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440

THEORY OF
ARCIUTECTURE.
Book II.
1630r. The detailed experiments by Messrs. Clarke and Fairbairn, on the strengtli of
won plates, are given in the work i)y the latter, and in the Eiigineers' Pocket Book for 1861
and 1865. Clarke assumes the ultimate tensile strength of wrought iron plates at 20 tons
I)er
square inch, and of bars at 24 tons, and that witiiin this former limit, its extension maj
be taken at
^^%^^
of the lengtli, per ton, per inch square of section.
The ultimate strength of plates drawn in direction of
1
the fibre
-------
J
,
,

broken across the
fibre
--------
TTie ultimate extension was twice as great when the plate was broken in the direction of the
fibre. The best scrap rivet iron, made by Messrs. Mare at their London works, broke on
an average with 24 tons per square inch
;
the mean ultimate extension, which was uniform,
was
g
of the length. (See 163 ir.)
experiment I, 19-66 tons
.. 2,
20-
2
I,
16-93

2,
16-
7
Compression, &c.
1630w.
Compression is the second of the forces iinder which Transverse strain is com-
prised. The following facts appear to be well established as to materials under a crusliing
force. I. The strength is as the transverse area or section. II. The jilane of rupture in
a crushed body is inclined at a constant angle to the base of the body. III. The measure
of compression -strength is constant only witliin certain proportions of the heiglit and
diameter in any specimen. Hodgkinson found that twelve cylinders of teak wood fur-
nished the following results:

i
inch diam. imh diam. 2 inch diam.
Crushing weight
.
- - - "2^39
lbs. 10,171 lbs. 40,304 lbs.
Proportion of weights
-
- -
1
417

16-5

The areas being as the squares of the diameters an exact proportion would have been 1,4,
and 16
;
but some materials may possibly be found to have an increased apparent strength.
Table I
,
of Experiments on Timber Pillars, made hy the Committee of the
Institute of British Architects, 1 863-64.
Wood.
Crushed
Per
square Remaiks.
inch.
4 inch cube.
tons. tons.
Moulmein Teak
- - -
50-
8
3-17
Crushed endways
;
fibres torn
Archangel Deal . - -
28-
8
1-11
apart.
Shafts, 12 ins. long, 3 ins. diam.
1
\
Lost
I
of its lenajth. Point of
Moulmein Teak
- - -
18-25 258
}
yielding
-^^
of its length.

2-64
Moulmein Teak
-
- -
16-
2--'6
Ditto.

same piece, ditto

17-75 2-50
Deal, Archangel
-
- -
19-
1
2-70
\
Lost
^\
of its length. Point of
,,
same piece, ditto
19-
3
2-73
)
yielding
f.^of
its length in both.

Archangel
16-3 2-30

same piece, ditto

19-
4
2-74
Table II., of Compression of Timber.
Wood.
Crushing
Strength.
Wnnd
Crushing
^"'*-
Strength.
Wood.
Crushing
Strength.
Christiania
-
/
white Deal -
S
English Oak
Quebec Oak
American red
}
Oak
- -
i
American Fir )
and Pine - S
lbs.
6,000
9,509
5,982
6,000
5,430
American >
white Spruce
)
Walnut -
Red Deal
Yellow I'ine
Elm
Larch
Spanish Mahogany
lbs.
6,844
6,645
6,167
5,375
10,331
5,5G8
8,198
Cedar
Blue Gum
West India Ebony
INIorra
IndiHU Teak or )
MoulmeinTeak
\
lbs.
5,768
12,100
Rondelet gives the power of Oak as 6,853 lbs., and of Fir as 8,089 lbs. (See par. ]C,Ol.)
Reimie (inch cube, crushed) English oak, 3,860 lbs.
;
a piece 4 inches high, 5,147
lbs.
Elm, 1,284 lbs. ;
White Deal, 1,928 lbs.; American Pine, 1,606 lbs.