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JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY 0•' ARTS.

lonrnal d

tht ,Jocidy of ~rts.I

No. 1,688.

VoL. XXXIIl

FRIDAY, MARCH 27. toSs.

All (;tNitj~UXJ-114n#for flu SHit(,? #lll1~t/Jk atldn!.U~dfq

IM S#c~f4r)',7dll·#htel, Atf,djlu~L<'UM"• W.C.

The

NOTICES.

CANTOR

LECTURES.

third

lecture of

the

fifth course

on

"Carving and Furniture" was delivered on

Monday

HITNOERFORD

evening,

•Jrd, by Mr. J.

POLLEN, who, after explain·

March

ing

country

mansipns, and the prominent positjon which

the

arrangements

of

the

old

carved wood

occupied io their

decoration,

devoted special attention to th~> productions of the age of Gibbons and Boule. The lecture was illustrated by photographs of examples shown on the screen by means of the lantern. The lectures will be printed in the :Journal during the summer recess.

FOREIGN &

Commander

COLON/A L

SECTION.

CAMERON'S paper on

" The

Congo and the Conference, in reference to Commercial Geography," will be printed an the next number of the :Jotlr71al.

Proceedings of the Society.

SIXTEENTH

ORDINARY

MEETING.

Wednesday,

11-larch

25th,

FREDERICK

ABEL,

D.C.L.,

1885;

Sir

C.B.,

F.R.S.,

Chairman of the Council,~in the chair. The follov.·iog candidates were proposed for ele<::tio~as members of the Society:-

Dalyell, Hon. R.oberf.'Anstruther, C.S.I., LL.D.,

2f, Onslow·ga.rd~Q$ 1 S.\V,

Hardy, G. Hurlstone, Parlc:-lodge, East Twickenh.am.

Head, Jobn, F.G.S., u, Qu~en Anne's-gate, S.W.

Hodges,:Hcrbert J., Cbescerfi.eld·boase, Barclay-road,

.Fu!ham, S.W.

K~ndal, James, ro6, Chc:apside, E.C.

Pears, Andrew, Spring-grove, Jsleworth.

Stenning, Allan E., F

ast

v.~hile, \Villi.am Henry,

cil.stle-on-Tyne.

Grinste.ad, Su.ssex.

Lower Condcrcum,

New·

Tbe following candidates were balloted for and duly elected members of the So~iety:-

Clare, Octa,.-ius Leigb, Hindley-cottage, East Sheen,

s.w.

Gilbert, WUliam Henry Sainsbury,

chamben, E.C.

9, Old Jewry•

Kirkaldy, John, 40, \\rest lndia·road, E. Putington, Charles Fredcrick, 47, Lower Bdgra\'C•

sbe<:t, S. \V.

:MacWflliam, George Greenshield.s,

buildings, Holborn, E.C.

20,

BartleU's--

Patterson, George, 85, CarJelon-rd., TufneU-pk., N. Sharp, Jamcs, Carr-hall, Wyke, near Bradford. Ward, Howard CbarJes, Yea.tton, Lymington. Hants.

\Vatso~. John, Cement \Vorb, Gate~hcad-on-Tyne.

Th~ paper read was-

ON TilE MUSICAL SCALES OF VARIOUS NATIONS.

Bv

ALEXANDER

I.-

ELLIS,

INTRODUCTION.

J.

F. R.S.

The title of this paper was meant to be "On the Musical Scales of all Nations." All is a big word, and I have bad to withdraw it, and take refuge in the neutral term variouS. As I glance at Greece, Arabia, India, Java, China, and Japan, this term is at least not too comprehens ive. The difficulties in collecting and co-ordinating information, even to this' extent, have been many and great. Although some of the matter I have to bring to your notice may be found by those "·ho know how to look for it, in papers already published, by far the greater part is entirely new. The very method by which the results have been obtained, and the languag~ in which they ar ~ expressed, are al ~o new, the res~lts of my own

investigations. I have been assisted throughout

by

Hipkins, of J. Broadwood and Sons. Indeed,

the delicate ear

of

Mr.

Alfred

James

I

may say at

the

outset,

that

without

hi<

remarkable

power

of

discriminating

s:nl.ll

int.efvals

qu·alities, one of which in each comparison.

was often of very short duration, and without

his great kindness in putting his faculty at my .

disposal,

musical work 1 this paper could not have come ·.

between

tones

of

very

diffcreht

and his hearty sympathy in all my

JOURNAL

al'

THE SOCJETT OF A.RTS.

Into existence for want

of

materials,

and

the

fall within

th~U.

compass, can

be

ascertained

011ly

reuon

why

I

have

not

associated

hia

to one vibration

in

ten seconds.

I

cbielly uoed

name with mine a t

the

bead of it is, that I do

th~

forks of

the late

celebrated

Scbeibler for

not wish to make him responsible for the shape

that _paper.

For the

pre~nt

investigation

I

in

which

our joint work

is

produced.

The

calculations,

the

arrangement,

the

illustra·

tlons,• as well as the original conception, form

musical

my

part.

The

judgment

of

ear,

suggestions, form his .

and

assistance

in

every

way

I

L-MUSICi\L

SCALES.

 

In my" Historyof Musical.Pitch"

of

lilt

Society

of

.A

rls,

5th

March

('fourrlal

and

2nd

April,

t88o,

and

7th

Jan.,

t88t),

Art.

2,

1

defined "

the pitch of a musical note to be the

number

of

double

or

complete

vibrations,

backwa,rds and

forwards,

made

in

each second

by a particle

of air while

the note

is beard;"

and

1

gave a

full

account

of th•

methods by

which this is ascertained,

and sho.,·ed bow, by

means

of a sufficiently long series

of tuning·

forks,

first,

their own pitch, and then the pitch

of all other notes

of sufficient duration which

-

-·--

Tbo roadinr of tbis paper wa• eot i.re1y occupied

by

ilha~

tration•

~cau se

ahould

connected

by

tbo

fewcst

po11ible

ex.planations,

it

w~a

consi d ere d

more inl.portaat

t

cbat

tb o audiCinee

aCC'Utlly

bear

the

scales

than

be

merely

tpoten

to

about tbem.

B11t eo

make thit

At

all

iateiUcible to a

reader

J

ba~

'I'be

1

,

beco obliro4 to es.teo d

~ Y p:L~

tn

;m

u r:nuu~l

lc-n,th :

Ulul&rado11.s

were

,.ndered

01:1

sevnal

ias\na.~Doenu.

A

Di'cMnl,aa

lastrumeat

oftwo

strinp, me»t ltiadlr

COO•

-.tn.cted for me, whh

a. be:t.utifal soac&g

bo;Ud.

by

i\h•u• ·

Jobft

J\·Nadwood

aad Soas.

'l'boe

n"hnttac wiru

wtn'

No.

:t,

Ill.,. J·roch

m

ill.i.tod

,

about

1

soth

ha.U,

tile

UiaDete

dta'ftl,

aad

had

a

YS"bn.l.inc

len.cth

of

1.1(10 milli.mctiCII

(Cif

~

J.o.t!

tD

I.b

to

feet).

Th

e

aut

wu

niHd

7 -

··

ud.

tlle

tt

from

boa.rd.

The

 

soan~

 

wtret

wer•

ta

telled

at

on

a

piaue~fono.

ud.

K":reWed.

10

pitch

c

.,. m

nr

tenor

c.

by

the

U\11&1

t1lllio.c bANJO«,

mm

tbe

A

nm.ber

o(

l&ths,

a.bout

s

m.tll.

thick

a.ad

915

Joor,

wero

·coa.stntetecl

oo•

o(

dlo016

,

first

to

S(';r'Vt:

as

6opr

raark.ed

throurb

two

boudt.

octave•

aam.

Oo

tht

place wbc.ro the

wire lhould

be

stopl>f'd by

t bc

fin&er

(or,

u.tber,

lide

of

the thumb

aalt. to bfl more

a.curatc)

to pro·

d.uco

u

11.1al

&be

nocu

or

the

bypotbet il-

1

tlw.t

jus.t

major

scal e,

~lc:uJatod

on

the

ouroben

of v ibr:Uion•

wo'uld

t

bt

be

,en.oly

proportion.al to tbe l engths.

Owlnr io

tho

nceos11lty

ofhavlnrthowlrea to

ttaod

aome

dlsu.cu.·:~

frOln,tbetlnrcr•

boud

(u

on

the violoncello),

the increl.k"d

censiol'l

arl•lnr

from

brlnJinr

lhe wire

the

oote

con•iderabt,.

to

the board

'l"o

on::rcom.e

in

~eh

cue abArpened

tb.i.s

~lty,

the ootu

.,•

played

Oft

;a.ltl1 UuOMd

hanrloD.iaJ,

'tu•e4

rro.o

fOC'b

which had

betn

a.tturatoly

adjo.sted

by

my.el(,

ancl

t.bn,

aa euh

poahioa

w~

MU

he

wat

had

10ua.ded,

Mr. Hipkia•

to

•top.t.¥-

wtre

hlr

lUrked

pufoet

oft' tbe

unitoe.

Fro.

~~

u

to

U

1

wa

s

able to

ealOJla:te a.ad

-.art

oft, oo a ,

tc

te.

tl!e

uad posirioa b

stoppi11E

U

ltri•r.

eo'

prod~:~coan

lat«nl

of

uy

sin!Zl

aambc:r

or ceau

(Me

W.

tma

uplalrted

la

An.

3).

a.cd

heon::

draw

tbo

bet'

bNrd

for

,

a~uaieal

seale

.b.ateTCr.

)lu-lliac

4!0<h

ad

~eale

o•

lu ow•

board.

I

could

thus

n:ndor

&DJ

.ealo

d:LttiDctl)'

ndibla

Thi.•

nun&

ha\'e

beeb

e-otird1

hft

to

Almort

every one

of

d.c

allldiertcc.

 

J:.

Flvo

.b'•zlilll CHN,.Ihffu,

tufted

for me witb ITOAt cart

~7

lb.

Slit~ncle,.J

of Alf!stn.

Lac'bea.al

nd

Co.,

th e

firtt

have employed a much longer series of forks,

with

Scheibler within that Hmit.

I

their

pitch

ascertained

pitch

to

from

those

of

J,

Further, i.n Art.

be

defined

musical

"the pitch of

any named musical note which determines the

pitch

of

all

the

other

notes

in

a

particular

system

of tuning."

By

that

system

we

are

therefore

able

to

tune

all

tlle

notes

on

an

instrument.

These notes,

when sounded in

succession from

the

lowest

to

the

highest-

that

is, from

that

which

has

the

smallest

to

that

whlch

has

the

largest

pitch

number-

forms the

scale

of the

instrument, from which

are

aelecte:l

the

notes

used

for any piece

or

music forming the

scale

of that compo&ition.

The word sc

Ie

properly means /adder, because

the

notes

thus

sounded

gives

us

the

sensa-.

tion

of ascending by

definite

distances.

An

i11/4rval

between

any two

notes

is the sensa·

tion of the distance passed over in proceeding

concertlnabwte ia London.

TheBntUth conee:rtloa bad,

(,r

my

p1.1JVOI CI

1

two

important

:'kd'-'anta,a-es

ewer

any

otbor lo·

atrument.

Fim,

I had

been

f.amiltar

with it

(rom

bo)'bOOd,

havlnc

polle11ed

S«<nd, it ha.

14

80me

notes

of t-he

to

t he.

~

rliC!tt

OCtAve,

coocertinat

aad

wu

be""

made.

•·ell

adaptod to introduce e

ztr

a. notes for

five latfl'umeota w«e tooed thus:

VAJ

•·

iout purpottt .

Ttte.~

MNotone,

l''l'iDC" tbe

old

nequ.aJ

1.

l!:qaalaDd

tempen.ment

witb

eztra

A

dat

ud

B&JPipe,

&'iTiag

the complde equl

D

Parp.

t~cpcn·

mea.t, a.ad

alto

the

&epipe

acale,

ud

Metll.&q.\11'•

Arabic

~ealca, aUowlt~c

me to

illutnte

thae

by

playinr ain.

Jut,

Jivb&

the

U«nt.e

b.armoaic sealet

of

F, C, G

~or.

ud B au)oc ucl

ai.&or,

eoablin.a'

mec to

illuttt-&lo

tbe

andcat

Gre«

nand

tetn.cbordl.

~- ~.

&J:

a toCCC'Uion

of

~eet

coetai.W.,. Fiftbt, c:ublior me to

t

-•

notft

illut·

trat•

&be

J7t.hagori!Wl or

Wet

Greek

l.orm

of

1be

 

~•I

Greelt

mode•,

and

~so

most

oJ

tbe

tbe

mcdi.,,·&l

A .rabi c:

tcale•.

e.

]11ves~t,the

"'hite

keys

rh·i.nr

tbc

Salclldro, a.nd

tbo

black

the

Pelo.r

SoCAICI·

1 bb

wu

Nnocl from

(orb

~u1tod

by

mys.elfto tbe pikbes

of

lhe

]aveto

ia•ttuJIIUfl

which

were p1.a)'OIJ

~t

the

Aquarium Ja

Loadon, in

1881, ••

ai(Crtained

by

Mr. Hjpk.ine: and

l:n)'Sel(

rrom

CAreful

tnmlna·

t lon.

Thl 1 enabled

~e

to

play

e•wera1

J

avesc Aln •

 

An

lndi~t.n

S ,'Jir,

or

long-r~ecked

f\llt.ar,

m.Olt

kindly

pn:1cnted

to me by H .B.

~be

lb.ja

Ram

P~l

Slnah,

wbo had

hi'lll.toJr

played upoa

it

to

Mr.

Hlpkhu ud. n&Jlelf,

to enable

u

to

record

•~,me

lodian

scales.

of theao

Kllet wu

 

O~:~e

let

11pon

the

SitU

to

tbott it could

be

pt:ayed,

th-e

ocbera

P,&ac.d

DD

\be. Oic::-bord_,

 

4•

Two

Yi

,,

kiadly le:at

=e

bylt.

Victor

llahillon, o(

BAJ

Z.I.

A

p laJed

Ce•Ac.r

br

a.

or

8.14/#"',

seat

tlw

Um.nm-,

direet

i$o

.a

from

•ood

~ieo•,

Sutppore

to

:Ur .

lfipkbu,

ts.o

lti•dl1leoc

it

for

this

 

lut~t•

of

chl1 klad

are mvcb

u5ed

i::t

the

Eut,

and

J ,

aewra1

.eal~

obtained

from

tbem,

this

~led

me

to

•~

thcr

aature

oltheir

co.os:tructioo aDd

tOI'Ie.

 

6.

A

K~/#

tha

n<~.tioaal

J.apane.

l111b'untut,

altJO

kindly

pwpo•c.

Aa

lent

brltr. Hiptins,

tunccl

for

tho

oceuion

by

the

mu1lci~n•

oi che Japanese ViU;age.

A

•malt

PIIch·pi~,

Cbirqc of Cbicese Bel

la,

and a

set

of

klndJ7

Jut by

Mr

Hen unn

Smhh.

Japnnn•c-

JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS

from the first note to the second. It is measured properly by, the ratio of the• smaller pitch number to the larger, or by the fraction . formed by dividing the larger by the smaller. Vlhen these ratios are known for each sue

cessive pair of notes, the scale itself is known,

for means then exist for tuning the whole scale when one of its notes is given. Clearly, if we assume, for the purposes of calculation, that the lowest note makes one vibration in a second (whlcb could not be beard as a note), the ratios mentioned would give the correspond· iog numbers of vibrations for each note, and these all multiplied by the real audi ble number of vibrations in the lowest note, would give the absolute pitches of the actual notes beard.

These

ratios,

therefore,

are

the

important

matters to ascertain, and they arc said to give the relative pitch of each note in the scale. The absolute numbers, which is what engaged my attention last time, are now of 'little con- sequence. We do not want to know how to tune at any particular pitch, but how to tune at any pitch whatever. Hence it is the law which determines tbe relative pitch that we wish to find, or, in other words, the system of ratios or of their equivalents.

111.-CENTS.

Now these ratios convey no conception what-

ever to the musician, who, without considerable instruction, can attach no musical meaning to

such ratios as 2: J,J: 4, 4: s. 5: 6, 6: 7, 7: 8, 8: 9,

9:

expressing them is necessary, espedally for describing scales. To that end I must antici· pate somewhat. It will not oe, perhaps, too great an assumption to presuppose that every one present is acquainted with the pianoforte, and knows that it is divided into sets of tones called octaves, and that there are 12 digitals

or finger keys to each octave, 7 long and white,

5 short and black.

IO,

and so on.

Hence some other way of

But, perhaps, every one

may not know (as be ought to know) that the object of the tuner is to make the interval (or sensation of distance or ascent) between any

two notes ans-wering to any two adjacent finger keys throughout the instruo1ent precisely the

same. tuner. The result is called equal temp~rame11t or tuning. and is the 'srstem at present used throughout Europe. (See "History of Musical Pitch," Art and Appendix 1). For the purposes of measurement,. I must assume that the tuner has succeeded,

although I am bound to say that no

ever

The nearer he succeeds the better the

tuner .

on

has

as

yet

succeeded

perfe<:tly,

account of the great difficulty to be overcome. Then we say that the interval of an Octave is divided into twelve equal intervals called Semitones. Now I must go a step further. Suppose a piano made of such a gigantic sizt that we could interpose 99 smaller linger keys bet~·een any two at present existing, and that we could tune these at exactly equal intervals, called cmts, so that 100 cents would form an equal semitone. It is as well to know at once that this is impossible•. No ear has yet suc-

ceeded in bearing the interval of 1 cent between

two

notes played in

succession.

Even the

interval of 2 cents

requires very

favourable

circumstances to perceive, although 5 may be easily heard by good ears, and 10 to 20 ought to be at once recognised by all singers and tuners. When the two notes are played

at the same time, these 2 cents make a distinct

difference in consonances, and 5 cents are felt to be out of tune. The tuner has constantly to deal with intervals of from 2 to 22 cents, and he corrects his ear by playing the notes togethe~. If, then, I say that a certain interval has 316 cents, I mean that it contains J semi· tones (counted by the keys on a piano) and 16 cents or a very little more. But how are we to determine the number of cents? By finding the interval ratio already mentioned, which is best ascertained from the absolute pitch DUm· bers of each note, and may be approximately ascertained by taking the ratio of the sounding lengths of two piece• of the same musical string, when they are in unison with 'the two notes as determined on an accurate monochord. Having found these two numbers, the diS- coyery of the number of cents is a mere matter ofarithmetic.t \Vhen thenumbers ofcents havt

• Althon.gb this is ~}u.ite irupos

ible

OD a plano,

e

m~y

approxlmate very clcn.ely to a con'(:eption of such a division

on my Dlcbord. wbicb is tnned to

two notes as D and D sb. ao equal seroi~nc apart io the lower portion of the$C&Ie. 1."heir stoppingplaQCS ""' ~ inc:b<Jf

tenor C JJ2 vibn\tioas. Tako.

a.part.

Now, if the finger be gtidcd over thi• intern! after

the string is plucked. a gradaal al)d continuous aJt.crati<:ln of sound is beard io palling fror~:~ D to D sb , and it h evident

tb~tif tlle 6.ng")r stop anrwhere a contiouou.s ~oe will be

produced. Now~ to divide ai inches into a bnndred i;

am,

g:ivC$ the V't!TJ s.entible distance of the fortieth part of ao inc.b tor ~dt. And if we plll.ted tbo 6n~ a& each we aboWd pt

How small this

interv;~.) is was showo by stoppiag at intervals of 10 ceats 1 or a quarter of an loch, In puslng from D to Dab.

t If of the two numbers e:a:pressing t bo iaterv:ll r.ttio, 3 times tbe larger i.s no( (t'Oal« than 4 tiJD~ the tmaller, multipl7 3,477 by thei.r difl'c:ren<:e, and divide by t-bc:ir nun to tbe ne:uett whole nuwber, adding 1 to tl1t1 res.ufl if over ,.so. Thu:~ iftb~ ratio i~ 4:5 ( wbele ,; l imes 5 the l::a.rre:r • •s. is les~ tL.an 4 tiznes 4 the auaallet ttuna.ber :c- 16), the dltfer• eoc&it t, and sum 9:o and diYiding J,.,.71 b)' 9- the result. is J86 1 tb! ce.at$ tCiluireJ. lf the rasio is gr~atertban J : 4 and les

int<eno~s almost (not quit~} 1 eent apart•

'

jOURNAL 0, THK SOCIK'JT OF~RTS.

been ascertained by the process described in, the footnote, a scale, which I particularly leave

unnamed, is written thus:-

Vib.

>70 .

3o8

357

411

470

540

Cents

I

s

11 256III >44IV 232 V :40

I

Su1115

0

228

484

728

96o

1200

Here I, 11, &c., are the notes of the parti-

cular scale, of which there

are here five,

l•

being the octave of I.

The numbers 6tiWI!en

than a : J• mult(plJ. tbc largt:~r nu.naber by J, a.nd the smaller

by ,

pro(;eed as before. and 6.uUy add 498 to the rewUo

Jl by 4, (ivi.ng 128: tJS•

, l."bu.a f01' 31:45, multiply 45 by], aacl

these note-symbols show the number of cents

in the interval from one to the other. · The numbers under them show the number of

cents in the ·interval from

question. The number above is the absolute

pitch number of the note as already defined, that is, the number of vibrations which it

makes in a second, as found from observations.

But this may be omitted when merely the relative pitch is wanted.

I

to the

note in

C('f!. h l

R_•_•

_• •

•_• _· -I--- --- N

•.,_•_·

---

di.ffennu 7, w• s6J. Tbeo 1 X 3477 .;- a63 giv01 91, and

so

\

239 :

Qa.rterlonc.

91: +498 civet S90J tbe. cook requ.ired. Lutly, if tlle- ratio eueeds t: J, multiply the larger number by t and the sau.Ueor

by Jo aed ptOOI.'Ie(l u in 6nt c

t&o,

addlng ?02 to the rt~S"ult.

70

1.f : 2.5

90 t4J : as6

92

u8 : '-JS

Small Semltoce.

Pytha.goreaa Linuna.

Small Limma

Tbu.s for

s: 8,

take J X 5: a X 8 or

•S: 16 ;

difference 1, su.m

31; then

3

477.;-

31 = 11.2, aad tbit added

to ;ooa, rivet 814

100 11 84 :

89

Equal Seuitone.

tho required a\Uil.be:r of ccote. This procen it J(Uzaetimee

ut

15 :

16

Diatonic Sel!ll.itoae.

Vlf:IYcooTe•ieot, lnlt whtJO a large anmberof results bvo to be

l l4

tof8

: 2187

Apotomc.

obtained, alwayt tediou,. In thi• ca.se. thou who c.aa u1e logarithm•, will 6nd tbc following table vory simple, and lt will rtve the reeult to oae-teoth of a cout.

To

CoMVST

l.oGAIUTKNS Un 0

C.IJI'ftS, Al'fD COMVUSS:t.T.

~

2

u

09

JOO

500

6oo

J

1

·-·--

'02509

'05017

'075'6

'JOOJ4

'l:t,54J

'J$051

, '17$6o

8oo

'2<>069

~

li

u

JO

so

6o

,.

8o

.;

!!

}

~

--

'()():t_st

'00$02

'oo7SJ

'Ot()()J

'Oit.St

'01SO'S

'L1756

'02007

- ·aasn

·oa,sS

··so86

noo

'""'

'27$94

'J()lOJ

li

g

'"'

J

4

5

6

7

8

9

.;

~

·c

.s

'00025

·oooso

'00075

'0(11()()

'0012.5

'00151

'001]'6

'00201

'00226

li

~

'"'

'J

'5

'6

.,

·a

e

"

-5

·c

j

'OOOOJ

os

o8

s

,a

J

Subtract lht: logarithms of the pltch 'nombers or of tbe numb~rt of their ratio. Thus fo,- 3.2:45, loi' 45 =' ,;6sJ:rt, loc Ja 11:::5 ··.so.s•s, dlfl'e.rence '148o6, the nut le.ut log in the table, 'r 2S.l «i~·es 5()() cents. $gbtf'41Ct Jbil from fotn1ff 'Joc, result ·ou6J, p.e,at le:att ·cuss, living 90 ceob, total

590 c:cnb to thb ne.uest. Ceot as before. · Dut we ca.ca n o w, jf

we like, eo a step f:nther, ~nd t ubtn.cting abe two. la.c: toga

we cet ·oooo,s, which in the l~t eoham.n COrt"e$ponda to

·a ceota. Final rC$ult 590'2,

nec::eesary to go beyor~d the nearost wbol~oumb« ofceota. The followiog arc ~ few of tbe be&l knowa lntc:rv•lt cx- pr~ in <:CDts ~n.d n.ti~» for comparison with those; which fGIIows :-

It i•, u a ,.ener~l rule, uo-

N~me.

Skhlsm~. Comma (of Didy(l'tue.~.

Com.ru;~.of P,·tharoru.

Sept:Wal Comma

rst

u:

u

.Trumpet t_hroe-quarter Tone-.

181

9:

to

Minor Second.

too

11 400:

449

Equal Tooc.

20f

8 : 9

• Major Second,

267

+6: 7

Scptimal minor Third,

JOO

I! 37:

+4

Equi~Uinor 'fbird•

;116

$

: 6

Jut minor Third.

J.SS

.a : 49

Za.bal'• neutral nird.

386

4 : 5

]utt rujor Tbi.rd.

400

11 so: 6J

Equal major Tb _ird.

4o$

Ot. :

8t

Pyt~ major Tblrd.

476

498

soo

sSJ

590

t.t.v:

Jao

l: 4

!I ui: ]OJ

t

S:

Jt :

7

45

. Gra,·o Fo\lt'tb.

Just FotLrth.

Eqtl&l Fourth.

Ses)thnal Flfth.

JuN Tritooe:

6oo

11 99:

140

F

q_ull'ritono.

68o

a-7 :

Grue Fifth.

700

lt 2~: 4JJ

,Equal Flftb.·

702

a: J

Jgst Plf\b.

m tOO:

298

Acu.te F lftll,

8oo

r 63:

too

Eqoal micaor Sixlb.

814

3.sJ

88.1

900

?06

96?

996

•o38

uoo

1110

uoo

.S : 8

u

J

: t8

:

.s

37

27

1!22:

t6:

C4 : 7

9: 16

1155'98

8: 1$

K19:•68

1:18: '43 • lie 2

Jut minor Sf:rth.

Zilial'a aegtr.U Si.x.tb.

]cut majat Si.d h.

Equ.al major Sixtb. Pyth.agore-u major Sb.tb.

haru.o!dc

Scptir:u.l

or

S

Oth.

minor

Just mlnOt' ~th.

Eq••l m.i.oor SeYe:Dtb.

J~t major Sov~t.b.

Bqu&l majcw Seventh,

F')'thaeoreao major ~t.b. Octave.

• Consonant interv~ls. the rest are d.i3$0nant • +1'h6 consonance of these lntervAll 4 dhp\ll:ed•

The ra.tiot usigned to these

ia tervals ( wi.tb the excepl19c the Oct.nc) are only very clo~apPtQximation.t, the real ratios bei.ng incomrnensarable, or not'eap«<a'ible in whole aumben.

11 EtualJy temperedintenals.

JOURNAL OF THE SOCI~Tl' OF A RTS.

IV. - THEORY .AND PRACTICE. or course practice preceded theory in music as in everything else. The sound of a Fourth

was perfectly weU known to singers and lyrists, long before it was discovered that the whole length of a string and three·quarters of its

length, when plucked, would

ioterval. But this once found, theory followed

rapidly, and intervals were·defincd by lengths of s tring with great minuteness. It was the ratio of these lengths of string that was used

to determine the intervals ; and it is only of

recent years that these lengths were found to be inversely proportional to the pitch numbers of the notes, and then these pitch numbers, which were applicable to all musical sounds,

and not to those of strings only, became exclu-

sively employed. The property just named, that the pitch numbers of notes are inversely proportional to the length of strings producing them,is, unfortunately,quitetrueonlyforaheavy perfectlyfiexible and clastic mathematical line, limited by mathematical points, a nd any a ttempt to divide a real string of wire or catgut by bridges or frets fa ils for several reasons. In the case of frets, the pressure of the finger behind the fret increases the tension of the string and increases the pitch. This

give this very

circumstance is of grea·t importance in

the

Indian Vina, which has very high frets, so that the pressure of the finger behind the fret can easily raise the pitch of the note by a

Semitone, that is, 100 cents or more.

Even in

the modern guitar the intervals are sensibly sharpened. Hence the lengths of the strings for the principal intervals can only be termed a happy guess ; and it remained for quite recent observers, such as Helmholtz, to establish, by

ingenious instruments, that the actual ratios of \'ibrations for the consonant intervals was pre·

cisely those given for them in the last table,

and could not be any other.

possible to have a theory of the scale. It is not my purpose to go into that theory. It would lead me much too far. But the theory

Thus it was

implied exact measurements, all very well for instrument makers, but not fo r musidans, who

ba1•e only ooe standard to go by, their own ear,

that is,

relative

their own appreciation of interval or

pitch.

Some

musicians,

like

the

Indian, repudiate all measuremeot and all arithmetic from the first, and leave everything

to the judgment of the ear.

we are familar with the p ianoforte, harp, and violin, all of which are tuned exclusively by ear.

For the harmonium, indeed, u beats'' are avail·

able, but they are rarely used. On the contrary,

organ tuners are accustomed to a rough appre· dation o£ the occurrence of beats, but few of them know the exact numbers, or understand

how to employ them properly. Hence, as we may expect, tunings by ear, or the actual notes produced in the scale by a tuner, seldom or

In this country

never give

precisely

those

intervals

which

theory Jays down. It seemed to me advisable, before trying uncivilised or semi· civilised nations, to see how well good Eng lish tuners could tune. Mr. Hipki ns, who has the best possible means of knowing, says that it takes a quick man three years to learn to tune a pia no properly. \'fe may take it for granted, then, that most pianos are improperly tuned. The fo llowing examples (1, 2; 3, 4) give an octave on the piano, as tuned by Broadwood's tuners-(1} was a cottage piano tuned a fort- night previously, but not played on during that

time, {2, J, 4) were grand pianos tuned especi-

ally for this examination, (S} was an organ tuned a week previously by one of Mr. Hill's ' tuners and only played on once, (6} an har- monium tuned by one of Messrs. M.oorc and Moore's tuners, and (7} an harmonium tuned

EXAltiNA'I'JON OF EQUAL TUNlNO.

Note.

c

Csb

T beory.

0

lOO

I

2

3

4

5

6

0

0

0 100

101

96

99

101

98

0

0

0

7 0

100

D

"""

'97

200

200

'99

192

zoo

:100

JJ sh .

JOO

297

305

300

299

297

298

JOO

B

392

4II

395

399

399

396

399

p

500

498

497

so•

soo

so

498

499

Fsh.

6oo

590

6o2

S99

598

6ol

599

6oo

G

,

700

707

iOZ

69(>

j02

702

jOO

Gsb.

8oo

A

\)00

A 6b.

1000

i9i

894

990

8os

902

IOOJ

Boo

897

.

999

8oo

899

9')9

8o6

898

1005

8oo

8g8

999

Boo

900

lOO I

B

1<00

I

I

I

-

c

1200

1089

120l

1102

no6

1100

1200

1100

I%0 )

"'99

1201

10<)9

1199

10<)9

1200

~00

JOURNAL

.

OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.

.

under the

favourable conditions of a constant blast, with strict calculation and countingof beats by Mr. Blaikley, ·Of Boosey's. Only the cents in the interval from the lowest note are given in each

as a standard · a year previously

case.

These are very good specimens indeed, but,

with the e~ception of the last, they are not

quite perfect.

In the last it is difficult to state

whether the tuning or the measurement was occasionally in error by one cent:

For a critical consideratjon of these results,

and rules by which these errors may be avoided, as time would fail me to enter upon the subject; I must refer to Appendix XX., Sec. G., of my new edition . of Helmholtz's great work "On the Sensations of Tone," which is almost all in type, and will soon be p~blished by Messrs. Longman.

Now, in

order to find the scales which I

have to communicat.e t.o·night, tbere were two

courses only open-theory and practice.

For

Greece, Arabia and Persia, India aod Japan, tre.atises exist, giving the scales more or le.ss

accurately; probably also for China, but they were not accessible to me. Where I could find these couched in intelligible language (very far from being generally the rule), I was glad to follow them,.as they showed what those oest able to judge considered to be aimed at in toning. But the treatises that furnish

accurate numbers are confined to Greece and

Arabia, with Persia. Indian treatises rather o.stentatiously eschew arithmetic, so that in reality their theory depends on oral tradition.

In

various savage countries, there was nothing

acces•ible but the instruments, aod perhaps (as at the Aquarium in 1882, the International Health Exhibition of •88f, and the Japanese Village in I88s), native musical performers on a visit to England. Now any musical instru· ment on which a native can play to the ob- server furnishes a · set of notes actually pro- duced. and these can have their pitch numbers

In

determined with more or less certainty.

this way I was fortunate enough to get thirteen

Chinese, and one

InC.ia, then, in

China, in Jav~, and the

scales, five Iodjar1, seven

Japanese, all recorded in numbers of vibra- tions, by the kind help of Mr. Hipkins. ·

Instruments

without

a

native

Performer

seldom record themselves. \Vind instruments,

or course, require a native practised musician

to blow, because the pitch can be greatly

varied by the

style of

blowing.

Stringed

instruments without frets, or with movable ~rets,

are also worthless without a native

A

stringed instrument witb fixed frets {like the ordinary guitar), is to a certain extent available. 11 there are several strings, the law of tuning them is generally unknown. But if there are many frets on one string, enough to cover an octave {as on the guitar), then by measuring the vibrating lengths of the strings from the bridge to the edge of the fret nextto the bridge. we can approximate to the relative pitch of the scale of notes which would be produced by

sounding the string

·ben

properly stretched.

The absolute pitch it is of course impossible to discover. That can only be obtained by help of a native performer, and would probably

differ from one performer to another, for I have

discovered nothing like a standard pitcb any-

. where.

\Ve have not yet arrived at fixing a

standard pitch even for Europe. B.ut by string-

ing the instrument O\'Cr the frets, tuning it

when open

to a convenient pitch, and after

stopping it at~he frets in succession, determin- ing the pitch of the notes heard, we can approxi- mate more closely to the-relative pitch intended. The different natures of the strings-wire of various thickness, steel or brass, gut, tightly corded silk (used in China and Japan)-all tend to vary not only the absolute pitch of

each note, but also necessarily the intervals · between them. Moreo\'er, it is exc.eedingly difficult to determine identity or minute differ·

· ences of pitch between notes with qualities of tone so different as those of plucked strings and tuning forks.

some instruments

themselves. Anyone with proper tuning forks

could count the pitch of the notes in a piano, dulcimer, harmonium, ororgan, when they have

once been tuned, provided they have not since had an opportunity to get out of tune, as such

There are

which

play

instruments so easily have-the

harmonium

least. The Chinese SMog (and Japanese ShO) are reed instruments, not easy to sound certainly, but presumably rendering very nearly the sounds to which they have been tuned.

The main instruments of uncivilised music, however~are 6utes, bells, g~ngs,and harmoni·

coos, consisting of barS of wood or metal. It is the last which have enabled us to obtain the pitch of the notes used even 'llithout the assist- ance of native players. Unfortunately, such

hatmonicons are apt to faU o.ut of tune, and their intonation is injured by travelling, and

(especially the wooden ones) by damp.

Hence there is no practical v.•ay of arriving at the real pitch of a musical scale, when it

· cannot b~ heard as played by a native musician;

and even in the latter case, w(only;obtain that

JOURNAL OF 'THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.

491

particular musician's tUning of the scale, not

the theory on which it was founded. To reverse the process, to go back from the best we can do with the instrument to an hypothesis con·

cerning the .relations intended, is very risky

indeed. \Ve certainly ought to do the best we can in this way, but we should never forget to give the observed data whence our hypothesis

is derived.

After all, we have only dete rmined the notes used, not the scales employed for any piece of

our

music.

It would be

impossibl e,

from

knowing the twelve semitones to the octave userl in Europe, to determine the double form of the m~jor scale (without and with the grave Second), and the triple form of the minor scale (without and with the major Sixth and Seventh), not to mention the so-called ecclesi." astical modes. So in other countries. Here

we are thrown entirely on theorists or informa·

tion from natives, and where these fail us, we

only know the notes. employed, not the scales

made by selecting some of them.

In a .few

cases the.se are known, but in others we can

only guess.

There are, however, two

distinct

kinds of

scales, considered as divisions of the Octave used in playing airs. In the first, between a

note and it:s Octave, six notes are interposed, and the Octave derives its name from the cir·

cumstance of being the eighth note, including

both

extremes.

Occasionally two or

more

notes

are left out, and occasionally one

to

th~eeare inserted as alternative notes. But the

main run of the scales consists of seven notes.

These scales are called hcptaton.C, and are

prevalent in Europe, Arabia, India, and other

places.

four notes between the first and what, from

European habits, we still term the Octave,

which, however, is now the si.xth note, both

The next great division inserts only

inclusive.

These scales have in later time.s

been often filled up

by inserting two

other

notes; but these are clearly intrusive, and in

the most typical case, Java, it has not been

done.

termed

These

scales

are

therefore

pentatotJic.

the South

Pacific, Java,

of older Scotch,

Irish, and Welsh melodies, were used by the

is

believed,

They are

found in

China and Japan,

and

it

from the nature

Celts.

FIRST DrvtstoN.-HEPTATONIC ScALES.

V. -

ANCIENT

GRI!ECI!

AND

MODERN

 

E UROPE.

Of the music of Egypt we know nothing ;

the.instruments·preserved,' and their pictures,

do not suffice to give a scale.

what influence Egypt had on Greece.

not know whence Greece derived her music, though Persia is a possible source. I am not

Greek

scale. lt does not at all form a part of my

investigations.

going int o a critical examination of the

We cannot tell

\Ve do

The original Gre;,k division depended on the

interval of a Fourth, that is, the interval be· tween the tones derived from any length of a string, and three-quarters of that length, con·

taining 498 cents.

for musical purposes, and hence one or two

The interval was too large

notes were always interposed.

To represent

these in systematic notation would require a

long explanation, which would be out of place. I use therefore the ordinary notation BC DE F G A with sh, ssh, 6, ffi, for sharp, double sharp, flat, and double flat, leaving the numbers

of cents interposed between any two notes to mark the interval and point out its relative

value with precision. Of the 11 forms of the

tetrachord given

usual 7 need be considered. These give t!le

by Helmholtz, only the most

following

u Tetrachords.''

or divisions

of a

Fourth, literally a four strings ."

1.

or Olympos

D

112

c

z86 E.

z.

Old Chromatic .• B 112

C

70 Coh 3I6 E.

Diatonic

8

t I z

C

204 D

t8z E.

or Didymus

8

I

c

I82 D

• .,

E.

Doric

B

90 C

204 D

204 E.

6.

Phry·gian .•

.". B

I82

Csh I34 D

I8z E.

Lydian

• •• 8 I8z

Csh 204 Dsb 112 E.

Two of these tetrachords of the same kjnd, with a Tone of 204 .cents, either placed before

or after, or el~ between them, give an octave

and are the foundation of the Greek heptatonic

scale in its

various modes.

The distinctive

differences of intonation, however, rapidly dis· appeare d, and aU the scales came to be played with the Doric tetrachord, known as Pytha·

gorean ,

which

for

most

purposes

may

be

sufficiently represented by our ordinary equally

tempered scale.

This produced the following

seven modes, in which the inter\'als occur in

the same order as in the major scale begun on

They are

each of its degTees in succession.

here given, however, as if they all began with C, and fiats are introduced to render the intervals correct. The cents of the intervals

are, as before, placed between the notes.

The

name of the mode derived from the note with which the major scale of C must be begun,.is

prefixed, then follows the ancient Grt;ek name,

the ecclesiastical name as wrongly given by Glarean, but usually adopted, and Helmholtz's

JOURNAL Oi :J'BE SvCIETl" OF AR-TS.

new

names.

For

particulars

refer

to

my·

second edition of Helmholtz, pp. 262-272.

J. C mode,

J.ATER GREEK MODES.

or

ancient

Lydian,

Glareau's

Ionic,

Hdmhoh~·~ mode o f the }o">irst or major mode.

C 204 D 204 E 90 F204 G 2o~ &

204 B 90 c.

2. D·modc, or ancient Phrygian, G-larran's Do•ic,

or Cz04D90Eft204F204 Gz04A90Bft204&.

Helmholtz's

mode

the

minor

Seventh.

3· E-mode, or ancient

Helmholt~'s mode

Doric,

Glarean's Phry~ian,

of the minor Sixth.·

C 90

D R 204 ER 204 F204 G 90 A 8 204 Bfl 204c.

4· F-mode, or ancient Syntonol)·dian, Glarean's

Lydiau, HelmlloJtz's mode of the Fifth.

C 204

D 204 B 2q Fsh 90 G 204 A

204 B 90 c.

G mode, or ancient Ionic, Glarean's Mixolydian,

Helmbolt~'s mode of the Fourth.

E 90 F 201 G 204 A

90 B 8 204 c.

C 204 D 204

6. A-mode~ or ancient Eolic, Glarean's Eolic (like-

wise), Hdmholtz's mode of the minor Third or

F 204 G 90

minor mode.

C 204

D 90 E 8 204

A 0 20~ 0 A 204 c.

.

j. 0-mode,

or

andent

Syntonolydian,

Glarean's

Lydian (as ror tbe F-mode), Helmhollz's mode

of the Fifth.

C 90 D fl 204 Eft 204 F 90 G fl

204 A n 2"1 B n 204 c.

Now, different as all those scales arc in

character, mainly shown by the final cadence,

they all agreed in one point.

melodic. They could not be sung in harmony, as in the modem chorale or part-song. To do !his properly, it was necessary to alter all the intervals slightly. The principle.s on which this was possible are fully explained in my second edition of Hclmholtz, App. XX., Sec. E, and cannot be intruded here. The final result, however, may be added. In this tbe C·mode

They were purely

was

retained, and the others were fused into

the A -mode, to which three forms were given.

1. Major mode, harmonic, compare with the C·mode.

C •04 I)

B IIZ c.

182

E

tu

F 204

G t82

&

204

:z. Minor mode, descending rorm, harmonic, compare

withtheA-mode.

C•04Dt12Eflt82F204

G 112 A 8204 B ft t82 c.

The same, ucending, first form.

C 204

D tu

Eft 182 F204 G 112 A flz;4 B 112 c.

The same ascendint, S«ond form,

to avoid the

difficult int

-val

of 2;4 cents between Aft and B.

C

204 D

112 E

fl

t8• F

2<>1

G

182 A

201

B

112 c.

'

All these forms gh•e beautiful consonances, which may be heard from almost any unaccom-

paoied chorus, espc<:ially of Tonic Sol-faists, but the consonances are greatly injured by the

equal temperamentwbicb reduces the European scales to the following :-

1.

Major m~e.

C 200 D ZOO E

A. 200 B roo c.

rooF 200 G zoo

2. :Minor mode,