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Banking (ebanking

1.1 Introduction of E-Banking


1.2 Meaning of E-Banking
1.3 Functions of E-Banking
1.4 Types of E-Banking
1. !d"antages of E-Banking
1.# $i%itations of E-Banking
1.1 Introduction of E-Banking
1
The acceleration in technology has produced an extraordinary effect upon our
economy in general has had a particularly profound impact in expanding the
scope and utility of financial products over the last ten years. Information
technology has made possible the creation, valuation, and exchange of complex
financial products on a global basis and even that just in recent years.
Derivatives are obviously the most evident of the many products that
technology has inspired, but the substantial increase in our calculation has
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permitted a variety of other products and, most beneficially, ne" "ays to
unbundled ris#.
$hat is really %uite extraordinary is that there is no sign that this
process of acceleration in financial technology is approaching an end. $e are
moving at an exceptionally rapid pace, fueled not only by the enhanced
mathematical applications produced by our ever rising computing capabilities
but also by our expanding telecommunications capabilities and the associated
substantial broadening of our mar#ets.
&ll the ne" financial products that have been created in recent years contribute
economic value by unbundling ris#s and reallocating them in a highly calibrated
manner. The rising share of finance in the business output of India and other
countries is a measure of the economic value added by the ability of these ne"
instruments and techni%ues to enhance the process of "ealth creation. The
reason of course, is that information is critical to the evaluation of ris#. The less
that is #no"n about the current state of a mar#et or a venture, the less the ability
to project future outcomes and, hence, the more those potential outcomes "ill
be discontinued.
1.2 Meaning of E-Banking& -
'(ban# is the electronic ban# that provides the financial service for the
individual client by means of Internet.
1.3 Functions of E-Banking& -
&t present, the personal e(ban# system provides the follo"ing services) (
1. In'uiry about t(e infor%ation of account& -
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The client in%uires about the details of his o"n account information such as the
card+s , account+s balance and the detailed historical records of the account and
do"nloads the report list.
2. )ard accounts* transfer& -
The client can achieve the fund to another person+s -redit -ard in
the same city.
3. Bank-securities accounts transfer& -
The client can achieve the fund transfer bet"een his o"n ban#
savings accounts of his o"n -redit -ard account and his o"n capital account in
the securities company. .oreover, the client can in%uire about the present
balance at real time.
4. T(e transaction of foreign e+c(ange& -
The client can trade the foreign exchange, cancel orders and
in%uire about the information of the transaction of foreign exchange according
to the exchange rate given by our ban# on net
. T(e B2) disburse%ent on net& -
The client can do the real(time transfer and get the feedbac#
information about payment from our ban# "hen the client does shopping in the
appointed "eb(site.
#. ),ient ser"ice& -
The client can modify the login pass"ord, information of the
-redit -ard and the client information in e(ban# on net.
-. !ccount %anage%ent& -
The client can modify his o"n limits of right and state of the
registered account in the personal e(ban#, such as modifying his o"n login
pass"ord, free/ing or deleting some cards and so on.
.. /eporting t(e ,oss if t(e account& -
The client can report the loss in the local area 0not nation"ide1
"hen the client+s -redit -ard or passboo# is missing or stolen.
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1.4 Types of E-Banking& -
1. Deposits, "ithdra"als, inter(account transfer and payment of lin#ed
accounts at an &T.2
*. 3uying and paying for goods and services using debit cards or smart
cards "ithout having to carry cash or a che%ues boo#2
!. 4sing a telephone to perform direct ban#ing( ma#e a balance en%uiry,
inter(account transfers and pay lin#ed accounts2
5. 4sing a computer to perform direct ban#ing( ma#e a balance en%uiry,
inter(account transfers and pay lin#ed
1. !d"antages of E-Banking& -
1. &ccount Information) 6eal time balance information and summary of
day+s transaction.
*. 7und Transfer) .anage your 8upply(-hain net"or#, effectively by using
our online hand transfer mechanism. $e can effect fund transfer on a real
time basis across the ban# locations.
!. 6e%uest) .a#e a ban#ing re%uest online.
5. &ccount information) The complete database that the ban#s has about our
company is available to us at our terminal. It provides us)
-urrent balance in our account on real(time basis.
Day+s transactions in the account.
Details of cash credit limit, dra"ing po"er, amount utili/ed, etc.
9. Do"nloading of account statements as an excel file or text file. The
statements can be integrated "ith your '6P systems for auto(
reconciliation.
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:. 7und Transfers) .anage our 8upply(-hain net"or#, effectively by using
our online fund transfer mechanism. $e can effect fund transfer on a real
time basis across the ban# locations. The product facilities.
0a1 ;ne(to(one fund transfer bet"een t"o lin#ed account.
0b1 3ul# fund transfers2 In bul# fund transfers, "e upload a flat
file containing payment , collection information. ;ur
systems ta#e care of processing the entire file and once the
file is processed file to our '6P for auto reconciliation.
<. The real life situation of user("ise limits and multilevel signatories can
be mapped in the net(based fund transfer module too. $e can specify
user("ise cap for fund transfer and the number of approvals needed for
each fund transfer. The fund transfer "ill not ta#e place unless the
re%uired number of signatories has approved it.
=. $ith a po"er of &ttorney from our dealers, "e can lin# the dealer+s
accounts to our account in order to have an online fund transfer, saving us
time and money involved "ith che%ues collections systems. &lternatively,
the dealer can credit our account through this channel. 8imilarly, "e
could also effect vendor and other payments online.
>. -ustomers can Integrate the 8ystem "ith his o"n '6P) The customer can
do"nload the account statements either as a text file or as an excel file.
The ban# can help him in integrating the account statements and bul#
payments files "ith his '6P system. The ban# may charge a nominal fee
depending upon the nature of "or# involved.
1?.3ill Payment through 'lectronic 3an#ing) Internet has thus ushered the
concept of anytime and any"here ban#ing. To the individual the onerous
tas# of visiting several places to settle his service bills li#e telephone,
"ater, electricity, etc., can be overcome through the electronic 3ill Pay
service provided by the ban#. @e can pay his regular monthly bills
0telephone, electricity, mobile phone, insurance, etc.1 right from his
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des#top. Ao more missed deadlines, no more loss of interest. @e can
schedule his bills in advance, and thus avoid missing the bill deadlines as
"ell as earn extra interest on his money.
11. The 'lectronic 8hopping .all) The customer can also ma#e his shopping
payment through the 3an#+s secure "ebsite(so that he can shop online
"ithout any security "orries, as the ban# can provide online real time
shopping mail services through partner shopping sites
1*.'ffecting Personal Investments through 'lectronic 3an#ing) The ban#+s
"ebsite can also allo" the customer to invest in shares, mutual funds and
other financial products.
1!.Investing in .utual funds) 'lectronic ban#ing also brings the customer
the same convenience "hile investing in .utual funds( @assle free and
Paperless Investing. @e can invest in mutual funds "ithout the hassles of
filling application forms or any other paper"or#. @e needs to provide no
signatures or proof of identify for investing. ;nce he places a re%uest for
investing in a particular fund, there are no manual processes involved.
@is ban# funds are automatically debited or credited "hile
simultaneously crediting or debiting his unit holdings.
15.Initial Public ;ffers ;nline) The customer could also invest in initial
public offers online "ithout going through the hassles of filling &AB
application form , paper"or#. Cet in(depth analyses of ne" initial public
offers issues, "hich are about to hit the mar#et and analysis on these.
Initial public offer calendar, recent initial public offers listings,
prospectus , offer documents, and initial public offer analysis are fe" of
the features, "hich help a customer to #eep on top of the initial public
offers mar#ets.
19.;ther benefits) The e(ban#ing provides some other benefits also.some of
them are) -onvenience, speed of concluding transactions, safety(ban#ing
from o"n home, cheaper service fees, highly scaleable, easy
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customi/ation, lo"er cost of both installation and maintenance,platform
independence.
1.# $i%itation of E-Banking&
1. 8afety situations around &T.s.
*. &buse of ban# cards by fraudsters at &T.s.
!. Danger of giving your card number "hen buying on(line.
The modern technology has influenced the financial sector to a large extent. It
increases the competitive efficiency of the firms and provides sophistication to
the end users. It ma#es everyone fittest to survive.
)(apter 2& - Internet Banking
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2.1 Internet Banking
a0 Introduction
b0 T(e Indian 1cenario
c0 2roduct 3 1er"ice offered
2.2 /isk 3 /e4ards
a0 5perationa, /isk
b0 1ecurity /isk
c0 1yste% arc(itecture 3 design
d0 /eputationa, /isk
e0 $ega, /isk
f0 Money $aundering /isk
g0 )ross Border /isks
(0 1trategic /isk
i0 5t(er /isk
60 /isk of unfair co%petion
2.1 Internet Banking&-
a0 Introduction& -
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The delivery channels include direct dialup connections, private net"or#s,
public net"or#s, etc. "ith the popularity of computers, easy access to Internet
and $orld $ide $eb 0$$$1, Internet is increasingly used by ban#s as a
channel for receiving instructions and delivering their products and services to
their customers. This form of ban#ing is generally referred to as Internet
3an#ing, although the range of products and services offered by different ban#s
vary "idely both in their content and sophistication.
b0 T(e Indian 1cenario& -
The entry of India ban#s into Aet 3an#ing
Internet ban#ing, both as a medium of delivery of ban#ing services and as
a strategic tool for business development.
&t present, the total internet users in the country are estimated at > la#h.
@o"ever, this is expected to gro" exponentially to >? la#h by *??!. only
about 1 percent of Internet users did ban#ing online in 1>>=. This is
increased to 1:.< percent in .arch *??? 0India 6esearch, .ay *>, *???,
Dota# 8ecurities1.
-ost of ban#ing service through the Internet from a fraction of costs
through conventional methods. 6ough estimates assume teller cost at
6e.1 per transaction, &T. transaction cost at 59 paise, phone ban#ing at
!9 paise, debit cards at *? paise and Internet ban#ing at 1? paise per
transaction.
d0 2roduct and 1er"ices 5ffered& -
3an#s in India are at different stages of the "eb(enabled ban#ing cycle.
Initially, a ban#, "hich is not having a "eb site, allo"s its customer to
communicate "ith it through an e(mail address+ communication is limited
mail account.
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$ith gradual adoption of Information Technology, the ban# puts up a "eb
site that provides general information on deposits products, application
forms for do"nloading and e(mail option for en%uiries and feedbac#.
Eijaya 3an# provides information on its "ebsite about its A6I and other
services. -ustomers are re%uired to fill in applications on the Aet and can
later receive loans or other products re%uested for at their local branch.
& fe" ban#s provide the customer to en%uire into his demat account
0security,shares1 holding details, transaction details and status of
instructions given by him. These "eb sites still do not allo" online
transactions for their customers.
8ome of the ban#s permit customers to interact "ith them and transact
electronically "ith them. 8uch services include re%uest for opening of
accounts, re%uisition for che%ue boo#s, stop payment of che%ues, vie"ing
and printing statements of accounts, movement of funds bet"een
accounts "ithin the same ban#, %uerying on status or re%uests,
instructions for opening of Fetter of -redit and 3an# Cuarantees, etc.
These services are being initiated by ban#s li#e I-I-I 3an# Ftd.,
-itiban#, Clobal Trust 3an# Ftd., 4TI 3an# Ftd., 3an# of -itiban# 3an#
of .adura Ftd., 7ederal 3an# Ftd., etc.
8ome of the more aggressive players in this area such as I-I-I 3an# Ftd.,
@D7- 3an# Ftd., 4TI 3an# Ftd., -itiban#, Clobal Trust 3an# Ftd., and
3an# of Punjab Ftd., offer the facility of receipt, revie" and payment of
bills online.
The GInfinity+ service of I-I-I 3an# Ftd. &lso allo"s online real time
shopping all payments to be made by customers.
@D7- 3an# Ftd. @as made e(shopping online and real time "ith the
launch of its payment gate"ay.
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3an#s providing internet ban#ing services have been entering into
agreements "ith their customers setting out the terms and conditions of
the services.
The terms and conditions include information on the access through user(
ID and secret pass"ord, minimum balance and charges, authority to the
ban# for carrying out transactions performed through the service, liability
of the user and the ban#, disclosure of personal information for statistical
analysis and credit scoring also, non(transferability of the facility, notices
and termination, etc.
2.2 /isk 3 /e4ards& -
a0 5perationa, /isk& -
;perational ris#, also referred to as transactional ris# is the most common
form of ris# associated "ith i(ban#ing.
It ta#es the from of inaccurate processing of transactions, non(
enforceability of contracts, compromises in data integrity, data privacy
and confidentiality, unauthori/ed access , intrusion to ban#+s systems and
transaction, etc.
8uch ris#s can arise out of "ea#nesses in design, implementation and
monitoring of ban#s information system.
3esides inade%uacies in technology, human factors li#e negligence by
customers and employees, fraudulent activity of employees and crac#ers,
hac#ers, etc. can become potential source of operational ris#.
b0 1ecurity /isk& -
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8ecurity ris# arises on account of unauthori/ed access to a ban#+s critical
information stores li#e accounting system, ris# management system,
portfolio management system, etc.
;ther related ris#s are loss of reputation, infringing customers+ privacy
and its legal implications, etc.
&ttac#ers could be hac#ers, unscrupulous vendors, disgruntled employee
or even pure thrill see#ers.
In addition to external attac#s ban#s are exposed to security ris# from
internal sources e.g. employee fraud. 'mployee being familiar "ith
different systems and their "ea#nesses become potential security threats
in a loosely controlled environment. They can manage to ac%uire the
authentication data in order to access the customer accounts causing
losses to the ban#.
4nless specifically protected, all data, information transfer over the
internet can be monitored or read by unauthori/ed persons.
c0 1yste% arc(itecture and design& -
3an#s face the ris# of "rong choice of technology, improper system
design and inade%uate control processes.
Aumerous protocols are used for communication across internet. 'ach
protocol is designed for specific types of data transfer.
& system allo"ing communications "ith all protocols, say @TTP 0@yper
Text Transfer Protocol1, 7TP 07ile Transfer Protocol1, telnet, etc. is more
prone to attac# than one designed to permit say, only @TTP.
.any ban#s rely on outside service providers to implement, operate and
maintain their e(ban#ing system
8ecurity related operational ris# include access control, use of fire"alls,
cryptographic techni%ues, public #ey encryption, digital signature, etc.
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d0 /eputationa, /isk&
6eputational ris# is the ris#s of getting significant negative public
opinion, "hich may result in a critical loss of funding or customers. 8uch
ris#s arise from actions "hich cause major loss of the public confidence
in the ban#s+ ability to perform critical functions or impair ban#(customer
relationship. It may be due to ban#s+ o"n action or due to third party+s
action.
The main reasons for this ris# may be system or product not "or#ing to
the expectations of the customers, significant security breach 0both due to
internal and external attac#1, inade%uate information to customers about
product use and problem resolution procedures, significant problems "ith
communication net"or#s that impair customers+ access to their funds or
account information especially if, there are, no alternative means of
account access.
e0 $ega, /isk& -
Fegal ris# arises from violation of, or non(conformance "ith la"s, rules,
regulations, or prescribed practices, or "hen the legal rights and
obligations of parties to a transaction are not "ell established.
& customer, inade%uately informed about his rights and obligations, may
not ta#e proper precautions in using Internet ban#ing products or
services, leading to disputed transactions, un"anted suits against the ban#
or other regulatory sanctions.
f0 Money $aundering /isk& -
o &s internet ban#ing transactions are conducted remotely ban#s may find
it difficult to apply traditional method for detecting and preventing
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undesirable criminal activities. &pplication of money laundering rules
may also be inappropriate for some forms of electronic payments.
o To avoid this, ban#s need to design proper customer identification and
screening techni%ues, develop audit trails, conduct periodic compliance
revie"s, frame policies in internet transactions.
g0 )ross-Border /isks& -
Internet ban#ing is based on technology that, by its very nature, is
designed to extend the geographic reach of ban#s and customers. 8uch
mar#et expansion can extend beyond national borders. This causes
various ris#s.
8uch considerations may expose ban#s to legal ris#s associated "ith non(
compliance of different national la"s and regulations, including
consumer protection la"s, record #eeping and reporting re%uirements,
privacy rules and money laundering la"s.
The foreign(based service provider or foreign participants in internet
ban#ing are sources of country ris# to the extent that foreign parties
become unable to fulfil their obligations due to economic, social or
political factors.
(0 1trategic /isk& -
7or reducing such ris#, ban#s need to conduct proper survey, consult
experts from various fields, establish achievable goals and monitor
performance.
&lso they need to analy/e the availability and cost of additional
resources, provision of ade%uate supporting staff, proper training of staff
and ade%uate insurance coverage.
i0 5t(er /isk& -
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Traditional ban#ing ris#s such as credit ris#, li%uidity ris#, interest rate
ris# and mar#et ris# are also present in internet ban#ing.
These ris#s get intensified due to the very nature of internet ban#ing on
account of use of electronic channels as "ell as absence of geographical
limits.
-redit ris#) Is the ris# that a counterparty "ill not settle an obligation for
full value, either "hen due or at any time thereafter. 3an#s may not be
able to properly evaluate the credit"orthiness of the customer "hile
extending credit through remote ban#ing procedures, "hich could
enhance the credit ris#.
&nother facility of internet ban#ing is electronic money. It brings various
types of ris#s associated "ith it. If a ban# purchases e(money from an
issuer in order to resell it to a customer, it exposes itself to credit ris# in
the event of the issuer defaulting on its obligation to redeem electronic
money.
Fi%uidity ris#) It is important for a ban# engaged in electronic money
transfer activities that it ensures that funds are ade%uate to cover
redemption and settlement demands at any particular time. 7ailure to do
so, besides exposing the ban# to li%uidity ris#, may even give rise to legal
action and reputational ris#.
60 /isk of unfair co%petion& -
Internet ban#ing is going to intensify the competition among various
ban#s. The open nature of internet may induce a fe" ban#s to use unfair
practices to ta#e advantage over rivals. &ny lea#s at net"or# connection
or operating system, etc. may allo" them to interfere in a rival ban#+s
system.
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Thus, one can find that along "ith the benefits internet ban#ing carries
various ris#s for ban# itself as "ell as ban#ing system as a "hole.
)(apter 4& - 7(at do )o%puters do in Banks
T(e different uses of Infor%ation Tec(no,ogy& -
a0 1ing,e 7indo4 1yste%
b0 !ny Ti%e Banking
c0 !uto%ated Te,,er %ac(ine
d0 1(ared 2ay%ent 8et4ork 1yste%
e0 )usto%er 1er"ice
f0 Te,ebanking
g0 9o%e Banking
(0 E,ectronic Fund Transfer
i0 2,astic )ards as Media for 2ay%ent
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1. )redit )ard
2. :ebit )ard
3. 1%art )ard
4. !TM )ard
4.1 T(e different uses of Infor%ation Tec(no,ogy& -
a0 1ing,e 7indo4 1yste% (1710& -
o The cashier or teller "ho accepts the cash, #eys in the data from his
terminal after receipt of the amount.
o The amount is straight a"ay posted to the system.
o If the customer "ishes to update passboo# the same is also updated
through the security form printer,pass boo# printer.
o If a customer "ishes to obtain a draft, the cler# #eys in the details of the
account to be debited and the particulars of the drafts to be issued on the
machine.
o The customer+s account is debited and security form printer prints out
draft and cler# can hand over the same to customer duly signed.
b0 !ny Ti%e Banking& -
This refers to ban#ing service available *5 hours a day and !:9 days a
year.
8uch facility is made available to the customer through the &utomated
Teller machine.
3an#ing, being a service industry, is primarily driven by customers needs.
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'ach customer is "illing to pay a price for the services provided it is
made available to him "hen he "ants and "here he "ants.
In the present day of server competion, ban#ing services are driven by
technology, "hich is more oriented to"ards providing better services to
the customer.
The concept of ban#ing hours has been changed from the fixed 5 hours to
*5 hours.
This has been made possible through use of &T.s. 'ven under the
manual service, the ban#s have stated to extend the service from the
traditional 5 hours to 9 hours and even up to 1* hours say from = &. to =
P..
8ome ban#s have introduced the practice of 8unday 3an#ing or @oliday
3an#ing.
c0 !uto%ated Te,,er Mac(ine (!TM0& -
&T. is a machine in the nature of a computer in general sense, but is
dedicated to do certain types of specific jobs only.
The hard"are and the proprietary i.e. the soft"are used in one machine
can not be used in one machine.
d0 1(ared 2ay%ent 8et4ork 1yste% (12810& -
The 8PA8, named 8$&D@&A, has been sponsored by the Indian 3an#+s
&ssociation 0I3&1.
It is a net"or# of &T.s, points of sale terminals and -ash Dispensers
"ith a vie" to pool the resources of the ban#s and underlines the spirit of
competition through cooperation.
It became operational in .umbai on 1
st
7ebruary 1>>< and in t"o years
about 19? &T.s "ere o"ned and installed by != ban#s including foreign
ban#s, public and private sector Indian commercial ban#s as also
cooperative ban#s.
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The biggest advantage of the net"or# is that the &T. cards issued by
different ban#s can used at any member ban#s &T..
3an#s can have as many &T. as they "ant and follo" some standards
set by the 8PA8 committee.
The heart of the net"or# is the 8"itch and its main components are)
Tandem .ainframe -omputer, 3&8' *5 8oft"are, .otorola net"or#ing
e%uipments and the leased lines.
e0 )usto%er 1er"ices& -
The follo"ing customer services are offered through the system
i. -ash "ithdra"al 0up to a specified limit1
ii. -he%ue,-ash deposit 0the receipt being only for the deposit of the
envelope containing cash but not for the amount therein1
iii. 'n%uiry about balances
iv. Printing of statement of accounts
v. 6e%uest for che%ue boo# and standing instructions.
vi. Transfer of funds
vii. PIA change
f0 Te,ebanking& -
7rom the conventional ban#ing, "here the services "ere provided
manually across the table, it has come to a stage "here the customer is
not re%uired to visit the ban# en%uiry of balance in the account, sending a
remittance, to get a statement of account, etc.
The concept has become so popular that in 48& customers do not visit
the ban# for ><H of their transactions and these are done from either
customer+s residence or office using a telephone or a home P-.
In teleban#ing the customer is re%uired to open the account "ith the ban#
initially by visiting the ban#.
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Teleban#ing services are, generally, provided by the ban# over the
telephone on a special number.
The number at the ban# is connected to a terminal in the ban#, "hich is
either handled manually or is automated by connecting the same to the
computer net"or#.
$here the system is automated, t"o types of technology are used.
g0 9o%e Banking& -
4nder home ban#ing the customer is served at his residence and there is
no need for the customer to visit the ban#+s premises for a number of
routine transactions.
If the customer needs some information the same can be got by
contacting the ban# over the phone as described in the teleban#ing.
If the customer "ants to put through transaction and "ishes to see his
account or to get a statement of his account, he may have to use a P-.
The home ban#ing service can be broadly classified under t"o
groups, one "ithout using the information technology and another using
information technology.
$hen customer contacts the ban# o the phone no specific
technology is involved and the service of teleban#ing are provided to
him.
(0 E,ectronic Fund Transfer (EFT0& -
o In India the fund transfers are basically done through .ail Transfer, Draft
or Telegraphic Transfer.
o In case of Telegraphic Transfer 0TT1 again the Department of
Telecommunication "as the sole provider of Telephone, Telex and
Telegram facilities.
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o $ith the process of liberali/ation private operators have started providing
alternative voice communication channels through mobile phones and
vast communication as an alternative channels for data communication.
o It "as normal for any TT to be credited to the beneficiary+s account after
delay of * to 5 days
o The different forms of '7T prevalent in the use are)
'7T through 'lectronic Data Interchange
3&ADA'T
63IA'T
ID63T E8&T Aet"or#
'7T from Point of 8ales
'lectronic -ash
8$I7T( Clobal 8ystem for 7unds Transfer
'lectronic -learing 8ettlement
i0 2,astic )ards as Media for 2ay%ent& -
There are four types of plastic cards being used ad media for ma#ing payments.
These are)
1. -redit -ard
*. Debit -ard
!. 8mart -ard
5. &T. -ard
1. )redit )ards& -
The credit card enables the cardholders to)
Purchase any item li#e clothes, je"ellery, rail"ay,air tic#ets, etc.
Pay bills for dining in a restaurant or boarding and lodging in a hotel
&vail of any service li#e car rental, etc
2. :ebit )ard& -
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& debit card is issued on payment of a specified amount by the issuing company
li#e a telephone company to a customer on cash payment or on debiting his
account by a ban#.
Thus it is li#e an electronic purse, "hich can be read and debited by the re%uired
amount.
It may be noted that "hile through a credit card, the customer first ma#es a
purchase or avails service and pays later on, but for getting the debit card, a
customer has to first pay the due amount and then ma#e a purchase or avail the
service. 7or this reason, debit card are not as popular as credit cards.
3. 1%art )ards& -
8mart -ards have a built(in microcomputer chip, "hich can be used for storing
and processing information. 7or example, a person can have a smart card from a
ban# "ith the specified amount stored electronically on it. &s he goes on
ma#ing transactions "ith the help of the card, the balance #eeps on reducing
electronically. $hen the specified amount is utili/ed by the customer, he can
approach the ban# to get his card validated for a further specified amount. 8uch
cards are used for paying small amounts li#e telephone calls, petrol bills, etc.
In India, a smart card, suiting Indian ban#ing environment, is being developed
and tested at IIT, .umbai, in collaboration "ith the 63I and 83I. The card is
being used as an experimental tool for promoting cashless society in and around
the IIT -ampus. The latest smart card being developed "ill combine all the
features of electronic purses, credit cards and &T. cards.
4. !TM )ards& -
The card contains a PIA 0Personal Identification Aumber1 "hich is selected by
the customer or conveyed to the customer and enables him to "ithdra" cash up
to the transaction limit for the day. @e can also deposit cash or che%ue.
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)(apter & )redit )ard Frauds

.1 )redit )ard Frauds
Meaning
:efrauder
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!4are of )redit )ard
!d"antages of )redit )ard
)redit )ard Frauds
.2 T(e 2re"ention of Frauds
:up,icate )ard
7(ite p,astics
Banker*s /o,e
)yber $a4s
!,tering 1a,e ter%ina,s
Internet /e,ays
Monitoring :eposit
/isk Manage%ent
)entra, )redit )ard ),earing 9ouse
$oss of )redit )ards in Transit
Fraud )onsciousness
2(ysica, E"idence
)(eck t(e (and4riting
.1 )redit )ard Frauds& -
Meaning& -
& credit card is a money transaction device "ithout using cash or fiduciary
documents.
:efrauder& -
The defrauder has been slo" to exploit the credit card, for ma#ing a fast buc#.
In 48&, he made 19 million dollars. through the cards, in 1>=1. in 1>=* his
earning through the card, rose to 9? million dollars. in 1>=!, the fraudulent card
brought over 1?? million dollars to its creators. The fraudulent card industry is
rising higher and higher to di//y height every year. Fi#e other countries if the
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genuine credit card has come in India, the fraudulent credit card cannot be far
behind.
!4are of )redit )ard& -
The credit card, as already seen, is a money transaction device. The institutions
issuing the credit card give the card holders authority to obtain money, goods,
services or any other thing of value, on credit. They guarantee payment of debit
so raised. These institutions are ban#s and other financial institutions, clubs and
travel agencies and departmental stores, etc. -redit -ards, 3ob -ards, .aster
-ards, Eisa -ards, express -ards, 'uro -ards have "ide circulation. 8ome of
them have "ide circulation. 8ome of them have "orld("ide circulation..
)redit )ard Frauds& -
-redit card frauds manifest themselves in a number of "ays)
1. Cenuine cards are manipulated.
*. Cenuine cards are altered.
!. -ounterfeit cards are created.
5. 7raudulent telemar#eting is done "ith credit cards.
9. Cenuine cards are obtained on fraudulent applications in the
names,addresses of other persons and used.
It is feared that "ith the expansion of '(-ommerce, .(-ommerce, and Internet
facilities being available on massive scale, the fraudulent fund frea#ing via
credit cards "ill increase tremendously. The shape it ta#es "ill be limited only
by the ingenuity of the future.
.2 T(e 2re"ention of Frauds
:up,icate )ard& -
The duplicate fraudulent credit cards are those "here the defrauders have made
sincere efforts to duplicate the original cards through photo(mechanical
processes.
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They follo" the footsteps of the original manufactures of the genuine credit
cards to produce as close a replica of the genuine card as possible, employing
similar materials and similar processes of printing and embossing, besides
magnetic encodings.
7(ite 2,astic& -
The counterfeit credit cards #no"n as G"hite plastics+ are imitations of credit
cards in general aspect.
Banker*s /o,e& -
The credit card industry is one of the fastest gro"ing activities of the ban#ing
industry. The artist has to be there 0"here the money is1. The ban#s have to
suffer losses.
)yber $a4s& -
Information Technology .inistry be approached for stringent la"s against
credit card crimes.
!,tering 1a,es ter%ina,s& -
Internet '(.ail should be utili/ed on the pattern of @ot 3ox organi/ed about a
decade ago, suitably modified to benefit from the advances the information
technology has made since them.
Internet /e,ays& -
-omputers should be pressed into service via internet connection by suitably
upgrading the Television 8ystem Eertical blan#ing Intervals for notifying the
fraudulent cards in the mar#et.
Monitoring :eposit& -
.onitoring system can help locate the unscrupulous merchants "ho use or
allo" the use of G"hite plastics+ and fraudulent cards, #no"ing fully "ell their
fraudulent nature for ma#ing a fast bac#.
/isk Manage%ent& -
To meet the menace one of the top card companies has imitated ris#
management service to
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identify these high ris# centers "here daily all the inter(change transactions of
the areas are scrutini/ed and the credit card number are chec#ed against those
"hich have been declared fraudulent, stolen or lost.
)entra, credit )ard ),earing 9ouse& -
There should be a joint list of credit card holders on central basis "ith their
addresses and other details, if any. Ae" applicants to any ban# for credit cards
should be chec#ed) (
If he is holding card from other issuers.
If he has held a card at other times. If so, "henI $hy did he discontinueI
If he has applied to more than one credit card issuers
The ne" card holder+s business transactions should be "atched for some
time.
$oss of )redit cards in Transit& -It must be prevented.It is simple for either
the customer to collect personally or the ban#er should deliver it personally, or
it should be sent by courier and confirmation obtained on telephone, in addition
to the paper receipt.
Fraud )onsciousness& -
The problem of credit card frauds must be brought to the notice of users as "ell
as of the servers at sale terminals.
Proper training in the chec# up of the credit card in its various aspects has no
substitute and in vie" of the huge issues the same is indispensable.
2(ysica, E"idence&
Immediately on the discovery of fraud all the physical evidence available
should at once be ta#en into possession and the case reported to the police for
investigation.
)(eck t(e 9and4riting& -
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@and"riting 0in signatures1 is available on sale drafts and on credit cards. The
comparison of hand("riting inter se and "ith that of the suspect and of genuine
card holders, can lead to the identity or non(identity of alleged "riter.
)(apter #& - Banks )ontro, in 5n,ine Banking
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#.1 7i,, Banks )ontro, 5n,ine Banking& -
Internet Banking in India
/ea, t(reats
5n,ine
#.2 1uggestions
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#.1 7i,, Banks )ontro, 5n,ine Banking& -
Internet Banking in India& -
;nline ban#ing is expected to explode in the ext fe" years. $e "ill be entering
the age of non(physical exchange of cash aided by complete transparency
leading to perfectly competitive electronic mar#et place and inevitably to
customer supremacy. Cro"th in online ban#ing "ill be driven by the follo"ing
reasons)
Increasing access to lo" cost electronic services
'mergence of open standards in the ban#ing industry
Improved customer a"areness
'ntry of global majors in the mar#et
Integration of ban#ing services "ith e(commerce and emergence of e(
cash
-onvenient international transactions as Internet eliminates geographic
boundaries
8hift from one(stop shopping to unbundled product purchases
/ea, T(reats& -
& majority of leading online bro#ers are beginning to offer ban#ing
products and services as part of their overall offers.
They are actively see#ing to capture excess balances in existing
chec#ing and saving accounts by offering better rates.
There are other threats to ban#s as "ell. 8everal leading system providers
have developed ban#(in(a(box solution J unbranded, electronic, full(
service, virtual(ban# system J that can be bought, branded, and offered to
consumer by any authori/ed company that "ishes to provide ban#ing
service.
#.2 1uggestions& -
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To prevent online ban#ing from remaining an expensive additional
channel that does little to retain footloose customers, ban#s must act
%uic#ly.
The first and most obvious step they should ta#e is to see to it that the
basic problem fueling dissatisfaction have been addressed.
&fter repairing this basic deficiency, ban#s must ensure that there
services is competitive.
;bviously, it should include chec#ing, savings and bro#erage services,
"hich anchor customers to the institution.
In addition, to meet the challenge of online bro#erage and other ne"
entrants, ban#s "ould need to add supermar#ets selling products such
as mortgage, mutual funds and insurance.
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)onc,usion& -
Technology innovation and fierce competition among existing ban#s have
enable a "ide array of ban#ing products and services, being made available to
retail and "holesale customer through an electronic distribution channel,
collectively referred to as e(ban#ing. The integration of e(ban#ing application
"ith legacy system implies an integrated ris# management approach for all
ban#ing activities of a ban#ing institution.
3an#s have traditionally been in the forefront of harnessing technology to
improve product and efficiency. Technology is altering the relationships
bet"een ban#s and its internal and external customers. Technology has also
eroded the entry barriers faced by many industries. $ith one time investment,
technology has brought about superior products and channel management "ith a
special focus on customer relationship. The incremental costs incurred for
expansion and diversification are also more beneficial.
The major driving force behind the rapid spread of e(ban#ing is its acceptance
as an extremely cost effective delivery channel. 3ut on the
flipside, it is associated "ith ris#s such as reputation ris#, security ris#, cross(
border ris# and strategic ris#, "hich are uni%ue to e(ban#ing. 3an#s need to
have an effective disaster recovery plan along "ith comprehensive ris#
management tool is significant not only to the ban# but also to the ban#ing
system as a "hole.
-oming home, India is on threshold of a major ban#ing revolution "ith the
invasion of net ban#ing. $ith the concept of payment gate"ay coming in, ban#s
are vying "ith one another for the lion+s share in the mar#et.
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BIB$I5;/!9<& -
;+ 3rien Kames. &, .anagement Information 8ystem, Calgotia
Publication
.uedic L 6oss, .anagement Information 8ystem
Fucae, .anagement Information 8ystem
8en, .anagement Information 8ystem
Indian 3an#ing, 8. Aatarahan and 6. Parames"aran
3an#ing J In the Ae" .illennium, I-7&I 4niversity
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