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A P P E N D I X T H R E E

Existing Conditions Report





WEST FLORISSANT AVENUE GREAT STREETS PROJECT


EXISTING CONDITIONS ANALYSIS
Final February 2014











Prepared by:

Moore Iacofano Goltsman, Inc.
Crawford, Bunte, Brammeier
Civil Design, Inc.
SWT Design
Development Strategies

Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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WEST FLORISSANT AVENUE GREAT STREETS PROJECT:
EXISTING CONDITIONS ANALYSIS
Table of Contents

1 Introduction and Background ................................................................................ 1
1.1 Plan Purpose....................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Planning Process................................................................................................................................ 1
1.3 Planning Area..................................................................................................................................... 2
1.4 Historical Overview .......................................................................................................................... 2
1.5 Previous Studies................................................................................................................................. 4
2 Land Use and Urban Design Conditions Assessment ....................................... 18
2.1 Key Findings .................................................................................................................................... 18
2.2 Existing Land Uses.......................................................................................................................... 18
2.2.1 Existing Uses..................................................................................................................... 18
2.2.2 Commercial ....................................................................................................................... 19
2.2.3 Residential.......................................................................................................................... 19
2.2.4 Parks and Recreation ....................................................................................................... 20
2.2.5 Institutional ....................................................................................................................... 20
2.2.6 Industrial/Utility............................................................................................................... 20
2.3 Community Design and Character ............................................................................................... 20
2.3.1 Pedestrian and Streetscape Environment..................................................................... 20
2.3.2 Landmarks/Historic Needs and Requirements........................................................... 22
2.3.3 Architecture....................................................................................................................... 22
2.3.4 Community Amenities..................................................................................................... 23
2.4 Existing Zoning Codes ................................................................................................................... 23
2.4.1 Commercial Zoning and Permitted Uses ..................................................................... 23
2.5.2 Commercial Zoning Comparison and Other Zoning Provisions ............................ 24
3 Transportation Conditions Assessment ............................................................. 26
3.1 Key Findings .................................................................................................................................... 26
3.2 Vehicular Traffic and Data............................................................................................................. 28
3.3 Transit................................................................................................................................................ 38
3.3.1 Existing Transit Service................................................................................................... 38
3.3.2 Transit Mode Share.......................................................................................................... 40
3.3.3 Planned North County Transit Center ......................................................................... 42
3.3.4 St. Louis Rapid Transit Connector Study..................................................................... 42
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3.4 Bicycle Accommodations............................................................................................................... 43
3.4.1 Existing Facilities.............................................................................................................. 43
3.4.2 Draft Ferguson Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan................................................................... 44
3.4.3 Maline Greenway Concept Plan .................................................................................... 46
3.4.4 Bike STL Plan ................................................................................................................... 46
3.5 Pedestrian Accommodations ......................................................................................................... 47
3.6 Safety for All Modes ....................................................................................................................... 47
3.6.1 Vehicular Crash History.................................................................................................. 47
3.6.2 Vehicular Crash Rate Comparison ................................................................................ 49
3.6.3 Summary of Non-Motorized Crashes........................................................................... 49
3.6.4 Access Management......................................................................................................... 50
4 Infrastructure and Environmental Assessment .................................................. 51
4.1 Key Findings .................................................................................................................................... 51
4.2 Existing Utilities............................................................................................................................... 51
4.2.1 Storm Water ...................................................................................................................... 51
4.2.2 Sanitary Sewer ................................................................................................................... 53
4.2.3 Power and Communications .......................................................................................... 53
4.2.4 Lighting.............................................................................................................................. 53
4.2.5 Water .................................................................................................................................. 53
4.2.6 Gas...................................................................................................................................... 53
4.3 Existing Pavement Condition........................................................................................................ 54
4.4 Existing Environmental Conditions............................................................................................. 54
4.4.1 Flooding............................................................................................................................. 54
4.4.2 Heat Island Effect ............................................................................................................ 54
4.4.3 Air Quality and Pollution................................................................................................ 55
4.4.4 Impervious Surface .......................................................................................................... 55
4.4.5 Tree Canopy...................................................................................................................... 56
4.4.6 Planted Area Conditions ................................................................................................. 56
4.4.7 Open Space and Parks..................................................................................................... 56
4.4.8 Wildlife............................................................................................................................... 56
5 Market Conditions Assessment ........................................................................... 57
5.1 Key Findings .................................................................................................................................... 57
5.2 Site Marketability / SWOT Analysis ............................................................................................ 57
5.2.1 SWOT Analysis ................................................................................................................ 58
5.2.2 Areas of Opportunity for Intervention......................................................................... 59
5.3 Real Estate Market Assessment and Findings ............................................................................ 60
5.3.1 Rental Housing Supply.................................................................................................... 61
5.3.2 For Sale Housing Supply................................................................................................. 63
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5.3.3 Housing Demand............................................................................................................. 64
5.3.4 Retail ................................................................................................................................... 68
5.3.5 Office.................................................................................................................................. 71
Maps and Appendices .................................................................................................. 72
Regional Context ....................................................................................................................................... 1.1
Planning Area............................................................................................................................................. 1.2
Planning Area Aerial ................................................................................................................................. 1.3
Existing Land Use (MIG) ....................................................................................................................... 2.1
Zoning (MIG) ........................................................................................................................................... 2.2
Existing Traffic Volumes and Speed Data............................................................................................ 3.1
Existing Average Traffic Queues............................................................................................................ 3.2
Transit Lines with Ridership Information............................................................................................. 3.3
Bus Stop Locations with Major Pedestrian Crossings......................................................................... 3.4
Bus Stop Locations with .25 and .5 mile Walking Distance............................................................... 3.5
Sidewalks and Pedestrian Facilities......................................................................................................... 3.6
Crash Data.................................................................................................................................................. 3.7
Existing Curb Cuts.................................................................................................................................... 3.8
Utilities Infrastructure............................................................................................................................... 4.1
Environmental Factors............................................................................................................................. 4.2
Existing Tree Canopy Coverage ............................................................................................................. 4.3
ROW Planting Conditions....................................................................................................................... 4.4
Existing Open Space ................................................................................................................................ 4.5
Existing Wildlife Corridors ...................................................................................................................... 4.6
Corridor Demographics, Residential Overview, Retail and Office Markets........................ Appendix















CHAPTER ONE
I N T R OD U C T I ON A N D BA C K GR OU N D
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1 I NTRODUCTI ON AND BACKGROUND
This report provides an overview of the existing conditions, issues, and opportunities present within the West
Florissant Avenue Study Area (Study Area) in Ferguson and Dellwood, Missouri, between I-270 and the
East-West rail line at Emerson / Buzz Westfall Plaza. This information will provide a foundation for
developing alternatives and strategies to enhance the corridor. Specifically, this report discusses land use and
urban design; transportation; infrastructure and environmental conditions; and market conditions.
This introductory chapter briefly describes the purpose of the West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
(Project), and outlines the planning process that is currently underway. It also presents the Study Area
location and a brief historical overview of the area. Finally, this chapter briefly highlights relevant planning
documents and studies already conducted or in progress.

1.1 PLAN PURPOSE
The Project involves planning for a demonstration project of the Great Streets Initiative, which was
established by the East-West Gateway Council of Governments (EWG). The Great Streets Initiative
embraces the notion that streets can be re-imagined to strengthen communities through enhanced
connectivity, improved economic development, and increased aesthetic appeal. The Project builds on the
West Florissant Avenue Corridor Plan that was developed in 2011-2012 (produced in cooperation with five
cities along the Corridor: Country Club Hills, Dellwood, Ferguson, Flordell Hills, and Jennings), and will
result in a detailed conceptual plan and implementation approach for Corridor improvements that help realize
the vision of the West Florissant Avenue Corridor Plan.
The Project will result in the West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Master Plan (Master Plan) an
integrated land use and transportation Master Plan for the corridor, with safe and functional accommodations
for pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists. The Master Plan will consider opportunities for clustered mixed-use
development, as well as converting obsolete land uses to those that enhance the corridor and improve
integration with nearby neighborhoods.
The Project Sponsors include the cities of Ferguson and Dellwood, along with St. Louis County. In
conjunction with the EWG, they are collaborating on the Master Plan to present a vision of West Florissant
Avenue as a Great Street and a plan to make it happen. This collaboration will include identifying
coordinated zoning, and adopting policies and regulations that can be applied consistently in the Study Area.

1.2 PLANNING PROCESS
The Master Plan will result from a phased planning process that relies on strong community and stakeholder
engagement. The first phase of work focuses on background analysis, drawing from studies and information
already available and supplementing this work with additional field observations, research and analysis to fully
understand the existing conditions in the Planning Area. The second phase of work will explore alternative
scenarios for land use and transportation, evaluate their effects, and select a preferred alternative to be refined
in the final Master Plan. The final phase involves further development of the preferred alternative and
preparation of the draft and final Master Plan documents.
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The Project will benefit from multi-faceted outreach efforts through all planning phases. To help guide the
process as the plan develops, a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) and Community Advisory Committee
(CAC) will serve in advisory roles through several facilitated meetings. The general public will be invited to
participate in four community workshops to help identify a vision, provide input on improvement concepts,
and review Master Plan contents. Finally, the planning process will be informed by two rounds of interviews
with institutional, civic, and business stakeholders.

1.3 PLANNING AREA
The West Florissant Avenue Study Area is located in North St. Louis County, within the cities of Ferguson
and Dellwood (Map 1.1; all Study Area maps are placed together at the end of this report). The Study Area
extends for approximately 2.6 miles, beginning at I-270 in the north and continuing to the East-West rail line
at Emerson / Buzz Westfall Plaza in the south (Maps 1.2 and 1.3; note change in map orientation). The
Planning Area includes parcels that front the corridor, plus additional parcels along key intersecting streets:
Pershall Road and Chambers Road. The street corridor itself is owned and maintained by St. Louis County.
The Study Area parcels are about evenly divided between the cities of Ferguson and Dellwood; several parcels
also fall within Jennings city limits at the southeast end of the corridor. Several key landmarks and retail
centers are located within or near the Study Area. Dellwood City Hall is in the study area near the
intersection of West Florissant Avenue and Chambers Road. The Study Area also includes Dellwood Park
and Dellwood Recreation Center; St. Louis Community College Florissant Valley Campus is just outside the
northwest end. As described in Chapter 4 of this report, there are 160 acres of open space or park within one
mile of the Study Area, including open space associated with Maline Creek. A major shopping center is at the
northern end of the corridor, with access to I-270. Just outside the southern end of the Study Area, Buzz
Westfall Plaza is another major retail center.
The West Florissant Avenue corridor primarily accommodates motorized vehicles, which is reinforced by
access to and from I-270. The corridor is served by a Metro Transit bus route, and a future transit center is
planned for Pershall Road in the northeast part of the Study Area; its estimated completion date is in 2015.
Sidewalks are present, although the corridor is not considered pedestrian-friendly. The corridor currently
does not have designated bicycle facilities.

1.4 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
1

The Mississippi Valley, including what would become St. Louis County, has evidence of being inhabited since
the last ice age ended. Early tribes were replaced by the Mississippians, who are known as the mound-
building Native Americans. Thereafter, the major tribes in the area comprised the Osage, Missouri, Sauk, and
Fox. These people relied on the areas waterways for transportation and fishing, and also subsisted on
hunting and farming.

1
This overview is drawn from the following documents:
1. Ferguson Historical Society. Ferguson: A City Remembered (Ferguson, Missouri: Ferguson Historical Society), 1994.
2. Smith, Irene Sanford. Ferguson: A City and its People (Ferguson, Missouri: Ferguson Historical Society), 1976.
3. Historical, Demographic and Background Information: West Florissant Avenue Corridor Study (Word file)
4. Overview of the City of Dellwood (excerpted from 2014 budget)
5. Wikipedia contributors, "Ferguson, Missouri," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia,
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ferguson,_Missouri&oldid=572400596 (accessed February 13, 2014).
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European explorers and settlers are known to have arrived in the region beginning in the mid-1500s. It was
claimed by France as the territory of Louisiana in the late 1600s, ceded to Spain in the mid-1700s, and then
ceded back to France in 1800. France ceded the territory to the United States with the Louisiana Purchase of
1803. During this time and into the mid-1800s, the number of Native Americans in the area was greatly
reduced because of disease introduced by Europeans, and by migration westward to join other displaced
tribes.
Jurisdictional boundaries in the area were refined throughout the 1800s, with the establishment of St. Louis
County boundaries in 1876. During this time, the area was slowly populated by European settlers as well as
people who moved from other parts of the United States. The major local modes of transportation included
walking, horseback, horse and buggy, wagon, and sleighs. Population growth increased rapidly after 1876,
when the newly-built Wabash Railroad spur line connected the Ferguson area with the city of St. Louis. The
rail line crosses West Florissant Avenue at the southern end of the Study Area. Passenger rail became a major
transportation mode, especially for commuting.
Ferguson was home to a depot that became a regular train stop. This stop, Ferguson Station, catalyzed
further growth and settlement in the area primarily residential. Ferguson became a significant freight and
passenger rail hub by the end of the 1800s, and it was incorporated as a city in 1894. In 1900, an additional
connection with St. Louis came with the development of the Kirkwood-Ferguson streetcar line. At that time,
the city limits did not include West Florissant Avenue, which was further east. West Florissant Avenue was
built during the latter part of the 1800s, to facilitate non-rail travel between St. Louis and surrounding rural
areas.
Automobile use began to increase in the 1920s, facilitated by paved roads. Automobile usage eventually
challenged passenger rail, which was discontinued in the 1930s. After World War II, Ferguson, like many
U.S. cities, experienced a population boom that was accompanied by strong growth of automobile usage.
Along with this, streetcar service ended after World War II, and streetcar tracks were removed. Buses
replaced streetcars as a means of transit.
Dellwood, to the east of Ferguson, also grew as a residential area after World War II. It was incorporated as a
village in 1951, and in 1954 Dellwood was incorporated as a Fourth Class City. The area around West
Florissant Avenue transitioned from mostly rural land in the 1950s to residential neighborhoods by the 1970s.
The areas population boomed after World War II, especially during the 1950s. For example, the population
of Ferguson nearly doubled between 1950 and 1960, growing from about 11,500 to about 22,000. It
increased another 30 percent during the 1960s. Housing growth in the area reflected population growth
during this time period, with about 40 percent of the areas housing stock (mostly single family) added during
the 1950s, and another 19 percent during the 1960s. Multi-family residential projects were added primarily in
the 1960s and 1970s, with additional apartments built in the 1980s.
The Ferguson city limit had expanded by the 1970s to include portions of West Florissant Avenue, which was
adding more commercial uses. Despite this commercial development, Fergusons main street area is still
considered to be Florissant Road and Church Street, near Ferguson Station this area is the site of the citys
earliest commercial district.
West Florissant Avenue became more heavily traveled in the 1960s and 1970s, especially with the
construction of I-270, and developed as a typical automobile-oriented commercial strip corridor. In addition
to commercial uses, Emerson Electric Company has been a major manufacturing presence at the south end
of the Study Area since the 1940s. At one time, when the facility was an industrial one, it was a major
employer of local people, but ceased to do so when it became a corporate headquarters. In the 1970s, the
decline of inner-ring suburbs came to the cities along the corridor. The population of Ferguson declined
after 1970, with noticeable reductions of 14 percent during the 1980s and another 10 percent during the
1990s.
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Along with the population decreases, introduction of larger-scale shopping centers during the 1980s and
1990s has impacted the older commercial strip businesses. The resulting depreciation along the corridor is
common in many inner-ring suburbs that have experienced this decline. There are numerous vacancies and
little diversity in the types of remaining businesses. These corridors lack aesthetic appeal and are not designed
to readily accommodate non-automobile travel. Associated current demographic and market conditions are
discussed further in Chapter 5 Market Conditions Assessment of this report.

1.5 PREVIOUS STUDIES
This section provides a review of several recent planning studies that have bearing on the Study Area. The
findings and recommendations of these previous studies are provided as part of the existing planning context;
however, their inclusion is not intended to be an endorsement of those findings by either the consultant team
or the sponsors of the West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project. Included in the summary of each study
is a brief ending section called Relationship with West Florissant Avenue Corridor Demonstration Project,
which highlights key findings of previous studies as they directly pertain to the Study Area. The previous
studies include the following:
West Florissant Avenue Corridor Plan (Draft August 2012; Cities of Country Club Hills,
Dellwood, Ferguson, Flordell Hills, and Jennings)
I-270 North Corridor Study (Final Report October 2012; Missouri Department of
Transportation)
Draft Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan (October 2011; City of Ferguson)
Maline Greenway Concept Plan (Fall 2011; Great Rivers Greenway)
Gateway Bike Plan: Regional Routes to Sustainability (August 2011; Great Rivers Greenway)
City of Ferguson Vision 2015 Plan Update (August 1998; City of Ferguson)
Northside Study Final Report: Planning Transit Improvements for St. Louis City (October 2008;
EWG, St. Louis Metro, and Missouri Department of Transportation)
Building a Regional Plan for Sustainable Development: Ferguson and Environs Round 3 -
Community Meeting Summary (November 2012; St. Louis Regional Sustainable Communities)

West Florissant Avenue Corridor Plan (Draft August 2012; Cities of Country Club Hills, Dellwood, Ferguson,
Flordell Hills, and Jennings)
This plan was spearheaded by City of Ferguson elected officials and staff for the city of Ferguson, Missouri as
a first step in revitalizing the West Florissant Avenue Corridor. The five municipalities along the corridor
(Cities of Country Club Hills, Dellwood, Ferguson, Flordell Hills, and Jennings) evaluated the conditions
along the corridor during a one-year engagement process. The major findings from the plan are reproduced
here:
2

The corridor is over-zoned for commercial uses which have led to areas of underutilized
commercial structures and/or a saturation of underperforming businesses.

2
West Florissant Avenue Corridor Plan, Draft August 2012, p. 7.
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Zoning districts standards among the five communities are not compatible or coordinated.
Vacant obsolete commercial areas need to be reused for housing, open space and other uses.
At major intersections along the corridor, mixed-use development needs to be concentrated and
adjacent neighborhoods need to be connected for better accessibility to shopping and services
destinations.
A substantial transit-dependent population is concentrated along the corridor. They need better
and more walkable access to businesses and services on West Florissant Avenue.
The appearance of the corridor needs enhancements and to be made more pedestrian friendly,
with roadways configured to better serve the adjacent residential populations while providing
north-south regional traffic circulation.
The City of Ferguson is the only direct sales tax community along the corridor.
The plan presents the following Vision, Goals, Strategic Issues, and Objectives and Strategies to lay the
groundwork for future planning efforts and physical improvements.
West Florissant Avenue Corridor Plan Vision, Goals, and Strategic Issues
Vision:
Vibrant and thriving area serving as crossroads to St. Louis and North St. Louis County
Accessibility and connectivity includes pedestrian-friendly environment and multi-modal access
(biking, transit, automobile)
New community-serving developments include an array of unique shopping, dining, and
entertainment opportunities
Housing choices are possible for all income levels and create an environment for healthy, active
lifestyles
Goals:
1. Restructure the corridor to work as a unified, economically viable area that benefits the region, as
well as adjacent communities.
2. Improve the appearance and functionality of the corridor.
3. Improve the overall quality of life for residents in all communities along the corridor.
4. Promote the economic viability of the corridor to property owners, developers, and the public.
5. Establish and maintain a cohesive partnership with all participating municipalities to realize the
vision for the corridor.
Strategic Issues:
Design and maintenance
Environment / stormwater
Housing / neighborhoods
Economic development
Transportation
Inter-governmental cooperation
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Objectives and Strategies:
1. Restructure the corridor to work as a unified, economically viable area that benefits the region, as
well as, adjacent communities.
1.1. Maintain and promote the two regional commercial centers on the corridor
1.2. Create distinctive nodes of mixed-use development that serves the immediate communities for
everyday shopping, services, and entertainment.
1.3. Reduce the saturation of retail uses allowed by zoning that undermines the competiveness of
business along the corridor.
1.4. Develop a diverse mix of housing near and along the corridor.
2. Improve the appearance and functionality of the corridor.
2.1. Encourage conversion of obsolete land uses between identified clusters to residential,
green/recreational, and other non-commercial use.
2.2. Develop thriving mixed-use areas with recognizable identities connecting to and serving adjacent
neighborhoods.
2.3. Use form-based codes to create attractive, connected, and walkable areas that relate to their
immediate surroundings.
2.4. Integrate natural assets, such as Maline Creek Greenway into the fabric of the community.
2.5. Improve and coordinate the streetscape along the entire corridor.
2.6. Utilize complete streets concepts throughout the corridor.
2.7. Minimize storm-water run-off through landscaping and green space.
2.8. Improve mobility and safety for transit-dependent individuals.
2.9. Maintain the regional transportation function of the corridor without sacrificing the local
function of the arterial.
3. Improve the overall quality of life for residents in all communities along the corridor.
3.1. Promote mixed-use developments and live, work, and play venues in specific areas.
3.2. Provide a variety of housing options for people of all ages, incomes, and lifestyles.
4. Promote the economic viability of the corridor to property owners, developers, and the public.
4.1. Attract consumers that support businesses and other uses that add to the vitality of the corridor.
4.2. Attract and retain businesses that add to the diverse mix of uses along the corridor.
5. Establish and maintain a cohesive partnership with all participating municipalities to realize the vision
for the corridor.
5.1. Develop intergovernmental policies, agreements, and financing that promotes [sic] plans of the
corridor.
5.2. Create a unified identity for the corridor, while maintaining the uniqueness of each community.
5.3. Assist in the implementation of other local and regional plans that contribute to the vision.
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Relationship with the West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Corridor Plan covers a broader area than the Study Area, but the Vision and Goals are applicable
Project requires coordination among municipalities that share the corridor
All the objectives and strategies listed above are relevant to the Study Area

I-270 North Corridor Study (Final Report October 2012; Missouri Department of Transportation)
This study was initiated by Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) to evaluate the problems,
needs, and opportunities along I-270 in North St. Louis County. The study focused on a portion of the I-270
mainline, the parallel outer roadways (Dunn Road and Pershall Road), and the connecting arterials, from just
west of McDonnell Boulevard to east of Missouri Route 367 this includes the interchange with West
Florissant Avenue. The I-270 North Corridor Study was a collaborative effort between MoDOT, EWG, St.
Louis Metro, and St. Louis County Department of Highways and Traffic. These agencies formulated the
following goals and objectives for the study:
1. Identify and define the transportation problems and needs along the I-270 North Corridor,
focusing on a 10-mile section of the I-270 mainline, and adjacent and connecting outer roads and
arterials.
2. Develop system improvement solutions that are both practical and multimodal in scope, with
emphasis placed on safety, capacity, and operational efficiency for all users of the corridor.
3. Enhance access opportunities and safety along the corridor for transit, bicycles, and pedestrians.
4. Recommend sets of both near- and long-term conceptual improvements for the corridor.
5. Partner with the communities of North St. Louis County to implement sound transportation
improvement solutions and strategies that enhance economic and community growth.
The study included an assessment of issues and opportunities to be considered with future improvements.
This led to an evaluation of possible alternatives for improvements, followed by presentation of near-term
and long-term improvement concepts for future environmental analysis.
Issues and Opportunities Identified in the I-270 Study
Operational, geometric, and safety constraints:
Aging infrastructure
Limited capacity on I-270 mainline
Congested and closely-spaced interchanges
Lack of and poor access for pedestrians and bicyclists
Confusing two-way cross-over slip ramps from I-270 to Dunn Road
Traffic is expected to increase approximately 25% by 2040, exacerbating the existing problems
Most crashes on I-270 and nearby roads involve rear-end collisions that happen during congested periods
Safety concerns on associated arterials involve congestion and poor access management
Socio-economic and demographic profiles reveal several potential Environmental Justice issues
highlighting the strong need for access to public transportation:
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High poverty rate
High percentage of elderly, persons with disabilities, and a sizable minority population
High percentage of zero vehicle households
Metro plans to build a new Transit Center on Pershall Road between West Florissant Avenue and New
Halls Ferry Road, to improve transit service in the region
Future I-270 improvements will foster economic development via:
Providing adequate facilities for commercial trucking operations (93% of all commercial vehicles
serving the region use I-270 once they are in the area)
Providing key linkages to ports, rail, and aviation facilities
Supporting redevelopment of vacant or underutilized properties in the vicinity
Improvement Concepts Identified in the I-270 Study
Near-term alternatives:
Eastbound Auxiliary Lane between Lindbergh and I-170
Improve Lane Utilization on McDonnell Blvd
Long-term alternatives (for further environmental review):
Lindbergh Single Point Urban Interchange (SPUI) Only
Route 367 Single Point Urban Interchange (SPUI) Only
Widen and Rebuild I-270 in which the Outer Roads (Dunn and Pershall) remain two-way, from
McDonnell Blvd to MO 367 (Including Lindbergh & Route 367 Interchanges)
Widen & Rebuild I-270 in which the Outer Roads (Dunn and Pershall) are Converted to One-
Way, from McDonnell Blvd to Route 367 (Including the Lindbergh & Route 367 Interchanges)
Relationship with the West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
The study was conducted for I-270 in North St. Louis County, including the I-270 interchange with West
Florissant Avenue
The study mentions that Metro plans to build a new Transit Center on Pershall Road between West
Florissant Avenue and New Halls Ferry Road; this is near the north end of the Study Area
In the review of existing conditions, the I-270 study indicates:
The I-270 bridge at West Florissant Avenue is considered not deficient
The interchange at West Florissant has inadequate acceleration/deceleration lanes, combined
with inadequate weaving lengths
The I-270 level of service is poor (LOS E or F) on westbound I-270 between West Florissant
Avenue and Lindbergh
If Dunn and Pershall are each converted to one-way roads, this may affect the configuration of West
Florissant intersection with Pershall in the Study Area

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Draft Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan (October 2011; City of Ferguson)
This plan stems from Fergusons history as a regionally-connected suburb that developed around the railroad
and streetcar. It focuses on improving existing pedestrian- and bicycle-oriented commercial and residential
areas, supporting the creation of new walkable developments, and connecting surrounding neighborhoods to
the citys historic core with new pedestrian and bicycle facilities. The following section summarizes the plans
vision, goals, and objectives, plus relevant implementation concepts.
Vision, Goals, and Objectives of the Ferguson Draft Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan
Vision: Build upon Fergusons historical heritage and current strengths and successes to develop a walk-
able and bikeable community that encourages environmental stewardship, strengthens social capital,
catalyzes economic development, and is framed by authentic places, streets, and the public realm.
Goals:
Transform Downtown Ferguson into a regional destination that supports continuous and
renewable economic revitalization
Reconnect the local neighborhoods of Ferguson with Downtown to facilitate social equity
Encourage walking and cycling to promote public health and healthy and active lifestyles
Objectives:
1. Support continued development and reinvestment by building upon and strengthening the walk-
ability of downtown Ferguson
2. Position Ferguson as a destination and enhance its connectivity to regional institutions and
transit
3. Create a network of interconnected parks, greenways, and ecological corridors to promote
recreation, fitness, ecological awareness and increased connectivity
4. Increase daily biking and walking for transportation and commuting by developing identified
bike | walk routes
5. Enhance bicycle and pedestrian connectivity to neighboring communities and the region
6. Promote connectivity between neighborhoods, employment, and commercial centers including
the Ferguson Central Business District
7. Promote an increase in walking, cycling, and multi-modal usership through the use of Complete
Streets principles and the creation of great streetscapes
8. Build upon Fergusons historic downtown district and continued private investment in walk-able
urban development
9. Encourage continued increases in daily walking and cycling
Ferguson Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Network and Implementation Guide
The plan identifies a network comprising greenways (off-street, multi-use trails and pathways) and commuter
routes (on-street, dedicated bicycle facilities). In addition, it identifies Park and School Loops, which consist
of a combination of off-street paths; on-street dedicated and shared bicycle facilities; and streetscape,
sidewalk, and pedestrian-amenity improvements. The plans Implementation Guide outlines specific projects
(phased in different stages) and prioritizes them as Level 1 (short-term, 1-5 years), Level 2 (medium-term, 5-
15 years), or Level 3 (long-term, 10-20 years). Some of these projects include West Florissant Avenue, as
indicated in the next section.
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Relationship with West Florissant Avenue Corridor Demonstration Project
A consensus issue identified that neighborhoods to the east of West Florissant Ave are perceived as being
isolated and not integrated with the rest of Ferguson
West Florissant is shown as being a commuter route in the Citys network, and is connected with the
following pedestrian/bicycle facilities or projects:
Maline Greenway
Hudson Off-Street Trail
Hudson Road Connector
Dade Avenue and Local Connector Streets
West Florissant Avenue improvements are listed in the Ferguson Draft Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan as
follows:
Stage Description Priority
1
Implement enhanced Share-the-Road markings ("Sharrows") and signage;
safety programming; traffic and safety enforcement; and speed limit and road-
sharing enforcement.
Level 2
(5-15 years)
2
Conduct a public planning process and develop a Form-Based Code (FBC) for
sustainable, walkable development; right-of-way design standards.
Level 2
(5-15 years)
3
Implement Bicycle Zone Lane Markings (also known as "Super Sharrows" or the
"Big Green Stripe.")
Level 3
(10-20 years)
4
Implement streetscape improvements and right-of-way design standards as
established in Stage 2; OPTIONAL underground utilities.
Level 3
(10-20 years)
5
Support the continued build-out of West Florissant Avenue as a walk-able and
bike-able commercial corridor.
Level 3
(10-20 years)

The Ferguson Draft Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan lists the following possible funding sources for West
Florissant Avenue improvements:
Federal: Surface Transportation Program (STP), Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP),
Transportation Enhancements Program (TE),
3
Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Program
(CMAQ), Safe Routes to School (SR2S),
4
Transportation, Community and System Preservation
Program (TCSP), Job Access Reverse Commute Program (JARC), New Freedom Program
(NFP), Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program
Other sources: Local Option Sales Taxes, System Development Charges/Developer Impact
Fees, Community Improvement Districts (CIDs), Neighborhood Improvement Districts (NIDs)


3
Since the Ferguson Draft Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan was released, Transportation Enhancements are now classified as
Transportation Alternatives (TAs)
4
Since the Ferguson Draft Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan was released, Safe Routes to School are now classified as
Transportation Alternatives (TAs)
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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Maline Greenway Concept Plan (Fall 2011; Great Rivers Greenway)
This plan focuses on the proposed Maline Greenway, which is to become part of a larger River Ring,
envisioned as an interconnected system of greenways, parks, and trails that will surround the St. Louis and St.
Charles region. The Maline Greenway forms the east-west link between the Confluence Greenway and the
St. Vincent Greenway in north St. Louis County. The concept plan includes a description of the Maline
Greenway concept, implementation overview and a summary of recommendations (trail alignment
opportunities and quality of life issues). It also highlights opportunities for trailhead locations, off-street and
on-street trails, a variety of street and creek crossing types, and important connections.
Maline Greenway Concept Plan Goals
Implementation of the Maline Greenway will contribute to making the communities within the
study area a better place to live.
The Maline Greenway will connect communities and link existing local and regional trails.
The Maline Greenway development will preserve open space and enhance the enjoyment of
nature.
The Maline Greenway implementation will spur other economic investment in the area.
Development of the Maline Greenway will encourage bicycle use for commuting to the work
centers in the corridor.
Maline Greenway use by people in the study area will be part of their overall healthy lifestyle
choices.
Relationship with West Florissant Avenue Corridor Demonstration Project
Maline Creek intersects West Florissant Avenue near the southern end of the Study Area,
presenting an opportunity for greenway access from the corridor
The Maline Creek Concept Plan calls for a signalized crossing at West Florissant Avenue

Gateway Bike Plan: Regional Routes to Sustainability (August 2011; Great Rivers Greenway)
This plan is intended to serve as a reference document as the Regional Bicycle Network is developed over the
next 20 years (2012 2032). It has been developed in light of the following benefits of bicycling: health
benefits, economic benefits, environmental benefits, and maximizing transit investments. The plan provides
a coordinated vision for accommodating and encouraging bicycling as a viable transportation mode in the St.
Louis region. After defining its vision, mission, goals, and objectives (shown below), the plan describes a
network of bicycle facilities and includes a regional map of these facilities. It also identifies guidelines and
standards that may be applied in facility design; lists numerous action items related to education, enforcement,
and encouragement; and lists several policy-related actions to support bike network development.
Gateway Bike Plan Vision, Mission, and Goals and Objectives
Vision: The Gateway Bike Plan will create the bicycle component to the regional transportation network
that accommodates all users and promotes consistent design and development of bicycle facilities.
Mission: Increase the number of people using bicycles for transportation while reducing the number of
crashes involving bicycles.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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Goal 1: Provide a prioritized system of routes that are contiguous and connected to other on- and off-
road facilities.
Objective: Improve accessibility and added safety for bikes along onstreet routes.
Objective: Improve accessibility and safety for bikes around barriers like intersections and rivers.
Objective: Improve safety of existing roadway facilities.
Objective: Reduce the rate of bicycle crashes by 50 percent by 2020.
Objective: Promote more bicycling through route signing and end of trip facilities.
Goal 2: Improve safety for all modes of transportation through the careful design and implementation of
bicycle facilities.
Objective: Improve safety by designing all bicycle facilities to the latest AASHTO bicycle
guidelines and 2009 MUTCD Standards.
Goal 3: Improve safety for all modes of transportation through the implementation of ducational and
enforcement programs.
Objective: Improve safety and reduce the number of crashes involving bicyclists by expanding,
developing, and implementing education and enforcement programs through partnerships with
community organizations.
Objective: Educate staff in planning, design, maintenance, construction, and enforcement.
Goal 4: Expand the publics view that bicycles are a viable/acceptable mode of transportation through
encouragement programs.
Objective: Establish ongoing regional encouragement programs.
Goal 5: Increase the commitment of public officials to support or initiate public policy for bicycling in all
levels of governmentstate, local, and regional.
Objective: Increase intergovernmental cooperation on bicycle policy and projects.
Objective: Establish funding sources for implementation and ongoing maintenance.
Relationship with West Florissant Avenue Corridor Demonstration Project
Within the Study Area, the Gateway Bike Plan shows West Florissant Avenue as having Wide Outside
Lane bike facilities south of Hudson, with a recommended action of adding signage and marking. The
Gateway Bike Plan offers the following guidance for wide-shoulder bike facilities:
Wide, striped, and bikeable shoulders can be considered for roads with higher traffic volumes
and speeds
To be considered bikeable, shoulders should be at least 4 feet wide on roadways with open
drainage and 5 feet wide on roadways with curb and gutter; additional shoulder width is desirable
on roadways with high motor vehicle traffic volumes, high vehicular speeds, or a high percentage
of trucks, buses, and recreational vehicles
At intersections, additional symbols, signage, arrows, or short sections of bike lanes may be
needed to provide direction to bicyclists and reduce potential conflicts between bicyclists and
turning cars
Routine maintenance should be performed to keep shoulder areas free of debris and maintain
bicycle compatibility
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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Within the Study Area north of Hudson (to Pershall), the Bike Plan indicates that the corridor Needs
Further Analysis designated for streets where a design solution is not immediately apparent

City of Ferguson Vision 2015 Plan Update (August 1998; City of Ferguson)
The City of Ferguson initiated comprehensive planning in 1931, in order to guide future development. Plans
were completed in 1932, 1947, and 1966, and a new land use plan was finished in 1990. The Vision 2015
Plan Update is an update of those earlier plans, and offers guidance for achieving long-term goals in
Ferguson. The sections below highlight the plans vision and relevant goals.
City of Ferguson Vision Statements
To create an attractive community where residents can live, raise and educate their families in an
atmosphere of peace and harmony.
Where businesses and industries, that are compatible with a residential community, can flourish.
Where men, women and children of good will can feel free to visit and shop.
A city that is metropolitan yet home rooted in its people, politics and ethics.
To maintain a community with a broad range of housing types including starter homes for young
families, housing for senior citizens, and housing for all other types and sizes of families.
To be regarded as the community of choice in St. Louis County.
Land Use Goals
Ferguson should continue to improve its attractive residential and commercial areas and strive to
be regarded as one of the most attractive cities in the metropolitan area.
Structures and sites of historical significance will be preserved while ensuring that adjoining
properties are developed in a manner consistent with the historical stature of such structures and
sites.
Residential areas will be protected from the intrusion of incompatible land uses.
Sufficient commercial areas to meet the retail and service needs of the citizens of Ferguson will
be provided in appropriate areas of the city as identified in the land use element of this plan.
The city will work with the airport authority to reduce noise levels in the city and provide
compatible land uses for areas of the city subject to high noise levels.
Economic Development Goals
The city will maintain a balance of residential, institutional, commercial and industrial
development providing adequate space for new and expanding businesses.
Transportation Goals
Provide a safe, efficient and convenient transportation system utilizing motorized and non-
motorized modes of travel available to all residents and visitors of Ferguson.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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Relationship with West Florissant Avenue Corridor Demonstration Project
The Study Area lies partly within the City of Ferguson
The portion of West Florissant Avenue near Maline Creek lies within the 100-year floodplain, which
affects land use planning
The following relevant items are presented in the Vision Plans Land Use Element:
Land Use designations along West Florissant Avenue (within the City of Ferguson only) are:
Commercial, Urban Medium-Density, Suburban Low-Density, Urban Low-Density, and Public /
Semi-Public
Ferguson is designated a Tree City, USA, and lists the following species as being suitable for
street tree use:
Thornless Honey Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos inermis)
Columnar Norway Maple (Acer platanoides erectum (columnare))
Hedge Maple (Acer campestre)
Red Maple (Acer rubrum)
Seedless Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall Seedless)
White Ash (Fraxinus americana)
Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) (male varieties only)
Ironwood (Ostrya virginiana)
Pin Oak (Quercus palustris)
Willow Oak (Quercus phellos)
Red Oak (Quercus rubra)
Little Leaf Linden (Tilia tomentosa)
Japanese Zelkova (Zelkova serrata)
Callery Pear (Pyrus calleryana)
Within the Vision Plans Economic Development Element, Objective 6.2 relates directly to West
Florissant Avenue: The redevelopment of the West Florissant Avenue commercial area north of the
Norfolk Southern Railroad should be encouraged provided that such development does not unnecessarily
disrupt existing residential neighborhoods.
Within the Vision Plans Transportation Element, the following recommended transportation
improvements are relevant:
Interstate 270 Service Roads: The city should consider the feasibility of converting Pershall Road
and Dunn Road to one-way roads to facilitate traffic flow and make a recommendation to
MoDOT after considering impacts. Pershall Road could be one-way east-bound and Dunn
Road could be one-way west-bound. If this concept is implemented, special provisions should
be made to ensure adequate access and circulation for adjacent land uses.
West Florissant Avenue: According to the Vision Plan, it may be desirable from a traffic
standpoint to widen West Florissant Avenue to a six-lane roadway to handle projected traffic,
especially between I-270 and Lucas-Hunt Road. Given the potential impacts of road widening,
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 15
this will need to be more carefully assessed moving forward, with additional planning studies,
community input, and further evaluation of travel patterns in the area.
MetroLink: The Bi-State Development Agency is planning to build an extension of the
MetroLink system which will run south along West Florissant Avenue from St. Louis
Community College-Florissant Valley through Ferguson. This extension will connect with an
existing MetroLink station in downtown St. Louis and will be accompanied by a feeder bus
network. This extension is tentatively included in Phase 3 of the long-range plan for MetroLink
and was scheduled to have been developed around the year 2010, according to the Vision Plan.
The extension has not yet been developed.

Northside Study Final Report: Planning Transit Improvements for St. Louis City (October 2008; EWG, St.
Louis Metro, and Missouri Department of Transportation)
The Northside Major Transit Improvements Study (Northside Study) continues Major Transportation
Investment Analyses (MTIAs) completed in 2000 and will result in recommended light-rail transit (LRT)
options to be advanced through the established regional project development process. The Northside Study
presents an Alternatives Analysis, and includes goals and objectives to help guide the development and
evaluation of alignment alternatives. Goals include enhancement of neighborhoods and local sustainable
development, preservation of existing communities and neighborhoods, improvement of access to
opportunity within the study area, and development of cost-effective transportation improvements.
The Northside study area itself lies to the south of the West Florissant Avenue Study Area. The preferred
alternative for the Northside LRT includes street-running LRT extending from downtown St. Louis on 14th
Street and continuing north in the median of North Florissant Avenue, west on Natural Bridge Avenue, and
north in Goodfellow Boulevard. It terminates at a park-and-ride lot on Goodfellow south of I-70.
Relationship with West Florissant Avenue Corridor Demonstration Project
The preferred LRT alternative is south of the West Florissant Avenue Study Area, and south of
I-70
Based on information provided in the Northside Study, any connectivity with future LRT in the
area would occur via linkage along Goodfellow Blvd, which intersects West Florissant Avenue
south of the Study Area

Building a Regional Plan for Sustainable Development: Ferguson and Environs Round 3 - Community
Meeting Summary (November 2012; St. Louis Regional Sustainable Communities)
Goals for Regional Sustainable Communities:
The goal of this regional planning effort is to develop a sustainable development plan that integrates land use,
transportation, housing, environmental assets, and economic development. In addition, the plan should
provide tools to local jurisdictions that:
Create great places in every community
Coordinate planning across jurisdictional boundaries
Provide a variety of transportation and housing options
Preserve important environmental resources
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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Purpose of Community Meeting:
Visualize potential solutions to previously identified challenges for stormwater, transportation options,
community identity, and housing options
Get community feedback on visual depictions of various sustainable development scenarios
Key Summary Points:
Pedestrian and bicyclist safety is a high priority
Enhanced safety measures may justify slower traffic conditions
Several discussion groups envisioned a sustainable community that is accessible for all
members of society, is walkable, and provides outdoor dining options
Revitalization efforts must facilitate long term economic growth
Development plans need to incorporate diverse housing, employment, shopping, and dining
options
Plan needs to accommodate aging population while still providing amenities to younger people
General agreement that buildings with mixed residential and commercial use can support a
diverse population and provide attractive housing options for the disabled, students, young
professionals, and the retired
Many were concerned about perceptions of safety, and indicated need for related improvements
such as street lights and stricter code enforcement to attract developers and residents
Vacant parcels
Need to revitalize vacant and dilapidated lots
Respondents suggested two locations: the intersection of Hodiamont and Janet, in Jennings, and
a vacant strip mall in Dellwood
Some vacant lots could become community gardens
Energy efficiency (residential)
Although proposed measures were generally favored, participants noted the high implementation
costs for household owners are prohibitive
Cost permitting, many respondents identified solar panels, winterization efforts, and permeable
surfaces as measures they would like to implement
There was general opposition to front yard gardens and wind turbines
Stormwater management techniques
Rain gardens and rain barrels were the most popular techniques, although some respondents
found rain barrels aesthetically unappealing.
Important to return streams to their natural state, and would provide more green space and
alleviate depressed housing values due to floodplain development; however, implementing this
may be prohibitively expensive for local municipalities
Collaboration among residents, local government, and MSD is necessary to properly manage
stormwater.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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Neighborhood efforts would require changes in landscape, rain gardens, and properly
constructed gutters on homes
Municipalities need to take initiative in the removal of functionless alleyways
Government and MSD must collaborate to educate the public on stormwater measures
Relationship with West Florissant Avenue Corridor Demonstration Project
The Ferguson and Environs sustainable community planning area includes the West Florissant
Avenue Study Area
Key summary points listed above should be considered when developing and assessing
alternatives for the Master Plan
















CHAPTER TWO
LA N D US E A N D UR B A N DE S I GN CON D I T I ON S AS S E S S ME N T
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2 LAND USE AND URBAN DESI GN CONDI TIONS ASSESSMENT
This chapter focuses on existing and allowed land uses, as well as urban design conditions, in the West
Florissant Avenue Study Area. Specifically, the chapter reviews the allocation of existing land uses, and
summarizes what the existing zoning designations allow. It also provides an overview of existing conditions
related to community design and character along the corridor. The information from this assessment
provides a base for guiding future land use decisions and development in the Study Area.

2.1 KEY FINDINGS
West Florissant Avenue is in some ways a typical auto-oriented commercial street, but has unique
characteristics and meaning for each community.
Commercial uses, including retail, office, and auto-related businesses, make up 53.4 percent of the land
use in the Study Area, with an estimated Floor Area Ration (FAR) of 0.14. Retail-oriented uses, such as
restaurants, general merchandise, beauty salons, and service-focused stores, are the predominant land
uses throughout the Study Area. See Chapter 5 Market Conditions Assessment for additional details.
Residential uses account for 15.8 percent of the existing land use in the Study Area. Almost all of the
residential acreage is single-family.
In many areas, the pedestrian realm is uninviting and in some places far worse, with buildings spread too
far apart to walk, or sidewalks that have become driveways, and few pedestrian amenities or greenery.
There is little consistency of treatment or character along the corridor. Differences in development types,
streetscape, and sidewalk connectivity leave a choppy impression, evident between the different
municipalities but even within any one jurisdiction.
Major differences in zoning between Ferguson and Dellwood contribute strongly to the impression of
inconsistency along the corridor.
The diversity of character along the corridor can also be a strength, given a more unified vision that
accentuates key characteristics in commercial, residential, and open space areas, with appropriate
adjustments to land use regulations.

2.2 EXISTING LAND USES
2.2.1 Existing Uses
The land use pattern and character of West Florissant Avenue is largely shaped by automobile-oriented
commercial uses that have developed on the corridor. Strip malls with parking fronting the street are
intermixed with restaurants, services, and small retailers. There are some institutional and recreational/park
uses as well, along with occasional residential (primarily single-family). Table 2.1 (below) and Map 2.1 show
the allocation and distribution of existing land use in the study area.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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Table 2.1: Existing Land Use
1

Area (Acres) Percent of Study Area
Commercial 148.9 53.4%
Residential
Single-Family Residential 41.9 15.0%
Multi-Family Residential 2.2 0.8%
Parks and Recreation 30.4 10.9%
Institutional 19.3 6.9%
Industrial/Utility 6.9 2.5%
Vacant/Agriculture 28.1 10.1%
Common Ground 1.4 0.5%
Total 279.1 100%

2.2.2 Commercial
Commercial uses, including retail, office, and auto-related businesses, make up 53.4 percent of the land use in
the Study Area. Retail-oriented uses, such as restaurants, general merchandise, beauty salons, and service-
focused stores, are the predominant land uses throughout the Study Area. There are several major shopping
nodes within the Study Area:
North County Festival (located at north end, near I-270 interchange) Major retailers at this regional
shopping center include Walmart, Sams Club, and Toys-R-Us.
Northland Hills Plaza and Cottonwood Plaza (located on both sides of West Florissant Avenue, just
north of Hudson) Northland Hills Plaza is a neighborhood center whose retail mix has a strong
service orientation; Cottonwood Plaza is a strip development anchored by two relatively large
retailers (Dollar General and Sherwyn Williams).
Dellwood central retail area (at intersection with Chambers Road) this intersection includes several
strip commercial centers, plus numerous stand-alone retailers that include service businesses, auto-
related retail and services, restaurants, a thrift store, and a furniture store.
South end of Study Area (at intersection with Ferguson Avenue) businesses in this area include
Family Dollar, furniture stores, several restaurants and small markets, plus strip commercial on both
sides of West Florissant Avenue north of the intersection.
Buzz Westfall Plaza is located just south of the Study Area in Jennings. This regional shopping center is
anchored by Target and Schnucks.
2.2.3 Residential
Residential uses account for 15.8 percent of the existing land use in the Study Area. Almost all of the
residential acreage is single-family. Residential uses here are primarily located on parcels that are adjacent to
larger residential tracts located just beyond the Study Area; in some cases the residential parcels back up to
the main corridor right-of-way. West Florissant Avenue also includes a relatively long stretch of single-family
homes along both sides of the street, north of Maline Creek and south of Dellwood. This residential segment

1
GIS data for this table and associated maps are from St. Louis County GIS Service Center and the City of Ferguson.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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separates the Dellwood central retail area and the commercial uses at the south end of the Study Area.
Additional information on housing, including nearby rental complexes, is provided in Chapter 5 Market
Conditions Assessment.
2.2.4 Parks and Recreation
The Study Area includes several park and recreation uses, which comprise 10.9 percent of the Study Area:
Dellwood City Park this 14.2-acre city park is located north of Heydt Avenue in Dellwood. Its
amenities include ball fields with bleachers, a paved walkway, childrens play area, restrooms, and
grassy areas with shade trees.
Dellwood Recreation Center located south of Stein Road in Dellwood, this community recreation
facility includes an outdoor swimming pool and hosts recreation programs throughout the year.
Emerson Family YMCA this recreation facility, located at the north end of the Study Area in
Ferguson, provides a variety of amenities and programs. Features include an indoor swimming pool,
gymnasium with indoor track, fitness equipment, multipurpose rooms, and sports fields. Programs
include sports-related classes, early childhood education, preschool, Y Club, and day camps.
In addition to the developed park and recreation facilities, West Florissant Avenue crosses Maline Creek. The
creek channel is lined with trees and serves as a linear natural habitat. As summarized in Chapter 1, there are
plans to implement the Maline Creek Greenway in the future, which can provide additional recreational
opportunities accessed from the Study Area.
2.2.5 Institutional
Public, quasi-public, and institutional uses make up approximately 6.9 percent of the land use in the Study
Area. Dellwood City Hall is located in the Study Area near the intersection of West Florissant Avenue and
Chambers Road. Other institutional uses in the Study Area include several churches. Although there are no
schools in the Study Area, several elementary schools are nearby, and St. Louis Community College Florissant
Valley Campus is adjacent to the Study Area in the northwest portion.
2.2.6 Industrial/Utility
Industrial-related uses occupy approximately 2.5 percent of the Study Areas land uses. These are relatively
minor, and include utility areas and a Public Storage facility.

2.3 COMMUNITY DESIGN AND CHARACTER
2.3.1 Pedestrian and Streetscape Environment
Pedestrian Realm
The pedestrian realm is the experience of many related elements that create an overall environment along a
street corridor. Throughout the Study Area there are several factors that prevent the corridor from being an
ideal pedestrian experience:
Street wall characteristics (e.g., building siting and faades) are not set up for exploration on foot.
Entries are far apart, requiring a long walk to get between shopping destinations. The scale is for
driving from place to place, and no sense of enclosure exists to help create a human scale. There is
very little faade articulation meant to be interesting to the pedestrian, nor awnings or canopies to
provide comfort in rain or sun.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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Many blank walls and parking lots result in a dull walking environment, with little visual interest. In
many places, fences make the environment even less friendly. An example occurs at the vacant
stores on the east side near Canfield Drive. Few retailers cater to pedestrians in their displays or
merchandising.
Pedestrian safety is compromised by the presence of numerous curb cuts that provide vehicular
access from West Florissant Avenue to the adjacent parcels, creating the potential for pedestrian-
vehicle conflicts. In addition, few pedestrians cross West Florissant Avenue at marked cross-walks,
even if they are near a signalized intersection. Most cross at mid-block, resulting in a large number of
vehicular/pedestrian crashes. This is described in greater detail in Chapter 3 Transportation
Conditions Assessment.
Sidewalks are provided on both sides of West Florissant Avenue for most of the corridor, although
they are narrow and close to five lanes of traffic. Pedestrian crosswalks and push buttons are
provided at all signalized intersections. However, the environment for pedestrians could be greatly
improved by better connecting sidewalks, adding green buffers, improving ADA compliance, and
creating more midblock crossing opportunities. In addition, there is need for more pedestrian
amenities. The only benches observed were at bus stops, lighting is inadequate and not scaled to
pedestrians, and trash receptacles are in poor condition. Additional information on pedestrian safety
and facilities is provided in Chapter 3 Transportation Conditions Assessment.
Pedestrian signage is haphazard, with more emphasis on passing vehicles.
Streetscape and Landscaping
In most of the Study Area, there are no street trees in the right-of-way, except at creek crossings. As
mentioned in Chapter 4 Infrastructure and Environmental Assessment, tree canopy covers only 13 percent of
the Study Area. One reason for the lack of street trees is a result of County regulations.
2
According to these
standards, trees cannot be located within the street right-of-way without a variance being granted by the
Planning Commission, or the Director of Planning and the Director of Highways and Traffic. In addition,
permits are needed for other landscape improvements within the right-of-way. Trees are allowed to be
located on private property, between five feet and ten feet from the street right-of-way line.
There is nothing consistent or uniform about the streetscape: in some areas there are planting strips or grass
buffers, in other areas there are none. A few public realm improvements have happened, some of them
through agreements with private developers: North of Chambers Road on the east side (at Dellwood
Crossing), is one of the most attractively landscaped parts of the corridor, with grass buffers for most of the
way and a few trees on the property near the roadway.
Connectivity
Throughout the corridor there is excellent bus service with high ridership. Existing bus stop amenities are
limited to some benches, bus stop signs, and the occasional shelter, but a new Metro improvement project in
2014 will upgrade the entire corridor with new shelters, ADA sidewalk improvements, and signage.
Bicycle facilities do not currently exist. However, there are plans to provide dedicated bicycle facilities along
West Florissant Avenue, with improvements ranging from wide shoulders to bike lanes.
For pedestrian connectivity, sidewalks occur through much of the Study Area, although they are less
continuous south of Chambers Road. In addition, sidewalks frequently cross large driveways and parking
areas. Crosswalks occur at intersections, but intersections are very far apart, so opportunities to cross are

2
St. Louis County Highways and Traffic, Design Criteria for the Preparation of Improvement Plans, Section 40.50 Landscaping
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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infrequent, meaning that often people will risk crossing midblock, with no crosswalk. Even at intersections,
the street widens, sometimes to seven lanes, so the comfort of pedestrian crossings is poor all around.
Finally, I-270 entry and exit ramps interrupt pedestrian connectivity at the north end of the study area.
Additional information on connectivity and travel mode share is provided in Chapter 3 Transportation
Conditions Assessment.
2.3.2 Landmarks / Historic Needs and Requirements
Information on landmarks is not available through the historical societies or the municipalities archives and
to our knowledge there are no properties with special designation.
2.3.3 Architecture
Most of the buildings in the Study Area appear to have been constructed during the post-war suburban
expansion of the area that catered exclusively to the automobile. Buildings are mostly set back with parking
in front; many have rear parking lots as well. Most buildings are one-story, with a few two-story structures.
Building signage is auto-oriented, visible from a great distance, with banner signs on buildings being very
common. In many areas, deferred building maintenance is very apparent.
In the Ferguson sections of the corridor, commercial buildings at the north end of the Study Area consist of
big box-type retail associated with the North County Festival shopping center. At the south end of the Study
Area, also in Ferguson, the built environment consists of strip development. Whats most remarkable about
this area is the large size of the lots, which are often mostly devoted to parking areas. See Figure 2.1, which
shows building footprints in the Study Area. The three selected enlargements below the Study Area Map
provide a snapshot of the variation in building scale.

Figure 2.1: Top Study Area Map showing parcels (pale gray) with building footprints (darker gray).
Street rights-of-way are shown in white, and green areas represent parks. Red dashed rectangles indicate
enlargement areas. Bottom three enlargement areas showing variation in size of building footprints along
the West Florissant Avenue corridor.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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In the Dellwood portion of the corridor near Chambers Road, the architecture varies:
On the east side of the corridor, north of Chambers Road, the area was redeveloped somewhat
recently and has a fairly uniform and well-maintained appearance. Buildings, such as Walgreens,
Save-A-Lot, Complete Autobody, and Rothmans, tend to be a similar size. Lees Chicken and
Rothmans appear to be the oldest buildings and, especially with the large neon Rothmans sign, have
some architectural interest. Springwood Plaza is a vacant shopping plaza across from Dellwood
Park.
On the west side of the corridor, north of Chambers Road, this segment has small lots and buildings,
many of which were once homes and have been converted to commercial use. These are historic
remnants of West Florissant Avenues past.
South of Chambers Road, the architecture is characterized by a series of single-use, one-story
buildings that are automobile-oriented and spaced far apart. On the west side of the corridor, there
is a vacant site adjacent to the Mobile Station.
2.3.4 Community Amenities
Community amenities, such as schools, grocery stores, and civic and cultural buildings, are vital to the life of
the community. Especially when they are clustered in a walkable area, it can be a major benefit to residents.
The greatest concentration of community and civic amenities is in the middle of the Study Area around
Dellwood City Park and the Dellwood Recreation Center. The park is a generous and attractive green space
with a playground, a ball field, and restrooms, as well as some wonderful specimen trees and a creek bed.
The Dellwood Recreation Center is on the east side, just north of Dellwood City Park.
The Save-A-Lot grocery and Dellwood Crossings shopping center could be described as the center of
Dellwood, where one sees the highest amount of activity (shoppers, pedestrians, and vehicles). However,
there is no amenity space to speak of that lets people enjoy the experiences, or that would encourage them to
stay beyond their shopping errand.
2.4 EXISTING ZONING CODES
3

2.4.1 Commercial Zoning and Permitted Uses
Map 2.2 shows Study Area zoning designations in Ferguson. The West Florissant Avenue Zoning Analysis
(Analysis) reviewed relevant codes of the cities of Ferguson, Jennings, and Dellwood. Because the corridor is
primarily commercial, the Analysis focused on commercial zoning, and compared the codes in terms of
similarities and differences that could affect future desired development in the Study Area.
Ferguson
Ferguson has two commercial zones in the Study Area. At the north end, near I-270, commercial parcels are
zoned C-2, Planned Commercial. Fergusons parcels at the southern end of the corridor are zoned C-1,
General Commercial.
Fergusons C-1 zoning (the southern end) allows most retail and service-oriented uses, including
automotive dealers, apparel stores, furniture stores, laundromats, professional offices, libraries,
educational services, health services, and government agencies. C-1 zoning also allows many
conditionally-permitted uses.

3
This section is based on the West Florissant Avenue Corridor Plan, Draft August 2012, Appendix West Florissant
Avenue Zoning Analysis, 2010.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 24
Fergusons C-2 zoning (near I-270) has fewer permissible uses than C-1. Although the zone still
allows retail and service establishments, some uses that are permitted in C-1 (gasoline stations and
automotive dealers) become conditional uses in C-2. Moreover, C-2 does not allow uses such as
veterinary services, liquor stores, funeral services, and repair services.
Dellwood
Dellwood has two commercial zones in the Study Area. These zones are C District and C-2, Planned
District.
C District zoning is defined by uses that are not permitted and uses that have certain regulations;
other uses are implicitly permitted. Non-permitted uses include schools, libraries, museums/art
galleries, botanical/zoological facilities, check cashing/pay day loan establishments, tattoo parlors,
churches, and garages/parking uses. Regulated uses include spas and used vehicle sales.
The C-2 zone in Dellwood is a planned commercial district that allows the same uses as Fergusons
C-2 zoning code.
Jennings
There are about five Study Area parcels in Jennings, at the southern end of the corridor. Jennings has one
commercial zone which applies to these parcels: C-2, Shopping and Service Commercial District. In general,
this zone tends to encourage smaller, free-standing commercial development.
There are many uses permitted in Jennings C-2 zone, including retail stores (apparel, furniture,
automotive supply, general merchandise); retail services (dine-in restaurants, banking and lending
institutions); other services (e.g., health, recreation and amusement); schools and vocational services;
and general and governmental offices.
The C-2 zoning does not allow the following uses, or only allows them conditionally: home
improvement/garden supply stores, used merchandise stores, check cashing establishments, drive-
through restaurants, drinking places, and grocery stores over 30,000 square feet (under 30,000 sq. ft.
requires a conditional use permit).
2.4.2 Commercial Zoning Comparison and Other Zoning Provisions
In general, the three cities agree on desired commercial uses, although there are some differences in terms of
permitted, not permitted, and conditional uses. The table on the next page summarizes this information for
the various commercial zones.
4

In additional to allowable uses, zoning regulations also specify dimensional criteria, such as minimum lot size,
setbacks, parking requirements, and building height. These dimensional regulations can have a profound
effect on the resulting built environment and how it is perceived by different users. While commercially
zoned lots in Ferguson and Jennings (and Dellwood C-2) must be at least 10,000 square feet, there is no
minimum lot size required for Dellwood C District zoning a building in this zone can be placed on any size
of lot, provided other dimensional requirements are met. These include front and rear setbacks (no width or
side yard regulations), and required parking for buildings over 2,000 square feet. As a result, Dellwoods C
District leads to numerous small, closely-spaced commercial enterprises, each with its own access from West
Florissant Avenue.

4
Source: West Florissant Avenue Corridor Plan, Draft August 2012, Appendix West Florissant Avenue Zoning Analysis,
2010. The table presents information shown in Figure 1 of the Zoning Analysis on page 33 of the document.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 25
Uses FergusonC1 FergusonC2 JenningsC2 DellwoodC
VeterinaryServices P NP P(nooutdoorkennels) P(nokennels)
BusStation P P NP P
U.S.PostalOffice P NP P P
CommunicationServices P P P P
HomeImprovement P P NP P
GardenSupply/Nursery P P NP P
Grocery/Deli/FoodStore P P C P
GasolineStation P C C P
AutomotiveDealers/Leasing/Rental(NewandUsed) P C C P
AutomotiveSupply P P P P
Boat/Motorcycle/RecreationDealers P NP C P
ApparelStores P P P P
FurnitureStores P P P P
SiteDown/DineInRestaurant P P P P
GeneralMerchandise P P P P
LiquorStore P NP C P
Banking/LendingInstitutions(Depository) P P P P
Offices P P P P
RealEstateAgencies P P P P
Hotels/Motels P P C P
LaundryServices(DryCleaning,CoinOp) P P C P
Barber/BeautySalons P P C P
RepairServices P P C P
FuneralService/Crematories P NP C P
EquipmentLeasing/Rental P NP P P
AutomotiveRepair/Service P NP C P
MotionPictureStudio/Production P P P P
Amusement/RecreationServices P P P P
HealthServices(Clinics,Laboratories,OutPatient) P P
P(noblood/organ/labs/
diagnosticimagingctr)
P
Hospitals P P C P
NursingHomes(Skilled,Intermediate,HomeHealth) P P C P
Public/PrivateEducationalInstitutions P P P NP
VocationalSchools P P P NP
Libraries P P P NP
AdultDayCare P NP P P
Museums/ArtGalleries P P P NP
BotanicalGardens/ZoologicalCenters P P NP NP
ProfessionalOffices(LicensedbytheState) P P P P
GeneralGovernment P P P P
UsedVehicleSales(UsedOnly) C C C P
UsedMerchandiseStores/AuctionRooms C NP NP P(nopawnbrokers)
CheckCashingAgencies/PayDayLoanInstitutions C NP NP NP
Spas C NP C C
AdultServices C NP NP P
TattooParlors C NP NP NP
AutomotiveTowing C NP C P
AutomotiveRepairShops C NP C P
Churches C NP P NP
Convents/Monasteries C NP P P
MiniWarehouses/SelfStorage C NP C P
CommunicationAntennae C C P P
CommunicationTowers C C P P
ChildCareCenters C C C P
AutomatedTellerMachines C C P P
EatingPlaces(DriveThroughWindows) C C NP P
DrinkingPlaces C C NP P
Garages/Parking NP NP P NP















CHAPTER THREE
TR A N S P OR T A T I ON CON D I T I ON S AS S E S S ME N T
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 26
3 TRANSPORTATI ON CONDI TI ONS ASSESSMENT
West Florissant Avenue is truly a multi-modal corridor. It is a Principal Arterial for automobile traffic,
carrying approximately 30,000 vehicles per day. It carries MetroBus Route 74 (Florissant line), one of Metros
heaviest used lines with over 1.1 Million boardings in 2013. It is crossed by MetroBus Route 61 (Chambers
Road), also in Metros top ten heavies used routes with 800,000 boardings in 2013. The heavy transit usage
and general nature of the Corridor result in a heavy pedestrian demand. When constructed, Great Rivers
Greenways Maline Greenway will connect West Florissant Avenue to the regions trail network.
West Florissant Avenue serves a diversity of users. A large volume of automobile, transit, and pedestrian
traffic use West Florissant Avenue to access adjacent residential neighborhoods, civic institutions, and retail
centers. The Corridor contains many destinations including churches, parks, recreational centers, Dellwood
City Hall, and significant retail nodes. West Florissant Avenue also carries a high volume of automobile and
transit traffic through the Study Area; which is anchored by I-270 and the Florissant Valley Community
College on the north, and the Emerson Electric world headquarters on the south. Moreover, MetroBus
Routes 74 and 61 traverse the Corridor, intersecting at Chambers Road, making the intersection a del-facto
bus transfer center. Finally, the Corridor is used by local residents and businesses as a conduit to local
schools, jobs, civic institutions, shopping, and services. West Florissant Avenue is used by many to travel to,
though, and within the Study Area.
The needs along the Corridor are great. While the current roadway configuration works relatively well for
those traveling by automobile; other users are largely shortchanged. The roadway needs to be reconfigured to
accommodate all users. It needs to be more walkable. It needs to be bikeable. It needs to be safer. It needs
to provide better connections to adjacent neighborhoods. This rebalancing needs to occur in such a way to
accommodate the needs of pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users without severely degrading vehicular
traffic flow.
There are tremendous opportunities in the Corridor. Many local agencies have identified the need and
opportunities for improvements. The Corridor is a part of several local improvement plans and programs. It
is also a candidate corridor for Metros future Rapid Bus Transit (BRT) program. One major opportunity is
the roadways relatively wide right-of way. The key to improving the Corridors overall transportation
performance is to find the most effective uses for this right-of-way to serve the multi-modal needs of its
users. The following transportation conditions assessment is a first step toward identifying a plan for the
roadway to best serve the needs of the regions the citizen and business communities.
3.1 KEY FINDINGS
The two existing through lanes in each direction along West Florissant Avenue appear to provide
appropriate capacity for current and future traffic volumes.
While the existing number of through lanes on West Florissant Avenue appears appropriate, the roadway
appears to have a larger than necessary paved foot-print. The roadway (space required for automobile
traffic) can likely be accommodated in a smaller paved foot-print.
There are two traffic hot spots in the Corridor: 1) near the I-270 interchange 2) at the intersection with
Chambers Road.
MoDOT is currently conducting an Environmental Assessment (EA) for improvements along the I-270
corridor. MoDOTs EA should identify improvements to address the capacity needs of West Florissant
Avenue near the I-270 interchange. However, it is imperative The MIG Team collaborate with the
MoDOT study team to ensure that MoDOTs preferred alternative also accommodates bicycle,
pedestrian, and transit users.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 27
Project stakeholders report that the West Florissant Avenue /Chambers Road intersection can become
congested at various times of the day (e.g., during the lunch rush and evening commute). The MIG
Team should be sensitive to the capacity needs of this intersection.
The posted speed limit on West Florissant Avenue is 35 mph. The vast majority of observed speeds are
less than 42 mph. Excessive speed does not appear to be a major problem in the Corridor.
The Study Area has a much greater public transportation mode split as compared to Missouri and St.
Louis County averages. 8.5% of the Study Areas residents use transit as compared to 1.5% for the state
of Missouri and 2.4% for St. Louis County. Overall, 13.5% of people in the Study Area are not using a
car to get to work. However, transit mode share could likely be improved in the Corridor. For example,
the layout of the local roadway system does not connect neighborhoods well with the transit stops on
West Florissant Avenue. Strategically located bicycle/pedestrian paths may shorten walking distances
(thus enhancing transit accessibility) for some local residents.
Three bus routes currently serve the Study Area: Route 74 (Florissant), Route 61 (Chambers Road), and
Route 64 (Lucas and Hunt). Many transit customers transfer busses (especially near the Chambers Road
intersection) which results in a high number of mid-block crossings. Although pedestrian crosswalks are
provided at all signalized intersections, field observations show pedestrians are not using them.
5.8% of the Study Areas households have no vehicle available as compared to 2.6% for the state of
Missouri and 2.4% for St. Louis County. Any plan for the Corridor needs to incorporate public
transportation facilities and services that meet the special needs of the elderly, low-income families,
disabled, and those without access to private automobiles.
Metro is currently undertaking a project that will improve the customer accommodations along West
Florissant Avenue. Specifically, this project will relocate several bus stops, upgrade all bus stops to
include benches, upgrade several bus stops to include bus shelters, and provide bus pull-outs at several
stops to the south of the Study Area (in the City of St. Louis).
Metro is currently designing a new North County Transit Center that will be located off Pershall Road to
the east of West Florissant Avenue. The new transit center will serve the eastern North St. Louis County
region (the Hanley Road transit center serves western North St. Louis County), provide transfer
opportunities for 9-10 routes, include park-ride facilities, and better serve the Florissant Valley
Community College. This facility is scheduled to open in spring of 2015.
Metro is currently leading a St. Louis Rapid Transit Connector Study which is considering bus-based
rapid transit services in the St. Louis region. The studys goal is to better connect people to jobs, schools
services in the City of St. Louis and St. Louis County. The study has identified four alternatives, one of
which runs along the Corridor. Implementation of BRT along West Florissant Avenue could be
transformational to the Corridor.
No real bicycle facilities are currently provided along West Florissant Avenue. Few bicycles are observed
riding along the Corridor. Those that are observed are primarily seen riding on the sidewalks. The lack of
bicycle traffic is surprising. The high volume of pedestrians along the Corridor and low automobile
ownership in the surrounding residential neighborhoods would normally indicate a higher level of bicycle
ridership. Moreover, West Florissant Avenue is a spine providing connections to several local civic
institutions and parks. However, as currently configured, West Florissant Avenue presents a hostile
environment for bicycles. The Draft Ferguson Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan and Bike STL Plan provide
various options to upgrade bicycle facilities along the Corridor. While considering the recommendations
from these previous plans, the West Florissant Avenue Great Streets project will evaluate a range of
context friendly enhancements that serve all users. It is likely that bicycle ridership would be significantly
higher in the Corridor if safe facilities bicycle facilities were provided.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 28
Sidewalks are provided on both sides of West Florissant Avenue and pedestrian crosswalks and push
buttons are provided at all signalized intersections. However, the quality of the sidewalks and pedestrian
crossings could be greatly improved. Specifically, many of the sidewalks are disjointed and some are not
compliant with ADA requirements, pedestrian signals have not been updated to include countdown
heads, lighting is not provided in all areas of the Corridor, and few midblock crossing opportunities are
provided. The environment for pedestrians could be greatly improved by better connecting sidewalks,
adding green buffers, improving ADA compliance, creating more midblock crossing opportunities,
reconfiguration some intersections, updating signalized pedestrian crossings, and lighting all parts of the
corridor.
One major pedestrian issue is that few pedestrians cross West Florissant Avenue at marked cross-walks.
Most cross mid-block, even if they are near a signalized intersection. A large number of
vehicular/pedestrian crashes have resulted. Correcting this problem will take both design solutions to
address the problems mentioned above as well as public educational efforts.
The Corridors crash history is somewhat typical for arterial corridors. Most crashes are rear end and
angle crashes at the intersections. Most crashes occur during clear daylight conditions.
An evaluation of the data shows significantly more crashes at Pershall Avenue and Chambers Road as
compared to the other intersections along the Corridor. Moreover, the crash rates at these intersections
are higher than would be expected for intersections with similar traffic volumes. Based on field
observations, the high number of crashes at these intersections is likely related large numbers of bus
transfers (and pedestrians not crossing at the cross-walks), poor access management (specifically at
Chambers Road), and relatively higher levels of vehicular congestion at the traffic signals.
The Corridor also has a large number of vehicular/pedestrian crashes (21 in 4 years). One-third of the
pedestrian crashes in the Study Area occurred at Chambers Road.
Access is poorly managed along many sections of the Corridor. Driveways are undefined in many areas
and business parking is configured in some areas such that it forces vehicles to back-out into live traffic
lanes. Better managing the Corridors access could result in significantly safer conditions for all users.
3.2 VEHICULAR TRAFFIC AND DATA
West Florissant Avenue serves a diversity of users. A large volume of automobile, transit, and pedestrian
traffic use West Florissant Avenue to access adjacent residential neighborhoods, civic institutions, and retail
centers. The corridor contains many destinations including churches, parks, recreational centers, Dellwood
City Hall, and significant retail nodes. West Florissant Avenue also carries a high volume of automobile and
transit traffic through the Study Area; which is anchored by I-270 and the Florissant Valley Community
College on the north, and the Emerson Electric world headquarters on the south. Moreover, MetroBus
Routes 74 and 61 traverse the Corridor, intersecting at Chambers Road, making the intersection a del-facto
bus transfer center. Finally, the Corridor is used by local residents and businesses as a conduit to local
schools, jobs, civic institutions, shopping, and services. West Florissant Avenue is used by many to travel to,
though, and within the Corridor.
In November 2013, CBB conducted a comprehensive set of traffic counts in the Corridor. These counts
include mid-block traffic volume and speed machine traffic counts along West Florissant Avenue between
Hudson Road and Chambers Road, Chambers Road and Ferguson Avenue, and Lucas and Hunt and
Jennings Station Road. Additional machine counts were conducted on Chambers Road between West
Florissant and Halls Ferry Road and West Florissant and North Florissant, on Ferguson Avenue between
West Florissant and North Florissant, and on Lucas and Hunt Road between West Florissant and I-70. Peak
period turning movement counts were conducted at the intersections of West Florissant/Hudson, West
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 29
Florissant/Chambers, West Florissant/Ferguson, and West Florissant/Lucas and Hunt. Finally, peak period
travel time runs were conducted between I-270 and I-70. A summary of this effort is shown in Figure 3-1.

Figure 3-1: Traffic Counts Collected by CBB in November 2013

West Florissant Avenue within the Study Area boundaries has a functional classification of Principal Arterial.
With Average Daily Traffic (ADT) volumes varying from approximately 25,000 to 38,000 vehicles per day
throughout the Corridor, it is apparent that this roadway is a significant route in north St. Louis County.
Map 3.1 provides existing traffic volumes at major intersections along West Florissant Avenue within and
adjacent to the Study Area. Additionally, the map provides ADTs (from both CBBs November 2013 counts
and counts provided by St. Louis County) throughout the Study Area. As shown in Map 3.1 there are some
differences in the ADT values which may be a result of differing collection locations, as well as time of year.
Additionally, some of the St. Louis County data is taken from 2007 counts. Traffic volumes in the Corridor
have likely fluctuated in recently years along with changing commercial uses.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 30
Figure 3-2 provides traffic flows on West Florissant Avenue north of Chambers Road. The roadway in this
section generally consists of two through lanes in each direction and a center left-turn lane. This data shows
that a morning peak hour does not exist at this location and that generally volumes tend to rise throughout
the day to an early evening peak during the PM commute. Traffic is generally heavy in both northbound and
southbound directions during the PM peak period.
Figure 3-2: West Florissant Avenue traffic flow north of Chambers Road

Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 31
Chambers Road is also classified as a Principal Arterial. Chambers Road in the Study Area generally consists
of two through lanes in each direction and a center left-turn lane. ADTs show that this is heavily travelled
east-west route in North St. Louis County. Figure 3-3 provides traffic flows by direction for Chambers
Road west of West Florissant Avenue. It is evident from the figure that eastbound volumes increase
throughout the day and peak in the evening, while the westbound volumes show both a morning and evening
peak.
Figure 3-3: Chambers Road traffic flow west of West Florissant Avenue


The Chambers Road intersection with West Florissant Avenue is the most significant areas of congestion in
the Corridor. Map 3.2 provides average queue lengths for the study intersections. These queues are
generally present in both the morning and evening peak hours with slightly shorter lengths throughout the
rest of the day. It is apparent that this intersection experiences some significant queuing, but based on
observations queues are cleared at each cycle and delay is reasonable.
As evident based on ADT values, Hudson Road and Ferguson Avenue are classified as Urban Collectors.
These roadways carry much less traffic and their intersections, therefore, have much shorter queues and
minimal delay as shown in Map 3.2.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 32
Figure 3-4 provides the traffic flows for a one week period on Ferguson Avenue west of West Florissant
Avenue. Ferguson Avenue generally consists of one through lanes in each direction. Again, it is apparent
that a morning peak hour does not exist and volumes tend to rise throughout the day. Traffic is relatively
consistent in both eastbound and westbound directions during the PM peak period.
Figure 3-4: Ferguson Avenue traffic flow west of West Florissant Avenue


Although outside of the Study Area, Lucas and Hunt Road is another significant roadway in North St. Louis
County. To the west it is classified as a Principal Arterial and to the east a Minor Arterial. Its intersection
with West Florissant Avenue, south of the Study Area, is a major intersection along the Corridor. Map 3.1
illustrates that there is a major movement from west Lucas and Hunt to north West Florissant and vice-versa.
These movements result in heavy queues; especially for the eastbound left turning movement (an overlap
phase keeps queues for the southbound right turning movement to a more reasonable length).
ADTs indicate that volumes on West Florissant Avenue drop off dramatically south of Lucas and Hunt
Road. In fact, south of Lucas and Hunt, West Florissant is classified as a Minor Arterial. Figure 3-5
provides traffic flows for a one-week period on West Florissant Avenue. While, the volumes are lower, the
pattern is similar to that of West Florissant Avenue north of Chambers Road, showing that generally volumes
tend to rise throughout the day to an early evening peak during the PM commute. Again, traffic is generally
heavy in both northbound and southbound directions during the PM peak period.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 33
Figure 3-5: West Florissant Avenue traffic flow south of Lucas and Hunt


Map 3.1 also provides 50
th
and 85
th
percentile speeds at three locations along the Corridor. The posted speed
limit is 35 mph. The data collected north of Chambers Road shows 85
th
percentile speeds of 41 and 39 mph
(northbound and southbound, respectively) and 50
th
percentile speeds of 35 and 34 mph (again, northbound
and southbound, respectively). Figures 3-6 and 3-7 provide the percentage of each recorded speed for both
the northbound and southbound traffic movements. The vast majority of observed speeds were less than 42
mph.
The data collected between Chambers Road and Ferguson Avenue show 85
th
percentile speeds of 34 to 37
mph and 50
th
percentile speeds of 29 to 32 mph. Figures 3-8 and 3-9 provide the percentage of each
recorded speed for both the northbound and southbound traffic movements at the location between
Chambers Road and Ferguson Avenue. Again, the majority of observed speeds were less than 42 mph.
Figures 3-10 and 3-11 provide the percentage of each recorded speed for both the northbound and
southbound traffic movements at the location south of Lucas and Hunt. Both figures indicate that the vast
majority of vehicles are travelling under 40 mph.
It should be noted that field observations indicated that many vehicles appeared to slow down on approach
to the speed hoses. At the time of the data collection, a speed camera was in place along Lucas and Hunt
which may have led to extra caution in order to avoid violations.

Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 34
Figure 3-6: Speed distribution for Northbound West Florissant Avenue north of Chambers Road

Figure 3-7: Speed distribution of Southbound West Florissant Avenue north of Chambers Road

Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 35
Figure 3-8: Speed distribution of Northbound West Florissant Avenue south of Chambers Road

Figure 3-9: Speed distribution of Southbound West Florissant Avenue south of Chambers Road

Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 36
Figure 3-10: Speed distribution of Northbound West Florissant Avenue south of Lucas and Hunt

Figure 3-11: Speed distribution of Southbound West Florissant Avenue south of Lucas and Hunt

Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 37
In order to verify the data collected from the speed hoses, travel time runs were processed to find the actual
travel speed at each point along the travel route on West Florissant Avenue between the I-270 interchange
and Lucas and Hunt Road.
Figure 3-12 illustrates speeds at points along the Corridor. It shows that in the northbound direction travel
speeds varied between 25 and 37 mph during the PM peak hour. Speed at and approaching zero indicates
traffic signals. It is noticeable that speeds decrease at the section of the Corridor north of Hudson Road
where traffic volumes become significantly higher.
Figure 3-12: Northbound West Florissant Avenue speeds PM Peak Hour (4:30-5:30 PM)

Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 38
Figure 3-13 shows that in the southbound direction travel speeds varied similarly between 25 and 40 mph
during the PM peak hour. Speed at and approaching zero indicates traffic signals. In both directions the
sharp lines to zero indicate that queues at the intersections were not significant and delay away from
signalized intersections was minimal.
Figure 3-13: Southbound West Florissant Avenue speeds PM Peak Hour (4:30-5:30 PM)


3.3 TRANSIT
3.3.1 Existing Transit Service
Three bus routes currently serve the Corridor: Route 74 (Florissant), Route 61 (Chambers Road), and Route
64 (Lucas and Hunt). These routes are displayed in Figure 3-14. Map 3.3 provides additional details for
these bus routes within the Study Area.
Many transit customers transfer busses (especially near the Chambers Road intersection) which results in a
high number of mid-block crossings. Although pedestrian crosswalks are provided at all signalized
intersections, field observations show pedestrians are not using them. Map 3.4 shows bus stop locations and
major pedestrian crossing zones of West Florissant Avenue.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 39
Figure 3-14: Excerpt from Metro System Map (metrostlouis.org)

Route 74 (Florissant) is one of Metros heaviest used lines. It had over 1.1 Million boardings in 2013. This
route serves two primary functions.
It serves local travel demand along West Florissant Avenue through North Saint Louis County and
North Saint Louis City in communities such as Florissant, Dellwood, Moline Acres, and Ferguson. The
route also provides a fast, direct connection to downtown Saint Louis for riders from other MetroBus
routes serving North County such as #36 Spanish Lake, #44 Hazelwood, #45 Ferguson-Florissant, and
#75 Lilac Hanley, which all connect at Saint Louis Community College (STLCC) at Florissant Valley.
Other popular destinations served by the route include: Saint Louis Gateway Transportation Center
including Amtrak train and Greyhound bus terminals; Robert A. Young Federal Building; Scottrade
Center; Buzz Westfall Plaza; Grace Hill Neighborhood Services; Schnucks Supermarket at West Field
Plaza; Myrtle Hilliard Davis Health Center; and Saint Louis City Hall. (metrostlouis.org)
Metro is currently undertaking a project that will improve accommodations along this route. Specifically,
Metro is will complete a project in 2014 that will relocate several bus stops, upgrade all bus stops to include
benches, upgrade several bus stops to include bus shelters, and provide bus pull-outs at several stops to the
south of the Study Area (in the City of St. Louis). More information on Route 74 can be found at:
http://www.metrostlouis.org/PlanYourTrip/MapsSchedules/MetroBusRoute.aspx?Name=Florissant&SignI
D=178&LineID=11112&srcState=MO&srcRouteNumber=74
Study Area
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
Page 40
Route 61 (Chambers Road) had over 800,000 boardings in 2013.
This route provides transit service to several North Saint Louis County communities, including
Bellefontaine Neighbors, Moline Acres, Berkeley, Kinloch, Dellwood, Ferguson, and Riverview
Gardens. The #61 Chambers helps meet local travel demand in areas of high transit ridership by
connecting residents to jobs, services, and shopping. It also helps connect customers to MetroLink
and numerous other MetroBus routes at the North Hanley Station, Riverview-Hall MetroBus Transit
Center, and at various points along the route. Other popular destinations served by the route include:
Express Scripts at North Hanley location; North Park Industrial Park; Federal Center; and
Northwest Plaza. (metrostlouis.org)
More information on Route 61 can be found at:
http://www.metrostlouis.org/PlanYourTrip/MapsSchedules/MetroBusRoute.aspx?Name=Chambers+Rd&
SignID=178&LineID=11107&srcState=MO&srcRouteNumber=61
Route 64 (Lucas and Hunt) had just under 350,000 boardings in 2013.
This route provides transit service to several North Saint Louis County communities, including
Wellston, Ferguson, Normandy, and Jennings. The #64 Lucas Hunt meets high ridership demand for
local travel primarily along Lucas Hunt Road from Rock Road Station to Halls Ferry Road, looping
around Jennings Station Road and Hord Avenue back to the Lucas and Hunt Corridor. This route
connects residents to jobs, services, and shopping. It also provides access to several schools,
employers, and shopping centers, including Lutheran North High School, Normandy High School,
Jennings Junior High School, The Shops at Westfall Plaza, and Lucas Hunt Village. Other popular
destinations served by the route include: Lutheran North High School, Normandy High School,
Jennings Junior High School, North Oaks Shopping Center, The Shops at Westfall Plaza, and Lucas
Hunt Village. (metrostlouis.org)
More information on Route 64 can be found at:
http://www.metrostlouis.org/PlanYourTrip/MapsSchedules/MetroBusRoute.aspx?Name=Lucas+Hunt&Si
gnID=178&LineID=11108&srcState=MO&srcRouteNumber=64
3.3.2 Transit Mode Share
The data provided in Table 3.1 shows that the Study Area has a much greater public transportation mode
split as compared to Missouri and St. Louis County averages. 8.4% of the Study Areas residents use
transit as compared to 1.5% for the state of Missouri and 2.4% for St. Louis County. Overall, 13.5% of
people in the Study Area are not using a car to get to work.


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Table 3.1: Means of transportation to work by vehicles available (US Census)
Estimate Percentage Estimate Percentage Estimate Percentage
Total: 2,719,007 476,464 16,775
Novehicleavailable 71,572 2.6% 11,437 2.4% 968 5.8%
1vehicleavailable 549,236 20.2% 104,432 21.9% 6,011 35.8%
2vehiclesavailable 1,196,171 44.0% 216,819 45.5% 5,593 33.3%
3ormorevehiclesavailable 902,028 33.2% 143,776 30.2% 4,203 25.1%
Car,truck,orvandrovealone: 2,215,866 81.5% 397,875 83.5% 12,693 75.7%
Novehicleavailable 24,830 1.1% 4,008 1.0% 131 0.8%
1vehicleavailable 431,567 19.5% 83,929 21.1% 4,474 26.7%
2vehiclesavailable 1,000,474 45.2% 185,581 46.6% 4,395 26.2%
3ormorevehiclesavailable 758,995 34.3% 124,357 31.3% 3,693 22.0%
Car,truck,orvancarpooled: 278,306 10.2% 34,938 7.3% 1,811 10.8%
Novehicleavailable 12,459 4.5% 1,585 4.5% 35 0.2%
1vehicleavailable 63,526 22.8% 8,880 25.4% 742 4.4%
2vehiclesavailable 114,860 41.3% 14,231 40.7% 674 4.0%
3ormorevehiclesavailable 87,461 31.4% 10,242 29.3% 360 2.1%
Publictransportation(excludingtaxicab): 40,028 1.5% 11,540 2.4% 1,402 8.4%
Novehicleavailable 15,734 39.3% 3,670 31.8% 731 4.4%
1vehicleavailable 13,094 32.7% 4,131 35.8% 514 3.1%
2vehiclesavailable 7,335 18.3% 2,581 22.4% 122 0.7%
3ormorevehiclesavailable 3,865 9.7% 1,158 10.0% 35 0.2%
Walked: 47,400 1.7% 6,355 1.3% 99 0.6%
Novehicleavailable 9,584 20.2% 997 15.7% 12 0.1%
1vehicleavailable 14,638 30.9% 2,174 34.2% 30 0.2%
2vehiclesavailable 13,257 28.0% 1,693 26.6% 42 0.3%
3ormorevehiclesavailable 9,921 20.9% 1,491 23.5% 15 0.1%
Taxicab,motorcycle,bicycle,orothermeans: 32,819 1.2% 5,502 1.2% 305 1.8%
Novehicleavailable 6,068 18.5% 919 16.7% 59 0.4%
1vehicleavailable 7,981 24.3% 1,277 23.2% 86 0.5%
2vehiclesavailable 11,237 34.2% 2,083 37.9% 106 0.6%
3ormorevehiclesavailable 7,533 23.0% 1,223 22.2% 54 0.3%
Workedathome: 104,588 3.8% 20,254 4.3% 465 2.8%
Novehicleavailable 2,897 2.8% 258 1.3% 0 0.0%
1vehicleavailable 18,430 17.6% 4,041 20.0% 165 1.0%
2vehiclesavailable 49,008 46.9% 10,650 52.6% 254 1.5%
3ormorevehiclesavailable 34,253 32.8% 5,305 26.2% 46 0.3%
ProjectArea Missouri St.LouisCounty

Project Area includes the total of all data collected for the cities of Dellwood, Ferguson, and Jennings.

Transit mode share could likely be improved in the Study Area. For example, the layout of the local roadway
system does not connect neighborhoods well with the transit stops on West Florissant Avenue. Map 3.5
illustrates the differences between the one-quarter mile/one-half mile straight-line and walking distances.
Strategically located bicycle and pedestrian paths may shorten walking distances to transit stops for some local
residents.
Since 2010, the city of Ferguson has been engaged in a planning effort to revitalize the West Florissant
Avenue Corridor. One goal from that plan is to incorporate public transportation facilities and services that
meet the special needs of the elderly, low-income families, disabled, and those without access to private
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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automobiles. 5.8% of the Study Areas households have no vehicle available as compared to 2.6% for the
state of Missouri and 2.4% for St. Louis County. Improved transit accessibility is a critical need for the
Corridor.
3.3.3 Planned North County Transit Center
Metro is currently designing a new North County Transit Center that will be located off of Pershall Road to
the east of West Florissant Avenue. The new transit center will serve the eastern North St. Louis County
region (the Hanley Road transit center serves western North St. Louis County). This facility will provide
transfer opportunities for 9-10 routes, include park-ride facilities, and better serve the Florissant Valley
Community College. This facility will also improve transit options for the residents living in the Study Area.
This facility is scheduled to open in spring of 2015.
3.3.4 St. Louis Rapid Transit Connector Study
Metro is currently leading a St. Louis Rapid Transit Connector Study which is considering bus-based rapid
transit services in the St. Louis region. The studys goal is to better connect people to jobs, schools services
in the City of St. Louis and St. Louis County. The study has identified four alternatives, one of which runs
along the Corridor. Specifically,
The West Florissant - Natural Bridge BRT alternative is designed to provide a faster, comfortable,
and convenient alternative to existing local service. Using buses designed specifically for BRT service,
the line would provide direct service along the corridor seven days a week, throughout the day and
well into the night, so that many second and third shift workers can take BRT to and from work. The
BRT line would also provide connections to other popular destinations, including the future North
County Transit Center, Fairground Park, Washington Avenue, the Edward Jones Dome, Busch
Stadium, Scottrade Center and other downtown St. Louis destinations. With frequent service - 10
minutes during weekday rush hours - riders need a schedule to know when the next bus will arrive.
The line will stop only at stations, designed to stand out from local bus stops and provide attractive,
comfortable and safe places to wait. (movingtransitforward.org)
The study will ultimately select two corridors for more intensive study with the hopes of securing funding to
support implementation. The study alternates are shown in Figure 3-15. Implementation of BRT along
West Florissant Avenue could be transformational to the Corridor. More information can be found at:
www.movingtransitforward.org.

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Figure 3-15: St. Louis Rapid Transit Connector Study Alternatives (movingtransitforward.org)


3.4 BICYCLE ACCOMMODATIONS
3.4.1 Existing Facilities
No real bicycle facilities are currently provided along West Florissant Avenue. Few bicycles are observed
riding along the Corridor. The lack of bicycle traffic is surprising. The high volume of pedestrians along West
Florissant Avenue and low automobile ownership in the surrounding residential neighborhoods would
normally indicate a higher level of bicycle ridership. Moreover, West Florissant Avenue is a spine providing
connections to several local civic institutions and parks. However, as currently configured, West Florissant
Avenue presents a hostile environment for bicycles. Those that are observed are primarily seen riding on the
sidewalks. Figure 3-16 shows the typical uninviting riding environment along the Corridor. It is likely that
bicycle ridership would be significantly higher if safe facilities bicycle facilities are provided.


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Figure 3-16: Photograph of West Florissant Avenue right of way


3.4.2 Draft Ferguson Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan
Trailnet and the City of Ferguson are working to develop a Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan for the City. This plan
classifies bicycle and pedestrian facilities in the Ferguson community as greenways, commuter routes, or park
and school loops. The plan classifies West Florissant Avenue as a commuter route. In general, this plan
would maintain the existing number of through lanes on West Florissant Avenue but would reconfigure the
right-of-way to make the corridor more walkable and bikeable. The plan calls for the use of sharrow lane
markings in the short term, with bike lanes ultimately provided. Details of the plans recommendations for
West Florissant Avenue are provided in Figure 3-17. While considering the recommendations from this and
other previous plans, the West Florissant Avenue Great Streets project will evaluate a range of context
friendly enhancements that serve all users.
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Figure 3-17: Proposed bicycle and pedestrian improvements for West Florissant Avenue as shown in the Draft
Ferguson Bicycle & Pedestrian Plan



5-15 Years
5-15 Years
10-20 Years
10-20 Years
10-20 Years
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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3.4.3 Maline Greenway Concept Plan
In the fall of 2011, Great Rivers Greenway published the Maline Greenway Concept Plan. This greenway will
connect to numerous destinations in North St. Louis County. It is important to the local community that
West Florissant Avenue has a strong connection to this trail. Forestwood Park will function as a trailhead
just west of the Study Area. The trail is planned to go east to West Florissant Avenue along the north side of
Maline Creek. From there, the trail is planned to cross the creek and proceed east. A drawing of the
proposed route through the Study Area is provided in Figure 3-18.
Figure 3-18: Proposed Maline Greenway Central Section as shown in the Great Rivers Greenway Maline
Greenway Concept Plan


3.4.4 Bike STL Plan
The St. Louis regional Gateway Bike Plan provides a long-term vision for providing a connected system of on
road bicycle routes in the St. Louis region. The plan was completed in August 2011. The plan calls for a
wide outside lane (for use of bicycles) on West Florissant Avenue through much of the Study Area. More
information about the plan can be found at stlbikeplan.com.
Study
Area
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3.5 PEDESTRIAN ACCOMMODATIONS
Field observations show a high level of pedestrian activity in the Corridor. This has been acknowledged by
the local business community. Figure 3-19 shows a walk-up ATM in the Corridor. Walk-up ATMs are not
generally common in the St. Louis market.
Figure 3-19: Walk-up ATM along West Florissant Avenue


Sidewalks are provided on both sides of West Florissant Avenue and pedestrian crosswalks and push buttons
are provided at all signalized intersections. Existing pedestrian facilities (sidewalks and crosswalks) are shown
in Map 3.6. However, the quality of the pedestrian crossings could be greatly improved. Specifically, many
of the sidewalks are disjointed and some are not compliant with ADA requirements, pedestrian signals have
not been updated to include countdown heads, lighting is not provided in all areas of the Corridor, and few
midblock crossing opportunities are provided. The environment for pedestrians could be greatly improved
by better connecting sidewalks, adding green buffers, improving ADA compliance, creating more midblock
crossing opportunities, reconfiguring some intersections, updating signalized pedestrian crossings, and
lighting all parts of the Corridor.
One major pedestrian issue is that few pedestrians cross West Florissant Avenue at marked cross-walks.
Most cross mid-block, even if they are near a signalized intersection. A large number of vehicular/pedestrian
crashes have resulted. Correcting this problem will take both design solutions to address the problems
mentioned above as well as public educational efforts.
The local street grid is discontinuous. In many areas neighborhoods do not have good bicycle and pedestrian
connections to West Florissant Avenue. This lengthens the distances for walking trips to transit stops and to
local destinations. Strategically located bicycle/pedestrian paths may shorten walking distances for some local
residents and enhance non-motorized accessibility in the Corridor.
3.6 SAFETY FOR ALL MODES
3.6.1 Vehicular Crash History
Crash data for the years 2008 through 2011 were received from Saint Louis County Department of Highways
and Traffic (SLCDHT) along West Florissant Avenue from Pershall Road to Lucas and Hunt Road to
determine any safety performance issues.
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Overall, the types of crashes along the Corridor are typical for arterial corridor (mostly rear end and angle).
The crash data indicates that most occurred on good weather days and during the daylight. There were
significantly more crashes at Pershall Avenue and Chambers Road as compared to the other intersections
along the Corridor. Moreover, one-third of the pedestrian crashes in the Study Area occurred at the
Chambers Road intersection.
There were 736 reported crashes in the four years from 2008 to 2011. Specifically, 158, 183,184, and 211
crashes occurred in 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Of the total crashes reported, 0 fatal crashes
(0.0%), 228 injury crashes (31.0%) and 508 property damage only (69.0%) crashes were reported.
After analyzing the crash data over four years, it is evident that angle and rear end crashes are the most
prominent type of crash, which is typical for a signalized corridor. Nearly three-quarters of the crashes were
identified as rear ends (37%) or angle (37%) crashes, see Figure 3-20. The pedestrian crashes were fairly high
at 3% for the Corridor with all but one pedestrian crash resulting in injuries.
Figure 3-20: Types of vehicular crashes along Corridor


Overall 85% of the crashes occurred on nice weather days, leaving only 15% of crashes occurring during
inclement (wet or snow) or unknown weather conditions. Overall 70% of crashes occurred during daylight
hours and 30% occurred during dark or unknown light conditions.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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Map 3.7 illustrates the number of crashes as related to location along the Corridor. The largest percent of
crashes were reported at Chambers Road with about 24% of total, the second most occurred at Pershall
Avenue with about 19% of total, the third most at Ferguson Avenue (8.5%) and less 6% of the total at each
of the other intersections
3.6.2 Vehicular Crash Rate Comparison
The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) was utilized to determine the predicted average crash frequency at the
intersections of West Florissant with Pershall Road, Chambers Road and Lucas Hunt Road. Based on the
HSM methodologies which evaluate conditions based on average daily traffic, signalized intersection details,
presence of lighting, photo enforcement, auxiliary lanes, bus stops, schools, and number of alcohol
establishments nearby, estimates the average crash rates between 4.1 and 5.8 crashes per year depending on
intersection, see Table 3-2.
Table 3.2: Vehicular Crash Rate Comparison

Ave. Existing Crash
Freq. (Crashes/yr)
HSM Predicated
Freq. (crashes/yr)
Crash Rate
(MVE)
W. Florissant at Pershall 34.5 Crashes/yr 4.6 Crashes/yr 2.442 MVE
W. Florissant at Chambers 43.3 Crashes/yr 5.8 Crashes/yr 2.328 MVE
W. Florissant at Lucas-Hunt 4.0 Crashes/yr 4.1 Crashes/yr 0.284 MVE
The existing average crash frequency was also calculated, which is simply the total crashes per year for the
four year study period. Based on the existing crashes, the crash frequency at the intersection with Lucas-
Hunt Road is at 4.0 vehicles per year, while the frequencies at Pershall and Chambers is much higher at 34.5
to 43.3 crashes per year, respectively.
The average crash rate, which takes into account exposure, was also calculated. Crash rate is the ratio of the
number of annual crashes per million vehicles entering the location, reported as rate per million vehicles
entering (MVE). The crash rates for the intersections along West Florissant Avenue was found to be less
than 0.3 MVE at Lucas-Hunt but more than 2.3 MVE at the intersections with Pershall Road and Chambers
Road. Without a comparison of similar intersections within the City for a baseline crash rate, it is difficult to
determine if this intersection is a high crash location, but typically crash rates over 1.0 are higher than normal.
Table 3-2 summarizes the existing crash frequency, HSM predictive frequency, and crash rate.
3.6.3 Summary of Non-Motorized Crashes
As previously mentioned, there were 21 pedestrian crashes over the 4 years for the Corridor. One third of
the pedestrian crashes occurred at the intersection of Chambers Road, see Figure 3-21.
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Figure 3-21: Number of pedestrian crashes by intersection

It is apparent that the intersection of West Florissant with Chambers Road has a higher safety risk for
pedestrians. The physical features of the intersection include a general lack of access management and
numerous transit stops. Any potential changes to the system should consider impacts to the non-motorized
mode.
3.6.4 Access Management
Access is poorly managed along many sections of the Corridor. Driveways are undefined in many areas and
business parking is configured in some areas such that it forces vehicles to back-out into live traffic lanes.
Better managing the Corridors access could result in significantly safer conditions for all users. The existing
curb and driveway configuration is shown in Map 3.8.















CHAPTER FOUR
I N F R A S T R U C T U R E A N D EN V I R ON ME N T A L AS S E S S ME N T
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4 I NFRASTRUCTURE AND ENVI RONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

4.1 KEY FINDINGS
The West Florissant Avenue Corridor lacks green infrastructure. Approximately 85% of the right-of-way
and 55% of the study area is impervious surface. Reducing impervious area will benefit water quality,
less taxing on storm water management, and reduce heat island effect.
The West Florissant Corridor study area is severely deprived of vegetation and landscape. This lack of
permeable space also results in a lack of sufficient tree canopy coverage, stormwater management,
disconnected corridors and less healthy environment.

4.2 EXISTING UTILITIES
4.2.1 Storm Water
Two Drainage Areas make up the West Florissant Avenue Corridor. All storm water for this project study
area ultimately outlets into Maline Creek (Map 4.1).
The northern drainage area flows into a concrete drainage ditch located just south of Champlin Drive.
This ditch drains into Black Jack Creek which ultimately drains into Maline Creek
The southern drainage area outlets into Maline Creek
The Storm water system consists of a combination of open channel and enclosed drainage. North of
Northwind Estates Drive storm water within West Florissant Avenue is collected by curb and gutter and
distributed to curb inlets. South of Northwind Estates Drive, paved swales are used to deliver water to area
inlets.
Any improvements along the corridor will need to be designed per MSDs Rules and Regulations and
Engineering Design Requiements for Sanitary and Storm Drainage Facilities. The stormwater requirements
include conveyance, quantity, and quality. St. Louis County does all code reinforcement for the City of
Dellwood. Land Disturbances over 1 acre will require a Land Disturbance Permit from St. Louis County. In
addition, a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan will be required by St. Louis County.
Conveyance
Any improvements along West Florissant will have the ability to connect to this system, though any
modifications will need to accommodate the changed condition resulting from the improvements.
Quantity
If the differential runoff between the existing and proposed conditions results in an increase of 2 cubic feet
per second or greater during a 15 year, 20 minute long rain event, improvements will require storm water
quantity management. Within the West Florissant right-of-way opportunities to decrease impervious area
exist south of Northwind Estates Drive where paved swales convey water into the storm water system.
Replacing the paved swales with grass will decrease impervious area, therefore decrease differential runoff.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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Private property improvements will depend on the differential runoff that results from the proposed
improvements. Calculations will need to be made for each individual redevelopment to determine runoff
differential and the MSD requirements.
Quality
Water quality management is required if an acre or more if land is disturbed. The water quality volume is the
storage needed to treat the runoff from 90% of the daily recorded rainfall events. All planned improvements
will need to be evaluated individually along the corridor for water quality requirements. Some water quality
solutions that would be appropriate for an urban site such as the West Florissant Avenue Corridor may
include bioretention, rainwater harvesting, sand filters, permeable pavement, and proprietary BMPs.
Current Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) consist of six minimum control measures.

1. Education Informing individuals and households of ways to reduce stormwater pollution
Because stormwater runoff is generated from dispersed land surfacespavements, yards, driveways,
and roofsefforts to control stormwater pollution must consider individual, household, and public
behaviors and activities that can generate pollution from these surfaces. Some common
individual/household behaviors have the potential to generate stormwater pollution: littering,
disposing of trash and recyclables, disposing of pet-waste, applying lawn-chemicals, washing cars,
changing motor-oil on impervious driveways, household behaviors like disposing leftover paint and
household chemicals
2. Public Outreach Involve the public in the development, implementation and review of the municipal
stormwater management program.
A single regulatory agency office working alone cannot be as effective in reducing stormwater
pollution. Municipal agencies need participation, partnership, and combined efforts of other
community groups. Public involvement will build on the interest of citizens and groups, helping
spread the message of preventing stormwater pollution. These groups will create activities that
highlight storm drain pollution, and contribute volunteer community actions to restore and protect
local water resources.
3. Illegal Discharge Detection and Elimination Identifying and eliminating illegal discharges and spills to
stormwater systems.
Illegal discharges are defined as any discharge into a storm drain system this is not composed entirely
of stormwater. Illegal discharges are a problem because stormwater typically flows to waterways
without treatment, unlike wastewater which flows to a wastewater treatment plant. Illegal discharges
can include pathogens, nutrients, surfactants, and various toxic pollutants. MSD currently has a
program that identifies and eliminates Illegal discharge.
4. Construction Address stormwater runoff during construction.
Construction stormwater runoff can negatively impact rivers, lakes and creeks when uncontrolled.
Sediment from construction sites can decrease the amount of sunlight reaching aquatic plants.
Sediment can clog fish gills, smother aquatic habitat and spawning areas. Sediment in large amounts
can even impede navigation. Missouri Department of Natural Resources regulates construction sites.
St. Louis County, as mentioned above, will require Land Disturbance permits for future project
improvements.
5. Post Construction Address stormwater runoff after construction activities have been completed
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For the past two decades land development rates have skyrocketed all across the country. If
unregulated, the increased impervious surface related to development will increase the stormwater
volume and damage water quality.
The best way to mitigate new development stormwater impacts is to use methods to treat, store, and
infiltrate runoff onsite before it can affect water bodies downstream. Innovative site designs that
reduce imperviousness and smaller-scale low impact development practices dispersed throughout a
site are excellent ways to reduce flows and improve water quality.
6. Pollution Prevention Address stormwater runoff for Municipal Operations.
Municipalities conduct numerous activities that can pose a threat to water quality if practices and
procedures are not in place to prevent pollutants from entering the water bodies. Some examples of
these activities are: winter road maintenance, minor road repairs and other infrastructure work,
automobile fleet maintenance, landscaping and park maintenance, and building maintenance.
4.2.2 Sanitary Sewer
Sanitary structures are located throughout the West Florissant corridor. There are no combined sewer
systems within the project boundary.
4.2.3 Power and Communication
Ameren Missouri is the power provider. A substation is located at the northwest side of the intersection of
West Florissant Avenue and Chambers Road. This is the only substation that serves the geographic area
encompassing and surrounding the study corridor.
The majority of the overhead power is located on the west side of West Florissant Avenue is generally inside
existing right of way. Power pole locations vary but in general are located between the edge of pavement and
sidewalk or are located on the west side of the sidewalk.
There is a stretch of overhead power and power poles located on the east side of West Florissant Avenue that
spans from Northwinds Estates Drive to Kappel Drive.
Ameren has no system improvements planned for the study area.
Communication is suspended from power poles, which are mostly located on the west side of West Florissant
Avenue. In addition, underground communications lines exist within the project corridor.
4.2.4 Lighting
A majority of the roadway lighting on the west side of West Florissant Avenue is provided by suspension
from power poles. The roadway lighting on the east side of the corridor is a combination of suspension from
power poles and individual poles. Street lighting is owned and maintained by Ameren.
4.2.5 Water
Potable water service is present throughout the West Florissant Avenue Corridor and is owned and
maintained by Missouri American Water. Water mains are typically located within roadway limits.
4.2.6 Gas
Underground gas service is present throughout the project corridor. It is owned and maintained by Laclede
Gas.

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4.3 EXISTING PAVEMENT CONDITION
West Florissant Avenue existing pavement consists of asphalt over concrete or asphalt over aggregate base
and can be considered in good to fair condition. West Florissant Avenue has received a mill and overlay
within the last few years in both Dellwood and Ferguson. The pavement will be due for replacement in
approximately 15 years.
Surrounding collectors and residential streets consist of asphalt and are owned and maintained by the
individual municipalities. These roadways vary from good to poor condition.

4.4 EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
4.4.1 Flooding
The 100 year and 500 year flood limits, shown in Map 4.2, cross the West Florissant Avenue Corridor just
south of Northwind Estates, along Maline Creek. According to MSD customer complaint records, from 1995
to 2009, there are 14 flooding and storm sewer related complaint calls registered. A majority of the
complaints come from residents near the concrete drainage ditch located just south of Champlin Drive that
flows into Black Jack Creek. Ten of the 14 calls occurred in 1996 from January through August. This data
doesnt overwhelmingly indicate a flooding problem in the corridor.
4.4.2 Heat Island Effect
In an urban environment, heat gain can be as much as 20% higher due to the suns exposure to surfaces such
as pavement and roves. This rise in heat can obviously affect personal comfort but there are also dangerous
health and safety impacts and negative economic consequences resulting from the heat island affect in urban
areas. Heat gain can induce higher energy cost resulting from additional cooling needs. Pollution and unsafe
conditions for residents of buildings that do not contain air-conditioning also result from this heat gain.
There are a number of strategies that can be used to reduce heat island effect. The use of concrete in place of
asphalt, can positively impact heat gain. A majority of the West Florissant Avenue corridor roadway surface
is asphalt. To reduce the urban heat island effect, future roadway improvement projects should seriously
consider the use of concrete when replacing roadway pavement. Overall pavement reduction would go a
long way in benefiting the study area with respect to combating heat island effect.
Buildings, specifically dark roofs are another contributor to the urban heat island effect. Buildings and
building materials absorb and retain more heat compared to trees and vegetation. The heat is then radiated
out, heating the air around the metropolitan area. Along with the increase in temperature comes the need to
run the air-conditioning system more than usual, resulting in higher cooling cost. Many cool roof or green
roof systems alternatives are available to home and business owners, and would reduce roof temperatures,
surrounding air temperatures, and reduce energy use. Green roof systems would additionally reduce storm
water management costs.
The most effective approach in reducing heat island effect of the urban heat island on is the use of tree
canopy. Maturing trees create an umbrella effect that blocks the suns heat from reaching pavement. See
section 4.4.5 for more on this strategy. The use of trees and vegetation planted in strategic locations around
buildings, or to shade pavement in parking lots and pedestrian areas is also and effective strategy. Trees and
other plant material help cool the environment, lowering surface and air temperatures by providing shade and
also through evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration, in combination with tree shading, can reduce peak
summer temperatures by 2 9 degrees Fahrenheit.
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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4.4.3 Air Quality and Pollution
Air pollution comes from many different sources: some examples are factories, power plants, and dry
cleaners; mobile sources such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains; and naturally occurring sources such as
windblown dust, and volcanic eruptions, all contribute to air pollution. Air Quality is affected by the pollution
discharged from these sources.
When a car idles for more than 30 seconds, it has several negative effects, such as increasing air pollution
unnecessarily, wasting fuel and money, and causing excessive wear or even damaging a cars engine
components, including cylinders, spark plugs, and the exhaust system.
Providing alternatives to car trips, such as safe bicycle and pedestrian routes, and transit opportunities, can
reduce unhealthy concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter, ultimately improving air quality.
4.4.4 Impervious Surface
The West Florissant Avenue corridor is made-up of mostly impervious surfaces. Approximately 85% of the
right-of-way is comprised of roadway pavement and sidewalk, not to mention the many parking lot surfaces
that line each side of West Florissant Road. Approximately 55% of the total study area is made up of
impervious surface. See table 4.1 for the breakdown of impervious type.
Impervious surfaces absorb heat, generate more runoff than more the natural surfaces, such as grass.
Impervious surfaces prevent water from reaching the ground. Storm water reaches receiving waters more
rapidly than if they were to travel over natural surfaces, bringing along contaminates that contain pollutants
such as petroleum, toxic pesticides, and contaminants from vehicles. These pollutants are damaging water
quality. Pollutants also tax the existing storm water management systems. Select replacement of pavement
with planted material would make great strides in improving water quality as well as result in a reduction in
the urban heat island effect in this corridor.
There is a significant amount of impervious parking area throughout the study corridor. Much of the existing
parking areas are unused. A parking strategy will be considered, in order to combine/reduce parking,
resulting in less overall impervious surface.
Table 4.1: Impervious Surface Area
Impervious Surface
Area
(Acres)
Total Project Area Boundary 310.47
Impervious Area Type:
Buildings-Main-Structures 39.34
Buildings-Out-Buildings 0.24
Driveways-Paved 2.63
In-Ground-Swimming-Pools 0.22
Parking-Paved 95.87
Patio_Concrete-Slabs 1.58
Paved-Drains 0.05
Recreation-Area 0.17
Sheds 0.04
Sidewalks-Private 0.93
Sidewalks - Public 3.67
Street 27.89
Total Impervious 172.63
Total Percentage of Impervious 55.6%
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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4.4.5 Tree Canopy
The West Florissant corridor study area is severely deprived of tree canopy coverage (Map 4.3). Only 13% of
the study area is benefited by tree canopy. Lack of tree canopy coverage leads to increased heat-island effects,
poor air quality, and a strained ecological habitat. Trees naturally lower greenhouse gases from the
environment and lower ambient temperatures through evaporation and lower temperatures can contribute to
energy conservation. Trees can also naturally be helpful tools to combat sound pollution. This is especially
important in residential areas of The Corridor. Some of the abutting residential properties currently contain
existing trees though additional buffering could be beneficial. Urban tree canopy also promotes water quality
and reduced stormwater by capturing, slowing and filtering rainwater. Trees reduce stormwater runoff,
reduce flooding, save infrastructural costs, and decrease the flow of polluted water into adjacent creeks and
waterways. Trees provide important habitats for numerous bird, insect and animal species. Trees also
provide aesthetic and experiential qualities to places through shade, color and change throughout the year and
noise reduction.
4.4.6 Planted Area Conditions
The existing corridor infrastructure contains a very limited extent of vegetated space within the right-of-way.
Most conditions are paved and impervious. Parkways and turf areas exist primarily within the residential
zones of the corridor. Existing turf areas offer a welcomed buffer between pedestrian circulation and
vehicular traffic. The lack of landscape zones within the corridor is directly reflected in the lack of tree
canopy coverage and pervious materials having adverse effects on the corridors ability to manage
stormwater, reduce heat-island effects, and support a diverse ecosystem.
As in Map 4.4, the areas highlighted in green are identified as those with a Flexible Right-of-Way, which
either currently have landscape within the right-of-way or have the potential for landscape infrastructure due
to the current space available. The areas highlighted in red, indicate areas with a Constrained Right-of-
Way, which either do not currently have landscape within the right-of-way or do not have the potential due to
limited space available. The red-highlighted areas in Map 4.4 indicate areas with a constrained right-of-way,
which either do not currently have landscape within the right-of-way or have limited potential due to minimal
space currently available.
4.4.7 Open Space and Parks
There are 160 acres of open space or park land use within one mile of the West Florissant Corridor study area
(Map 4.5). These areas include: Hudson Park, Wild Cherry Ridge Conservation Area, Bon Oak Park, Robert
Superior Park, Wayside Park, Forestwood Park, Lions Park, Koeneman Park, and Dellwood Park. Dellwood
Park is directly adjacent to the corridor and within the study area, providing 14.2 acres of open space
accessible to residents and local businesses. These spaces offer a variety of recreational and ecological services
for the area and could be strengthened with more systematic connections to one another. The Great Rivers
Greenway District has plans to develop a greenway trail along a portion of the Maline Creek. Other trails and
linkages can be used to connect the open spaces so that they can perform as a network as opposed to isolated
patches.
4.4.8 Wildlife
The existing Maline Creek and hydrological systems provide natural corridors that are vital to the health of
the study area (see below and Map 4.6). The two wildlife corridors that intersect The Corridor are the
Maline Creek on the southern end and one of its tributaries to the north. These natural areas provide wildlife
habitat and passages for safe migration of indigenous species. Preservation and enhancement of these areas
could increase animal and plant biodiversity, strengthen connectivity to nature, and significantly improve
environmental performance of the corridor study area. Embracing the existing wildlife, unique to the study
area, may provide opportunities for strengthened identity and placemaking.














CHAPTER FIVE
MA R K E T CON D I T I ON S AS S E S S ME N T
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5 MARKET CONDITIONS ASSESSMENT
Market and economic analyses, like the design and development processes, require vision and knowledge of
what is possible given a set of resources. It requires an understanding of development sites, the opportunities
and constraints they represent, the types of people who might live, work, or shop there, and the types of real
estate products necessary to attract them. More than simply a market study, market and economic analyses
define the scale and scope of realistic opportunities over five, ten, or fifteen years, and identify ways in which
governments and anchor institutions can be leveraged to catalyze private investmentto make possible
tomorrow what is not possible today.
This market conditions assessment is the foundation for all market and economic strategies set forth as part
of this planning effort. Additional information for this assessment is presented in the Appendix.
5.1 KEY FINDINGS
North County (the boundaries of which are defined in this report), in general, can be characterized as
having incomes and property values that have not kept up with inflation and regional growth rates. This
pattern has been particularly acute south of I-270, where the study area is located.
North Countyespecially in and around the study areais characterized by the lowest apartment rents
and highest vacancy rates in the St. Louis region, making the use of subsidies like tax credits necessary in
order to build quality replacement housing.
Single family rental housing is common and becoming more common. Since 1990, the homeownership
rate in the Neighborhood Market Area (or NMAdefined later in this report) has declined from 68
percent to 58 percent.
Two very large apartment properties at the southern end of the corridorPark Ridge and Northwinds
have some of the heaviest concentrations of very low income residents (defined as earning 30 percent of
Area Median Income) in the entire region, and are not performing well in terms of overall occupancy.
Although the NMA is not growing in terms of population, it is shifting demographically, and will
experience significant growth in the senior population, creating opportunities for the development of
affordable senior housing.
Homes in Ferguson and Dellwood have experienced some of the most anemic property appreciation in
the entire St. Louis region. Home values in the NMA tend to range between $60,000 and $70,000well
below the $175,000 needed to construct quality single family housing.
Demographic Analysis reveals a sizeable minority of households in the NMA that are capable of
affording new, market rate housingbe it rental or for-sale. Evidence indicates this population is
migrating farther north into St. Louis County, as well as to St. Charles County, in order to find
appropriately priced and quality housing.
The corridor has over 1.2 million square feet of retail, including two community shopping centers, one
neighborhood shopping center, and many smaller centers. Cumulatively, these centers provide most of
the communitys retail needs and there are few opportunities for additional retail. Paring back some land
devoted to retail is likely needed along the corridor in order to boost overall occupancy rates and correct
a market condition of oversupply that leads to low rents and, as a result, insufficient funds for landlords
to maintain their properties.
Office opportunities in the corridor are limited, with the possible exception of medical office space, and
growth opportunities related to the St. Louis Community College and Emerson Electric.
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While many of these findings paint a bleak economic picture for the corridor, what they really point to are the
need for market and economic strategies that guide public investments in place, transit, and improved
functionality in such a way that they stimulate private investment, consumer attraction and population
growth. Targeting nodes and areas of opportunity, capitalizing on specific market opportunities such as
senior housing, and retaining higher income households in the market area while providing a better quality of
life for all residents are all critical pieces of any market and economic strategy for the area.
5.2 SITE MARKETABILITY / SWOT ANALYSIS
An assessment of the corridors geographic context has been undertaken to understand its marketability
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (i.e. SWOT analysis) within the broader region. This
includes an assessment of key linkages, gateways, land use synergies, employment and shopping centers, and
prevailing development patterns that currently impact or may impact the area in the future. The result is a
better understanding of the areas potential competitive position in the regional or sub-regional marketplace
for uses such as housing, retail, employment, and entertainment.
5.2.1 SWOT Analysis
Strengths
Interchange Retail/Buzz Westfall Center: Both areas provide a great deal of services to the area and
generate taxes and income, some of which is captured by the local economy.
Institutions: The St. Louis Community College and Emerson Headquarters provide employment and
generate traffic and activity. With vested interests in the corridor, their assistance in improving the
corridor is both greatly needed and valuable to their long-term investments in the corridor.
Well-retailed: though an oversupply of retail has drawbacks in terms of depressing rents that are
achievable, the corridors many consumer goods and services offered make the area relatively marketable
for housing. Therefore, a balance must be struck in pairing back some underutilized or obsolete retail
space without detracting from an area strength.
Affordable Housing: The low cost of housing in the area provides households of modest economic
means an affordable place to live.
Recreation Center/Dellwood Park: These areas, when combined, provide the beginnings of a civic
center or central gathering place for the community.
Weaknesses
Physical Deterioration: The low rents of older generation retail centers, as well as some multifamily
housing in and around the corridor, leave scarce few resources for basic maintenance, resulting in physical
deterioration. If property values for single family housing continue to fail to keep up, they too, may suffer
from disinvestment.
Poor Curb Appeal: The wide roads and shoulders, auto-orientation (to the exclusion of pedestrian and
human-scaled activity), as well as a lack of landscaping fail to enable the corridor to add greater value to
the community as an amenity and central gathering place.
Concentrated Poverty: Conditions at both Northwinds and Park Ridge need to be re-evaluated and
improved to encourage broader socio-economic diversity and thus better-integration into the whole
community in a manner that is economically sustainable and socially equitable. Best practice approaches
in property management, mixing of incomes, and cooperative housing need to be explored.
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Affordability: While low rents and home sales have their advantages, poor rent growth and home
appreciation are stifling investment in maintenance and new development in the market, particularly for
housing.
Opportunities
Civic Center Enhancement: The area in and around Dellwood Park and Dellwood Recreation Center
present an opportunity for a true civic center, perhaps with additional civic buildings and a mix of other
uses. If the Recreation Center is unable to remain competitive in the future, the building or land might be
repurposed for other use(s).
Public/Private Partnerships: Leveraging limited public money at the right locations can stimulate
private investment in a mix of uses in select areas.
Medical Facility: Given growth in the healthcare industry demand for service providers is likely to
increase.
Selective Retail Enhancement: As part of a public/private partnership, monies could be devoted to
development of higher quality space for those existing retailers able to pay somewhat higher rates.
Rapid Transit: Transit stations that are part of a broader Bus Rapid Transit system could improve
property values and development opportunities, particularly within a quarter-mile radius.
Senior Housing: Senior housing is a specific niche market for which demandand development
opportunitiesis likely to increase.
Property Intervention: Best practice interventions could be undertaken for Park Ridge and Northwinds,
including cooperative housing and mixed-income housing.
Threats
Continued Deterioration: Without targeted interventions that improve the aesthetic and economic
performance of housing and retail, disinvestment in buildings is likely to continue.
Continued Loss of Property Values: Relative to inflation, home values and rents have declined, stifling
investment.
Resident Out-migration: Loss of the areas wealthiest residents (in this case, largely middle income
households) to outlying areas such as St. Charles reduces the number of people able to invest in the
maintenance of their properties, as well as those most able to pay property taxes and thus underwrite
programs aimed at helping the areas neediest citizens.

5.2.2 Areas of Opportunity for Intervention
Following are the best areas of opportunity for focused intervention:
Civic Center: the combination of public space, civic buildings, and a vacant shopping center near
the Dellwood Recreation Center could provide the ingredients necessary for a mixed-use, mixed-
income development, as well as meaningful civic space that could become the gem of Dellwood and
add value for nearby communities.
Chambers South: with several vacant and underutilized properties on the south side of Chambers,
land could be assembled for redevelopment to a more marketable use, such as housing.
Maline Creek: The area with perhaps the greatest opportunity (other than the Civic Center) is also
the area with the greatest need for intervention. Retail parcels along West Florissant are deep and
better structures could be developed to accommodate a mix of local and chain retailers, if they can be
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identified. Northwinds could use best practice interventions to stabilize the community, including a
cooperative housing model. Park Ridge needs to be re-evaluated for design and perhaps be
converted into a mixed-income community.

5.3 REAL ESTATE MARKET ASSESSMENT AND FINDINGS
The following real estate market analysis documents the existing conditions in and around the West Florissant
Corridor. Included is a Neighborhood Market Area (NMA) that consists of roughly 27,000 people and
10,500 households, and from which most future demand for housing, retail, etc. is likely to be derived. Given
the poor to modest performance of real estate in the area, many of the conclusions in this segment do not
yield substantial development opportunities. The usefulness of this analysis, however, is not solely in
documenting current conditions. Rather, it serves as a baseline of market expectations from which value-
adding strategies (such as placemaking, tenanting strategies, bus rapid transit) can be derived, in order to
predict the market and economic impact of such strategies.

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5.3.1 Rental Housing Supply
The real estate market for housing in North County is challenged. With average rents of $620 per month, the
North County submarket has the lowest rents in the region, and the vacancy rate is also highest, at roughly
eight percent (compared to five percent across the St. Louis Metro). Further, data indicate that rents in the
study areas portion of the North County submarket (i.e., the area south of I-270) performs even worse, with
average monthly rents below $600.
$880
$640
$620
$920
$670
$850
$900
$780
St. Louis City / N of I-64
St. Louis City / S of I-64
Airport / North County
North of I-44 / Mid County
Crestwood / Jefferson County
Bridgeton / Northwest County
Chesterfield / West County
St. Charles County
St. Louis Apartments
Monthly Rent by Submarket
Sources: Hendricks-Berkadia; REIS2013 1Q


While low rent housing is affordable for households on the lower end of the income scale, it does little to
incentivize private investment in the maintenance of existing housing or the development of new housing. In
fact, there has been little to no investment in new, market rate rental housing in this part of North County
over the past 30 years. Only twice in the past decade has the City of Ferguson issued more than 10 housing
permits in a single year. Data indicates Dellwood has issued no such permits over the period. This indicates
that there is little to no incentive for the private market to redevelop or replace housing that has deteriorated
or become obsolete.
Market Rate
Survey of market rate rental properties in and around the corridor reveals a rental market that has experienced
little rent growth and is lacking in new construction. Most rental apartments were built between 1965 and
1975. Monthly rents for a 700 square foot one-bedroom unit tend to range from $500 to $575 per month.
A 950 square foot two-bedroom unit generally has a monthly rent range of $675 to $725 per month.
Single Family Rentals
Census data indicates that 72 percent of the housing stock in the NMA consists of single family residences,
yet only 57 percent of households own their home (compared to 70 percent in the region). This means that
single family rentals are common in the area, and are very competitive because of their affordability. This is a
particular asset, considering a third of households are headed by single moms (compared to a 13 percent
Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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metro average) and seven percent of households are multigenerational (double to regional figure). Rents for
two-bedroom homes range from $550 to $675 per month. Three bedroom units range in rent from $750 to
$875 per month. On a per square foot basis, monthly rents of $0.75 to $0.80 are common.
Affordable
Affordable housing is common in North County and, without public incentives such as the Low Income
Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), development of new housing and rehabilitation of existing housing would
generally not be economically viable. Few apartment properties have been developed in North County
without subsidy over the past 30 years. Per a housing study completed for the East West Gateway Council of
Governments in 2011, there are 4,200 housing units that have been developed with LIHTC in North County,
or 63 percent of all such housing developed in St. Louis County. In other words, few other parts of the
county welcome this type of housing, but in North County, it is one of the few tools available to provide
quality replacement housing.
Three affordable propertiesBentwood Townhomes, Northwinds, and Park Ridgeillustrate three different
affordable housing products that have yielded different results, opportunities, and challenges in and around
the NMA.
Bentwood Townhomes
Built in 2005 with tax credits, it has 208 units, is 98 percent occupied, and has a waiting list for many
units. A mixed income property, its market rate units achieve rents of $740 per month for a two-
bedroom unitthe highest in the vicinity of the corridor. Affordable rents for the same, 970 square
foot unit are set at $680 per month. Though the exterior materials of the property are unexceptional
(with a mix of face brick and siding), the project would not have been economically feasible without
significant subsidy.
Park Ridge
Located in the corridor, Park Ridge falls on the other end of the spectrum. Built in 1968, the
property was awarded tax credits in 2008 for rehabilitation. With an 83 percent occupancy rate and
336 units, the property has struggled mightily (successful properties in the metro area tend to be
around 95 percent occupied). This is likely due, in part, to its obsolete, barracks-style appearance and
layout. Roughly 45 percent of its units are occupied by households with Section 8 Housing Choice
Vouchers, meaning the property would be less than 50 percent occupied without this program. As a
result, the property has become de facto public housinga heavily concentrated area of very low-
income households.
In retrospect, this property may have been better-served by starting from scratch. By introducing
new buildings and infrastructure that are more marketable, the property could be made competitive
not only with the market for subsidized housing, but to a broader group on the socio-economic
spectrum. This strategy would be more supportive of mixed-income housing.
Northwinds
Like Park Ridge, Northwinds received tax credits for rehabilitation approximately five years ago.
With 438 units and a 90 percent occupancy rate, the property has underperformed, but not to the
extent of Park Ridge. Its relatively large units, ranch layouts, and private basements make it
marketable for families and competitive with single family rentals. While the propertys design might
be re-evaluated, best practice solutions, such as a cooperative housing approach, might be considered
for this property.
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Senior
While the population of the NMA is neither growing nor declining significantly, it is shifting in terms of its
demographic composition. Specifically, the senior population is anticipated to grow over the next decade. A
survey of current affordable senior properties indicates a high occupancy rate in North County that is unlikely
to diminish as demand for these products increases. Monthly rents are $500, on average, for a 600 square
foot, one bedroom unit ($0.84 per square foot). Averages for two-bedroom, affordable units are $620 and
750 square feet.
5.3.2 For Sale Housing Supply
The market for for-sale housing is greatly challenged in North County, particularly for areas south of I-270.
Per census data, the homeownership rate has dropped significantly since 1990, from 68 percent (about the
U.S. national and St. Louis metro averages) to the present value of 58 percent. Given the lack of population
growth in the area, this has translated directly into a shortage of demand for for-sale housing, which helps
explain the low home values and home value appreciation. Analysis of Zillow data indicates that the range of
average home values in the NMA is roughly $60,000 to $70,000 (compared to roughly $165,000 for St. Louis
County, overall).
Home value appreciation has been especially problematic in the area. Zillow provided home value data over
a 15-year period for 67 communities in St. Louis County, and Dellwood and Ferguson ranked as the sixth and
eighth lowest communities, respectively, in terms of property value appreciation (and, in fact, the bottom 22
communities are all located in North County.) During the period, each essentially gained no value. This is
particularly significant when considering properties needed to increase in value by 43 percent, in order to
keep up with inflation (per the Bureau of Labor Statistics). This cuts to the root of the decline in
homeownership in the area. If homeowners feel they are not receiving a good return on investment, they are
inclined to move somewhere where they will.
1%
1%
36%
54%
Dellwood
Ferguson
St. Louis County
StL Metro
Percent Home Value Increase 1998-2013
Source: Zillow Home Value Index

The recent foreclosure crisis hit North County communities particularly hard. Per a 2011 housing study done
for East West Gateway, 13 of every 100 homes in North County were foreclosed upon between 2005 and
2011, compared to two out of 100 elsewhere in St. Louis County. Given data that indicates every foreclosure
results in at least a one percent loss in property value for the surrounding neighborhood, it is easy to
understand how this foreclosure phenomenon has exacerbated home value problems in the market. More
positively, data has indicated that home foreclosures are on the decline, since their peak between 2007 and
2010.
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Given this economic environment, it is unsurprising that there are few case studies of new construction
housing added to North County. Anecdotal information has been provided by officials at St. Louis County
and Ferguson regarding some subsidized for-sale housing products that were built in the past 10 years. These
projects each consisted of fewer than 10 units and made use of HOME fundsa scarce federal resource that
can be used for the development of for-sale homes. In each instance, homes that were built at a cost of more
than $175,000 could not be sold for more than $80,000. This basic mathematical equationnew homes
cannot be sold for half of what it costs to build themsignifies the magnitude of the challenge of delivering
new for-sale housing to the market.
5.3.3 Housing Demand
As is often the case in struggling markets, demand estimates that are based on household income and housing
affordability tend to paint a better picture than supply information. Analysis reveals a broad range of
households in the market area that could afford a broad spectrum of housing products. The challenge for
North County and the NMA is that those households that can afford market rate products either a.) prefer to
live beneath their means and live in low-cost housing, or b.) move outside the market area when seeking new
housing. Anecdotal and demographic information indicate that this latter category is moving to St. Charles
County, meaning those most able to pay for market rate housing are simply leaving when they choose to do
so, rather than re-investing in the area.
Rental
The table below shows a broad range of household affordability in the NMA. Of the roughly 10,500 in the
area, roughly 1,200 require subsidized housing (i.e., housing priced at $500 per month or lower). Another
large segment requires very affordable housing, ranging in monthly rents from $510 to $690. Another group
is able to pay for modest, market rate rental housing (i.e., older generation apartments) at rates of $735 to
$915 per month. Lastly, there are over 350 renter households capable of paying market rents of over $1,000
per month. Market strategies are therefore needed to keep this latter demographic group in the area if West
Florissant is to thrive as a corridor.

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Senior
Demographic analysis reveals that, while the overall population is not projected to grow, the number of
seniors will increase significantly over the next decade, increasing demand for senior housing. Conversely,
this indicates that there will be less demand for other types of housing. That doesnt mean that replacement
housing isnt neededbut it does mean that new housing must be very competitive, because the least
marketable, non-senior housing in the market area is likely to perform poorly.
3%
-1%
-4%
5%
-5%
6%
32%
8%
Pre-school (0-4)
K - 12 (5-17)
College Age (18-24)
Early Workforce (25-34)
Family Years (35-49)
Empty Nesters (50-64)
Seniors (65-74)
Elderly (75+)
Projected Population Growth
Neighborhood Market Area: 2010-2017
Source: Esri, 2013


While many seniors will undoubtedly opt to age in place for as long as possible, detailed demand analysis
yields the following product demand in the neighborhood market area over the decade:
Affordable Independent Living
- 70 units that target households with incomes below $15,000
- 120 units that target households with incomes between $15,000 and $35,000
Affordable Assisted Living
- 25 units that target households with incomes below $15,000
- 50 units that target households with incomes between $15,000 and $35,000
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For-sale
Demand analysis reveals that while a majority of homeowners in the market cannot afford new housing, a
sizeable number can. Roughly 1,400 residents could afford a home priced at $190,000, and another 1,400
could afford a home priced at $230,000 or more. Given the lack of home appreciation in the area, the
challenge is convincing this segment that buying a new home in the area is a wise investment. This is
difficult, given the myriad of new home options available throughout the region, as well as their affordability
levels.
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
1,400
1,600
1,800
2,000
$110K $130K $140K $190K $230K $310K $420K $470K
H
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s
Average Price
For-Sale Affordability by Number of Households
Neighborhood Market Area
Development Strategies, 2013


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Market Segmentation
Market segmentation data goes well beyond standard demographic variables, marrying demographics with
consumer preferences and cultural attitudes to paint a clearer picture of the likely market demands and
expectations of several groupings or segments of people. Below are the seven market segments most
commonly found in the neighborhood market area (detailed descriptions can be found in the Tapestry
Segmentation Reference Guide produced by ESRI, at http://www.esri.com/library/brochures/pdfs/tapestry-
segmentation.pdf).

DominantMarketSegments
WestFlorissantNeighborhoodMarketArea
TapestryGroup/Segment
Medi anHH
Income
%
Owner
Average
HHSi ze Domi nantHousehol dType Domi nantHousi ngType
TopSevenSegments
MetroCi tyEdge $29,269 49% 2.87 Fami l ymi x Si ngl efami l y;Dupl ex
Ci tyCommons $16,339 22% 2.78 Si ngl eparentfami l i es;Si ngl es Mul ti uni trental s
Fami l yFoundati ons $38,460 68% 2.80 Fami l ymi x Si ngl efami l y
Rustbel tReti rees $46,909 83% 2.33 Marri edcoupl esw/oki ds;Si ngl es Si ngl efami l y
CozyandComfortabl e $66,895 87% 2.60 Marri edcoupl efami l i es Si ngl efami l y
Rustbel tTradi ti ons $51,436 74% 2.48 Mi xed Si ngl efami l y
Mi l kandCooki es $57,170 81% 2.95 Marri edcoupl esw/ki ds Si ngl efami l y
Source:ESRIBusinessAnalyst2011.Datapresentedarenationalfigures.


Of the above groups, the top three are by far the most common in number. Metro City Edge and Family
Foundations generally require affordable housing, and generally prefer single family homes. City Commons is
one of the lowest-income segments (actually, it is the second lowest-income segment out of 65 provided by
Esri, a national data provider). This group tends to live in public housing or hold Section 8 Housing
Vouchers. This segment is also commonly found in the lowest income neighborhoods of North St. Louis
City, as well as East St. Louis. The southern end of the corridor, which has apartment properties such as
Park Ridge and Northwinds, now has some of the heaviest concentrations of this segment in the regiona
likely product of the Housing Choice program, in which public housing units have been demolished and
former tenants have been given Section 8 Vouchers.
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The below table paints a picture of the type and amount of household demand these different segments
generate. As the table shows, the four bottom segments are the ones with the greatest ability to pay for
market rate housingand are also fewest in number. Importantly, these bottom four groups are commonly
found in St. Charles Countyevidence that migration of these higher-income groups to outlying suburban
areas is a real threat for the study area and its environs.

DominantMarketSegments
WestFlorissantNeighborhoodMarketArea
TapestryGroup/Segment
Total
Househol ds
I mpl i ed
Owner
Househol
I mpl i ed
Average
Pri ce
I mpl i ed
Renter
Househol
I mpl i edAverage
Rent
TopSevenSegments 10,556 5,582 $120,000 4,974 $740
MetroCi tyEdge 3,265 1,600 $110,000 1,665 $850
Ci tyCommons 2,895 637 $70,000 2,258 $520
Fami l yFoundati ons 1,765 1,200 $150,000 565 $960
Rustbel tReti rees 771 640 $180,000 131 $1,090
CozyandComfortabl e 761 662 $260,000 99 $1,390
Rustbel tTradi ti ons 676 500 $200,000 176 $1,070
Mi l kandCooki es 423 343 $210,000 80 $1,190
Sources:ESRI,DevelopmentStrategies2013


5.3.4 Retail
Retail generally works at many overlapping scales. Generally, anchor stores drive traffic for other types of
retailers, and thus they tend to be central to understanding retail markets and their underlying forces. Retail
anchors that are frequently used because they provide daily needs (think supermarkets and pharmacies) tend
to anchor smaller neighborhood shopping centers. Anchor stores that provide a broader range of goods (like
general merchandise retailers such as Target, Wal-Mart, and Macys) are larger in size and smaller in number,
because they can draw from much larger areas.
These different shopping centers often have overlapping market areas which, together, provide residents with
many of the services that they need. Retail analysis is sometimes undertaken to understand these dynamics,
and to see if certain types of retail are missing or in undersupply, because when they are, a development
opportunity likely exists. Conversely, if retail proves to be in oversupply, different strategies are sometimes
needed in order to reduce the amount of land devoted to retail, in order to enable other, more valuable uses
to thrive.
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Supply
Retail supply is pretty well defined in the corridor, with two community/power retail centers at either end
that serve a broader region, a neighborhood center in the middle that serves the neighborhood market area,
and a number of small/boutique/independent retailers in between that serve client bases from a very small
and specific surrounding geography.
Lease rates are highest at the community shopping centers, and range from $18 to $22 per square foot, per
year (commercial rents are typically reported on an annual basis, whereas apartment rents are reported on a
monthly basis) at the interchange retail near I-270 and at the Buzz Westfall Shopping Center. These centers
are driven by the traffic generated by large anchors, including Wal-Mart and Target. Lease rates of $14 to $16
per square foot are more common at Dellwood Plaza, which is anchored by a Save-A-Lot supermarket.
Otherwise, shopping centers in the corridor are dated in appearance, and achieve lease rates that range from
$8 to $10 per square foota number that is not sufficient to enable necessary maintenance and replacement
to keep buildings from deteriorating.
Significantly, a quality retail product likely cannot be delivered to the market without the help of subsidy, if its
projected lease rates will not achieve $20 to $25 per square foot. This means that funds will be needed as part
of a public-private partnership if the quality of the built environment is to be greatly improved in areas other
than the two community shopping centers.



Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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Demand
Demand analysis reveals a market that, for most retail categories, is in almost perfect equilibrium. It is neither
in gross oversupply or undersupply of retail. At first glance, it would appear that general merchandise stores
are the exception, but this can be explained by the unusually large trade areas of current anchor stores, such
as Target and Wal-Mart, which draw from the neighborhood market area, but also include areas well beyond
it.
This points to a few conclusions. As part of a broader market strategy, a tenanting strategy could identify
particular retailers that, while serving the same categories already present in the community, could prove to be
more competitive and successful. Also, where land is vacant or existing retail buildings are vacant, it will be
difficult to find replacement tenants that are net new additions to the market, since there is not a significant
amount of unmet demand in the area. Strategies may therefore be needed to repurpose the land for different
uses. The best retail strategy is, therefore, one that combines a tenanting strategy, public incentives, and
identifies current tenants in the corridor that could be brought in as part of a mix of tenants that need or
desire a higher quality space.
(180,000) (140,000) (100,000) (60,000) (20,000) 20,000
Automotive Parts/Accsrs, Tire Stores
Furniture and Home Furnishings Stores
Electronics and Appliance Stores
Building Material, Garden Equip Stores
Grocery Store
Pharmacies and Drug Stores
Specialty Food and Liquor Stores
Gasoline Stations
Clothing and Clothing Accessories Stores
Sporting Goods, Hobby, Book, & Music Stores
General Merchandise Stores
Miscellaneous Store Retailers
Full-Service Restaurants
Limited-Service Eating Places
Drinking Places - Alcoholic Beverages
Residentially-Driven Retail Demand in Square Feet
Neighborhood Market Area
Sources: ULI Dollars and Cents, BizStats, Development Strategies; 2013
(Oversupply) Undersupply

Existing Conditions Analysis West Florissant Avenue Great Streets Project
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5.3.5 Office
Historically, North County has not been a strong market for professional office space. It has a number of
corporations, including Emerson Electric and Express Scripts, but aside from those types of office users,
professional services providersarchitects, engineers, lawyers, accountants, etc.tend to locate along the
regions Central Corridor and in West St. Louis County. Per CoStar, there is only one Class A building in the
North County submarket.
There is, however, a significant amount of Class B space in the submarket, including 52 buildings that total
1.5 million square feet of space. This includes some doctors offices, dentists, tax preparers, and other
businesses that serve a local market, much in the way retailers do.
Conversations with area brokers indicate several leases have been signed for medical providers recentlya
reflection of the growing demand for these services in the area. While the quality and condition of medical
space runs the gamut on the corridor, many of the best-maintained office buildings in the corridor are
occupied by healthcare providers. Continued growth in this sector should lead to additional development and
rehabilitation opportunities in the corridor. Other potential opportunities for office growth could come from
the St. Louis Community College at Florissant Valley, or the Emerson Corporate Headquartersif expansion
is needed or its suppliers can be attracted to the area.
There are a very limited number of office properties in the corridor, and they tend to be Class B and Class C
properties that achieve annual lease rates of $8 to $12 per square foot. A successful medical service provider
might be able to pay in excess of $20 per square foot. In terms of demand, the St. Louis region (Missouri
side only) is projected to add 3.1 million square feet of medical office space over the next 10 years. A small
capture of that growth in the West Florissant area could translate into a catalyst project opportunity.