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Ema-Mel0dy spm11

1.TO INVESTIGATE OF DIFFERENT TYPE OF CELL TO THE FIXED SHAPED OF THE


CELL
Problem statement: Does plant cell and animal cell have fixed shape?

Hypothesis: Plant cell has a fixed shape but not animal cell

Variables: MV : type of cell/plant cell and animal cell
RV : fixed shape of cell
CV : One drop of methylene blue solution and distilled water

Apparatus and materials
Glass slide,cover slips,forcep,knife,microscope,toothpick,white tile/cutting
board,methylene blue solution,iodine solution,iodine solution,filter paper,distilled
water,onion scale leaf,cheek cell

Procedure
1. A scale leaf from an onion bulb are obtained
2. By using a forcep .the inner surface of onion scale leaf is peeled off
3. One drop of distilled water was placed in the middle of glass slide
4. With a needle ,the cover slip is dropped slowly at 45
0
to the glass slide so
that no air bubble being trapped
5. A drop of iodine solution was dropped at one side of the cover slip
6. A filter paper was placed at the opposite end of the opposite end of the
cover slip to allow the spreading of solution absorbing excess solution
7. The slide is observed under a light microscope using a low power objective
lens then high power objective lens
8. The plant structure is then drawn and recorded by using a microscope
9. This experiment is repeated using a cheek cell
10. The mouth is rinsed before starting with experiment
11. By using toothpick, the inner mouth were scrapped to get some cheek cell
12. Then the cheek cell was placed onto a glass side
13. A drop of methylene blue solution was added
14. Slowly the cover slips was dropped, then the filter paper were placed at
one end of the cover slip for irrigation
15. This slide is then observe and the structure was recorded by using a
microscope
16. All the results are tabulated in a table

Presentation of Data
Type of cell Structure of cell seen under microscope
Magnification : 10 x 40
Plant cell/onion scale leaf
Animal cell/cheek cell
2.TO DETERMINE THE CONCENTRATION OF SUCROSE SOLUTION WHICH IS
ISOTONIC TO THE CELL SAP OF POTATO STRIP

Problem statement: What is the concentration of the sucrose solution that will
maintain the length of potato strip?

Hypothesis: As the sucrose solution reach certain concentration (isotonic to the cell
sap),there is no changes in the length of potato strip

Variables: MV : the concentration of the sucrose solution
RV : change in length of potato strip
FV : initial length of potato strip

Apparatus & material: Cork borer, test tubes,stopwatch,ruler,potatoes,various
concentration of sucrose solution,filter paper

Procedure:
1. Six test tube are labeled P,Q,R,S,T and U
2. Test tube P is filled with 10ml distilled water, test tube Q is filled with 10ml
sucrose solution O.1M,test tube R is filled with 10ml sucrose solution
0.2M,test tube S is filled with 10ml sucrose solution 0.3M,test tube T is
filled with 10ml sucrose solution 0.4M and test tubes U is filled with 10ml
sucrose solution 0.5M
3. The cork borer is pushed into the potato and the potato strip is obtained
by pushing it out of the cork borer using a glass rod
4. The potato strips are cut to the exact length of 5 cm.
5. One potato cylinder is placed in each labeled test tubes for 30 minutes.
6. After 30minutes,the potato strips are removed from the test tube and
gently wiped with filter paper
7. The final length of the potato strips are measured and record using a ruler
8. The final length of the potato strips are recorded in a result table
9. A graph pf the concentration of sucrose solution against the change in the
length is plotted

Presentation
Test tube Concentration of
sucrose
solution(M)
Length
Initial(cm) Final(cm) Change in
length(cm)
P 0.0 5
Q 0.1 5
R 0.2 5
S 0.3 5
T 0.4 5
U 0.5 5
Ema-Mel0dy spm11
3.TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF ALBUMEN CONCETRATION ON THE ENZYME
PEPSIN REACTION

Problem statement : What is the effect of different albumen concentration on the
rate of enzyme reaction?

Hypothesis: The higher the albumen concentration,the higher the rate of enzyme
reaction

Variables: MV : the concentration of albumen solution
RV : rate of enzyme reaction
CV : the volume of albumen solution

Apparatus and Materials: Albumen solution(1%,2%,3%,4%),1% pepsin solution,
pipette/measuring cylinder,HCL,water bath,thermometer,stopwatch

Procedure
1. 5ml of 1% albumen solution is poured into a test tube using a pipette.The
test tube is labeled P.
2. 1 ml of HCL acid is poured into the same test tube using another pipette
3. 1 ml of 5% pepsin is poured into the same test tube using another
pipette.The mixture is shaken well.
4. The test tube is placed in the beaker containing 300 ml of water at 37
o
C.A
thermometer is placed in the beaker to check the temperature.
5. The stopwatch is started
6. The mixture is observed and the time taken for the solution to turn
colourless is taken using a stopwatch and recorded in a table.
7. Steps 1 to 6 are repeated twice to get an average result
8. Steps 1 to 7 are repeated,replacing the 1% albumen solution with 2%,3%
and 4% albumen solution respectively.
9. All data are recorded in a table and a graph of the rate of enzme reaction
against the albumen concentrated is plotted


Presentation of data

Concentration of
albumen solution(%)
Time taken for the mixture to turn
colourless(min)
The rate of
enzyme reaction
(min
-1
) 1 2 3 average
1
2
3
4

4.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF PH VALUES ON THE RATE OF PEPSIN ENZYME

Problem statement
What is the effect of pH values on the rate of of Pepsin Reaction?

Hypothesis
The lower the pH, the higher the rate of pepsin reaction

Variables
MV : pH values
RV : rate of pepsin reaction
CV : concentration of pepsin

Apparatus and materials
Pepsin solution,albumen suspension,distilled water,Hydrochloric acid,sodium
Hydroxide solution,stopwatch,water bath,tripod stand and wire
gauze,thermometer,test tube,measuring cylinders/syringe,pH paper,wire
gauze,Bunsen burner and tripod stand,test tube rack

Procedure
1. 200ml of egg white is mixed with 500ml of distilled water to prepare an
albumen suspension
2. The albumen suspension were boiled,stirred and leave to cool
3. Three test tubes were labeled as P,Q and R
4. 5ml of albumen suspension were placed into each test tube using a syringe
5. Then the following solutions were added into each test tubes as follows:
Test tube pH Mixture of solution
P 2 = acidic 1ml of 0.1M HCL + 1ml of 1% pepsin solution
Q 7 = neutral 1ml of distilled water + 1ml of 1%pepsin
solution
R 9 = alkaline 1ml of 0.1M NaOH + 1ml of 1% pepsin solution
6. pH paper were dip into each test tube and the pH values were recorded
7. All the test tubes were immersed in a water bath with a temperature of
37% for 20minutes.
8. Observe and recorded the time taken for the cloudiness of mixture turns
clear by using a stopwatch
9. Results of the experiment were recorded in a table

Presentation of data
Test tube pH values Time taken for the hydrolysis of albumen suspension
(minutes)
P 2
Q 7
R 9
Ema-Mel0dy spm11
5.THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RATE OF SALIVARY AMYLASE

Problem statement
What are effects of different temperature on the rate of salivary amylase reaction?

Hypothesis
As the temperature increase,the rate of amylase reaction increases until it reaches
the optimum temperature

Variables
MV : temperature of the medium
RV : the rate of reaction catalysed by salivary amylase
CV : volume of saliva

Apparatus and Materials
Beakers,test tube,thermometer,syringe,droppers,glass rods,white tiles woth
grooves,water bath,stopwatch,1% of starch suspension,saliva suspension iodine
solution ,ice cubes and distilled water

Procedure:
1. Mouth is rinsed with warm water and saliva is collected.Saliva with equal
volume of distilled water is diluted
2. 5ml of 1% starch suspension is out into each of the test tubes labeled
A1,B1,C1,D1, and E1 respectively using a syringe
3. 2 ml of saliva is added into each of another set of the test tubes labeled
A2,B2,C2,D2 and E2 using a second syringe
4. Test tubes A1 and A2,B1 and B2,C1 and C2,D1 and D2,E1 and E2 is
immersed respectively into 5 different water baths with temperature kept
constant at O
O
C,28
o
C,37
O
C,45
O
C and 60
o
C.
5. The test tubes are left for five minutes
6. Meanwhile, a dry piece white tile with grooves is prepared and a drop of
iodine solution is placed into each groove
7. After five minutes of immersion ,the starch suspension in test tube A1 is
poured into the saliva in test tube A2.The mixture is stirred using a glass
rod. The stopwatch is started immediately.
8. A drop of mixture is removed from test tube A2,using a dropper and is
placed in into the iodine solution in the first groove on the tile.The first
groove is considered as zero minute
9. The iodine test is repeated every minute for ten minute.The dropper in a
beaker of water is rinsed after each sampling.The time taen for the
completion of the hydrolysis of starch is recorded (that is when the
mixture gives a negative iodine test) using a stopwatch.
10. The test tube with the mixture in their respective water bath is kept
throughout the experiment .steps 7 to 10 for test tubes B1,C1,D1 and E1 is
repeated.
11. Thermometer is used to ensure that the temperature remain constant
throughout the experiment
12. The result is recorded and a graph showing the rate of reaction against
temperature is plotted
13. The activities of amylase reaction Is optimum at 37
o
C

Presentation of data

















Test
tube
Temp
(
o
C)
Time taken for the hydrolysis of starch to
be completed (minutes)
Rate reaction
(min
-1
)






Ema-Mel0dy spm11
6.TO DETERMINE THE ENERGY CONTENT IN THE SAMPLE OF FOOD

Problem statement: Does the final water temperature reading for cashew nut is
higher than peanut and white bread?

Hypothesis: The final temperature reading/energy value for cashew is higher than
peanut and white bread

Variables
MV : type of food
RV : the energy content
CV : volume of distilled water

Materials and apparatus: Cashew nut,peanut,white bread,distilled water,boiling
tubes,plasticine,pin,thermometer,bunsen burner and wire gauze,stopwatch,retort
stand and clamp

Procedure
1. Weigh the white bread and record its weight
2. Fill a boiling tube with 20ml distilled water
3. Clamp the boiling tube to the retort stand
4. Record the initial temperature of the water in the boiling tube
5. Spike the white bread firmly at the end of the pin which is mounted on
some plasticine
6. Ignite the white bread by holding it in the flame of a bunsen
burner.then,immediately place it beneath the boiling tube to heat the
water
7. Stir the water gently with the thermometer
8. Record the initial temperature,that is the highest temperature reached as
soon as the peanut has stopped burning using thermometer.
9. Calculate the energy value of the peanut using the formula below [show
energy value formula]
10. Tabulate the results in table below
11. Steps 1 to 9 are repeated by using different food sample such as peanut
and cashew nut

Presentation of data

Food sample Temperature
0
C Energy value
Initial Final Increase in
temperature
White bread
Peanut
Cashew nut
7.TO DETERMINE THE CONCENTRATION OF VITAMIN C CONTENT IN THE SAMPLE
OF FRUIT JUICES

Problem statement
What is the sample of fruit juices that contains a higher concentration of vitamin C?

Hypothesis
Guava juice contains a higher concentration of vitamin C compared to orange Juice
and pineapple juice

Variables
MV : type of fruit juice
RV : concentration of vitamin C
CV : volume of DCPIP solution

Apparatus and materials
Boiling tube,a syringe,a syringe with needles ,beaker,gauze cloth and a knife ,DCPIP
solution,0.1% ascorbic acid solution .freshly prepared guava juice,pineapple juice
and orange juice

Procedure
1. Label four boiling tube as A,B,C, and D
2. Place 1ml of DCPIP solution in each boiling tube
3. Fill a syringe with 5ml of ascorbic acid solution
4. Immerse the needle of the syringe in the DCPIP solution drop-by-drop
5. Do not shake the tube vigorously
6. Record the volume of ascorbic acid solution used to turn the DCPIP
solution colourless using a syringe
7. Repeat steps 22 to 7 using Lime Juice,pineapple juice and papaya juice
8. Calculate the percentage and concentration of vitamin C in these three
types of fruit juice using the formula below [ shows percentage of vitamin
C and Concentration of vitamin C formula]

Presentation of data

Solution Volume of fruit
juice needed to
decolourize 1ml of
DCPIP solution
(ml)
Percentage of
vitamin C In fruit
juice (%)
Vitamin C
concentration in
fruit juice (mg/cm)




Ema-Mel0dy spm11
8.TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE RATE OF
PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Problem statement: What is the effect of light intensity on the rate of
photosynthesis?

Hypothesis: The higher the light intensity ,the higher the rate of photosynthesis
until it reaches limiting value

Variables
MV : light intensity
RV : rate of photosynthesis
CV : The temperature

Apparatus and materials: Hydrilla Sp.,0.3% sodium hydrogen carbonate
solution,beaker,thermometer,test tube,stopwatch,60W electric bulb , measuring
cylinder , retort stand,paper clip,metre ruler

Procedure
1. A 5cm sprig is cut from a hydrilla sp. Plant using a sharp scalpel
2. The plant is placed with the cut end facing upwards
3. A paper clip is used to weight down the other end of the hydrilla sp. Sprig
4. 10ml of 0.3% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution is poured in a boiling
tube
5. The boiling tube with plant is placed in a water bath with the temperature
maintained at 28
0
C
6. A 60watt bulb is placed at a distance of 50cm from the plant
7. When the rate of bubbles given out is constant ,the number of bubbles
released for 5 minutes is recorded using a stopwatch
8. The steps are repeated by placing the apparatus at distance
40cm,30cm,20cm and 10cm from the light source.
9. The results are recorded and the rate of photosynthesis is calculated by
using a formula:[rate of photosynthesis formula]

Presentation of data

Distance of
light source
(cm)
Number of bubbles
released in 5 minutes
Rate of photosynthesis (number of
bubble /minute)
50
40
30
20
10
9.TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE ON THE
RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Problem statement: What is the effect of concentration of carbon dioxide on the
rate of photosynthesis?

Hypothesis: The higher the concentration of carbon dioxide the higher the rate of
photosynthesis

Variables
MV : concentration of Carbon dioxide
RV : rate of photosynthesis
CV : temperature

Apparatus and materials
Hydrilla Sp., sodium hydrogen carbonate solution,beaker,thermometer,test
tube,retort sand,stopwatch,lamp , measuring cylinder , retort stand,ruler and
paper clip

Procedure
1. A 5cm sprig is cut from a hydrilla sp. Plant using a sharp scalpel
2. The plant is placed with the cut end facing upwards
3. A paper clip is used to weight down the other end of the hydrilla sp. Sprig
4. 10ml of 0.3% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution is poured in a boiling
tube
5. The boiling tube with plant is placed in a water bath with the temperature
maintained at 28
0
C
6. A 60watt bulb is placed at a distance of 50cm from the plant
7. When the rate of bubbles given out is constant ,the number of bubbles
released for 5 minutes is recorded using a stopwatch
8. The steps are repeated by using 0.4%,0.6% and 0.8% sodium carbonate
solution.
9. The results are recorded and the rate of photosynthesis is calculated by
using a formula:[rate of photosynthesis formula]

Presentation of data
Concentration of
sodium hydrogen
carbonate solution (%)
Number of bubbles
released in 5
minutes
Rate of photosynthesis (number
of bubble /minute)
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8

Ema-Mel0dy spm11
10.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN DEFECIENCIES IN CULTURE SOLUTION ON
THE BEIGHT/GROWTH RATE OF SEEDLING

Problem statement
What is the effect of nitrogen deficiencies in culture solution on the growth rate of
seedling

Hypothesis
The growth rate of seedling is slower in nitrogen deficiencies of culture solution

Variables
MV : the type of culture medium
RV : growth rate of seedling
CV : the initial height if seedling

Apparatus and material
Tomato seedling/maize seedling,potasium hydrogen phosphate,calcium
chloride,pottasium chloride,distilled water,cotton wool,black paper,glass jar,glass
tubing,L-shaped delievery tube,air pump,rubber bung,ruler

Procedure
1. Three glass jars labeled A,B and C are prepared
2. In glass jar A ,distilled water is fulfilled which serves as a control
experiment
3. In glass jar B, a complete culture solution is prepared using the
composition of the Knops solution as a guide
4. In glass jar C a culture solution deficient in nitrogen is prepared by
replacing calcium nitrate with calcium chloride and potassium nitrate is
replaced by potassium chloride
5. Each jar is wrapped with black paper to prevent light from penetrating into
the culture which will cause the growth of green algae
6. Three maize seedlings of the same height are chosen and put into each jars
7. Keep the roots of seedlings are fully immersed in each solutions.The
culture solution is aerated using an air pump to ensure the root of the
seedling obtain enough for respiration
8. All set of apparatus are exposed to light so the seedling are able to carry
out photosynthesis
9. The culture solution in each jar is replaced every week to ensure that the
nutrients which are supposed to be available are not depleted
10. After one month,seedling in jar A Is taken out and the height of seedling is
measured and recorded by using a ruler.the growth rate of the seedling is
calculated and is recorded in a table using formula:
The height of seedling (cm)
Time taken (days)
11. Step 10 is repeated with seedling in glass jar B and glass jar C are observed
12. Record the result in table and plot a bar chart showing the growth rate of
seedlings(cm/day) against the types of solution

Presentation of data
Glass jar Type of solution The height of seedling cm The growth rate of
seedling(cm/day) initial final
A Distilled water
B Complete knops
solution

C Nitrogen deficient
in culture solution

































Ema-Mel0dy spm11
11.TO INVESTIGATE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RATE OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
IN YEAST

Problem statement: What is the effect of temperature on the rate anaerobic
respiration in yeast?

Hypothesis: The increase the temperature,the increase the rate of anaerobic
respiration in yeast

Variables: MV : temperature
RV : the rate of anaerobic respiration
CV : volume/concentration of yeast

Apparatus and material: Yeast solution,glucose solution,coloured liquid,paraffin
oil,manometer tube,measuring cylinder , rubber tubing, clip ,glass tube, ruler, boiling tube,
water bath, stopwatch, marker pen, rubber stopper, thermometer , beaker, retort stand

Procedure
1. Filled the boiling tube with 15 ml yeast suspension.
2. Then the boiling tube is added with 10ml 5% glucose solution
3. The boiling is filled with paraffin oil
4. The apparatus is joined to a rubber stopper with glass tube,rubber tubing and the
manometer
5. The apparatus is placed to a retort stand
6. Mark and record the initial height of the coloured liquid in the manometer with a
marker pen
7. Then,placed the boiling tube in water bath at 20
0
C
8. Start the stopwatch and mark the level of coloured liquid in the manometer (after
10 minutes)
9. Record the final height of the coloured liquid in the manometer using a ruler
10. Repeat the experiment by placing the boiling tube in water baths at 30
0
C,40
0
C and
50
0
C
11. Make sure all the joints of the apparatus are air-tight
12. Calculate and record the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast by using a formula
The change in height of coloured water in the manometer
Time taken
13. The results are tabulated in a table

Presentation of data
Temperature
(C
0
)
The height of coloured liquid in
manometer(cm)
Rate of anaerobic in
yeast (cm/min)
initial final
20
30
40
50
12.THE EFFECT OF pH ON THE RATE OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION YEAST

Problem statement: What is the effect of pH on the rate of anaerobic respiration in
yeast?

Hypothesis: The rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast is optimal in acidic medium

Variables
MV : pH value
RV : rate of anaerobic respiration
CV : concentration of yeast solution

Apparatus and material
pH paper,hydrochloric acid,sodium hydroxide Yeast solution,glucose solution,coloured
liquid,paraffin oil,manometer tube,measuring cylinder , rubber tubing, clip ,glass tube, ruler,
boiling tube, water bath, stopwatch, marker pen, rubber stopper, thermometer , beaker,
retort stand

Procedure
1. Filled the boiling tube with 15 ml yeast suspension.
2. Then the boiling tube is added with 10ml 5% glucose solution
3. 4 drop of 0.1mol dm
3
Hydrochloric acid is added
4. The content in boiling tube is shaked.determine the pH of the solution using pH
paper
5. The boiling tube is filled with paraffin oil.
6. The apparatus is joined to a rubber stopper with glass tube,rubber tubing and the
manometer
7. The apparatus is placed to a retort stand
8. Mark and record the initial height of the coloured liquid in the manometer with a
marker pen and a ruler
9. Start the stopwatch and mark the level of coloured liquid in the manometer (after
10 minutes)
10. Record the final height of the coloured liquid in the manometer using a ruler
11. Repeat the experiment by placing add 4 drops o.o1 mol dm
3
HCL,4 drops of
distilled water and 4 drops of 0.1 mol dm
3
sodium hydroxide
12. Make sure all the joints of the apparatus are air-tight
13. Calculate and record the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast by using a formula
The change in height of coloured water in the manometer
Time taken
14. The results are tabulated in a table
pH The height of coloured liquid in manometer (cm) Rate of anaerobic
respiration in yeast
(cm/min)




Ema-Mel0dy spm11
13.THE EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION OF GLUCOSE ON THE RATE OF ANAEROBIC
RESPIRATION IN YEAST

Problem statement
what is the effect of concentration of glucose on the rate of anaerobic respiration in
yeast?

Hypothesis
the higher the concentration of glucose the higher the rate of anaerobic respiration
in yeast

Variables
MV : concentration of glucose
RV : The rate of anaerobic respiration
CV : Concentration of yeast solution

Apparatus and materials
Yeast solution,glucose solution,vaselin, coloured liquid,paraffin oil,manometer
tube,measuring cylinder , rubber tubing, clip ,glass tube, ruler, boiling tube, water
bath, stopwatch, marker pen, rubber stopper, thermometer , beaker, retort stand

Procedure
1. Filled the boiling tube with yeast suspension.
2. Then the boiling tube is added with 10ml 5% glucose solution
3. Glucose solution is heated to remove dissolved oxygen.the solution is left to cool
4. The boiling is filled with paraffin oil
5. The apparatus is joined to a rubber stopper with glass tube,rubber tubing and the
manometer
6. Vaseline is used to make sure all the joints is airtight
7. The apparatus is placed to a retort stand
8. Mark and record the initial height of the coloured liquid in the manometer with a
marker pen
9. Start the stopwatch and mark the level of coloured liquid in the manometer (after
10 minutes)
10. Record the final height of the coloured liquid in the manometer using a ruler
11. Repeat the experiment by 10% and 30% glucose solution
12. Calculate and record the rate of anaerobic respiration in yeast by using a formula
The change in height of coloured water in the manometer
Time taken
13. The results are tabulated in a table
Concentration of
glucose (%)
The height of coloured liquid in
the manometer (cm)
Rate of anaerobic
respiration(cm/min)
initial final
5
10
20
14.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF SMOKING TO THE LUNG

Problem statement: What is the effect of cigarette number to the colour change in
cotton wool and the increase in temperature of thermometer?

Hypothesis: As the number if cigarette increase ,the more brownish the colour of
cotton wool and the higher the temperature in thermometer

Variables
MV : the number of cigarette
RV : Change in cotton wool and increased in temperature of thermometer
CV : Volume of universal indicator

Apparatus and materials: U-Tube,glass tube,boiling tube,suction
pump,temperature,measuring cylinder,boiling tube ,universal indicator,cotton
wool,cigarette

Procedure


1. Diagram with 5 correct labels
2. 50ml of universal indicator is measured using measuring cylinder and poured into
the boiling tube
3. The initial temperature of the air in U-Tube is recorded
4. The initial colour of cotton wool/universal indicator is recorded
5. One cigarette is lighted up and suction pump is switched on
6. Record the change of colour in cotton and increase in temperature using a
thermometer after cigarette stopped burning (In a table)
7. Repeat steps 6 to 8 by using 2,3, and 4 cigarettes
8. Make sure all the joining are air tight

Presentation of data
Before experiment After experiment
Temperature (
0
C)
Colour of cotton
wool


Universal indicator
To suction pump
Ema-Mel0dy spm11
15.TO DETERMINE THE OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENTS IN INHALED
AND EXHALED AIR

Problem statement
Does inhaled air contain more oxygen and less carbon dioxide than exhaled hair?

Hypothesis
Inhaled air contains more oxygen and less carbon dioxide than exhaled air

Variables
MV : type of air sample(inhaled or exhaled air)
RV : percentage of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inhaled and exhaled air
CV : length of air used

Apparatus and materials
Potassium hydroxide solution,pottassium pyrogallate solution,water,J-
tube,ruler,beaker,boilng tube,basin/water bath,ruber tubings

Procedure
1. Turn the screw of the J-Tube until the end
2. Dip the end of the J-Tube in water.Draw into the tube about 5cm of water
3. Remove the J-Tube from the water.Draw into the tube about 10cm of
air(inhaled air)
4. Dip the open end of J-Tube into the water again .Draw in a little more
water (to seal the air column)
5. Adjust the screw so that air column is sin the middle of the J-Tube
6. Immerse the J-Tube into the water bath for 2 minutes ,to stabilize the
temperature of air sample
7. Measure the length of air column using a ruler .Record the measurement
as P cm
8. Expel some of the water in the J-tube leaving about 2-3mm from the end
of the tube
9. Dip the open end of the J-Tube into the potassium hydroxide and draw in
about 2-3cm of the solution(potassium hydroxide absorbs carbon dioxide
from the air column)
10. Remove the test tube from the solution and move the air column to and
fro several times
11. Repeat step 6 and 7 .Record the length of air column as q cm
12. Expel the potassium hydroxide solution leaving about 2-3 mm from the
end of the tube
13. Repeat step 9 using potassium pyrogallate solution (potassium pyrogallate
absorbs oxygen from the air column)
14. Repeat steps 6 and 7 .Record the length of the air column as r cm
15. Based on the results ,calculate the percentage of carbon dioxide and
oxygen in the sample of inhaled air column using formula
16. Repeat steps 1 -17 using a sample of exhaled air
17. Compare the percentage of carbon dioxide in inhaled and exhaled air
18. Compare the percentage of oxygen in inhaled and exhaled air

Presentation data

Data for inhaled air
Length of inhaled air column at the
beginning experiment
P
Length of inhaled air column after
treating with potassium hydroxide
solution
Q
Length of inhaled air column after
treating with potassium pyrogallate
solution
R
Length of CO
2
column in inhaled air (p-q)cm
Length of O
2
column in inhaled air (q-r)cm
Percentage of CO
2
in inhaled air p-qcm x 100%
p cm
Percentage of O
2
in inhaled air q-rcm x 100
p cm


Data for exhaled air

Length of inhaled air column at the
beginning experiment
X
Length of inhaled air column after
treating with potassium hydroxide
solution
Y
Length of inhaled air column after
treating with potassium pyrogallate
solution
Z
Length of CO
2
column in inhaled air (x-y)cm
Length of O
2
column in inhaled air (y-z)cm
Percentage of CO
2
in inhaled air (x-y)cm x 100%
X cm
Percentage of O
2
in inhaled air (y-z)cm x 100%
X cm


Ema-Mel0dy spm11
15.TO STUDY HOW POPULATION SIZE OF SPECIES MIMOSA PUDICA AND
IMPERATA CYLINDRICA CAN BE DETERMINED IN YOUR SCHOOL FIELD

Problem statement : What is the population size of mimosa pudica and imperata
cylindrica in the school field?

Hypothesis: The population size of species mimosa pudica plant is higher than
species imeprata cylindrica in the school field

Variables
MV : type of plant
RV : population size
CV : quadrat size

Materials and apparatus
Plant species Mimosa Pudica and imperata cylindrica ,plastic quadrat,marker
pen,A4 paper,graph paper

Procedure
1. School field was chosen as the field study
2. Quadrats size 1mx1m was used
3. Two plants species mimosa pudica and imperata cylindrica was identified
4. The quadrats were thrown at random in the school field
5. The area of coverage each plant species were counted
6. If more than half of the squares in the quadrat are covered ,the area of
plant species will be counted.the area is not counted if only less than half is
covered
7. Steps 5 to 7 was repeated for nine quadrats
8. The area covered by plant species studied in each quadrat were recorded
and tabulated in a table
9. The percentage coverage of plant species were calculated by using this
formula :
percentage of coverage = total are covered plant species In all quadrats X
100
Total number of quadrants x area of quadrat

Presentation of data
Plant
species
Number of plant species in the quadrat Total
number of
plant
species(m
2
)
Percentage
coverage
area (%)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


19.TO INVESTIGATE THE WATER POLUTION LEVEL AND BOD VALUE AT THE
STATION A,B, AND C

Problem statement: Which sources of water sample A,B and C will be more
polluted and give the higher BOD value?

Hypothesis: Water sample C are the most polluted and have the highest BOD value
compare to water sample A and B

Variable
MV : type water samples
RV : water pollution level and BOD values
CV : volume of water sample

Apparatus and materials
Reagents bottles with stoppers,syringe,cupboard,stopwatch,label paper, measuring
cylinder, beaker, water sources from station A,B and C,methylene blue solution

Procedure
1. 200ml water samples from A,B and C sources are collected
2. 3 bottles of reagent are labeled as A,B, and X respectively
3. 100ml of water samples at A were measured by using measuring cylinder
are being put into reagent bottle
4. 1ml of methylene blue solution 0.1% solution was added to the base of
each water samples using a syringe
5. The bottles are closed quickly and the contents are not to be shaken
6. Steps 1 to 5 were repeated by using water source from station B and C
7. All the bottles are placed in a cupboard and the stopwatch is started
8. The bottle are examined from time to time
9. The time taken for methylene to decolourise is recorded for all the water
samples
10. The results are recorded in a table

Presentation of data



Reagent bottles Water samples
(100ml)
Time taken to
decolourise
methylene blue
(hour)
BOD value and
pollution level
(unit)
A
B
C
Ema-Mel0dy spm11

16.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE POPULATION GROWTH
RATE OF LEMNA MINOR

Problem statement
What is the effect of light intensity on the growth rate of lemna minor?

Hypothesis
The higher the light intensity the higher the growth rate of lemna minor at the end
of experiment

Variables
MV : light intensity
RV : the growth rate of lemna minor
CV : initial number of lemna minor

Apparatus and materials
Lemna minor,pond water,light bulb(5,40,80 watts),beaker,ruler,measuring
cylinder,waterproof paint

Procedure
1. Three beakers are prepared and filled with 500ml of water in each beaker
2. The beakers are labeled as A,B and C with waterproof paint
3. 5 lemna minor are put into each baker
4. Each beaker is placed at 30cm from the lamps with different light
intensities ,that is 5 watts ,40 watts, and 80 watts respectively
5. All the beakers are placed in area of the same temperature
6. Change the water in each beaker every 3 days
7. After 7 days,the number of lemna minor in each beaker is counted and
recorded
8. The growth rate of lemna minor is calculated by using formula:
The number of lemna minor
Time taken(day)
9. The result are recorded in a table

Presentation of data

Light intensity
(watts)
Number of lemna The growth rate of
lemna minor Beginning end
5 5
40 5
80 5



17.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF PH ON THE POPULATION GROWTH OF LEMNA
MINOR IN THIS LABORATORY

Problem statement
Does the changes in pH effects the growth rate of lemna minor?

Hypothesis
The growth rate of lemna minor is higher in neutral medium

Variables
MV : the changes in pH
RV : the growth rate of lemna minor
CV : numberof lemna minor in the beginning of experiment

Apparatus and materials
Lemna minor,pond water,0.1M hydrochloric acid ,0.1M sodium hyroxide,distilled
water,beaker,waterproof paint,measuring cylinder and dropper

Procedure
1. Three beakers are prepared and filled with 500ml of pond water in each
beaker
2. The beaker are labeled A,B, and C with waterproof paint
3. Bu using measuring cylinder,10ml of 0.1M of hydrochloric acid is measured
and poured into beaker A,10ml of 0.1M sodium hydroxide solution is
measured and poured into beaker B and 10ml of distilled water is
measured and poured into beaker C
4. 20 numbers of lemna minor are put into each beaker
5. Each beaker is placed in an area of distributed light and temperature
6. After 5 days,the number of lemna minor is counted in each beaker
7. The growth rate of lemna minor is calculated by using formula
8. The result are recorded in a table

Presentation of data

Beaker Condition of pH Number of lemna minor The growth
rate of lemna
minor(day)
beginning ending
A 0.1M of hydrochloric
acid(acidic)

B 0.1M sodium
hydroxide(alkaline)

C distilled water(neutral)

Ema-Mel0dy spm11
20.TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF SOLID POLLUTANTS IN THE AIR OF DIFFERENT
ENVIRONMENT

Problem statement
Which place will produce the largest number of fine particle in the air?

Hypothesis
The number of solid particles in school car park is higher than air sample in air
conditional room,classroom and school canteen

Variables
MV : location where glass slide is placed
RV : number of solid particles
CV : time exposure

Apparatus and materials
Glass slide,cellophone tape,light miscroscope,petri dish,ruler,places of study,fine
particles

Procedure
1. 4 slides are prepared and labeled them A,B,C and D
2. 5cm of cellophane tape is sticked on each slide with the sticky surface
facing outward
3. The slide A is placed at school park
4. Leave the slide undisturbed for a week
5. After one week,collect a slide view under light microscope under low
power
6. Repeat experiment for slide B at conditioned room,slide C at classroom
and slide D at school canteen
7. The number of solid pollutions is recorded

Presentation of data

Glass slide Place where slide is
located
Number of fine particles as
seen under microscope
(unit)
A Air conditioned room
B Classroom
C School canteen
D School car park




21.TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF TOTAL SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME(TSA/V)
RATIO TOWARDS THE RATE OF DIFFUSION OF SUBTANCES BY USING POTATO

Problem statement
How does the TSA/V ration effect the rate of diffusion of the substance?

Hypothesis
As the TSA/V ratio increases the rate of diffusion of the substances increases

Variables
MV : TSA/V
RV : rate of diffusion
CV : concentration of coloured water

Apparatus and materials
Coloured water,potato,filter paper,knife,blade,white tiles,forceps,stopwatch,grided
transparency sheet,beaker

Procedure
1. Potato is cut into cubes which is 1cm
3
,8cm
3
,27cm
3
, and 64cm
3

2. Each potato cubes is placed in a beaker containing coloured water for
20minutes
3. After 20minutes the potato cubes are cut into two halves
4. The outer surface of the potato cubes are dried using filter paper
5. The transparency sheet is placed on the top of cut surface
6. The area that is stained red is drawn and shaded on the gridded
transparency
7. Coloured area in each potato cubes is measured by using gridded
transparency
8. The percentage of coloured area in each potato cube is calculated and
recorded
9. Calculated and recorded the rate of diffusion using a formula
Percentage of coloured area %
Time taken(Min)

Presentation of data
Size of cubes(cm
3
) Percentage of coloured
area (%)
Rate of diffusion of
potato cube (%/min)
1
8
27
64


Ema-Mel0dy spm11
22.TO DETERMINE WETHER THE NUMBER OF LEAVES EFFECTING THE RATE OF
TRANSPIRATION IN PLANTS

Problem statement: Does number of leaves effect the rate of transpiration?

Hypothesis: The higher the number of leaves,the higher the rate of photosynthesis

Variables: MV : number of leaves
RV : rate of transpiration
CV : air movement

Apparatus and materials: Plant shoot with leaves,water,photometer(or capillary
tube,ruler,ruber tube),stopwatch,light bulb,beaker

Procedure
1. A leafy shoot is chosen from a plant.the shoot is cut and is immersed immediately
into a basin of water
2. The shoot is cut 1cm from the bottom of the stem under water.the leaves are
removed from the shoot and 8 leaves is left behind
3. The cut end of the stem is inserted carefully into the rubber tubing of the
photometer under water
4. The apparatus is then set up as shown in diagram .the end of the tube is immersed
in a beaker of water
5. The leaves and the apparatus are wiped dry with a cloth
6. Vaseline is used to ensure no water leakage and the apparatus is air tight
7. An air bubble is introduced in the tube
8. The photometer then placed in an enclosed room with no air movement
9. The shoot Is allowed a few minutes to reach a steady state before any readings is
taken
10. The stopwatch is activated and the time taken for air bubble travel10cm distance
is recorded
11. The experiment is repeated to obtain two more reading
12. Steps 1 to 11 are repeated by using difference shoot with difference number of
leaves 6,4,2 and 0.
13. The time taken for air bubble to travel for each shoot is recorded in the following
table using stopwatch
14. Calculate the rate of transpiration by using formula

Presentation of data
Number of
leaves
Time taken (min) Rate of
transpiration(cm/min)
0
2
4
6
8
23.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION

Problem statement
Is the light increasing the rate of of transpiration of a plant?

Hypothesis
The higher the light intensity,the higher the rate of transpiration

Variables
MV : distance light sources
RV : rate of of transpiration
CV : temperature

Apparatus and materials
Photometer,stopwatch,knife,beaker,fluorescent lamp,meter ruler, balsam
plant,vaseline,water,tissue

Procedure
1. A suitable balsam plant is selected and is cut using a sharp knife.the cut end is
immediately immersed in a beaker filled with distilled water
2. The cut plant is then fixed onto a photometer and the joint between the plant
and the photometer are sealed using a Vaseline to make the airtight
3. The laboratory curtains and doors are pulled and closed so that outside
lightning will not effect the outcome of experiment
4. A 40W fluorescent lamp is set 30cm away from the edge of the photometer
with a meter ruler placed to measure the distance
5. The air bubble in photometer is set to 0cm.the lamp is switched on and the
stopwatch is started when the air bubble cross X mark.
6. The movement of air bubble is observed and the stopwatch is stopped when
the bubble reaches Y mark that is 10cm
7. Record the time taken into a table using stopwatch
8. Step 4 to 7 are repeated ,with the distance of the lamp are put at
40cm,50cm,60cm away from the photometer.
9. Calculate the rate of transpiration by using a formula
10. All the findings are recorded In a table

Presentation of data
Distance of lamp from the
edge of photometer
(cm)
Time taken for the air
bubble to travel
from X to Y (s)
Rate of transpiration
(cm/second)
0
40
50
60
Ema-Mel0dy spm11
24.TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF AIR MOVEMENT ON THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION

Problem statement: What are the effect of the different speed of air movement on the rate of
transpiration?

Hypothesis: As the speed of the air movement increases,the rate of transpiration increases.

Variables: MV: speed of air movement
RV : Rate of transpiration
CV : the temperature

Apparatus and materials: Capillary tube,retort stand,50ml beaker,basin,scalpel,rubber tubing,tissue
paper,vaseline,marker pen and stopwatch,ruler,fan,water and plant shoot

Procedure
1. The leafy shoot is immersed In the water and cut using a sharp scalpel
2. The rubber tubing and capillary tube is placed in the basin containing water.the apparatus is
filled with water.the leafy shoot is inserted into the rubber tubing
3. Steps 1-2 is carried out under water to measure no air bubbles are trapped in the apparatus
4. A finger is placed over the open the end of the capillary tube.the apparatus is removed from
the basin
5. The open end of the capillary tube is placed under water in the beaker before ermoving the
finger from the tube
6. The water is dried from the surface of the leaves of the shoot using a tissue paper. vaseline is
smeared around the rubber tubing to make the apparatus airtight
7. The capillary tube is lifted just clear above the water reservoir .the rubber tubing is squeezed
gently to release one drop of water from the capillary tube .the capillary tube is placed in
water
8. The apparatus is supported by a retort stand.a marker pen is used to mark two points, X and
Y at a distance of 5 cm apart
9. The photometer is placed under the table fan with speed 1 .record the time taken (in
minutes) for the air bubble to move from point X to point Y using stopwatch
10. Repeat the experiment twice
11. To reset the photometer,squeeze the rubber tubing so that air bubble escapes into the
beaker of water
12. The above step is repeated to get three readings with the same shoot in under water a an
with speed 2 and respectively
13. Average rate of the rate of transpiration measurement is recorded using formula

Prresentation of data
Speed of
fan
Time taken for the air bubble to move from point X to Y
(minutes)
Rate of
transpiration
(cm/min) First reading Second
reading
Third
reading
average
Speed 1
Speed 2
Speed 3






25.TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION

Problem statement: Does the temperature affect the rate of transpiration of a plant?

Hypothesis: The higher the temperature,the higher the rate of transpiration of a plant

Variables
MV : temperature
RV : the rate of transpiration
CV : air movement

Apparatus and materials: Photometer,stopwatch,cutter,beaker,meter ruler,a basin of
water,marker,a leafy shoot,water,vaseline,dry cloth,thermometer,transparent frame

Procedure
1. The leafy shoot is immersed in the water and cut using a sharp scalpel
2. The rubber tubing and capillary tube is placed in the basin containing water.the
apparatus is filled with water.the leafy shoot is inserted into the rubbing tubing.
3. Steps 1 and 2 is carried out under water to make sure no air bubbles are trapped in
the apparatus
4. A finger is placed over the open end of the capillary tube.the apparatus is removed
from the basin
5. The open end of the capillary tube is placed under water in the beaker before
removing the finger from the tube
6. The water is dried from the surfaces of the leaves of the shoot using tissue
paper.Some vaseline is smeared around the rubber tubing to make it airtight
7. The capillary tube is lifted just clear above the water reservoir.the rubber tubing is
squeezed gently to release one drop of water from the capillary tube.the capillary
tube is placed in water
8. The apparatus is supported by a retort stand.a marker pen is used to mark two
points ,X and Yat a distance 5cm apart
9. The non transparent frame is used to cover the leafy shoot and of the photometer
is placed in the shady place at 30
0
C.the temperature inside the frame is recorded
using stopwatch
10. Record the time taken (in minutes)for the air bubble to move from X to Y using
stopwatch
11. To reset the photometer,squeeze the rubber tubing so that air bubble escapes into
the beaker of water
12. The above step is repeated to get the three readings with the same shoot with the
transparent frame to cover the leaf shoot and photometer is placed under the sun
at 33
0
C.the temperature inside the frame is recorded using stopwatch
13. The rate of transpiration measurement is recorded in the table by using formula

temperature Time taken for the air bubble to move from X to Y
(minute)
Rate of
transpiration(cms
-1
)
1 2 3 average
Shady place 30
0
C
Under the sun 33
0
C
Ema-Mel0dy spm11
26.TO INESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF AIR HUMIDITY ON THE RATE OF TRANSPIRATION

Problem statement: Does humidity of air effect the rate of temperature?

Hypothesis: When the air humidity surrounding t.plant is high,t.rate of transpiration is low

Variable: MV : humidity of air
RV : rate of transpiration
CV : temperature

Apparatus and materials: Photometer,stopwatch,cutter,beaker,meter ruler,a basin of water,
a leafy shoot,water,vaseline,dry cloth,anhydrous calcium chloride,transparent bag

Procedure
1. The leafy shoot is immersed in the water and cut using a sharp scalpel
2. The rubber tubing and capillary tube is placed in the basin containing water.the
apparatus is filled with water.the leafy shoot is inserted into the rubber tubing
3. Steps 1-2 is carried out under water to make sure no air bubble trapped in the app.
4. A finger is placed over the open end of the capillary tube.the apparatus is
removedfrom the basin
5. The open end of the capillary tube is placed under in the beaker before removing
the finger from the tube
6. The water is dried from the surface of the leaves of the shoot using tissue
paper.some vaseline is smeared around the rubber tubing to make sure the
apparatus airtight
7. The capillary tube is lifted just clear above the water reservoir .the rubber tubing is
squeezed gently to release one drop of water from the capillary tube .the capillary
tube is placed under water
8. The apparatus is supported by a retort stand .a marker pen is used to mark two
points ,X and Y at a distance 5 cm apart
9. The transparent bag filled with presence of anhydrous calcium chloride is used to
cover the leafy shoot
10. Record the time taken (in minutes) for the air bubble to move from pint X to Y
using a stopwatch
11. Repeat the experiment twice
12. To reset the photometer,squeeze the rubber tubing so that air bubble escapes into
the beaker of water
13. The above step is repeated to get three readings with the same shoot with the
transparent bag with absence of anhydrous calcium chloride
14. The rate of transpiration measurement is recorded in the table using formula

Presentation of data
Condition inside
tranparent bag
Humidity
of air
Time taken for the air
bubble to move from X to Y
The rate of
transpiration (cm.min)
contain anhydrous
calcium chloride

Without anhydrous
calcium chloride














































Ema-Mel0dy spm11
27.TO DETERMINE THE URINE VOLUME RELEASED BY A STUDENT WHO DRINKS
DIFFERENT VOLUME OF MINERAL WATER

Problem statement
What is the effect of water intake of urine output?

Hypothesis
If more water is taken,more urine will be released

Variables
MV : volume of water
RV : volume of urine released
CV : same student

Apparatus and materials
Beakers,cup/mug,measuring cylinder,stopwatch,drinking water,a student

Procedure
1. A student (sample A) is chosen and instructed to empty his bladders before
the start of the the experiment
2. 200ml of water is measured and put into the mug
3. A student(sample A ) is given 200ml of mineral drinking water drink
4. A stopwatch is started immediately after consuming the water
5. During the experiment,he is kept within 1-2 hours
6. He is instructed not to eat or perform any vigorous physical activities
7. After half an hour,he is asked to empty his bladder
8. The collected urine is kept in a large beaker
9. At the interval of half an hour,until two hours,a student empty his bladder
10. After two hours ,the total collected urine is measured using measuring
cylinder
11. Repeat step 2-9 for different amount of drinking
water(400ml,600ml,800ml,1000ml)
12. Step 7 is conducted for four consecutive days in a fixed time and place
13. Dispose the measured urine properly
14. Measure and record the data collected into a table

Presentation of data

Volume of water intake(ml)
Volume of
urine is
produced(ml)
200 400 600 800 1000




28.TO INVESTIGATE THE TRAIT OF COLOUR OF FLOWER OBEY MENDELS FIRST
LAW

Problem statement
Is colour of marble influence the total of button pair in beaker?

Hypothesis
When the red button is cross breeding with white button,the ratio of fillial is 3 red
button and 1 white button if first filial do self-breeding

Variables
MV : colour of button
RV : the number of pair button
CV : 50 red buttons ad 50 white buttons

Apparatus and materials
Plastic bag/can/box/pouch,red buttons,white buttons,beaker,student X

Procedure
1. Two black pouches ,A and B each containing a mixture of 50 red buttons
and 50 white buttons
2. Pouch A and B were shaken to mix the buttons randomly
3. (without see)one button was drawn at random from each pouch by
student X
4. Both of buttons are combined to produce daughter in second filial
generation
5. Steps 1 to 4 are repeated when all buttons are completing combined
6. The number of colour combination of buttons from each pouches are
recorded in table show
7. The genotype and phenotype of all the colour combination are recorded in
the table show

Presentation of data

Colour of
combination
Number of
button colour
genotype phenotype
Both are red
colours

Both are white
colours

One red colour and
one white colour


Ema-Mel0dy spm11
29.TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AVERAGE HEIGHT/GROWTH
RATE OF MAIZE PLANTS AND TIME AFTER PLANTING

Problem statement
What is the relationship between the average height of maize plants and time after
planting?

Hypothesis
The longer the time after planting,the more the average height of maize plant until
they reach maturity

Variables
MV : the time after planting
RV : the average height of maize plants
CV : number of seedlings types

Apparatus and materials
Maize seeds,nursery tile,garden soil,tap water,fertilizer,measuring tape,meter ruler

Procedure
1. Prepare a site for nursery with garden soil
2. Plant 20 maize seeds in the soil with even spacing between each seed
3. Water the seeds daily throughout the period of experiment
4. After 10 days,measure the height of maize plants using the meter ruler or
measuring tape
5. Repeat steps 4 over 90/120 days
6. Record all the results obtained In a table
7. Plot a graph of the average height of maize plants against time after
planting

Presentation of data

Time(days) after
planting
The height of maize plants /cm Average heights of
maize plants (cm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
10
20
30
40
50





30.TO DETERMINE THE TYPES OF VARIATION TO THE NUMBEROF STUDENTS

Problem statement
Do all the students have the same type of fingerprints and height?

Hypothesis
Each student in group belongs to one fingerprint and height

Variables
MV : types of variation
RV : number of students
CV : same class

Apparatus and materials
Student,graph paper,A4 paper,tissue paper,fingerprint pad,hand lens,marker,meter
ruler

Procedure
1. Ten names of students in the same group were written down in a table
2. My height is measured by using a ruler and recorded in a table
3. The experiment is repeated by investigating the type of fingerprint
4. By using fingerprint pad,I placed my thumbprint were observed and
indentify
5. By using hand lens , the type of my thumbprint were observed and identify
6. Steps 2 to 5 were repeated to other students in the same group
7. The measurement of height and fingerprint are repeated twice to get the
average
8. Two graphs on the number of students against the types of variation were
plotted

Presentation of data

students
name
Type of fingerprint Height (m)
whorl curves composite loops
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Ema-Mel0dy spm11
31.TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF CAMOUFLAGE ON PREY AND PREDATOR
RELATIONSHIP

Problem statement: What is the effect of colour camouflage on organism?

Hypothesis: When the colour between cloth and the buttons are more distinct ,the
number of contrasting button chosen is greater

Variables
MV : the colour of cloth
RV : the number of coloured button chosen
CV : the size of cloth used

Apparatus and materials
Student,a piece of white cloth(50cmx50cm),a piece of black cloth (50cm50cm),a
piece of multicoloured patterned cloth(30cmX30cm),20 red buttons,20 black
butons,20 white buttons,20 yellow buttons,20 green buttons, a white tile

Procedure
1. Student Y scattered various coloured button randomly on a piece of white
cloth measuring 50cmX50cm.the buttons used are:
20 red buttons
20 black buttons
20 white buttons
20 yellow buttons
20 green buttons
2. Student X did not observe what student Y did
3. Within 1-2 seconds ,student X then quickly took a button from the white
tile and placed it on a white tile
4. Step 3 was repeated 9 times
5. Use the same student that has been chosen
6. Count and record the number of coloured buttons according to colour in
the table
7. Steps 1-4 were repeated using a black cloth followed by a multicoloured
patterned cloth

Presentation of data
Colour of
cloth
Number of buttons according to colour otal number
of buttons
were taken
black white red yellow green
White
Black
Multicoloured
floral

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