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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Today, in every organisation personnel planning as an activit y


is necessary. It is an i mportant part of an organisation. Human
Resource Planning is a vital ingredient for the success of the
organisation in the long run. There are certain ways that are to be
followed by every organisation, which ensures that it has right
number and kind of people, at the right place and right ti me, so that
organisation can achieve its planned obj ective.
The obj ectives of Human Resource epartment are Human
Resource Planning, Recruit ment and !election, Training and
evelopment, "areer planning, Transfer and Promot ion, Risk
#anagement, Performance $ppraisal and so on. %ach obj ective
needs special attention and proper planning and implementat ion.
&or every organisation it is important to have a right person
on a right j ob. Recruitment and !election plays a vital role in this
situation. !hortage of skills and the use of new technology are
putting considerable pressure on how employers go about Recruiting
and !electing staff. It is recommended to carry out a strategic
anal ysis of Recruitment and !election procedure.
'ith reference to this conte(t, this proj ect is been prepared to
put a light on Recruitment and !election process. This proj ect
includes #eaning and efinition of Recruit ment and !election,
)eed and Purpose of Recruit ment, %valuation of Recruitment
Process, Recruit ment Tips. !ources of Recruit ment through which
an *rganisation gets suitable application. !cientifi c Recruitment
and !election, which an *rganisation should follow for, right
manpower. +ob $nal ysi s, which gives an idea about the re,uirement
of the job. )e(t is !election process, which includes steps of
!election, Types of Test, Types of Interview, "ommon Interview
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Problems and their !olutions. $pproaches to !election, !cientific
!election Policy, !election in India and problems.
Recruit ment and !election are simultaneous process and are
incomplete without each other. They are important components of
the organisation and are different from each other. !ince all the
aspect needs practical e(ample and e(planation this proj ect includes
Recruit ment and selection Process of Infosys. $nd a practical case
study. It also contains addresses of various and top placement
consultants and the pricelist of advertisements in the maga0ine.
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1 INTRODUCTION
Recruitment and Selection
Recruit ment and selection are two of the most i mportant
functions of personnel management. Recruit ment precedes selection
and helps in selecting a right candidat e.
Recruit ment is a process to discover the sources of manpower
to meet the re,uirement of the staffing schedule and to employ
effective measures for attracting that manpower in ade,uate
numbers to facilitate effective selection of efficient personnel.
!taffing is one basic function of management. $ll managers
have responsibilit y of staffing function by selecting the chief
e(ecutive and even the foremen and supervisors have a staffing
responsibilit y when they select the rank and file workers. However,
the personnel manager and his personnel depart ment is mainl y
concerned with the staffing function.
%very organisation needs to look after recruitment and
selection in the initial period and thereaft er as and when additional
manpower is re,uired due to e(pansion and development of business
activi ties.
2Right person for the right job3 is the basic principle in recruitment and
selection. %ver organisation should give attention to the selection of its
manpower, especially its managers. The operative manpower is e,ually important
and essential for the orderly working of an enterprise. %very business
organisation4unit needs manpower for carrying different business activities
smoothly and efficiently and for this recruitment and selection of suitable
candidates are essential. Human resource management in an organisation will not
be possible if unsuitable persons are selected and employment in a business unit.
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1. 1 MEANING
RECRUITMENT
Recruitment means to esti mate the available vacancies and to
make suitable arrangements for their selection and appoint ment.
Recruit ment is understood as the process of searching for and
obtaining applicants for the jobs, from among whom the right
people can be selected.
$ formal definition states, 6It is the process of finding and
attracting capable applicants for the employment. The process
begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applicants
are submit ted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new
employees are selected7. In this, the available vacancies are given
wide publicit y and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit
applications so as to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientific
selection.
In recruit ment, information is collected from interested
candidates. &or this different source such as newspaper
advertisement, employment e(changes, internal promot ion, etc. are
used.
In the recruitment, a pool of eligible and interested
candidates is created for selection of most suitable candidates.
Recruit ment represents the first contact that a company makes with
potential employees
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De!inition
$ccording to ED"IN #$I%%O, Recruitment is the process of
searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply
for jobs in the organization.
1. & Need !or recruitment
The need for recruit ment may be due to the following reasons 4
situation9
a: ;acanci es due to promotions, transfer, retirement, terminat ion,
permanent disabilit y, death and labour turnover.
b: "reation of new vacancies due to the growth, e(pansion and
diversification of business activit ies of an enterprise. In
addition, new vacanci es are possible due to j ob specification.
%ur'o(e and im'ortance o! Recruitment
/. etermine the present and future re,uirements of the
organi0ation on conj unction with its personnel<planning and
j ob anal ysis activi ties.
1. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.
5. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by
reducing the number of visibl y under ,ualified or
over,ualifi ed j ob applicants.
8. Help reduce the probabilit y that j ob applicants, once recruited
and selected, will leave the organi0ation only after a short
period of time.
=. #eet the organi0ation3s legal and social obligations regarding
the composit ion of its work force.
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>. ?egin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who
will be appropriate candidates.
@. Increase organi0at ional and individual effectiveness in the
short term and long term.
A. %valuat e the effectiveness of various recruiting techni,ues
and sources for all t ypes of job applicants.
Recruit ment is a positive function in which publicit y is given
to the j obs available in the organi0ation and interested candidat es
are encouraged to submit applications for the purpose of selection.
Recruit ment represents the first contact that a company makes
with potential employees. It is through recruit ment that many
individuals will come to know a company, and eventuall y decided
whether they wish to work for it. $ well<planned and well<managed
recruiting effort will result in high ,ualit y applicants, whereas, a
hapha0ard and piecemeal efforts will result in mediocre ones.
Un(cienti!ic Recruitment and Selection
Previousl y, the selection of candidates was influenced by
superstitions, beliefs, personal prej udices of managers looking after
the recruitment and selection of the staff.
The net result of such unscientific recruitment and selection are9
Ba: .ow productivit y of labour
Bb: High turnover
Bc: %(cessive wastage of raw materi als
Bd: #ore accidents and corresponding loss to the organi0ation
Be: Inefficient working of the whole organi0ation and finall y
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Bf: Ineffective e(ecutive of training and management development
programs
Scienti!ic recruitment and (election
The import ance of selection recruitment and selection of staff
is now accepted in the business world. !election is important as it
has its impact on work performance and employee cost. $s result
scientifi c methods of recruitment and selection are e(tensivel y for
the selection of managers and the supervisory staff. The assistance
of e(perts such as industrial psychologist and management
consultants are also taken for the purpose of scientific selection. $s
a result, the obj ective of 6right man for the right j ob7 is achieved in
many organi0ations. #oreover, 6right j ob7 is the basic principle in
manpower procurement.
1. ) RECRUITMENT %ROCESS
Recruit ment refers to the process of identifying and attract ing
j ob seekers so as to build a pool of ,ualified j ob applicants. The
process comprises five interrelated stages, vi0,
/. Planning.
1. !trategy development.
5. !earching.
8. !creening.
=. %valuat ion and control.
The ideal recruitment programme is the one that attracts a
relativel y larger number of ,ualified applicants who will survive the
screening process and accept positions with the organisation, when
offered. Recruit ment programmes can miss the ideal in many ways
i. e. by failing to attract an ade,uate applicant pool, by under4over
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selling the organisation or by inade,uate screening applicants
before they enter the selection process. Thus, to approach the ideal,
individuals responsible for the recruitment process must know how
many and what types of employees are needed, where and how to
look for the individuals with the appropriate ,ualifications and
interests, what inducement to use for various t ypes of applicants
groups, how to distinguish applicants who are ,ualified from those
who have a reasonable chance of success and how to evaluate their
work.

STAGE 1
RECRUITMENT %$ANNING
The first stage in the recruit ment process is planning.
Planning involves the translation of likel y job vacancies and
information about the nature of these j obs into set of obj ectives or
targets that specify the B/: )umbers and B1: Types of applicants to
be contacted.
Num*er( o! contact 9
*rgani0ation, nearly always, plan to attract more applicants than
they will hire. !ome of those contacted will be uninterested,
un,ualified or both. %ach time a recruit ment Programme is
contempl ated, one task is to estimate the number of applicants
necessary to fill all vacancies with the ,ualified people.
T+'e( o! contact(
It is basicall y concerned with the types of people to be informed
about job openings. The type of people depends on the tasks and
responsibiliti es involved and the ,ualifications and e(perience
e(pected. These details are available through job description and
j ob specification.
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STAGE &
STRATEGY DEVE$O%MENT 9
'hen it is estimated that what t ypes of recruitment and how
many are re,uired then one has concentrate in B/:. #ake or ?uy
employees. B1:. Technological sophistication of recruitment and
selection devices. B5:. Ceographical distribution of labour markets
comprising j ob seekers. B8:. !ources of recruitment. B=:. !e,uencing
the activit ies in the recruitment process.
2Ma,e- or ./u+-
*rganisation must decide whether to hire le skilled employees
and invest on training and education programmes, or they can hire
skilled labour and professional. %ssential l y, this is the 2make3 or
2buy3 decision. *rgani0at ions, which hire skilled and professionals
shall have to pay more for these employees.
Tec0nolo1i cal So'0i(tication
The second decision in strategy development relates to the
methods used in recruitment and selection. This decision is mainl y
influenced by the available technology. The advent of computers has
made it possible for employers to scan national and international
applicant ,ualification. $lthough impersonal, computers have given
employers and ob seekers a wider scope of options in the initial
screening stage.
"0ere to loo,
In order to reduce the costs, organisations look in to labour
markets most likel y to offer the re,uired job seekers. Cenerall y,
companies look in to the national market for managerial and
professional employees, regional or local markets for technical
employees and local markets for the clerical and blue<collar
employees.
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"0en to loo,
$n effective recruiting strategy must determine when to look<
decide on the timings of events besides knowing where and how to
look for job applicants .
STAGE )
SEARC2NG
*nce a recruitment plan and strategy are worked out, the
search process can begin. !earch involves two steps
A). Source activation and
/3. Sellin1.
A3. SOURCE ACTIVATION
Typicall y, sources and search methods are activat ed by the
issuance of an employee re,uisition. This means that no actual
recruiting takes place until lone managers have verified that
vacancy does e(ist or will e(ist.
If the organisation has planned well and done a good job of
developing its sources and search methods, activation soon results
in a flood of applicat ions and4or resumes.
The application received must be screened. Those who pass
have to be contacted and invited for interview. -nsuccessful
applicants must be sent letter of regret.
/3. SE$$ING
$ second issue to be addressed in the searching process
concerns communications. Here, organisation walks tightrope. *n
one hand, they want to do whatever they can to attract desirable
applicants. *n the other hand, they must resist the temptat ion of
overselling their virtues.
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In selling the organisation, both the message and the medi a
deserve attent ion. #essage refers to the employment advertisement.
'ith regards to media, it may be stated that effectiveness of any
recruiting message depends on the media. #edia are several<some
have low credibilit y, while others enj oy high credibil it y. !election
of medium or media needs to be done with a lot of care.
STE% 4
SCREENING
!creening of applicants can be regarded as an integral part of
the recruiting process, though many view it as the first step in the
selection process. %ven the definition on recruit ment, we ,uoted in
the beginning of this chapter, e(cludes screening from its scope.
However, we have included screening in recruitment for valid
reasons. The selection process will begin after the applications have
been scrutini0ed and short<listed. Hiring of professors in a
universit y is a t ypical situation. $pplicat ion received in response to
advertisements is screened and only eligibl e applicants are called
for an interview. $ selection commi tt ee comprising the ;ice<
chancellor, Registrar and subj ect e(perts conducts interview. Here,
the recruitment process e(tends up to screening the applicat ions.
The selection process commences onl y later.
%ur'o(e o! (creenin1
The purpose of screening is to remove from the recruit ment
process, at an earl y stage, those applicants who are visibly
un,ualified for the job. %ffective screening can save a great deal of
ti me and money. "are must be e(ercised, however, to assure that
potentiall y good employees are not rej ected without justificat ion.
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In screening, clear j ob specifications are invaluable. It is both
good practice and a legal necessit y that applicant 3s ,ualification is
j udged on the basis of their knowledge, skills, abilit ies and interest
re,uired to do the j ob.
The techni,ues used to screen applicants vary depending on
the candidate sources and recruiting methods used. Interview and
application blanks may be used to screen walk<ins. "ampus
recruiters and agency representat ives use interviews and resumes.
Reference checks are also useful in screening.
STAGE 5
EVA$UATION AND CONTRO$
%valuat ion and control is necessary as considerable costs are
incurred in the recruit ment process. The costs generall y incurred
are9 <
/. !alaries for recruiters.
1. #anagement and professional time spent on preparing j ob
description, j ob specifications, advertisements, agency liaison
and so forth.
5. The cost of advertisements or other recruit ment methods, that is,
agency fees.
8. Recruit ment overheads and administrat ive e(penses.
=. "osts of overtime and outsourcing while the vacancies remain
unfilled.
>. "ost of recruiting unsuitable candidates for the selection
process.
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1. 4 EVA$UATION O# RECRUITMENT %ROCESS
The recruit ment has the obj ective of searching for and obtaining
applications for j ob seekers in sufficient number and ,ualit y.
Feeping this obj ective in the mind, the evaluation might include9
/. Return rate of application sent out.
1. )umber of suitable candidates for selection.
5. Retention and performance of the candidates selected.
8. "ost of the recruitment process
=. Time lapsed data
>. "omments on image proj ected.
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1.5 Source( o! Recruitment
SOURCES O# MANAGERIA$ RECRUITMENT
INTERNA$ SOURCES EXTERNA$
SOURCES
/: Promotion /: "ampus recruitment
1: Transfers 1: Press advertisement
5: Internal notification 5: #anagement consultancy service
B$dvertisement: G private employment e(changes
8: Retirement 8: eputation of personnel or transfer
from one enterprise to
another
=: Recall =: #anagement training schemes
>: &ormer employees >: 'alk<ins, write<ins, talk<ins
@: #iscellaneous e(ternal sources
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The sources of recruit ment can be broadl y categori0ed into internal
and e(ternal sources<
6I3 Internal Recruitment 7 Internal recruit ment seeks applicants
for positions from within the company. The various internal
sources include:
%romotion( and Tran(!er( 7
Promot ion is an effective means using j ob posting and
personnel records. +ob posting re,uires notifying vacant
positions by posting notices, circulating publications or
announcing at staff meet ings and inviting employees to appl y.
Personnel records help discover employees who are doing j obs
below their educational ,ualifications or skill levels. Promot ions
has many advantages like it is good public relations, builds
morale, encourages competent individuals who are ambitious,
improves the probabili t y of good selection since informat ion on
the individual3s performance is readil y available, is cheaper than
going outside to recruit, those chosen internall y are famil iar with
the organi0ation thus reducing the orientat ion time and energy
and also acts as a training device for developing middl e<level
and top<level managers. However, promotions restrict the field
of selection preventing fresh blood G ideas from entering the
organi0ation. It also leads to inbreeding in the organi0ation.
Transfers are also important in providing employees with a
broad<based view of the organi0at ion, necessary for future
promot ions.
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Em'lo+ee re!erral(8
%mployees can develop good prospects for their famili es
and friends by ac,uainting them with the advantages of a job
with the company, furnishing them with introduction and
encouraging them to apply. This is a very effective means as
many ,ualified people can be reached at a very low cost to the
company. The other advantages are that the employees would
bring onl y those referrals that they feel would be able to fit in
the organi0ation based on their own e(perience. The organi0ation
can be assured of the reliabi lit y and the character of the
referrals. In this way, the organi0ation can also fulfill social
obligations and create goodwill.
#ormer Em'lo+ee(8
These include retired employees who are willing to work
on a part<ti me basis, individuals who left work and are willing to
come back for higher compensations. %ven retrenched employees
are taken up once again. The advantage here is that the people
are already known to the organi0at ion and there is no need to
find out their past performance and character. $lso, there is no
need of an orientation programme for them, since they are
famili ar with the organi0ation.
De'endent( o! decea(ed em'lo+ee(8
-suall y, banks follow this policy. If an employee dies,
his 4 her spouse or son or daughter is recruited in their place.
This is usuall y an effective way to fulfill social obligation and
create goodwill.
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Recall( 8
'hen management faces a problem, which can be solved only by
a manager who has proceeded on long leave, it may de decided to
recall that persons after the problem is solved, his leave may be
e(tended.
Retirement( 8
$t times, management may not find suitable candidates in place
of the one who had retired, after meritorious service. -nder the
circumstances, management may decide to call retired managers
with new e(tension.
Internal noti!ication 6ad9erti(ement3 8
!omet imes, management issues an internal notification for the
benefit of e(isting employees. #ost employees know from their
own e(perience about the re,uirement of the j ob and what sort of
person the company is looking for. *ften employees have friends
or ac,uaintances who meet these re,uirements. !uitable persons
are appointed at the vacant posts.
6II3 E:ternal Recruitment 7 %(ternal recruit ment seeks applicants
for positions from sources outside the company. They have
outnumbered the internal methods. The various e(ternal sources
include:
%ro!e((ional or Trade A((ociation( 8
#any associations provide placement service to its
members. It consists of compiling job seeker3s lists and
providing access to members during regional or national
conventions. $lso, the publications of these associations carry
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classified advertisements from employers interested in recruiting
their members. These are particularl y useful for attract ing highl y
educated, e(perienced or skilled personnel. $lso, the recruiters
can 0ero on in specific j ob seekers, especiall y for hard<to<fill
technical posts.
Ad9erti(ement( 8
It is a popular method of seeking recruits, as many
recruiters prefer advertisements because of their wide reach.
'ant ads describe the job benefits, identify the employer and tell
those interested how to appl y. )ewspaper is the most common
medium but for highl y speciali 0ed recruits, advertisements may
be placed in professional or business j ournals.
$dvertisements must contain proper informat ion like
the j ob content, working conditions, location of j ob,
compensation including fringe benefits, j ob specifications,
growth aspects, etc. The advertisement has to sell the idea that
the company and job are perfect for the candidate. Recruit ment
advertisements can also serve as corporate advertisements to
build company3 image. It also cost effective.
Em'lo+ment E:c0an1e(8
%mployment %(changes have been set up all over the
country in deference to the provision of the %mployment
%(changes B"ompulsory )otificat ion of ;acancies: $ct, /D=D.
The $ct applies to all industrial establishments having 1=
workers or more each. The $ct re,uires all the industrial
establishments to notify the vacancies before they are filled. The
maj or functions of the e(changes are to increase the pool of
possible applicants and to do the preli minary screening. Thus,
employment e(changes act as a link between the employers and
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the prospective employees. These offices are particularl y useful
to in recruiting blue<collar, white collar and technical workers.
Cam'u( Recruitment(8
"olleges, universities, research laboratories, sports
fields and institutes are fertile ground for recruiters, particul arl y
the institutes. "ampus Recruit ment is going global with
companies like H.., "itibank, H".<HP, $)H Crindlays, .GT,
#otorola and Reliance looking for global markets. !ome
companies recruit a given number of candidates from these
institutes every year. "ampus recruit ment is so much sought after
that each collegeI universit y department or institute will have a
placement officer to handle recruit ment functions. However, it is
often an e(pensive process, even if recruiting process produces
j ob offers and acceptances eventual l y. $ maj orit y leave the
organi0ation within the first five years of their employment. Jet,
it is a maj or source of recruit ment for prestigious companies.
"al,8in(; "rite8in( and Tal,8in(8
The most common and least e(pensive approach for
candidates is direct applications, in which j ob seekers submi t
unsolicited application letters or resumes. irect applicat ions
can also provide a pool of potential employees to meet future
needs. &rom employees3 viewpoint, walk<ins are preferable as
they are free from the hassles associated with other methods of
recruit ment. 'hile direct applications are particularl y effective
in filling entry< level and unskilled vacancies, some organi0ations
compile pools of potential employees from direct applicat ions
for skilled positions. Writ e-ins are those who send written
en,uiries. These j obseekers are asked to compl ete application
forms for further processing. Talk-ins involves the job aspirants
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meeting the recruiter Bon an appropriated date: for detail ed talks.
)o applicat ion is re,uired to be submi tted to the recruiter.
Contractor(8
They are used to recruit casual workers. The names of the
workers are not entered in the company records and, to this
e(tentI difficult ies e(perienced in maintaining permanent
workers are avoided.
Con(ultant(8
They are in the profession for recruiting and selecting
managerial and e(ecutive personnel. They are useful as they have
nationwide contacts and lend professionalism to the hiring
process. They also keep prospective employer and employee
anonymous. However, the cost can be a deterrent factor.
2ead 2unter(8
They are useful in speciali0ed and skilled candidate
working in a particul ar company. $n agent is sent to represent
the recruiting company and offer is made to the candidate. This
is a useful source when both the companies involved are in the
same field, and the employee is reluctant to take the offer since
he fears, that his company is testing his loyalt y.
Radio; Tele9i(ion and Internet8
Radio and television are used to reach certain types of
j ob applicants such as skilled workers. Radio and television are
used but sparingl y, and that too, by government departments
onl y. "ompanies in the private sector are hesitant to use the
media because of high costs and also because they fear that such
advertising will make the companies look desperate and damage
their conservative image. However, there is nothing inherentl y
desperate about using radio and television. It depends upon what
is said and how it is delivered. Internet is becoming a popular
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option for recruitment today. There are speciali0ed sites like
naukri. com. $lso, websites of compani es have a separate section
whereinI aspirants can submi t their resumes and applications.
This provides a wider reach.
Com'etitor(8
This method is popularl y known as 6poaching7 or
6raiding7 which involves identifyi ng the right people in rival
companies, offering them better terms and luring them away. &or
instance, several e(ecutives of H#T left to j oin Titan 'atch
"ompany. There are legal and ethical issues involved in raiding
rival firms for potential candidat es. &rom the legal point of view,
an employee is e(pected to join a new organi0at ion onl y after
obtaining a 2no obj ection certifi cate3 from his4 her present
employer. ;iolat ing this re,uirement shall bind the employee to
pay a few months3 salary to his4 her present employer as a
punishment. However, there are many ethical issues attached to
it.
Mer1er( and Ac<ui(ition(8
'hen organi0at ions combine, they have a pool of
employees, out of whom some may not be necessary any longer.
$s a result, the new organi0at ion has, in effect, a pool of
,ualified job applicants. $s a result, new j obs may be created.
?oth new and old j obs may be readil y staffed by drawing the
best<,ualified applicants from this employee pool. This method
facili tates the immedi ate implementat ion of an organi0ation3s
strategic plan. It enables an organi0ation to pursue a business
plan, However, the need to displace employees and to integrate a
large number of them rather ,uickl y into a new organi0ation
means that the personnel<planning and selection process becomes
critical more than ever.
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E9aluation o! E:ternal Recruitment
%(ternal sources of recruitment have both merits and demeri ts.
T0e merit( are8
The organi0ation will have the benefit of new skills, new
talents and new e(periences, if people are hired from
e(ternal sources.
The management will be able to fulfill reservation
re,uirements in favour of the disadvantaged sections of the
societ y.
!cope for resent ment, heartburn and j ealousy can be
avoided by recruiting from outside.
T0e demerit( are8
?etter motivation and increased morale associated with
promot ing own employees re lost to the organi0at ion.
%(ternal recruitment is costl y.
If recruitment and selection processes are not properl y
carried out, chances of right candidates being rej ected and
wrong applicants being selected occur.
High training time is associated with e(ternal recruitment.
98% of organizational success depends upon efficient
employee selection
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1.= =>8Second Guide to 2irin1 t0e Ri10t %eo'le
>=> De!ine t0e Dutie(
To find promising employees, you must first determine what you
want them to do. "arefull y consider all direct and associated
responsibiliti es and incorporate them into a written j ob description.
?e careful with general titles such as t ypist or sales clerk, as they
have different meanings to different people.
>4? @and "0at it Ta,e( to do T0em9
&ulfilling these responsibiliti es will re,uire some level of skill and
e(perience, even if it is an entry<level position. ?e reasonable about
your e(pectations. !etting the bar too high may li mit your available
talent poolI setting it too low risks a flood of applications from
those un,ualified for the job.
>)A Ma,e it "ort0 t0eir "0ile
.ikewise, you don3t want to be overl y generous or restrictive about
compensation. !tate and local chambers of commerce, employment
bureaus and professional associations can help you determine
appropriate wages and benefits. !canning descriptions of
comparable j obs in the classified ads and other employment
publicat ions will also provide clues about prevailing wage rates.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 15
>)B S'read t0e "ord
How you advertise your job opening depends on who you want to
attract. !ome positions are as easy to promote as posting a 6help
wanted7 sign in your store window or placing an ad in your local
newspaper. &or j obs re,uiring more speciali0ed skills, consider
targeted channels such as trade maga0ines, on<line job banks and
employment agencies Bthough these may re,uire a fee:. $nd don3t
overlook sources such as friends, neighbors, suppliers customers
and present employees.
>&5 Tal, it O9er
?ecause you have clearl y defined the role and re,uirements, you
should have little difficult y identifying candidates for interviews.
#ake sure you schedule them when you have ample time to review
the resume, prepare your ,uestions and give the candidate your
undivided attention. $fter the interview, j ot down any impressions
or key points while they3re still fresh in your mind. This will be a
valuable reference when it3s ti me to make a decision.
>1& #olloC8u' on Inter9ieC(
Jou want to believe your candidates are being honest, but never
assume. "ontact references to make sure you3re getting the facts or
to clear up any uncertaint ies. Professional background checks are a
wise investment for highl y sensitive positions, or those that involve
handling substantial amounts of money and valuables.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 18
>>) You-9e #ound T0emD NoC Eee' T0em
)ow that you3ve hired ideal employees, make sure they stay with
you by providing training and professional development
opportunities. The small business e(perts at !"*R% can help you
craft human resource policies and incentive plans that will ensure
your company remains the small business employer of choice.

R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 1=
& SE$ECTION
Selection i( de!ined a( t0e 'roce(( o! di!!erentiatin1 *etCeen
a''licant( in order to identi!+ 6and 0ire3 t0o(e Cit0 a 1reater
li,eli0ood o! (ucce(( in a Fo*.
Selection is basically picking an applicant from (a pool of
applicants) wo as te appropriate !ualification and competency
to do te "ob.
#e difference between recruitment and selection$
%ecruitment is identifying n encouraging prospective employees to
apply for a "ob.
And
Selection is selecting te rigt candidate from te pool of
applicants.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 1>
&. 1 SE$ECTION %ROCESS
!election is along process, commencing from the preli minary
interview of the applicants and ending with the contract of
employment.
T0e !olloCin1 c0art 1i9e( an idea a*out (election 'roce(( 8
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*)
%(ternal %nvironment
Internal %nvironment
Preliminary Interview
!election Tests
%mployment Interview
Reference and ?ackground
$nalysis
!election ecision
Physical %(amination
+ob *ffer
%mployment "ontract
%valuation

























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En9ironment !actor a!!ectin1 (election 8
!election is influenced by several factors. #ore prominent among them
are supply and demand of specific skills in the labour market,
unemployment rate, labour< market conditions, legal and political
considerations, company3s image, company3s policy, human resources
planning and cost of hiring. The last three constitute the internal
environment and the remaining form the e(ternal environment of selection
process.
STE% 1 8
%RE$IMINARY INTERVIE"
The applicants received from job seekers would be subj ect to
scrutiny so as to eliminat e un,ualified applicants. This is usuall y followed
by a preliminary interview the purpose of which is more or less the same
as scrutiny of application, that is, eliminat e of un,ualified applicants.
!crutiny enables the HR specialists to eli minate un,ualified j obseekers
based on the informat ion supplied in their applicat ion forms. Preliminary
interview, on the other hand, helps rej ect misfits for reason, which did not
appear in the application forms. ?esides, preli minary interview, often
called 2courtesy interview3, is a good public relation e(ercise.
STE% & 8
SE$ECTION TEST
+ob seekers who pass the screening and the preliminary interview are
called for tests. ifferent types of tests may be administered, depending
on the job and the company. Cenerall y, tests are used to determine the
applicant3s abilit y, aptitude and personalit y.
T0e !olloCin1 are t0e t+'e o! te(t( ta,en
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 1A
13. A*ilit+ te(t( <
$ssist in determining how well an individual can perform tasks
related to the j ob. $n e(cellent illustration of this is the t yping tests
given to a prospective employer for secretarial j ob. $lso called as
2$"H%I;%#%)T T%!T!3. It is concerned with what one has
accompl ished. 'hen applicant clai ms to know something, an
achievement test is taken to measure how well they know it. Trade tests
are the most common type of achievement test given. Kuestions have
been prepared and tested for such trades as asbestos worker, punch<
press operators, electricians and machinists. There are, of course, many
unstandardised achievement tests given in industries, such as typi ng or
dictat ion tests for an applicant for a stenographic position.
&3. A'titude te(t 8
$ptitude tests measure whether an individuals has the capacit y or
latent abilit y to learn a given j ob if given ade,uate training. The use of
aptitude test is advisable when an applicant has had little or no
e(perience along the line of the job opening. $ptitudes tests help
determine a person3s potential to learn in a given area. $n e(ample of
such test is the general management aptitude tests BC#$T:, which many
business students take prior to gaining admission to a graduate business
school programme.
$ptitude test indicates the abilit y or fitness of an individual to engage
successfull y in any number of speciali0ed activiti es. They cover such
areas clerical aptitude, numerical aptitude, mechani cal aptitude, motor co<
ordination, finger de(terit y and manual de(terit y. These tests help to
detect positive negative points in a person3s sensory or intellectual abilit y.
They focus attention on a particular type of talent such as learning or
reasoning in respect of a particular field of work.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 1D
#orm( o! a'titude te(t
/. Mental or intelli1ence te(t(
They measure the overall intellectual abilit y of a
person and enable to know whether the person has the ment al
abilit y to deal with certain problems.
1. Mec0anical a'titude te(t(
They measure the abilit y of a person to learn a
particul ar t ype of mechanical work. These tests helps to
measure speciali 0ed technical knowledge and problem solving
abilit ies if the candidate. They are useful in selection of
mechanics, maint enance workers, etc.
5. %(+c0omotor or (,ill( te(t(
They are those, which measure a person3s abili t y to do
a specific job. !uch tests are conducted in respect of semi<
skilled and repetit ive jobs such as packing, testing and
inspection, etc.
)3. Intelli1ence te(t
This test helps to evaluate traits of intelligence. #ental abilit y, presence
of mind Balertness:, numerical abili t y, memory and such other aspects can
be measured.
The intell igence is probabl y the most widel y administered standardi0ed
test in industry. It is taken to j udge numeri cal, skills, reasoning, memory
and such other abiliti es.
43. Intere(t Te(t
This is conducted to find out likes and dislikes of candidates towards
occupations, hobbies, etc. such tests indicate which occupations are more
in line with a person3s interest. !uch tests also enable the company to
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 5E
provide vocational guidance to the selected candidates and even to the
e(isting employees.
These tests are used to measure an individual3s activi t y preferences. These
tests are particularl y useful for students considering many careers or
employees deciding upon career changes.
53. %er(onalit+ Te(t
The import ance of personalit y to j ob success is undeniable. *ften an
individual who possesses the intelligence, aptitude and e(perience for
certain has failed because of inabil it y to get along with and motivate other
people.
It is conducted to j udge maturit y, social or interpersonal skills, behavior
under stress and strain, etc. this test is very much essential on case of
selection of sales force, public relation staff, etc. where personalit y plays
an important role.
Personalit y tests are simil ar to interest tests in that they, also, involve a
serious problem of obtaining an honest answer.
=3. %roFecti9e Te(t
This test re,uires interpretation of problems or situations. &or e(ampl e, a
photograph or a picture can be shown to the candidates and they are asked
to give their views, and opinions about the picture.
A3. General ,noCled1e Te(t
)ow days C. F. Tests are very common to find general awareness of the
candidates in the field of sports, politics, world affairs, current affairs.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 5/
B3. %erce'tion Te(t
$t times perception tests can be conducted to find out beliefs, attitudes,
and mental sharpness. etc.
?3. Gra'0olo1+ Te(t
It is designed to anal y0e the handwriting of individual. It has been said
that an individual3s handwriting can suggest the degree of energy,
inhibition and spontaneit y, as well as disclose the idiosyncrasi es and
elements of balance and control. &or e(ample, big letters and emphasis on
capital letters indicate a tendency towards domination and
competi tiveness. $ slant to the right, moderate pressure and good
legibil it y show leadership potential.
1>3. %ol+1ra'0 Te(t
Pol ygraph is a lie detector, which is designed to ensure accuracy of the
information given in the applications. epartment store, banks, treasury
offices and j ewellery shops, that is, those highl y vulnerable to theft or
swindling may find polygraph tests useful.
113. Medical Te(t
It reveals physical fitness of a candidate. 'ith the development of
technology, medical tests have become diversified. #edical servicing
helps measure and monitor a candidate3s physical resilience upon
e(posure to ha0ardous chemicals.
C2OOSING TESTS
The test must be chosen in the criteria of reliabi lit y, validi t y, obj ectivit y
and standardi0ation. They are9 <
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 51
1. RE$IA/I$ITY 8
It refers to standardi0at ion of the procedure of administering and
scoring the test results. $ person who takes tests one day and makes a
certain score should be able to take the same test the ne(t day or the ne(t
week and make more or less the same score. $n individual 3s intell igence,
for e(ampl e, is generall y a stable characteristic. !o if we administ er an
intell igence test, a person who scores //E in #arch would score close to
//E if tested in +uly. Tests, which produce wide variations in results, serve
littl e purpose in selection.
&. VA$IDITY 8
It is a test, which helps predict whether a person will be successful
in a given j ob. $ test that has been validated can be helpful in
differentiating between prospective employees who will be able to
perform the j ob well and those who will not. )aturall y, no test will be
/EEL accurate in predicting job success. $ validat ed test increases
possibilit y of success.
T0ere are t0ree Ca+( o! 9alidatin1 a te(t. T0e+ are a( !olloC( 8
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 55
13. Concurrent Validit+ 8 this involves determining the factors that are
characteristics of successful employees and then using these factors as
the yardsticks.
&3. %redicti9e Validit+ 8 it involves using a selection test during the
selection process and then identifying the successful candidates. The
characteristics of both successful and less successful candidates are then
identifi ed.
)3. S+nt0etic Val idit+ 8 it involves taking parts of several similar j obs
rather than one compl ete job to validat e the selection test.
). O/GECTIVITY 8
'hen two or more people can interpret the result of the same test and
derive the same conclusionBs:, the test is said to be obj ective. *therwise,
the test evaluators3 subj ective opinions may render the test useless.
4. STANDARDRIHATION 8
$ test that is standardi0ed is administ ered under standard condition to
a large group of person who are representatives of the individuals for
whom it is intended. The purpose of standardi0ation is to obtain norms or
standard, so that a specific test score can be meaningful when compared to
other score in the group.
STE% ) 8
INTERVIE"
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 58
The ne(t step in the selection process is an interview. Interview is
formal, in<depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant 3s
acceptabili t y. It is considered to be e(cellent selection device. It is face<
to<face e(change of view, ideas and opinion between the candidates and
interviewers. ?asicall y, interview is nothing but an oral e(aminat ion of
candidates. Interview can be adapted to unskilled, skilled, manageri al and
profession employees.
O*Fecti9e( o! inter9ieC 8
Interview has at least three obj ectives and they are a follows9 <
/: Helps obtain additional information from the applicants
1: &acilit ates giving general informat ion to the applicants such as
company policies, j ob, products manufactured and the like
5: Helps build the company3s image among the applicants.
T+'e( o! inter9ieC <
Interviews can be of different types. There interviews employed by the
companies.
&ollowing are the various t ypes of interview9 <
13 In!ormal Inter9ieC
$n informal interview is an oral interview and may take place
anywhere. The employee or the manager or the personnel manager may
ask a few al most inconse,uential ,uestions like name, place of birth,
names of relatives etc. either in their respective offices or anywhere
outside the plant of company. It id not planned and nobody prepares for
it. This is used widel y when the labour market is tight and when you
need workers badl y.
&3 #ormal Inter9ieC
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 5=
&ormal interviews may be held in the employment office by he
employment office in a more formal atmosphere, with the help of well
structured ,uestions, the time and place of the interview will be
stipulated by the employment office.
)3 Non8directi9e Inter9ieC
)on<directive interview or unstructured interview is designed to let the
interviewee speak his mind freel y. The interviewer has no formal or
directive ,uestions, but his all attention is to the candidate. He
encourages the candidate to talk by a littl e prodding whenever he is
silent e. g. 6#r. Ray, please tell us about yourself after your graduated
from high school7.
The idea is o give the candidate complet e freedom to 6sell7 hi mself,
without the encumbrances of the interviewer 3s ,uestion. ?ut the
interviewer must be of higher caliber and must guide and relate the
information given by the applicant to the obj ective of the interview.
43 De't0 Inter9ieC
It is designed to intensel y e(amine the candidate3s background and
thinking and to go into considerable detail on particul ar subj ects of an
important nature and of special interest to the candidates. &or e(ample,
if the candidate says that he is interested in tennis, a series of ,uestions
may be asked to test the depth of understanding and interest of the
candidate. These probing ,uestions must be asked with tact and through
e(haustive anal ysisI it is possible to get a good picture of the candidate.
53 Stre(( Inter9ieC
It is designed to test the candidate and his conduct and behavior by
him under conditions of stress and strain. The interviewer may start
with 6#r. +oseph, we do not think your ,ualifications and e(perience
are ade,uate for this position, 3 and watch the reaction of the candidates.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 5>
$ good candidates will not yi el d, on the contrary he may substantiat e
why he is ,ualified to handle the j ob.
This type of interview is borrowed from the #ilitary organisation and
this is very useful to test behaviour of individuals when they are faced
with disagreeable and tryi ng situations.
=3 Grou' Inter9ieC
It is designed to save busy e(ecutive3s time and to see how the
candidates may be brought together in the employment office and
they may be interviewed.
A3 %anel Inter9ieC
$ panel or interviewing board or selection commit tee may interview
the candidate, usuall y in the case of supervisory and managerial
positions. This type of interview pools the collect ive j udgment and
wisdom of the panel in the assessment of the candidate and also in
,uestioning the faculties of the candidate.
B3 Se<uential Inter9ieC
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 5@
The se,uential interview takes the one<to<one a step further and
involves a series of interview, usuall y utili0ing the strength and
knowledgebase of each interviewer, so that each interviewer can ask
,uestions in relation to his or her subj ect area of each candidat e, as
the candidate moves from room to room.
?3 Structure( Inter9ieC
In a structured interview, the interviewer uses preset standardi0ed
,uestions, which are put to all the interviewees. This interview is
also called as 2Cuided3 or 2Patterned3 interview. It is useful for valid
results, especial l y when dealing with the large number of applicants.
1>3 Un(tructured Inter9ieC
It is also known as 2-npatterned3 interview, the interview is largel y
unplanned and the interviewee does most of the talking. -nguided
interview is advantageous in as much as it leads to a friendl y
conversation between the interviewer and the interviewee and in the
process, the later reveals more of his or her desire and problems. ?ut
the -npatterned interview lacks uniformit y and worse, this approach
may overlook key areas of the applicant3s skills or background. It is
useful when the interviewer tries to probe personal details of the
candidate it analyse why they are not right for the job.
113 Mi:ed Inter9ieC
In practice, the interviewer while interviewing the job seekers uses a
blend of structured and structured and unstructured ,uestions. This
approach is called the #i(ed Interview. The structured ,uestions
provide a base of interview more conventional and permi t greater
insights into the uni,ue differences between applicants.

1&3 Im'rom'tu Inter9ieC(
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 5A
This interview commonl y occurs when employers are approached
directl y and tends to be very informal and unstructured. $pplicants
should be prepared at all times for on<the<spot interviews, especiall y
in situations such as a j ob fair or a cold call. It is an ideal time for
employers to ask the candidate some basic ,uestions to determine
whether he4she may be interested in formal l y interviewing the
candidate.
1)3 Dinner Inter9ieC(
These interviews may be structured, informal, or sociall y situated,
such as in a restaurant. ecide what to eat ,uickl y, some
interviewers will ask you to order first Bdo not appear indecisive:.
$void potentiall y messy foods, such as spaghetti. ?e prepared for the
conversation to abruptl y change from friendl y chat to direct
interview ,uestions, however, do not underestimate the value of
casual discussion, some employers place a great value on it. ?e
prepared to switch gears rapidl y, from fun talk to business talk.
143 Tel e'0one Inter9ieC(
Have a copy of your resume and any points you want to remember to
say nearby. If you are on your home telephone, make sure that all
roommates or famil y members are aware of the interview Bno loud
stereos, barking dogs etc. :. !peak a bit slower than usual. It is
crucial that you convey your enthusiasm verball y, since the
interviewer cannot see your face. If there are pauses, do not worryI
the interviewer is likel y just taking some notes.
153 Second Inter9ieC(
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 5D
+ob seekers are invited back after they have passed the first initi al
interview. #iddle or senior management generall y conducts the second
interview, together or separatel y. $pplicants can e(pect more in<depth
,uestions, and the employer will be e(pecting a greater level of
preparation on the part of the candidat es. $pplicants should continue to
research the employer following the first interview, and be prepared to
use any informat ion gained through the previous interview to their
advantage.
STE% 4 8
RE#ERENCE C2ECE8
#any employers re,uest names, addresses, and telephone
numbers of references for the purpose of verifying information
and perhaps, gaining additional background information on an
applicant. $lthough listed on the application form, references are
not usuall y checked until an applicant has successfull y reached the
fourth stage of a se,uential selection process. 'hen the labour
market is very tight, organisations somet imes hire applicants before
checking references.
Previous employers, known as public figures, universit y
professors, neighbours or friends can act as references. Previous
employers are preferable because they are already aware of the
applicant3s performance. ?ut, the problem with this reference is the
tendency on the part of the previous employers to over<rate the
applicant3s performance j ust to get rid of the person.
*rganisations normall y seek letters of reference or telephone
references. The latter is advantageous because of its accuracy and
low cost. The telephone reference also has the advantage of
soliciting immediate, relativel y candid comments and attitude can
somet imes be inferred from hesitations and inflect ions in speech.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 8E
It may be stated that the information gathered through
references hardl y influence selection decisions. The reasons are
obvious9
/. The candidate approaches onl y those persons who would speak
well about hi m or her.
1. People may write favorabl y about the candidate in order to get
rid of him or her.
5. People may not like to divulge the truth about a candidate, lest it
might damage or ruin his4her career.
STE% 5 8
SE$ECTION DECISION8
$fter obtaining information through the preceding steps, selection
decision< the most critical of all the steps< must be made. The other
stages in the selection process have been used to narrow the number
of the candidates. The final decision has to be made the pool of
individuals who pas the tests, interviews and reference checks.
The view of the line manager will be generall y considered in the
final selection because it is he4she who is responsible for the
performance of the new employee. The HR manager plays a crucial
role in the final selection.
STE% = 8
%2YSICA$ EXAMINATION 8
$fter the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the
candidate is re,uired to undergo a physical fitness test. $ job
offer is, often, contingent upon the candidate being declared fit
after the physical e(aminat ion. The results of the medical fitness
test are recorded in a statement and are preserved in the personnel
records. There are several obj ectives behind a physical test.
*bviously, one reason for a physical test is to detect if the
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 8/
individual carries any infectious disease. !econdl y, the test
assists in determining whether an applicant is physical l y fit to
perform the work. Thirdl y, the physical e(amination informat ion
can be used to determine if there are certain physical capabili ties,
which differentiat e successful and less successful employees.
&ourth, medi cal check<up protects applicants with health defects
from undertaking work that could be detri mental to them or might
otherwise endanger the employer3s property. &inall y, such an
e(amination will protect the employer from workers
compensation clai ms that are not valid because the inj uries or
illness were present when the employee was hired.
STE% A 8
GO/ O##ER 8
The ne(t step in the selection process is job offer to those
applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. +ob offer is
made through a letter of appointed. !uch a letter generall y
contains a date by which the appointee must report on dut y. The
appointee must be given reasonable ti me for reporting. Thos is
particul arl y necessary when he or she is already in employment,
in which case the appointee is re,uired to obtain a relieving
certifi cate from the previous employer. $gain, a new j ob may
re,uire movement to another cit y, which means considerable
preparation, and movement of propert y.
The company may also want the individual to delay the date
of reporting on duty. If the new employee3s first j ob upon joining
the company is to go on company until perhaps a week before
such training begins. )aturall y, this practice cannot be abused,
especiall y if the individual is unemployed and does not have
sufficient finances.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 81
ecency demands that the rej ected applicants be informed
about their non<selection. Their applicants may be preserved for
future use, if any. It needs no emphasis that the applicat ions of
selected candidates must also be preserved for the future
references.
STE% B 8
CONTRACT O# EM%$OYMENT 8
$fter the j ob offer has bee mad and candidates accept the
offer, certain documents need to be e(ecuted by the employer and
the candidat e. *ne such document is the attestation form. This
form contains vital details about the candidate, which are
authenti cated and attested by him4her. $ttestation form will be a
valid record for the future reference.
There is also a need for preparing a contract of employment.
The basic information that should be included in a written
contract of employment will vary according to the level of the
j ob, but the following checklist sets out the typi cal headings9
/. +ob title
1. uties, including a parse such as 6The employee will
perform such duties and will be responsible to such a
person, as the company may from ti me to ti me direct7.
5. ate when continuous employment starts and the basis for
calculating service.
8. Rate of pay, allowance, overtime and shift rates, method of
payment s.
=. Hours of work including lunch break and overti me and
shift arrangements.
>. Holiday arrangements9
i. : Paid holidays per year.
ii. : "alculation of holiday pay.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 85
iii. : Kualifyi ng period.
iv.: $ccrual of holidays and holiday pay.
v.: etails of holiday year.
vi. : ates when holidays can be taken.
vii. : #a(imum holiday that can be take at any one time.
viii. : "arry over of holiday entitlement.
i(. : Public holidays.
@. .ength of notice due to and from employee.
A. Crievances procedure Bor reference to it:.
D. isciplinary procedure Bor any reference to it:.
/E. 'ork rules Bor any reference to them:.
//. $rrangements for terminat ing employment .
/1. $rrangements for union membership Bif applicabl e:.
/5. !pecial terms relating to rights to patent s and designs,
confidenti al information and restraints on trade after
termination of employment.
/8. %mployer 3s right to vary terms of the contract subj ect to
proper notification being given.
$lternativel y called employment agreements or simpl y bonds,
contracts of employment serve many useful purposes. !uch
contracts seek to restrain job<hoppers, to protect knowledge and
information that might be vital to a company3s healthy bottom line
and to prevent compet itors from poaching highl y valued employees.
Creat care is taken to draft the contract forms. *ften, services
of law firms Bprominent firms in this category include #ulla,
"raigie, ?lunt and "aroe, "rawford ?ailey, $marchand #angaldas
Hiralal, etc. : are engag8d to get the forms drafted and finali0ed.
#ost employers insist on agreements being signed by newl y
hired employees. ?ut high turnover sectors such as software,
advertising and media are more prone to use contracts.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 88
The drawback with the contracts is that it is almost to enforce
them. $ determined employee is bound to leave the organisation,
contract or no contract. The employee is prepared to pay the penalt y
for breaching the agreement or the new employer will provide
compensations. It is the reason that several compani es have
scrapped the contracts altogether.
STE% ? 8
CONC$UDING T2E SE$ECTION %ROCESS 8
"ontrary to popular perception, the selection process will not
end with e(ecuting the employment contract. There is another step M
amore sensitive one reassuring those candidates who have not
selected, not because of any serious deficienci es in their
personalit y, but because their profile did not match the re,uirement
of the organisation. They must be told that those who were selected
were done purely on relative meri t.
STE% 1> 8
EVA$UATION O# SE$ECTION %ROGRAMME 8
The broad test of the effectiveness of the selection process is
the ,ualit y of the personnel hired. $n organisation must have
competent and commi tt ed personnel. The selection process, if
properl y done, will ensure availabi lit y of such employees. How to
evaluate the effectiveness of a selection programmeN $ periodic
audit is the answer. People who work independent of HR department
must conduct audit. The table below contains an outline that
highlights the areas and ,uestions to be covered in a systemati c
evaluat ion.
&. & #our A''roac0e( to Selection
13. Et0nocentric Selection
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In this approach, staffing decisions are made at the organi0ation3s
head,uarters. !ubsidiaries have limited autonomy, and the employees from
the head,uarters at home and abroad fill key j obs. )ationals from the
parent country dominat e the organisations at home and abroad.
&3. %ol+centric Selection
In pol ycentri c selection, each subsidiary is treated as a distinct
national entit y with local control key financial targets and investment
decisions. .ocal citi0ens manage subsidiaries, but the key j obs remain
with staff from the parent country. This is the approach, which is largel y
practiced in our country
)3. Re1iocentric Selection 8
Here, control within the group and the movements of staff are
managed on a regional basis, reflecting the particular disposition of
business and operations within the group. Regional managers have greater
discretion in decision. #ovement of staff is largel y restricted to specific
geographical regions and promotions to the j obs continue to be dominated
by managers from the parents company.
43. Geocentric Sta!!in1 8
In this case, business strategy is integrat ed thoroughl y on global
basis. !taff development and promotion are based on abilit y, not
national it y. The broad and other parts of the top management structure are
thoroughl y international in composition. )eedless to say, such
organisations are uncommon.
&. ) %RO/$EMS IN E##ECTIVE SE$ECTION 8
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 8>
The main obj ective of selection is to hire people having compet ence and
commi tment. This obj ective s often defeated because of certain barriers.
The impediments, which check effectiveness of selection, are perception,
fairness, validi t y, reliabi lit y and pressure.
%erce'tion 8
*ur inabil it y to understand others accurat el y is probabl y the most
fundamental barrier to selecting the right candidate.
!election demands an individual or a group of people to assess and
compare the respective compet enci es of others, with the ai m of
choosing the right persons for the jobs. ?ut our views are highly
personali0ed. 'e all perceive the world differentl y. *ur li mit ed
perceptual abili t y is obviousl y a stumbling block to the obj ective and
rational selection of the people.
#airne(( 8
&airness in selection re,uires that no individual should be
discri minated against on the basis of religion, region, race or gender.
?ut the low numbers of women and other less privileged sections of
the societ y in middle and senior management positions and open
discri mination on the basis of age in job advertisements and in the
selection process would suggest that all the efforts to mini mi 0e
ine,uit y have not been effective.
Val idit+ 8
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 8@
;alidi t y, as e(plained earlier, is a test that helps predict j ob
performance of an incumbent. $ test that has been validated can
differentiate between the employees who perform well and those who
will not. However, a validated test does not predict job success
accuratel y. It can onl y increase possibilit y of success.
Relia*ilit+ 8
$ reliable method is one, which will produce consistent results when
repeated in simil ar situations. .ike validated test, a reliable test may
fail to predict job performance with precision.
%re((ure 8
Pressure is brought on the selectors by politici ans, bureaucrats,
relatives, friends and peers to select particular candidates. "andidates
selected because of compulsions are obviously not the right ones.
$ppointments to public sectors undertakings generall y take place
under such pressures.
&. 4 Di!!erence 6Recruitment and Selection3
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 8A
/. : Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective candidates and
mot ivat ing them to appl y for j ob in the organisation
'hereas, selection is a process of choosing most suitable candidates out
of those, who are interested and also ,ualified for j ob.
1. : In the recruit ment process, vacancies availabl e are finali0ed, publicit y
is given to them and applications are collected from interested candidat es.
In the selection process, availabl e applications are scrutini0ed. Tests,
interview and medical e(aminat ion are conducted in order to select most
suitable candidat es.
5. : In recruit ment the purpose is to attract ma(i mum numbers of suitable
and interested candidates through applications.
In selection process the purpose is that the best candidate out of those
,ualified and interested in the appoint ment.
8. : Recruit ment is prior to selection. It creates proper base for actual
selection.
!election is ne(t to recruitment. It is out of candidat es3
available4interest ed.
=. : Recruit ment is the positive function in which interested candidates are
encouraged to submi t application.
!election is a negative function in which unsuitable candidates are
eli minated and the best one is selected.
>. : Recruitment is the short process. In recruit ment publicit y is given to
vacancies and applications are collect ed from different sources
!election is a lengthy process. It involves scrutiny of applications, giving
tests, arranging interviews and medical e(aminat ion.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) 8D
@. : In recruit ment services of e(pert is not re,uired
'hereas in selection, services of e(pert is re,uired
A. : Recruit ment is not costly. %(penditure is re,uired mainl y for
advertising the posts.
!election is a costl y activit y, as e(penditure is needed for testing
candidates and conduct of interviews.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) =E
). IN#OSYS
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) =/
"or, at In!o(+(
$ feeling of energy and vitalit y, of freshness, of a place where people
work in a campus like facilit y and culture, are unafraid to voice new
ideas, of a place where there is minimal hierarchy.
Robust people management practices enable Infosys to create this
environment for its employees. This is what distinguishes Infosys among
other technology companies, enabling Infoscions to e(cel and innovate in
what they do for their clients and in what they stand for as a company.
Continuou( learnin1
The spirit of learnabil it y among Infosys people and an organi0at ional
commi tment to continuous personal and professional development keeps
Infosys at the forefront in a fast<changing industry. Their framework for
continuous learning at Infosys is built around a number of focused
programs for their employees. These range from maj or initiatives such as
the Infosys .eadership Institut e to various ongoing management
development and personal improvement programs. They complement a
host of technology advancement and ongoing training options.
edicated organi0at ions or groups within Infosys lead these initiat ives.
Infosys invest ment in people and infrastructure to build a holistic learning
framework demonstrat es their commit ment to continuous learning and
building intell ectual capital for their employees. This learning framework
is continuousl y enhanced with new programs and the latest learning
techni,ues < and close<knit coordination across these initiatives ensures
that it meets the different learning needs of their employees in specific
areas of technology, management, leadership, cultural and communicat ion
skills, and other soft skills.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) =1
$part from formal programs < a t ypical e(ample of an informal employee<
driven program is the Infosys Toast masters "lub, formed in 1EEE. The
mission of this club is to provide a mutual l y supportive and positive
learning environment to develop communication and leadership skills to
foster self<confidence and personal growth. The club has been recogni0ed
by Toastmasters International and joins the roster of other recogni0ed
"orporate "lubs around the world Bincluding those of #icrosoft, ?oeing,
"iticorp and !un #icrosystems:.
#un and culture
.ife at Infosys is full of events < where employees can pursue their
interests in areas as varied as arts, culture, or sports. The obj ective is to
ensure that employees are not confined to their desks. %mployees e(press
their various skills and interests through forums that include an O$rt
CalleryO on campus dedicated to displaying the works of Infoscions, dail y
,ui0 competi tions, and regular music meetings that keep the place abu00
with creativit y.
Inculcom is the base organi0ation that hosts cultural programs for
Infoscions. %ach event emphasi0es a specific area like music, dance, or
,ui0. These programs are generall y not compet itive, but a compet itive
element is someti mes added to enhance enthusiasm and to bring out the
best in our people. -nder Inculcom, there are sub groups like the IK
"ircle BKui00es:, !hruthi Bthe classical music club:, ramati( Bthe drama
club:, and ;akchaturya Bforum for self development:.
In(+nc
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) =5
The key to employee involvement in organi0ations is the sharing of
information about business performance, plans, goals, and strategies.
'hat happens by a shout across the corridor in a small er organi0ation,
calls for a more systemati c process in a large organi0at ion like Infosys.

In!ync is Infosys2s internal communi cat ion program focused on keeping
the Infoscion abreast of latest corporate and business developments, and
e,uipping him or her to be a Obrand ambassadorO for the company. This
program combines a communication portal with workshops, monthl y
newsletters, articles, dail y cartoons and brainteasers to synchroni0e each
Infoscion with the organi0at ion.

IIn!o(+( *elie9e( in an or1aniJation Cit0 le(( 0ierarc0+ and !a(ter
deci(ion8ma,in1. In order to ma,e t0at 0a''en; e9er+ In!o(cion need(
to ,noC 0oC t0e or1aniJation Cor,(; 0oC deci(ion are made; and C0at
dri9e( In!o(+(. So it i( im'ortant !or In!o(+( to communicate t0i( to
e9er+oneK
S. Go'ala,ri(0nan
Co8!ounder L Mem*er o! /oard
Career(
Infosys has a vision of where they want to go, and itP s reall y e(citing
'ith an annual compounded growth rate of around >EL in the last = years,
and branches across the world, Infosys is forging ahead in the global
market. To achieve their vision, they are always looking out for talent ed,
learnable individuals who are ambitious, who love challenges and who
have a passion to e(celQ
Towards this obj ective, Infosys participates in campus hiring programs
and also conducts a number of off<campus initi atives throughout the year
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) =8
at various locations. $part from college hiring, they also hire e(perienced
professionals from the industry at various mid<level and senior positions.
In!o(+( M 1roomin1 1lo*al talent
.ast year, over /. 5 mil lion people applied for a j ob at Infosys. *nly /L of
them were hired. In comparison, Harvard "ollege took in DL of
candidates.
Infosys has always focused on inducting and educating the best and the
brightest. 'ith global hiring practices, coupled with ever<e(panding
universit y programs such as "ampus "onnect and development centers
across the globe, Infosys is able to source and nurture talent while
delivering lasting value to clients.
Infosys, which trains over /=, EEE new recruits every year, is well
prepared to win the battle for top<notch talent. $t the heart of this
education program is a fully e,uipped R/1E mi llion facilit y in #ysore,
about DE mil es from ?angalore.
In!o(+( in t0e ('otli10t
In 1EE=, "omput erworld maga0ine, while ranking Infosys among the /EE
best places to work in IT, placed it at the very top of the list of best places
for education and training.
In its #arch 1EE> issue, &ortune maga0ine stepped inside the gates of
2Infosys3 and emerged with the impression that gaining admission to the
2Taj #ahal of training centers3 is harder than getting into Harvard.
).1 SOURCES ON MAN %O"ER SU%%$Y
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) ==
INTERNA$
Infosys upgrades from within only for managerial positions, but only to
some e(tent. ?ecause upgrading from within is considered better as the
employee is already fami liar with the organi0at ion, reduces training cost,
helps in building moral e and promot es loyal t y.
If no one capable for managerial position is found in its internal source, it
looks out for e(ternal sources. It selects onl y the best employee for the
organi0ation

TY%ES
#ormer Em'lo+ee(8
They ask the retired employees who are willing to work on a part<time
basis, individuals who left work and are willing to come back for
higher compensat ions. %ven retrenched employees are taken up once
again.
Retirement( 8
If it3s not able to find suitable candidates in place of the one who had
retired, after meritorious service. -nder the circumst ances,
management decides to call retired managers with new e(tension.
Internal noti!ication 6ad9erti(ement3 8
#ost employees know from their own e(perience about the
re,uirement of the j ob and what sort of person the company is looking
for. *ften employees have friends or ac,uaintances who meet these
re,uirements. !uitable persons are appointed at the vacant posts.
EXTERNA$
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) =>
&or the posts of technicians, engineers, floor managers etc, it looks out
for e(ternal sources which include.
$gencies9 T$P.
Institutions9 .ike ? !chools, colleges, #anagement Institutes,
etc.
'ebsites9 www.indiati mesj ob. com
www.monst er.com
www.naukri. com
*f the above three web sites given most widel y used by the Infosys is the
www.monst er.com with the success rate of AEL followed by
www.indiat imesj ob. com at >EL and www.naukri. com at the success rate of
=EL.
%(ternal recruitment enables the company to get the best candidate.
Infosys prefers e(ternal recruit ment and mainl y takes help from agencies
and institutions as it3s a giant company and internal recruit ment proves to
be inade,uate as its yearl y targets are very high.
Recruitment Tar1et( !or In!o(+(
Year No. o! em'lo+ee( 6'er +ear3
1EE/ /EEEE
1EE1 //EEE
1EE5 /5EEE
1EE8 /=EEE
1EE= /AEEE
1EE> 1=EEE
CAM%US
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) =@
"ampus recruitment is so much sought after that each collegeI
universit y depart ment or institute will have a placement officer to
handle recruitment functions. However, it is often an e(pensive
process, even if recruiting process produces j ob offers and
acceptances eventuall y. $ maj ori t y leave the organi0ation within the
first five years of their employment. Jet, it is a maj or source of
recruit ment for prestigious companies.
Infosys is the company of choice for campus recruitment programs
in most maj or engineering institutes such as IITs, R%"s etc. and at
premier management institut es such as the II#s.
En1ineerin1 In(titute(
"ampus hiring at engineering institutes typi call y starts in #ay and
continues through !eptember. !enior managers and officers from
Infosys activel y participate in this hiring, to bring on board the ne(t
generation of bright, young and talented leaders for the company.
'e encourage current students at the campuses we visit to use this
opportunit y to interact with the Infosys recruitment teams during
the hiring process to understand the company and our people
philosophy. 'e hire engineering graduates and post<graduates from
all disciplines, and #"$ students at the campuses.
Mana1ement In(titute(
"ampus hiring at management institutes t ypicall y starts in
ecember and continues through #arch. 'e hire management
graduates from all disciplines, with or without prior work
e(perience in software or other fields.
$ll applications are pre<screened based on academic credentials.
!hort<listed candidates are usuall y invited for an interview as part
of the selection process.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) =A
O## CAM%US
It is the event for those candidates who do not get selected during
campus recruit ment. The process remains the sameI it just aims at
giving those candidates a chance that were not able to go through
the process before. These candidat es also go through the same two
rounds, here onl y the scale and basis on which they are evaluated
changes.
GO/ #AIRS
"0at i( Fo* !airN
+ob fair is where several companies come under one roof for
seeking eligible candidates who can j oin their company, after going
through certain recruit ment process followed by them.
%ROCESS #O$$O"ED /Y IN#OSYS
Initial l y they advertise about the job fair in the local newspapers
of all the states specifyi ng the venue and date of the job fair.
*n the specified date, Infosys banners are put up at the venue.
They have around 5 to 8 counters. Initiall y these counters are
used for registrations. *nce the number of registrations is e,ual
to the total capacit y of all the counters, the registrations are
stopped and the registered candidat es fill the application forms
at the counter.
)e(t a logic test of 8= minutes is conducted and an %nglish test
of /= minutes is conducted where in one is suppose to write an
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) =D
essay, to check their handwriting, vocabulary and sentence
framing abilit y.
*nce the test is over, registrations for the ne(t group start. $t
the same ti me the previous papers are evaluated and the
candidates are selected for interview based on the cut<off marks.
The candidates who are selected in the interview are informed
then and there by displayi ng the list and are given the offer.
The process is repeated for the ne(t set of candidat es.
+ob fair takes place for 5 to 8 days.
ADVERTISEMENTS8
It is a popular method of seeking recruits, as many recruiters
prefer advertisements because of their wide reach.
In!o(+( ad9erti(e( in
NE"S %A%ERS
Times of India
The economi c ti mes
Indian e(press
Hindustan times
The financial e(press
%mployment papers
MAGAHINES
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) >E
?usiness world
?usiness Today
India Today
capital market
?usiness journals
IT maga0ines
"omput er and technical j ournals
"E/
www.infosys. com
www.indiat imesj ob. com
www.monst er.com
www.naukri. com
$dvertisements contain proper information like the j ob
content, working conditions, location of j ob, compensation including
fringe benefits, job specificat ions, growth aspects, etc.
The advertisement sells the idea that the company and job are perfect
for the candidate.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) >/
"A$E8INS; "RITE8INS AND TA$E8INS
"al,8in( are the most common and least e(pensive approach
for candidates is direct applications, in which job seekers submit
unsolicited application letters or resumes. irect applicat ions provide a
pool of potential employees to meet future needs.
"rite8in( are those who send written en,uiries. These j obseekers are
asked to complete application forms for further processing.
Tal,8in( involves the j ob aspirants meeting the recruiter Bon an
appropriated date: for detailed talks. )o application is re,uired to be
submit ted to the recruiter.
CONSU$TANTS
Infosys also seeks the help of consultants who are in the
profession for recruiting and selecting manageri al and e(ecutive
personnel. They are useful as they have nationwide contacts and lend
professionalism to the hiring process. They also keep prospective
employer and employee anonymous.
INDUSTRIES
Infosys also hires e(perienced professionals from the industry at
various mid<level and senior positions.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) >1
). & T2E SE$ECTION %ROCESS O# IN#OSYS
Ste'(
1. Initial (creenin1 o! inter9ieC(
Initial !creening is done on the basis of applicants and applicat ions. $
preli minary interview is conducted so as to select the suitable
candidate who can go through further stages of interviews.
)ormal l y for the posts of engineers degree cutoff is decided like say
>EL on an average. If the candidates do not meet the re,uirement they
are rej ected.
$nd for higher posts applicat ions and applicants both play a maj or role
in the screening process.
&. Com'letion o! a''lication !orm(
$pplication form establishes the candidat e3s general details like name,
address, telephone number, education, job< related training, work<
e(perience with dates, company names, and j ob details, professional or
industrial involvement, hobbies and recreational pursuits.
The company establishes as many hypotheses about the candidate from
the details provided in the application form. It then decides what areas
of information it needs to e(plore or investigat e more specificall y
during the interview.
"ompany sees to it that no judgment is passed about the candidat e
based onl y at this level. 'hat drawn here is hypotheses and not
conclusions.
$pplication forms are such framed that, they provide the necessary
details to the organisation without affecting the sentiments and feelings
of the candidate.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) >5
). Em'lo+ment te(t(
lo1ical te(t
En1li(0 te(t
Voca*ular+
Rea(onin1
E((a+ Critin1
VARIOUS TESTS
Mental or intelli1ence te(t(
They measure the overall intell ectual abilit y of a person and enable to
know whether the person has the mental abili t y to deal with certain
problems.
Mec0anical a'titude te(t(
They measure the abilit y of a person to learn a particul ar type of
mechanical work. These tests helps to measure speciali 0ed technical
knowledge and problem solving abilit ies if the candidate. They are useful
in selection of mechanics, engineers, etc.
Intelli1ence te(t
This test helps to evaluate traits of intelligence. #ental abilit y, presence
of mind Balertness:, numerical abili t y, memory and such other aspects can
be measured. It is taken to judge numeri cal, skills, reasoning, memory and
such other abilities.
%er(onalit+ Te(t
It is conducted to j udge maturit y, social or interpersonal skills, behavior
under stress and strain, etc. this test is very much essential on case of
selection of sales force, public relation staff, etc. where personalit y plays
an important role.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) >8
Gra'0olo1+ Te(t
It is designed to anal yse the handwriting of individual. It has been said
that an individual3s handwriting can suggest the degree of energy,
inhibition and spontaneit y, as well as disclose the idiosyncrasi es and
elements of balance and control. &or e(ample, big letters and emphasis on
capital letters indicate a tendency towards domination and
competi tiveness. $ slant to the right, moderate pressure and good
legibil it y show leadership potential.
Medical Te(t
It reveals physical fitness of a candidate. #edical servicing helps measure
and moni tor a candidate3s physical resilience upon e(posure business
ha0ards.
4. Inter9ieC
#ormal Inter9ieC
Interviews are held in the employment office in a more formal
at mosphere, with the help of well structured ,uestions.
%atterned Inter9ieC
$ patterned interview is also a planned interview, but it is more carefull y
pre<planned to a high degree of accuracy, precision and e(actitude. 'ith
the help of job and man specifications, a list of ,uestions and areas are
carefull y prepared which will act as the interviewer3s guide.
Non8directi9e Inter9ieC
Here the interviewee is allowed to speak his mind freel y. The interviewer
has no formal or directive ,uestions, but his all attention is to the
candidate. He encourages the candidate to talk by a little prodding
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) >=
whenever he is silent e. g. 6#r. Ray, please tell us about yourself after
you3re graduated from high school7.
The idea is to give the candidate complete freedom to 6sell7 himself,
without the encumbrances of the interviewer 3s ,uestion.
De't0 Inter9ieC
It is designed to intensel y e(amine the candidate3s background and
thinking and to go into considerable detail on particul ar subj ects of an
important nature and of special interest to the candidates. &or e(ample, if
the candidat e says that he is interested in tennis, a series of ,uestions may
be asked to test the depth of understanding and interest of the candidate.
Stre(( Inter9ieC
It is designed to test the candidate and his conduct and behavior by hi m
under conditions of stress and strain. The interviewer may start with 6#r.
+oseph, we do not think your ,ualificat ions and e(perience are ade,uate
for this position, 3 and watch the reaction of the candidates. $ good
candidates will not yi el d, on the contrary he may substantiat e why he is
,ualified to handle the job.
'hat I)&*!J! practice is that if interview is planned at =pm, it will start
candidate3s interview at >. 5Epm and watch the candidate3s behavior and
stress level.
%anel Inter9ieC
$ panel or interviewing board or selection commit tee interviews the
candidate, usuall y in the case of supervisory and managerial positions.
Mi:ed Inter9ieC
In practice, the interviewer while interviewing the job seekers uses a
blend of structured and structured and unstructured ,uestions. This
approach is called the #i(ed interview. The structured ,uestions provide a
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) >>
base of interview more conventional and permit greater insights into the
uni,ue differences between applicants.
Second Inter9ieC(
+ob seekers are invited back after they have passed the first initi al
interview. #iddle or senior management generall y conducts the second
interview, together or separatel y. #ore in<depth ,uestions are asked to the
candidate and the employer e(pects a greater level of preparation on the
part of the candidat es.
5. /ac,1round In!ormation
I)&*!J! re,uests names, addresses, and telephone numbers of references
for the purpose of verifying information and perhaps, gaining additional
background information on an applicant.
References are not usuall y checked until an applicant has successfully
reached the fourth stage of a se,uential selection process.
Previous employers are preferable because they are already aware of the
applicant3s performance.
It normall y seeks letters of reference or telephone references. The latter is
advantageous because of its accuracy and low cost.
=. %0+(ical E:amination
$fter the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the
candidate is re,uired to undergo a physical fitness test. $ job offer is,
often, depends upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical
e(amination. The results of the medi cal fitness test are recorded in a
statement and are preserved in the personnel records.
T0ere are (e9eral o*Fecti9e( *e0ind a '0+(ical te(t
1. *ne reason for a physical test is to detect if the individual
carries any infectious disease.
&. !econdl y, the test assists in determining whether an applicant
is physicall y fit to perform the work.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) >@
). Thirdl y, the physi cal e(amination information can be used to
determine if there are certain physical capabili ties, which
differentiate successful and less successful employees.
4. &ourth, medi cal check<up protects applicants with health
defects from undertaking work that could be detri mental to
them or might otherwise endanger the employer3s property.
5. &inall y, such an e(amination will protect the employer from
workers compensat ion clai ms that are not valid because the
inj uries or illness were present when the employee was hired.
A. #inal Em'lo+ment deci(ion
It is a final step. In this step company makes a very i mportant decision.
$fter all these processes follow up is done i. e. , the selected person is
induced and placed at the right j ob. Training is provided on regular basis
that is monthl y, ,uarterl y. These trainers have the e(perience of about /=<
1E yrs. In one batch there are >E employees who are sent to ?angalore for
training.
A''roac0 to Selection
Et0nocentric Selection
In this approach, staffing decisions are made at the organi0ation3s
head,uarters. !ubsidiaries have limited autonomy, and the employees from
the head,uarters at home and abroad fill key j obs.
R%"R-IT#%)T $) !%.%"TI*) >A
4 A*out $earnin1Mate 9
.earning#ate !olutions Private .imited is one of the fastest growing
e.earning "ompanies in India. .earning#at e is a provider of end<to<end
e.earning services and solutions designed to meet specific business
needs. The range of services varies from enterprise<wide e.earning
initiatives to creating custom content based on cost<effective alternatives
of delivery. .earning#ate has strong #anagement Team to handle its
development center in #umbai, -!, -F, and "anada. $s an e.earning and
software solutions company, .earning#ate partners with publishers and
training companies on conceptual i0at ion, design, development and
implementation of new media and technology solutions for the Higher
%ducation G "ontinuing %ducation markets. .earning#ate has
competencies and intel lectual propert y in the areas of content<
development, standards<based learning technologies, learner support
syst ems G content architectures.
.earning#ate is a cross<border e<.earning services company that is
focused on identifyi ng, creating and delivering relevant, instructionall y
sound, engaging content to learners using internet technologies.
.earning#ateP s clients include schools, colleges, universities, publishers,
)C*P s and corporations around the world. The firm has competencies and
owns intellectual property in the areas of strategy consulting, content<
development, assessment, content architecture and performance support.
The firmP s principals have a history of contributions to e<.earning
initiatives around the world and they bring this e(perience to bear in
every one of their client engagements. .earning#ateP s primary
development facilities are in #umbai and ?angalore, the media and
technology centers of India. In addition the firm leverages a global base
of associates and partners who are highl y respected thinkers in learning
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strategy, change management, instructional design, performance support
and learning technology, to create relevant, local e<.earning solutions
tailored to the specific needs and geographies of its clients.
.earning#ate is a pre<dominant l y e(port oriented company which services
Clobal clients M most of which are billion dollar plus clients or in the
&ortune "ategory.
&rom developing highly effective .earning !olutions to ac,uiring
intell ectual capital to client associations and tech<partners, they hold one
principle high over all others9 ,ualit y over ,uantit y. Their e(cellent track
record stands testament to this, lead in the right direction by a strong
management team and encouraging clients. $ P peopleP company, ambit ion,
perseverance and challenges run abu00 as they are commit ted to delivering
the best.
Imaginat ion soars over the wings of insight, as mind space at
.earning#ate takes over desk space of instructors and learners across the
globe. $nd what better beginning than with the best brains in the business.
4. 1 SOURCES ON MAN %O"ER SU%%$Y
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INTERNA$
.earning#ate uses internal sources for recruit ment but on a li mited basis
otherwise normal l y it uses e(ternal sources e(tensivel y for its recruit ment
purposes. .et us have a look at the internal sources in detail.
TY%ES O# INTERNA$ SOURCES
%re(ent em'lo+ee(
This source is normall y the first choice among the internal sources
and .earning #ate is no different. This source i mpli es filling up the
position from among the present employees by way of promotions
and transfers.
Em'lo+ee re!erral(
This is be a very good source of internal recruitment. %mployees
can develop good prospects for their famil ies and friends by
ac,uaint ing them with the advantages of a job with the company,
furnishing cards of introduction, and even encouraging them to
appl y.
Re!erral Sc0eme 8 /udd+ Sc0eme
$t .earning #ate employee referral is popularl y known as,
2Re!erral Sc0eme 8 /udd+ Sc0eme-.
The obj ective of Referral !cheme is to lay guidelines for effective and
smooth functioning of the employee referral program. It helps in
attracting talent through referrals from employees for fulfill ing the
vacant4additional positions in the company.
%mployees from all groups e(cept from Human Resources and senior
management are eligible to refer their friends 4 e(<colleagues 4
references 4 relatives for vacancies M both current and future in the
organi0ation.
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%rocedure9
The Human Resources group shall inform all employees through intranet 4
root emai l 4 notice board about the e(isting vacancies from time to ti me.
%mployees need to make references only on e<mail of suitable candidates
fulfilling the re,uirements as indicated to buddySlearningmat e. com
The HR group shall process the said applicat ion for the re,uirements as
per the recruit ment policy. If the referred candidate is found suitable and
selected in interviews, an offer matching with the ,ualification and
e(perience will be made to the candidate.
The ?uddy Referral Reward is paid to the employee 5 months after the
referral joins the organi0ation. However, in case the referral or the
employee concerned is separated from the services of the organi0ation
before the complet ion of 5 months, no referral payment shall be made to
the employee.
The employee concerned who makes the reference shall be rewarded with
the following9
"a
teg
ory
Re
wa
rd
Bin
I)
R:
?etween /<5 years relevant e(perience /E, EEE4<
#ore than
5 years
relevant
e(perience
/=, EEE4<
%r
oFe
ct
1=,
EE
E4<
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M
an
a1
er
an
d
a*
o9
e
'o
(it
io
n(
)o reward shall be payable for references of candidates that have less
than / year of relevant e(perience and contract recruit ment.
%re9iou( a''licant(
$lthough not trul y an internal source, those who have previousl y
applied for j obs can be contacted by mail, a ,uick and ine(pensive
way to fill an une(pected opening. This is possible at .earning #ate
through a master database that the company maintains containing
the details of all the previous applicants for the various vacant
posts.
EXTERNA$
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.earning#ate is a small but a fast growing company with employee
strength of just about 1@A and a modest turnover of/8E mill ion rupees in
the year 1EE=<E>. Its recruit ment targets are also prett y low at j ust /=ET
for the year 1EE@. *wing to the financial constraints and limited
recruit ment targets it has to select the sources carefull y keeping the cost
factor in mind
?arring the nominal use of the internal sources the remainder of the
recruiting is done through the e(ternal sources which includes,
$pproved Recruit ment "onsultants and !ub M contractors
Print #edia < $dvertisements
*utstation recruit ment
'ebsites M subscribed and unsubscribed
'alk<ins
Recruitment con(ultant( and Su* 7 contractor( 9
.earning#ate normal l y uses these sources to develop the re,uired pool of
candidates and also to achieve specialist help in its recruitment process.
!ub M contractors are normall y used in case of temporary re,uirements
due to une(pected events or some emergency situations.
%rint Media 7 Ad9erti(ement(
.earning#ate advertises mostl y through newspaper and not so much by
way of maga0ines. The newspapers they normall y advertise in are
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Times<$scent

Hindustan times
)$
Out(tation recruitment
*utstation recruitments are conducted by .earning#ate by calling the
candidates to their office and taking the re,uired tests and interviews as
per a process which is e(plained later in the proj ect.
The reimbursements made to them are as follows9
A. Reim*ur(ement o! Goinin1 related Tra9el #are
/. &or candidates recruited at all levels I class $4" train *R flight
fare to be considered on case<to<case basis. The same needs to be
approved by the ?H.
1. %ither .earning #ate administration doses the booking *R
employee can make his4her own arrangements for purchase of
tickets.
/. Reim*ur(ement o! E:'en(e( toCard( mo9ement o! 0ou(e0old
1ood(
/. &or candidates recruited at all levels, rei mbursement of e(penses
towards movement of household goods to be considered on case<
to<case basis. The same needs to be approved by the ?H.
1. %mployee needs to submit three ,uotations from three different
transporters to $dministrat ion department *R employee3s needs
to arrange transporter on their own, based on approved amount
by ?H.
5. *R ?usiness Head needs to approve specific relocation amount
to move household goods.
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*n joining, employee needs to fill in the reimbursement voucher
Bavailable with $ccounts epartment: and enclose the tickets in
original, and take approval of epart ment Head before submi tting to
$ccounts.
%mployees are re,uired to submit such claims within /E days from the
date of j oining to the $ccounts epartment in the prescribed format
available with the $ccounts epartment.
C. 2otel O Gue(t 2ou(e Accommodation
/. $ll outstation employees will be considered for a ma(i mum of /E
days Hotel 4 Cuest accommodation. However, they are e(pected
to make their own arrangements after mentioned duration and
.earning#ate $dministration will provide necessary assistance
on lease accommodation.
1. 'herever Hotel accommodat ion is provided, room rent only will
be directl y billed to the company.
5. %(tra food 4 laundry Bwhich are applicable in hotel package:
related bills will be borne by the employees.
"e*(ite(
.earning#ate uses a variet y of subscribed and unsubscribed websites to
create a pool of a variet y of candidates for various posts. Here are the
e(amples of few such websites
CCC.mo(terindia. com
CCC.nau,ri. com
CCC.Fo*(a0ead. com
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CCC.learnin1mate. com
"al,8in(
This is the most common and least e(pensive approach for candidates is
direct applications, in which job seekers submit unsolicited application
letters or resumes. irect applications provide a pool of potential
employees to meet future needs. This also is one of the sources which
.earning#ate uses for its recruitment purposes.
4. & T2E SE$ECTION %ROCESS O# $EARNINGMATE
STE%S
1. INITIA$ SCREENING
$fter receiving the profiles of candidates through the sources as
listed above, the matching profiles as per the specificat ions are
generated by the Recruitment "ell. These profiles are then
forwarded to the concerned ?H 4 &H 4 !H 4 Re,uisitor for further
short<listing.
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&. COM%$ETION O# A%%$ICATION #ORMS
Here the eligible candidates are made to fill in the application forms
wherein the company can come to know candidates skills,
background, past records, education, activiti es, health, personal
details, languages he knows, work e(perience, etc.
$pplication forms are such framed that, they provide the necessary
details to the organisation without affecting the sentiments and
feelings of the candidate.
). EM%$OYMENT TESTS
*nce the applicat ion forms are filled tests are conducted which
provides further information to the organisation about the candidate
and assists them in selection.
The tests are normal l y technical cum aptitude tests M The short<
listed candidates are administ ered with these tests. The candidates
who pass the test are then interviewed for the technical fitment. The
tests are mandatory for all the candidates who have less than 5 years
of total working e(perience.
4. INTERVIE"S
Technical interview M "andidates who pass the test are made to
appear for a technical interview in which their technical competence
is evaluated for the re,uirement and is captured by the Technical
interviewer in the Interview &eedback &orm. Their skill fitment is
done and suitabi lit y to the proj ect concerned is established through
the interview. It is mandatory that an interviewer at least / level
senior than the position for which the interview is being done
conducts the technical interview. Recruitment cell should ensure
that the interviewer is not related to the candidate. !kill Head or
concerned manager will have final authorit y to select candidates Bup
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to Team .eader 4 !pecialists level:. The short listed candidates will
be forwarded to HR interview as further selection process.
?usiness Head Interview M ?usiness Head will evaluate 4 interview
Proj ect #anagers and above positions. The short listed candidates
will be forwarded to HR interview as further selection process.
HR interview M If short listed in technical interview, the candidate
then appears for an HR interview, where his fitment to the
organi0ation culture, personalit y, communication skills, verificat ion
of his credentials, salary drawn and e(pectations are recorded. $fter
the interview is done, if the candidate is selected, then a salary cum
designation fit ment is done on the basis of comparable data of the
employees in the organi0ation.
?esides these there are also some other interview that are conducted
by .earning#ate. They are9
epth interview
!tress interview
Panel interview
BThese interviews have been discussed earlier in the proj ect. :
5. Re!erence C0ec,( M The reference check for candidates BProj ect
#anager and above: is done simul taneousl y with e(tending the
offer. The Recruit ment cell conducts a formal 4 informal
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reference check with the candidate3s referrals, which then forms
a part of the candidate3s profile and assessment.
=. O!!er and ne1otiation M $ formal offer of employment is
e(tended to the finall y selected candidates.
A. #olloC8u' and Foinin1 M The Recruit ment "ell does a follow up
with the candidate who is e(tended an offer to ensure candidat e
is j oining within the stipulated ti me.
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5 Conclu(ion
The human element of organi0ation is the most crucial asset of an
organi0ation. Taking a closer perspective <it is the very ,ualit y of
this asset that sets an organi0ation apart from the others, the very
element that brings the organi0at ion3s vision into fruition.
Thus, one can grasp the strategic impl ications that the manpower of
an organi0at ion has in shaping the fortunes of an organi0ation. This
is where the complementary roles of Recruitment and !election
come in. The role of these aspects in the contemporary organi0at ion
is a subj ect on which the e(perts have pondered, deliberated and
studied, considering the vital role that they obviously play.
The essence of recruit ment can be summed up as 2the philosophy of
attracting as many applicants as possible for given j obs3. The face
value of this definition is what guided recruit ment activit ies in the
past. These days, however, the emphasis is on aligning the
organi0ation3s obj ectives with that of the individual 3s. ?y making
this a priorit y, an organi0ation safeguards its interests and standing.
$fter all, a satisfied workforce is a stable workforce which also
ensures that an organi0ation has credible and reliable performance.
Ina bid to underscore this subtle point, the proj ect e(amines the
various processes and nuances one of the most critical activiti es of
an organi0at ion.
The end result of the recruitment process is essentiall y a pool of
applicants. )e(t to recruit ment, the logical step in the HR process is
the selection of ,ualified and competent people. $s such, this
process concentrat es on differentiating between applicants in order
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to identify M and hire< those individuals whose abilities are
consistent with the organi0ation3s re,uirements.
The reader will do well to note that the transition between the 1
activi ties is not stringent. The 1 activit ies basicall y have one ai m<
to yi el d a perfect employee for the organi0ation.
)or are these activit ies t ypecast. %very organi0ation tailors the
processes keeping in mind the nature of the organi0ation, its needs
and constraints.
In this proj ect, we e(amine this angle through the case studies of 1
companies, involved in the same sector but essentiall y different in
their perceptions towards recruit ment and selection. $nd both seem
to have benefited from their take on the 1 processes.
In the end, this proj ect endeavors to present a comprehensive
picture of Recruit ment and !election and hopes to enable the reader
to appreciate the various intricacies involved.
.
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RE#ERENCES
/. F $shwathappa, B/DD@: Human Resource and Personnel
#anagement, Tata #cCraw< Hill /5/</@>
1. "hris ukes, B1EE/: Recruiting the Right !taff
5. +ohn #. Ivancevich, Human Resource #anagement, Tata
#cCraw< Hill, 1EE8
8. !teve Fneeland, B/DDD: Hiring People, discover an effective
interviewing systemI avoid hiring the wrong person, recruit
outstanding performers
=. !tone, Harold " and Fendell, '.% %ffective Personnel
!election Procedures, /D=>
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/I/$IOGRA%2Y
NE"S %A%ERS
TI#%! *& I)I$
TH% %"*)*#I" TI#%!
MAGAHINES
?-!I)%!! '*R.
?-!I)%!! T*$J
I)I$ T*$J
%ERIODICA$S AND RE%ORTS
?-!I)%!! I)I$, $PRI.< #$J, 1EE>
I)I$ T*$J, #$R"H, 1EE>
"E/
www.googl e. co m
www.soopl e. com
www.i nfosys. com
www.l earni ngmat e. com
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