F-Test Two-Sample for Variances

Variable 1( Female Respondent scores) Variable 2 (Male Respondent scores)
Mean 131.7777778 128.6087
Variance 125.9444444 116.0672
Observations 9 23
Df 8 22
F 1.085099419

P(F<=f) one-tail 0.409074753

F Critical one-tail 2.396503284

As F<F critical one tail we accept the two sample have unequal variances.
Table 3: Results of T-Test.
t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances

Variable 1 (Female Respondent Scores) Variable 2 (Male Respondent scores)
Mean 131.7777778 128.6087
Variance 125.9444444 116.0672
Observations 9 23
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0

Df 14

t Stat 0.726268878

P(T<=t) one-tail 0.239820575

t Critical one-tail 1.761310136

P(T<=t) two-tail 0.47964115

t Critical two-tail 2.144786688


This project measures the emotional intelligence of the new incumbents at the Finance and
Accounts department of Tata Steel. It was an attempt to not only introduces the system of
measuring the emotional quotient but also to provide the management with a view about the
Emotional Intelligence level of its new joiners so that they could in the long run predict their
performance. The self-report mail survey conducted during this project revealed an average
score of 136.25 (SD=10.75) with very few respondents scoring below 120. These scores
therefore points out that the employees believe themselves to be quite competent in the four
facets of emotional intelligence examined here. Also by rating themselves the respondents
became aware of their strengths and weakness and could use such observations in the process
of self-development. But this study also suffers from certain important shortcomings.
5.1. Limitations of the Study:
The emotional intelligence scale, like most self-report measures, seems susceptible to
faking good. Thus, the emotional intelligence scale should probably not be used as a
method for selecting individuals for jobs or other highly desired opportunities.
The study was conducted for only a single department and therefore would not give
the bigger picture about emotionally intelligent employees and Tata Steel. For such
purpose this study need to be conducted on a larger scale.
Due to vast geographical spread of the organization, it was not possible to interview
about all the respondents present in the study.
Due to lesser number of female employees a proper comparison of the scores between
the male and the female employees could not be done.

5.2. Recommendations:
A few recommendations which could help to overcome the limitations mentioned above are:
A further research comparing the EI scores of male and female employees for
each of the four factors measured by the Schutte Self Report Emotional
Intelligence test should be done which would use MANOVA as an analysis
The EI scores should be correlated with scores obtained from measures
relating to job performance so as to find the predictive capability of the SSEIT
The test should again be carried out with a larger sample size.
This project is an introductory effort to develop training and development
programmes for the employee based on their EI rather than their job
performance. Therefore for further insight on this project an expert panel
should again review the suggestions made here.
Finally as has been noted there is no significant difference between the EI
levels of male and female respondents therefore this should act as a guide to
prevent glass ceiling effect faced by women in organisation.

The concept of emotionally intelligent employees has been talked about for a long time at
Tata Steel. The company in the year 2001 introduced PEP (Performance Ethics Programme)
by drawing knowledge from the consultants, McKinsley. The program was aimed to make
Tata Steel one of the best companies. Special focus was given to HR with employees being
assessed for key parameters. Besides core competencies, employees were assessed for their
capacity to think strategically, decision-making ability, achievement orientation, planning and
organising capabilities, oral and written communication skills, people development and cost
orientation, empathy, conflict-management and influencing abilities, and their aptitude for
learning. At this point of time, certain facets of emotional intelligence was measured but
other than that emotional intelligence has never been included as part of the annual
performance appraisal system at Tata Steel.
This study is an attempt to introduce emotional intelligence measure to appraise the
employees based on EI. In the future, the scores obtained here along with the ratings for
performance appraisals could further be correlated to find the predictive capability of the
Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence test within the organisation. If proven, this self-
report Emotional Intelligence questionnaire could then be used to obtain an in-depth
understanding of the capabilities (competencies related to emotional intelligence) of the
employees. Lastly, this study is only a stepping stone in the field of emotional intelligence.
This aspect requires much more exploration as there is dearth of research work on emotional
intelligence, especially in manufacturing sector in India.