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EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR

POWERED SOLID DESICCANT DEHUMIDIFIER


A THESIS
SUBMI TTED I N FULFI LLMENT OF THE
REQUI REMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE
OF
DOCTOR OF PHI LOSOPHY
I N
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
By
AVADHESH YADAV
(2K08-NITK-PhD-1201-M)
UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF

Dr V. K. BAJPAI
Associate Professor
MED, NIT Kurukshetra





DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(Institution of National Importance)
KURUKSHETRA-136119, INDIA
July, 2012
ii

Candidates Declaration


I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the thesis, entitled
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Solar Powered Solid
Desiccant Dehumidifier for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
submitted in the department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of
Technology, Kurukshetra, is an authentic record of my own work carried out under the
supervision of Dr. V. K. Bajpai, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical
Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India.
The matter presented in this thesis has not been submitted in part or in full for the award
of degree/diploma of this or any other University/Institute.





Date: Avadhesh Yadav










iii

Certificate


This is to certify that the thesis entitled Experimental and Numerical Investigation of
Solar Powered Solid Desiccant Dehumidifier being submitted by Avadhesh Yadav
(Registration number 2K08-NITK-PhD-1201-M) for the award of the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy is a record of bona fide research work carried out by him.
Mr. Avadhesh Yadav worked under my guidance and supervision and has fulfilled the
requirements for the submission of this thesis, which to my knowledge has reached the
requisite standard.
The results contained herein have not been submitted in part or in full, to any other
University or Institute for the award of any degree.




Date: Dr. V.K. Bajpai
Associate professor,
Department of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology,
Kurukshetra-136119,
Haryana,
INDIA.









iv

Acknowledgements


First and foremost, a great deal of gratitude goes to my thesis supervisor Dr. V. K. Bajpai
Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of
Technology, Kurukshetra for his continuous support, encouragement and keenness which
made this thesis possible. His painstaking efforts, methodical approach and individual
help made it possible for me to complete this work in time.
I express my feeling of thanks to Dr. Sudhir Saxena, Professor and Head of Mechanical
Engineering Department, for providing me all possible help to carry out my experiments.
Thanks are also due to Dr. S. S. Rattan, Dr. Dinesh Khanduja, Dr. Puneet Kumar, Dr. P.
K. Saini and Dr. Gulshan Sachdeva and all other faculty members of Mechanical
Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra for their help,
inspiration and moral support which went a long way in successful completion of my
thesis.
I also thank Mr. B. S. Saini, lab supervisor and all technical staff from workshop for
extending their help in the fabrication and successful installation of experimental setup.
I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Deepak Pahwa (Chairman),
Desiccant Rotors International (DRI) India which provided desiccant wheel and Mr. H.S.
Chadha, (M.D.) Sunson Energy Devices (P) LTD, New Delhi, India which provided me
evacuated tube solar system that were among main parts of my experimental setup.
My ultimate gratefulness is for my parents and the rest of my family who have
enthusiastically supported all of my academic undertakings. I share this accomplishment
with them all. I am also thankful to my friends for their co-operation and valuable
suggestions.
Last but not least, I would like to thank almighty God for helping and guiding me during
my life and throughout my study.

Avadhesh Yadav

v

Abstract


In many parts of India, hot and humid conditions are present. In such an environment, the
dry air is essential for domestic and industrial purposes. The dry air is produced by using
the simple vapour compression system but it leads to environmental issues. The various
solid desiccants like silica gel, activated alumina and activated charcoal are used to
produce the dry air. This method has low operating and maintenance cost and is
environment friendly. Also, these desiccants perform very well in high humid regions and
are easily regenerated in tropical conditions of India.
Detailed review of the literature on solar assisted desiccant dehumidification system
revealed many interesting possibilities. The studies show that solid desiccant
dehumidifier can be easily regenerated when the evacuated tube solar air collector is
attached to it. The main stress has been laid on the mathematical modeling of desiccant
wheel for various designs, which helped in finding the suitable desiccant wheel design
that can be regenerated at low temperature.
The experimental investigation of one ended normal evacuated tube solar air collector has
been carried out for producing the hot air under the Indian climatic conditions. To
enhance the outlet temperature, copper coil and reflectors have been used. Both the
configurations, parallel flow and counter flow are examined experimentally by changing
the position of blower. It has been found that the setup operated more efficiently at high
air flow rate in counter flow when both the reflectors and copper coil were used.
The hot air produced from evacuated tube solar air collector has been used to regenerate
the various solid desiccants like silica gel, activated alumina and activated charcoal and
their comparative performances have been evaluated. The regeneration performance is
greatly affected by the regeneration temperature and it also depends on the initial
moisture content, regeneration air moisture at inlet, temperature of the desiccant and the
flow rate of regeneration air. On comparing the performance of desiccants at different air
flow rates, it has been found that evacuated tube solar air collector regenerates these
desiccants properly and the regeneration performance of silica gel is better as compared
to activated alumina and activated charcoal. For air dehumidification, silica gel is also a
vi

better adsorbent as compared to activated alumina and activated charcoal for humid
climatic conditions of India.
Experimental studies have been carried out on solar powered desiccant wheel for
producing the dry air in Indian climatic conditions. The regeneration and adsorption
processes have been taken into account for this setup. The regeneration performance and
adsorption performance are affected by the regeneration temperature, rotational speed of
desiccant wheel, air flow rate and ambient conditions. Regeneration temperature directly
affects the effectiveness of the desiccant wheel.
Experimental results obtained from solar powered desiccant wheel for the moisture
removal process have been compared with simulation results of mathematical model at
same operating and design parameters. Simulation results are also validated with the
experimental data of Kodama PhD thesis (1995).
A mathematical model has been used to estimate the optimum design parameters of a
desiccant wheel for reducing its weight and size. This model has been used to conduct a
comparative performance analysis in both the directions of rotation (clockwise and
anticlockwise) of desiccant wheel with purge sector and it has been found that the
anticlockwise direction gave better results than clockwise direction for all the cases.
This model has also been used to compare the performances of two sector and four sector
desiccant wheels. It has been found that the maximum relative moisture removal
efficiency of both, the two sector and four sector is same but in two sector, it has been
obtained at twice the rph of a four sector. This model has also been used to analyze the
performance of two sector desiccant wheel with heated and cooled purge at different
regeneration temperatures and it has been found that at low rph, the desiccant system with
a higher purge angle and lower regeneration angle performed better as compared to a
lower purge angle and higher regeneration angle.
It has been concluded from the present work that the solar powered solid desiccant
dehumidifier operated well in hot and humid climatic conditions of India and can be a
viable alternative to the conventional heater. This system can also be effectively used for
industrial and domestic purposes.

vii

Contents
Page No.

Candidates Declaration ii
Certificate iii
Acknowledgements iv
Abstract v
Contents vii
List of Figures x
List of Tables xxii
Nomenclature xxiv

CHAPTER 1 Introduction..1-5
CHAPTER 2 Literature Review 6-24
2.1 Solar Assisted Solid Desiccant Dehumidification System.. 7
2.2 Evacuated Tube Solar Collector.. 14
2.3 Mathematical Modeling of Desiccant Wheel.. 17
2.4 Research Gaps from Literature Survey 22
2.5 Objectives of the Present Work 23
2.6 Methodology Adopted . 23
CHAPTER 3 Experimental Studies on Evacuated Tube Solar Air Collector 25-51
3.1 Introduction. 25
3.2 Experimental Setup. 25
3.2.1 Evacuated tubes. 27
3.2.2 Header (heat exchanger) 28
3.2.3 Copper coil. 29
3.2.4 Reflectors 30
3.2.5 Working fluid. 30
3.3 Measuring Devices and Instruments 30
3.4 System Operation 31
3.4.1 Ordinary collector.. 31
3.4.2 Ordinary collector with reflectors.. 32
3.4.3 Ordinary collector with reflectors and copper coil. 32
3.5 Collector Performance Theory.. 32
viii

3.6 Experimental Results and Discussion 33
3.7 Conclusions 51
CHAPTER4 Experimental Comparison of Various Solid Desiccants for
Regeneration by Evacuated Tube Solar Air Collector and Air
Dehumidification52-71
4.1 Introduction 52
4.2 Experimental Setup 52
4.2.1 Evacuated tube solar air collector.. 55
4.2.2 Container 55
4.3 Measuring Devices and Instruments.. 56
4.4 System Operation 57
4.5 Analysis of Experimental Data. 58
4.6 Experimental Results and Discussion 58
4.7 Conclusions 70
CHAPTER 5 Experimental Studies on Solar Powered Desiccant Wheel... 72-125
5.1 Introduction 72
5.2 Experimental Setup.... 72
5.2.1 Evacuated tube solar air collector...... 73
5.2.2 Desiccant wheel. 73
5.3 Measuring Devices and Instruments.. 76
5.4 System Operation 76
5.5 Analysis of Experimental Data.. 78
5.6 Experimental Results and Discussion. 79
5.6.1 Effect of different air flow rates 79
5.6.2 Effect of different rotational speeds.. 99
5.7 Conclusions 124
CHAPTER 6 Mathematical Modeling of Desiccant Wheel 126-177
6.1 Introduction 126
6.2 Mathematical Model.. 126
6.2.1 Model assumptions 127
6.2.2 Mass conservation in control volume of air.. 129
6.2.3 Mass conservation in control volume of desiccant 131
6.2.4 Energy conservation in control volume of air 134
6.2.5 Energy conservation in control volume of desiccant.... 136
ix

6.2.6 Auxiliary conditions.. 138
6.3 Solution Method. 141
6.4 Performance Index. 141
6.5 Mathematical Validation 142
6.5.1 Validation of the model by experimental results ..... 142
6.5.2 Validation of the model by experimental data given in
literature . 144
6.6 Analysis of Design Parameters to Improve the Performance of
Desiccant Wheel 146
6.6.1 Boundary and initial conditions 147
6.6.2 Solution method 147
6.6.3 Numerical results and discussion 147
6.7 Analysis of Desiccant Wheel with Purge Sector for Improving Its
Performance 154
6.7.1 Boundary and initial conditions 155
6.7.2 Solution method 156
6.7.3 Numerical results and discussion. 156
6.8 Comparative Study between Four Sector and Two Sector of
Desiccant Wheel .. 164
6.8.1 Boundary and initial conditions.. 164
6.8.2 Solution method.. 165
6.8.3 Numerical results and discussion 165
6.9 Analysis of Heated and Cooled Purge Sectors of a Desiccant
Wheel for Improving the Performance... 169
6.9.1 Boundary and initial conditions.. 170
6.9.2 Solution method.. 171
6.9.3 Numerical results and discussion 171
6.10 Conclusions.. 175
CHAPTER 7 Overall Conclusions and Recommendations 178-180
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS.. 181-182
REFERENCES.. 183-194
Appendix: Program flow charts ...195-199

x

List of Figures

Figure Description Page No.
1.1 Increase in microbial growth in stored grain as a function
of relative humidity 2
3.1(a, b) Schematic diagrams of evacuated tube solar air collector based
on air heating system . 26
3.2(a) Experimental setup of evacuated tube solar air collector
with parallel flow .. 26
3.2(b) Experimental setup of evacuated tube solar air collector
with counter flow .. 27
3.3(a-c) Illustration of glass evacuated tube 28
3.4 Schematic diagram of the header (heat exchanger) 29
3.5 Schematic diagram of a copper coil in circular pipe of the header 29
3.6(a) Schematic diagram of ordinary collector 32
3.6(b) Schematic diagram of ordinary collector with reflectors... 32
3.6(c) Schematic diagram of ordinary collector with reflectors and
copper coil.. 32
3.7 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of
parallel flow for ordinary collector .. 33
3.8 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of
parallel flow for ordinary collector .. 34
3.9 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of
parallel flow for ordinary collector . 35
3.10 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of
parallel flow for ordinary collector ..... 35
3.11 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of
counter flow for ordinary collector .. 36
xi

3.12 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of
counter flow for ordinary collector. 37
3.13 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of
counter flow for ordinary collector. 38
3.14 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of
counter flow for ordinary collector. 38
3.15 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of
parallel flow for ordinary collector with reflectors. 39
3.16 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of
parallel flow for ordinary collector with reflectors. 40
3.17 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of
parallel flow for ordinary collector with reflectors 41
3.18 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of
parallel flow for ordinary collector with reflectors 41
3.19 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of
counter flow for ordinary collector with reflectors. 42
3.20 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of
counter flow for ordinary collector with reflectors. 43
3.21 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of
counter flow for ordinary collector with reflectors. 44
3.22 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of
counter flow for ordinary collector with reflectors. 44

xii

3.23 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of
parallel flow for ordinary collector with reflectors & copper coil 45
3.24 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of
parallel flow for ordinary collector with reflectors & copper coil. 46
3.25 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of
parallel flow for ordinary collector with reflectors & copper coil. 47
3.26 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of
parallel flow for ordinary collector with reflectors & copper coil 47
3.27 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of
counter flow for ordinary collector with reflectors & copper coil. 48
3.28 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of
counter flow for ordinary collector with reflectors & copper coil 49
3.29 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of
counter flow for ordinary collector with reflectors & copper coil 50
3.30 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity
during the day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of
counter flow for ordinary collector with reflectors & copper coil 50
4.1(a) Schematic diagram of experimental setup for regeneration of
silica gel, activated alumina or activated charcoal 53
4.1(b) Experimental setup for regeneration of silica gel, activated
alumina or activated charcoal 53
4.1(c) Schematic diagram of experimental setup for moisture adsorption
onto silica gel, activated alumina or activated charcoal 54
4.1(d) Experimental setup for moisture adsorption onto silica gel,
activated alumina or activated charcoal 54
4.2(a) Schematic diagram of the container 55
4.2(b) Photograph of the container.. 55
xiii

4.3 Photograph of various solid desiccants 56
4.4(a) Psychrometric processes during sensible heating and regeneration.. 57
4.4(b) Psychrometric process during adsorption.. 57
4.5 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar
air collector and solar intensity for silica gel during the day time
at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr.. 59
4.6 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature in
the regeneration process for silica gel during the day time at the
air flow rate of 88 kg/hr 59
4.7 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar
air collector and solar intensity for activated alumina during the
day time at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr 60
4.8 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature in the
regeneration process for activated alumina during the day time
at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr.. 61
4.9 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar
air collector and solar intensity for activated charcoal during the
day time at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr.. 61
4.10 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature in
the regeneration process for activated charcoal during the day time
at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr.. 62
4.11 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar
air collector and solar intensity for silica gel during the day time
at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr 62
4.12 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature in the
regeneration process for silica gel during the day time at the air
flow rate of 138 kg/hr. 63
4.13 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar
air collector and solar intensity for activated alumina during the
day time at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr. 64
4.14 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature in the
regeneration process for activated alumina during the day time
at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr. 64

xiv

4.15 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar
air collector and solar intensity for activated charcoal during the
day time at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr 65
4.16 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature in the
regeneration process for activated charcoal during the day time
at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr 66
4.17 Variation of the adsorption rate in the adsorption process for silica
gel during the evening time at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr. 66
4.18 Variation of adsorption rate in the adsorption process for activated
alumina during the evening time at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr. 67
4.19 Variation of adsorption rate in the adsorption process for activated
charcoal during the evening time at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr.. 67
4.20 Variation of adsorption rate in the adsorption process for silica gel
during the evening time at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr68
4.21 Variation of adsorption rate in the adsorption process for activated
alumina during the evening time at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr..69
4.22 Variation of adsorption rate in the adsorption process for activated
charcoal during the evening time at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr... 69
5.1(a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup (side view) 72
5.1(b) Experimental setup of solar powered desiccant wheel ............ 73
5.2(a, b) Schematic diagrams of (a) rotary desiccant wheel, (b) cross section
of channels. 74
5.3(a) Photograph of the desiccant wheel... 75
5.3(b) Photograph of the driving system. 75
5.3(c) Schematic diagram of the desiccant wheel box. 75
5.4 Psychrometric processes during sensible heating, regeneration and
adsorption. 77
5.5 Sketch of the desiccant dehumidification unit.. 77
5.6 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air
collector and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of
105.394 kg/hr (m
p
= m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr).............. 81


xv

5.7 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr
(m
p
= m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr).. 81
5.8 Variation of wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector during
the day at an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr
(m
p
= m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr). 82
5.9 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr
(m
p
= m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr). 83
5.10 Variation of wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector during
the day at an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr
(m
p
= m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr). 84
5.11 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air
collector and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate
of 210.789 kg/hr (m
p
= m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr). 85
5.12 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr
(m
p
= m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr) 86
5.13 Variation of wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector during the
day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr
(m
p
= m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr) 87
5.14 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr
(m
p
= m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr). 88
5.15 Variation of wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector during the
day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr
(m
p
= m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr). 89
5.16 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air
collector and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr (m
p
= 105.394 kg/hr, m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr). 90
5.17 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr
(m
p
= 105.394 kg/hr, m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr). 91
xvi

5.18 Variation of wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector during the
day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr
(m
p
= 105.394 kg/hr, m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr).. 92
5.19 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr
(m
p
= 105.394 kg/hr, m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr)... 93
5.20 Variation of wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector during the
day at an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr
(m
p
= 105.394 kg/hr, m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr)... 94
5.21 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air
collector and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of
105.394 kg/hr (m
p
= 210.789 kg/hr, m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr)... 95
5.22 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr
(m
p
= 210.789 kg/hr, m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr). 96
5.23 Variation of wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector during the
day at an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr
(m
p
= 210.789 kg/hr, m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr). 97
5.24 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr
(m
p
= 210.789 kg/hr, m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr).. 98
5.25 Variation of wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector during the day
at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr
(m
p
= 210.789 kg/hr, m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr).. 98
5.26 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air
collector and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr at13 rph 101
5.27 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 13 rph... 102
5.28 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in
regeneration sector during the day at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr at 13 rph.. 103

xvii

5.29 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during the
day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 13 rph. 104
5.30 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in
adsorption sector during the day at an air flow rate
of 210.789 kg/hr at 13 rph..105
5.31 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air
collector and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate
of 210.789 kg/hr at 16 rph. 107
5.32 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 16 rph 107
5.33 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in
regeneration sector during the day at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr at 16 rph.. 108
5.34 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during the
day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 16 rph... 109
5.35 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in
adsorption sector during the day at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr at 16 rph.. 110
5.36 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air
collector and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr at 19 rph.............. 111
5.37 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 19 rph........... 112
5.38 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in
regeneration sector during the day at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr at 19 rph. 113
5.39 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 19 rph 113
5.40 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in
adsorption sector during the day at an air flow rate
of 210.789 kg/hr at 19 rph. 114
5.41 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air
collector and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr at 22 rph 116
xviii

5.42 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 22 rph.. 116
5.43 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in
regeneration sector during the day at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr at 22 rph. 117
5.44 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 22 rph.. 118
5.45 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in
adsorption sector during the day at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr at 22 rph................................................................. 119
5.46 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air
collector and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate
of 210.789 kg/hr at 9 rph.. 120
5.47 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 9 rph. 121
5.48 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in
regeneration sector during the day at an air flow rate
of 210.789 kg/hr at 9 rph.. 122
5.49 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during
the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 9 rph. 123
5.50 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in
adsorption sector during the day at an air flow rate
of 210.789 kg/hr at 9 rph.. 123
6.1(a) Schematic diagram of rotary desiccant wheel. 126
6.1(b) Schematic diagram of cross section of channels. 127
6.1(c) Schematic diagram of differential control volume.. 127
6.2 Control volume of air for mass conservation... 130
6.3 Control volume of desiccant for mass conservation 131
6.4 Control volume of air for energy conservation 134
6.5 Control volume of desiccant for energy conservation.. 136
6.6 Moisture removal during the day: comparison between experimental
results and simulation results for different working conditions (u
p,in
=
4 m/s, u
r,in
= 4 m/s,
p
/
r
= 1, L
w
= 0.1 m, N = 22 rph) . 142
xix

6.7 Moisture removal during the day: comparison between experimental
results and simulation results for different working conditions (u
p,in
=
2 m/s, u
r,in
= 4 m/s ,
p
/
r
= 1, L
w
= 0.1 m, N = 22 rph) 143
6.8 Variation of Y
p,out
/ Y
p,in
with rotational speed of desiccant wheel:
comparison between experimental data and simulation results for
different working conditions(u
p,in
= u
r,in
= 1 m/s, L
w
= 0.2 m)..144
6.9(a, b) Schematic diagrams of (a) rotary desiccant wheel, (b) front view of
desiccant wheel. 146
6.10 Effect of length of wheel on moisture removal and pressure drop 149
6.11 Effect of area ratio on moisture removal.....149
6.12 Effect of aspect ratio on moisture removal and pressure drop. . 150
6.13 Effect of pitch of flow passage on moisture removal and
pressure drop 151
6.14 Effect of height of flow passage on moisture removal and
pressure drop.... 152
6.15 Effect of porosity on moisture removal........ 152
6.16 Effect of volume ratio in desiccant layer of channel on
moisture removal.. 153
6.17(a) Schematic diagram of rotary desiccant wheel with purge sector. 154
6.17(b) Schematic diagram of desiccant wheel configuration
with purge sector . 154
6.17(c) Schematic diagram of front view of desiccant wheel with purge
sector......................................................... 154
6.18(a, b) Schematic diagrams of (a) desiccant wheel with purge sector for
clockwise rotation, (b) desiccant wheel with purge sector for
anticlockwise rotation.. 155
6.19 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency with rotational
speed of desiccant wheel for clockwise and anticlockwise
direction 157
6.20 Variation of temperature difference of process air with rotational
speed of desiccant wheel for clockwise and anticlockwise
direction 158
xx

6.21 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency with regeneration
temperature for clockwise and anticlockwise direction... 159
6.22 Variation of temperature difference of process air with regeneration
temperature for clockwise and anticlockwise direction... 160
6.23 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency with velocity
for clockwise and anticlockwise direction....... 161
6.24 Variation of temperature difference of process air with velocity
for clockwise and anticlockwise direction 161
6.25 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency with humidity
ratio for clockwise and anticlockwise direction... 162
6.26 Variation of temperature difference of process air with humidity
ratio for clockwise and anticlockwise direction 163
6.27(a, b) Schematic diagrams of (a) desiccant wheel with two sectors,
(b) desiccant wheel with four sectors... 164
6.28 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency and temperature
difference of process air with rotational speed of desiccant wheel
for two sector (PS: RS=180:180) and four sector
(PS
1
:RS
1
:PS
2
:RS
2
= 90:90:90:90). 166
6.29 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency and temperature
difference of process air with rotational speed of desiccant wheel
for two sector (PS: RS=200:160) and four sector
(PS
1
:RS
1
:PS
2
:RS
2
= 100:80:100:80).. 167
6.30 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency and temperature
difference of process air with rotational speed of desiccant wheel
for two sector (PS: RS=220:140) and four sector
(PS
1
:RS
1
:PS
2
:RS
2
= 110:70:110:70). 169
6.31(a, b) Schematic diagrams of (a) rotary desiccant wheel with cooled purge
and heated purge for clockwise direction, (b) desiccant wheel
configuration with cooled purge and heated purge .. 170
6.32 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency with rotational speed
of desiccant wheel with two sectors having low purge angle at
different regeneration temperatures.. 172


xxi

6.33 Variation of temperature difference of process air with rotational
speed of desiccant wheel with two sectors having low purge angle at
different regeneration temperatures.. 173
6.34 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency with rotational speed
of desiccant wheel with two sectors having high purge angle at
different regeneration temperatures.. 174
6.35 Variation of temperature difference of process air with rotational speed
of desiccant wheel with two sectors having high purge angle at
different regeneration temperatures... 175

























xxii

List of Tables
Table No. Description Page No

1.1 Typical application standards... 1
5.1 Specifications of the desiccant wheel................ 76
5.2 Operating and structural parameters of the desiccant wheel in case
of different air flow rates . 79
5.3 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature
on 22/09/2011.... 80
5.4 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature
on 24/09/2011 85
5.5 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature
on 23/09/2011.. 90
5.6 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature
on 25/09/2011... 94
5.7 Operating and structural parameters of the desiccant wheel in case
of different rotational speeds 99
5.8 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature
on 05/11/2011 100
5.9 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature
on 06/11/2011 106
5.10 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature
on 07/11/2011 110
5.11 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature
on 08/11/2011 115
5.12 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature
on 09/11/2011.... 119
6.1 Obtained ambient humidity, ambient temperature, regeneration
temperature (outlet temperature of air from evacuated tube solar air
collector) and solar intensity obtained on 01/10/2011
(u
p,in
= 4 m/s, u
r,in
= 4 m/s, N = 22 rph).. 142
xxiii

6.2 Obtained ambient humidity, ambient temperature, regeneration
temperature (outlet temperature of air from evacuated tube solar air
collector) and solar intensity obtained on 02/10/2011
(u
p,in
= 2 m/s, u
r,in
= 4 m/s, N = 22 rph) .. 143
6.3 Input data used for comparison between simulation and experimental
results. 144
6.4 Pressure drop: comparison between experimental data and simulation
results 145
6.5 Design parameters of the desiccant wheel 148
6.6 Operating and structural parameters for optimization of design
parameters. 148
6.7 Operating and structural parameters for desiccant wheel with purge
sector 156
6.8 Operating parameters for the case of two sector and four sector
desiccant wheel 165
6.9 Operating parameters for the case of desiccant wheel with heated
and cooled purge 172
















xxiv

Nomenclature

Symbol Description Units
Notation
A cross sectional area (m
2
)
A
f
cross sectional area of flow passage of one channel (m
2
)
A
r
area ratio of air flow passage to the total area of
one channel Dimensionless
A
t
total cross-sectional area of one channel (m
2
)
A
P
area of evacuated tube solar air collector (m
2
)
c
d
specific heat of silica gel (J/kg K)
c
m
specific heat of matrix material (J/kg K)
c
p
specific heat at constant pressure (J/kg K)
d
E
diameter of absorber tube (m)
d
pipe
diameter of pipe (m)
D diameter of wheel (m)
D
comb
combined diffusivity including ordinary
and Knudsen diffusivity (m
2
/s)
D
h
hydraulic diameter of flow passage of one channel (m)
D
k
Knudsen diffusivity (m
2
/s)
D
m
mass diffusion coefficient of vapour in the air Dimensionless
D
o
ordinary diffusivity (molecular diffusivity) (m
2
/s)
D
S
surface diffusivity (m
2
/s)
E
A
effectiveness of wheel in adsorption sector Dimensionless
E
R
effectiveness of wheel in regeneration sector Dimensionless
f friction factor Dimensionless
G
A
adsorption rate (kg/hr)
G
R
regeneration rate (kg/hr)
Gz Graetz number Dimensionless
h convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m
2
K)
h
ads
heat of adsorption (J/kg
adsorbate
)
xxv

h
fg
latent heat of water vapour (J/kg)
h
m
convective mass transfer coefficient (kg/m
2
s)
I
0
solar intensity (W/m
2
)
k thermal conductivity (W/m K)
Le Lewis number Dimensionless
L
E
length of evacuated tube (m)
L
w
wheel length (m)
m mass (kg)
m mass flow rate (kg/s)
m
c
air flow rate of evacuated tube solar collector (kg/hr)
m
p
air flow rate of process air (kg/hr)
M molecular weight of water (kg/mol)
M
r
moisture removal (kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
m
r
air flow rate of regeneration air (kg/hr)
N rotational speed (rph)
N

rate of mass transfer (kg/s)


Nu Nusselt number Dimensionless
Nu
Fd
Nusselt number for fully developed region Dimensionless
P pressure (Pa)
P
a
atmospheric pressure (Pa)
P pressure drop (Pa)
P
e
perimeter of air flow passage of one channel (m)
Pr Prandtl number Dimensionless

rate of flow energy due to advection (J/s)


q rate of energy transfer (J/s)
r pore radius (m)
RH relative humidity Dimensionless
Re Reynold number Dimensionless
Sh Sherwood number Dimensionless
t time (s)
T temperature ()
T
in
inlet temperature of air at evacuated tube
solar air collector ()
xxvi

T
out
outlet temperature of air from evacuated tube
solar air collector ()
u velocity (m/s)
V volume (m
3
)
W water content of desiccant (kg
adsorbate
/kg
adsorbent
)
x axial direction
Y humidity ratio (kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)

Greek symbols

etc
solar collector efficiency Dimensionless

p
sector angle of process air (degree)

r
sector angle of regeneration air (degree)
density (kg/m
3
)
porosity Dimensionless
tortuosity factor Dimensionless
aspect ratio (ratio of height to pitch) for one channel Dimensionless
volume ratio of desiccant material in layer Dimensionless
dynamic viscosity (Pa s)
sector angle (degree)

purge
sector angle of purge air (degree)
thickness of channel wall (m)
relative moisture removal efficiency Dimensionless

Subscripts

a air
comb combined
cp cooled purge
d desiccant
da dry air
hp heated purge
xxvii

in inlet
m matrix material
0 initial state
out outlet
p process air
r regeneration air
sur surface
v water vapour
w water

Abbreviations

COP coefficient of performance
ETC evacuated tube collector
EXP experimental
GI galvanized iron
MIN minimum
NTU number of transfer unit
OPT optimum
PDE partial differential equation
PS process sector
RS regeneration sector
SIM simulation
VC vapour compression


1

CHAPTER 1
Introduction

Dry air plays a vital role for improving the process, product or conditions in many
industries such as food production, pharmaceutical production, industrial chemicals
production etc. It is also required in warehouse storage, packaging equipment rooms,
hygroscopic raw materials storage, organic plant dehydration and inorganic products.
Typical conditions for different applications have been defined by Bry Air Asia Pvt Ltd.
India as shown in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1 Typical application standards
Typical conditions
Applications Temperature
()
Relative humidity
(%)
Humidity ratio
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
Sugar storage 26.66 35 0.0076
Cookie drying 18.33 20 0.0026
Potato chips 23-26 20 0.0034-0.0041
Chocolates 32 13 0.0038
Instant coffee packing 26.66 20 0.0043
Capsule storage 23.89 35-40 0.0064-0.0073
Cough syrups 26.66 40 0.0087
Grain storage 15.55 40 0.0043
Electronic appliances 22.22 15 0.0024

Some examples of industrial processes/manufacturing units along with their effects of
humidity control as elaborated by Arundel et al. (1992) were:
1. To prevent corrosion and improve production of lithium batteries.
2. To prevent condensation and corrosion on metal surface in computer and
electronic equipments.
3. To prevent deterioration of products in confectionary and pharmaceutical packing.
2

4. To optimize seed moisture level and minimize microbial deterioration in seed and
grain storage houses.
5. To improve the product finish by preventing condensation on the mould surfaces
in plastic moulding.

Humidity control is also related with the growth of fungi and bacteria which causes
spoilage of products and affects the health of living beings. The range of the growth of
fungi and bacteria with respect to relative humidity is shown in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 Increase in microbial growth in stored grain as a function of
relative humidity (Arundel et al. 1992)

The most common methods for producing dry air are cooling based dehumidification,
compression based dehumidification and chemical dehumidification. In the past, methods
of cooling based dehumidification and compression based dehumidification have been
used. In the cooling based dehumidification method (vapour compression system), the
dry air is produced by cooling the atmospheric air below the dew point temperature. In
other words below the dew point temperature, water vapour gets condensed and separated
from the air. This method has the following advantages:
1. Light weight and compact size.
2. Independent of weather conditions.
3. Suitable for low quantity of dry air.
4. Easy handling of operations and installation.
3

But this method has some drawbacks like it cools the air below the dew point temperature
so it consumes more electricity which is high grade energy. Dai et al. (2001) suggested
that nowadays air conditioner is becoming the basic need in human life and in future, it is
expected to play a vital role in our lives. Conventional air conditioner based on vapour
compression system utilizes HFC and HCFC which are harmful to the environment.

Another common method of producing dry air is compression based dehumidification.
When air is compressed, the dew point temperature of moist air is raised to a point where
moisture can be condensed from the air at a higher temperature. This method has the
following advantages:
1. Compact size and light weight.
2. Independent of weather conditions.
3. It is very beneficial where small amount of dry air is needed for humidity control.
4. It is suitable for using in space because of the availability of compressed air.
This method has some drawbacks like initial cost and running cost are very high. The
amount of cooling water required for after cooling makes it very impractical for large
volume of air and it is very difficult to handle the high range of pressure required with
proper safety.

The simple and effective way of producing the dry air is by using chemical
dehumidification (using solid desiccant). Solid desiccant attracts moisture due to vapour
pressure difference without any change in their physical and chemical composition. The
amount of vapour adsorbed is proportional to the surface area of desiccant due to its
enormous affinity to adsorb moisture and considerable ability to hold water. The saturated
desiccant is regenerated by passing hot air through it so that desiccant can be used again.
Various solid desiccants like silica gel, activated charcoal, activated alumina and zeolite
can be used.
Sheridan et al. (1985) described a desiccant cooling system as more attractive alternative
than conventional vapour compression systems due to its advantages of utilizing low
temperature energy and providing an environment conscious operation. The method of
chemical dehumidification has the following advantages:


4

1. Driven by renewable energy i.e. solar energy.
2. Simple operation and easy to understand.
3. Low operating costs (Economical method).
4. Low maintenance costs.
5. Long life.
6. Low noise.
7. Easy availability.
8. Environment friendly.

A detailed literature review on solar assisted desiccant dehumidification system has been
described in chapter 2 of the thesis.
India is a tropical country and surrounded by oceans from three sides, where the climatic
conditions are hot and humid for 6 to 8 months during a year; humidity ranges from 0.018
to 0.024 kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
, solar intensity ranges from 700 to 900 W/m
2
during day time
(10:00 hr - 16:00 hr). It means solar powered desiccant dehumidifier can be operated well
under these conditions.
Experimental setup of evacuated tube solar air collector has been used for analysis of
thermal performance of one ended evacuated tube solar air collector at different air flow
rates. The details of evacuated tube solar air collector along with measuring devices and
instruments for India [29 58' (latitude) North and 76 53'(longitude) East] are described
in the thesis. The experiments have been carried out during some selected clear sky days
in the month of June, 2011. The experimental data is recorded at intervals of 1hr during
the daytime. The experimental results and discussion are helpful to find the performance
of the evacuated tube solar air collector described in chapter 3 of the thesis.
The experimental comparison of various solid desiccants for regeneration by an
evacuated tube solar air collector and air dehumidification has been studied. In this study,
the main concern is the regeneration of desiccant by the evacuated tube solar air collector
and then the adsorption process at different air flow rates. The experimental data has been
collected in the month of July, 2011during which the ambient temperature varied from
31.5

to 43.5 in most of the clear sky days (12:00 hr - 20:00 hr). The experiments
were performed in noon for regeneration and in evening for adsorption. The results are
shown in chapter 4.
5


The feasibility of solar powered desiccant wheel has been checked for Indian climatic
conditions to investigate the adsorption performance of the desiccant wheel at different
air flow rates and rph. The desiccant wheel has been regenerated by an evacuated tube
solar air collector. The experiments have been performed at NIT Kurukshetra, India. The
experimental data is recorded during the day time in the month of September to
November, 2011. The experimental results of this study of solar powered desiccant wheel
at different operating parameters are evaluated in chapter 5.
Desiccant wheel is the most important part of a solar powered desiccant wheel which can
be analyzed in detail by mathematical modeling of desiccant wheel. This model takes into
account both gas and solid side resistance. Also, in this model the four governing
equations of heat and mass transfer are non-linear and coupled. These equations are
solved using a PDE solver which is based on the finite element method (FEM). The
programming is done in the script language of solver. The two programs (process &
regeneration) are coupled in the solver to simulate it with real conditions.
This mathematical model is validated with the results obtained from the experimental test
rig on solar powered desiccant wheel performed at NIT Kurukshetra and also validated
with the experimental data (Kodama PhD thesis 1995).
This model is used to evaluate the optimum value of operating and design parameters so
as to increase the performance of desiccant wheel at low regeneration temperatures and
new wheel designs are developed which are easily regenerated at low regeneration
temperatures by using solar energy. These results are presented in chapter 6 of the thesis.
The main conclusions arising from this research work have been presented in chapter 7 of
the thesis.







6

CHAPTER 2
Literature Review

For many industrial and domestic applications, dry air is produced by using solid
desiccant. This desiccant can be used once or many times. When it is used once, there is
wastage of desiccant. For using it again, it is regenerated by using conventional heater
which consumes high grade energy.
The regeneration of desiccant wheel is also done by using low grade energy such as solar
energy which will help in producing the dry air in adsorption process. This process also
saves a lot of energy and is environment friendly. In the past, Dunkle (1965) presented
the alternative method where regeneration of desiccant material was done by using solar
energy.
Kodama et al. (2005) carried out experiments on desiccant cooling process where
regeneration of desiccant wheel was done at low temperature i.e. 60 and heat was
obtained from low grade energy such as waste heat or solar heat instead of electricity.
Various solid desiccants like silica gel, activated charcoal, activated alumina and zeolite
etc. can be regenerated at low temperature by using renewable energy (i.e. solar energy)
which can be easily collected by simple flat plate and evacuated tube solar air collectors
etc.
For better utilization of low temperature to regenerate the desiccant wheel, a
mathematical model of desiccant wheel has been proposed to find out its best suited
operating and design parameters and different wheel designs according to low
regeneration temperature which is easily available from those collectors.
The work reported in the literature on solar assisted desiccant system can be divided into
three categories:
Solar assisted solid desiccant dehumidification system
Evacuated tube solar collector
Mathematical modeling of desiccant wheel

7

2.1 Solar Assisted Solid Desiccant Dehumidification System
Rush et al. (1975) carried out an experimental work in which desiccant wheel was
regenerated by using solar energy and natural gas in Los Angeles and found that the COP
was 0.53 at one operating point.
Nelson et al. (1978) analyzed an open cycle air conditioning system by using solid
desiccant and solar energy. They developed computer models of the various components
of the desiccant cooling system and evaluated the potential of solar energy system for the
regeneration of dehumidifier under typical weather conditions and also suggested that the
solar energy was a better match for cooling and dehumidification system.
Collier et al. (1981) and Worek (1982) described that solid desiccants could be
regenerated using low grade energy at different levels of temperature. This temperature
was found to be depended on the desiccant materials which were being used for the
regeneration. For example silica gel was one of the most extensively investigated and
promising solid desiccant material which required a regeneration temperature of about
65.
Monnier et al. (1982) and Barlow (1983) combined a vapour compression (VC) unit with
the solid desiccant dehumidifier and the result was an energy efficient air conditioning
system. This system relieved VC unit from the latent heat portion of the load because the
load was taken by desiccant. They also suggested that such energy could be supplied in
various forms like direct fuel firing, waste heat recovery and solar energy. Solar energy
could be used by a flat plate collector.
Kettleborough (1983) described the basic solar assisted comfort conditioning systems and
stated that vapour compression system was more economical for cooling and
dehumidification than other systems at that time but suggested that more research and
development was required due to limitation of availability of fossil fuels.
Jurinak et al. (1984) evaluated the performance of open cycle desiccant air conditioners
for residential application and compared it with vapour compression air conditioning
system on the basis of cost and energy. They also suggested that when these systems were
coupled with solar energy to regenerate the desiccant wheel, they performed better than
the conventional air conditioners.
Maclaine (1987) studied the feasibility of gas fired hybrid desiccant cooling systems for
medium to large unit of air conditioning applications and suggested that an engine drive
8

for vapour compression plant could reduce the energy costs to half by using the waste
heat to regenerate the desiccant for Australian conditions.
Joudi and Madhi (1987) carried out an experimental analysis on solar assisted desiccant
cooling system under weather conditions of Iraq. Air was heated by using solar air heater
for regeneration at temperature of 70. The performance of the system was enhanced at
higher regeneration temperature, higher air mass flow rate and dry weather and suggested
the possibility of the system to produce the cool air under local conditions using solar
energy.
Aly et al. (1988) presented the vapour compression unit combined with a rotary solid
desiccant dehumidifier where the desiccant wheel was regenerated with the waste heat of
vapour compression unit by a heat pump in a heat recovery system. The governing
equation was solved numerically for a typical case study and it was found that parallel
flow reduced the heat of regeneration by 40% than counter flow. The overall COP was
1.76 with 27% energy savings compared to the VC alone.
Kaushik (1989) suggested that a solar desiccant cooling system was more effective than
the conventional air conditioning system due to the property of various adsorbents used in
it. These adsorbents could be easily regenerated at low temperature which could be easily
achieved by solar collector.
Yadav and Kaushik (1991) analyzed a hybrid vapour compression with solid desiccant
solar air conditioning system. Desiccant material converted the latent heat load into
sensible heat load which was then used in conventional VC cycle. Heat rejected from
condenser in VC cycle was used to regenerate the desiccant material and improve COP of
the system. This system worked better than the standard vapour compression system at
high latent heat load and significantly saved energy.
Waugaman et al. (1993) described various designs for desiccant cooling system and
pointed out that the advantage of this system was that it used low grade thermal energy
due to which the operating cost was reduced but its initial cost was high.
Pesaran and Wipke (1994) used an unglazed transpired solar collector for regeneration of
desiccant wheel in solid desiccant cooling system because these collectors were less
expensive than conventional glazed flat plate collectors and found that the regeneration of
desiccant cooling system with an unglazed transpired solar collector reduced the thermal
COP of the system to about 50% than conventional glazed flat plate collector.
Smith et al. (1994) developed a mathematical model for a solar assisted desiccant air
conditioner operated on a Munter environmental control (MEC) cycle and its
9

performance was simulated in a residential building. Three locations were considered and
its performance was found for all the locations. He found that solar energy available in
the southwestern US well matched with desiccant cooling system and air conditioners
showed better performance than expected but required more auxiliary energy and its COP
was found to be 0.506 at the design operating point.
San and Jiang (1994) tested the regeneration of a silica gel packed bed. The optimum
operating time, after which the maximum amount of moisture had been removed, was
determined at three regeneration temperatures, 65 , 75 and 85 . Higher the
regeneration temperature, shorter was the optimum operating time.
BabusHaq et al. (1996) used the waste heat of a natural gas fired combined heat and
power (CHP) system to regenerate a desiccant wheel which was used for the
dehumidification of moist air in a swimming pool. A payback period of 4 years was
calculated taking zero resale value at the end of 4 years.
Lazzarin and Gasparella (1997) studied a two stage system for air conditioning against
outdoor conditions using rotary heat exchanger having efficiency of 0.85 to 0.89 and heat
pipe heat exchanger having efficiency of 0.66 to 0.70. The COP of this system was about
0.85 and highest regeneration temperature was 85 and the system could be driven by
heat recovered from internal combustion engine.
Thorpe (1998) developed and analyzed a mathematical model for a solar regenerated
open cycle grain cooling system where the regeneration of desiccant was done by using
solar energy. It was found that the grain cooler worked effectively in subtropical climate
but did not work effectively in humid tropics.
Singh and Singh (1998) fabricated and tested a multi shelf dehumidifier for regeneration
of solid desiccant (silica gel). The effect of regeneration temperature (42-72 ), air
velocity (0.175-0.550 m/s) and number of shelves (1 to 4) on regeneration time of silica
gel was performed and it was found that regeneration time got reduced with an increase in
regeneration temperature, air velocity and number of shelves but the advantage of
increasing air velocity was reduced with an increase in regeneration temperature. They
also discussed the effect of rest period on the drying time of silica gel and found that
drying time reduced with an increase in rest period.
Techajunta et al. (1999) carried out experimental investigations on the regeneration of
silica gel bed with simulated solar energy in which incandescent electric bulbs were used
to simulate solar irradiations. The regeneration rate was found to be strongly dependent
10

on irradiation, but was slightly affected by air flow rate. In air dehumidification process,
the dehumidification rate decreased with decrease in irradiation but slightly increased
with air flow rate. They suggested that this system worked better in tropical humid
climate while performing regeneration process during the day and dehumidification
during the night.
Henning et al. (2001) studied a system in which solar air collector was integrated with the
desiccant cooling cycle as the only heat source and compared its performance for
different climatic conditions and configurations. This system performed better under high
value of ambient humidity and the combination of air conditioning system with solar
thermal collector saved the primary energy up to 50%.
Dai et al. (2002) proposed a solar powered hybrid system for cooling grains which was a
combination of rotary desiccant dehumidification and solid adsorption refrigeration
system and compared it with a solid adsorption refrigeration system alone. It was found
that performance of hybrid system was better than solid adsorption refrigeration system
and the COP of hybrid system was more than 0.4 under typical condition which was
higher than single solid adsorption refrigeration system.
Florides et al. (2002) presented a brief review of various cooling systems with solar
energy and low energy technology such as solar sorption cooling, solar mechanical
systems, solar related air conditioning and other low energy cooling technologies. These
technologies reduced energy consumption and the impact on environment. They also
pointed out that solar energy was more suitable for desiccant cooling.
Mavroudaki et al. (2002) presented a model in which solar desiccant cooling was used to
evaluate the potential of using solar energy to drive a single stage desiccant cooling
system with condition of low latent heat gain. They also suggested that this system was
less efficient in the higher relative humidity environment because the temperature
required for regeneration was too high.
Ahmed et al. (2005) fabricated an experimental set up of a desiccant wheel, regenerated
by solar and electric heater together. Experimental results were used to validate the
numerical results and evaluated the performance of solar system and desiccant wheel
under the climatic conditions of Cairo [30 latitude (North)]. They also discussed the
effect of operating and design parameters on the performance of desiccant wheel
numerically.
Jalalzadeh-Azar et al. (2005) fabricated and tested a cooling system in a combined heat
and power (CHP) application incorporating a reciprocating internal combustion engine,
11

heat exchanger, desiccant dehumidifier and direct/indirect dehumidifier. Regeneration of
desiccant wheel was performed by using the heat recovered from internal combustion
engine.
Kodama et al. (2005) experimentally tested a solar desiccant cooling system and
investigated its actual performance with the configuration of one desiccant wheel, one
sensible heat exchanger and two water evaporative cooler. The effects of various
operating conditions like regeneration temperature, ambient air and solar irradiation were
studied on the performance of cooling system. It was found that stable solar irradiation
(600 W/m
2
) and high regeneration temperature (over 50) were required to produce
sufficient cool air.
Ando et al. (2005) experimentally investigated and proposed 4-rotor desiccant cooling
process equipped with a double stage dehumidification. It was found that this system
produced sufficient dehumidifying performance at regeneration temperature of around
70 and at high ambient humidity which was not produced by 2-rotor desiccant cooling
process.
Daou et al. (2006) studied a desiccant cooling system with evaporative cooling and
chilled ceiling radiant cooling in different climates and pointed out its advantages. One of
its salient features was regeneration of desiccant wheel done by the free energy (waste
heat and solar energy) without any prior conversion.
Zhuo et al. (2006) designed and manufactured a desiccant air conditioning system. The
desiccant wheel was made of composite silica gel and was regenerated by solar air heater
to maintain the indoor air temperature in the range of 24 to 28 and relative humidity
in the range of 50% to 70%. It also showed the feasibility of using low grade energy
(solar energy) in the air conditioning system using a desiccant wheel.
Kabeel (2007) studied a solar assisted desiccant wheel made up of iron wire and cloth
layer (cloth layer was the layer of cloth wrapped on iron wire) impregnated with calcium
chloride solution. In this system a solar air heater containing a porous material was used
for regeneration purpose and the effect of the air flow rate and the solar radiation intensity
on the system for regeneration and absorption process was analyzed. It was found that
this system was highly effective in regeneration process and maximum efficiency (0.6)
was found at wheel effectiveness of 0.92 for regeneration process and 0.65 for absorption
process at a flow rate of 90 kg/hr.
12

Jia et al. (2007) developed a novel compound desiccant wheel made up of more
hygroscopic composite material which worked under low regeneration temperature and
had higher dehumidification capacity. The performance of this system was analyzed by a
mathematical model and it was pointed out that this system could work under very low
regeneration temperature having high COP. Hence, low grade thermal energy resources
like solar energy, waste heat etc could be used to operate the system efficiently.
Pramuang and Exell (2007) used a compound parabolic concentrator collector to
regenerate the silica gel for an air conditioning system. The regeneration rate and
regeneration efficiency were greatly dependant on solar radiation but slightly dependant
on different initial moisture content of silica gel and number of silica gel beds. It was also
found that the silica gel could be regenerated at 40 by high air flow rate (0.03 kg/s) and
at 50 by low flow rate (0.003 kg/s).
Ge et al. (2008) investigated a one-rotor two stage rotary desiccant cooling system
(OTSDC) experimentally and evaluated its performance under various operating
conditions. Results were compared with two stage rotary desiccant cooling system
(TSDC) with two desiccant wheels at same operating conditions and found that OTSDC
had high thermal COP and compact size (half of TSDC). It also had the advantage of low
regeneration temperature as compared to TSDC.
Bourdoukan et al. (2008) used a heat pipe vacuum tube (HPVT) collector in a solar
desiccant cooling system to overcome the problem of flat plate collectors and air
collectors. The efficiency of HPVT collector was between 0.6 and 0.7 for one operating
day and same efficiency was obtained by flat plate collector but the area had to be
increased by 20-25%. Hence, HPVT was a better option for regeneration of desiccant
wheel.
Ge et al. (2009) conducted an experimental analysis of two-stage rotary desiccant cooling
system (TSRDC) using newly compound desiccant (silica gel-haloids) and evaluated its
performance under three typical environmental conditions. It was found that the
temperature required for regeneration of TSRDC was much lower than one stage system.
Hence, low grade energy like solar energy and waste heat were a better option for
TSRDC and it provided high thermal COP under low regeneration temperature.
Khalid et al. (2009) carried out experimental and simulation study on a solar assisted pre-
cooled hybrid desiccant cooling system and found that for pre-cooling of air, better COP
was achieved using indirect evaporative cooling (IEC) and for post cooling of air, better
COP was achieved using direct evaporative cooling (DEC). They also suggested that by
13

replacing DEC with an IEC the regeneration temperature could be reduced by 15% and
the decrease in dehumidification was 6%.
White et al. (2009) modeled a solar desiccant cooling system using TRNSYS computer
simulation software. The study was focused on designing and operation of desiccant
cooling system without any thermal backup provided to overcome the effect of
intermittent solar energy. It was found that ventilation desiccant cooling system was not
good for humid climate. At low regeneration temperature, regeneration of desiccant
wheel improved its efficiency but it required more air to achieve satisfactory comfort
conditions which encouraged the use of low temperature solar collectors.
Ge et al. (2010) compared a solar driven two stage rotary desiccant cooling system with a
vapour compression system (VCS) in two cities namely Berlin and Shanghai with
different climatic conditions and evaluated its thermodynamic and economic
performances. They obtained useful data for practical applications and it was found that
desiccant cooling system had advantages like better supply of air quality and less
electricity consumption than VCS. The required regeneration temperatures for Berlin and
Shanghai were 55 and 85 respectively.
La et al. (2010) proposed an innovative thermally driven air conditioning system by
combining the technology of desiccant dehumidification and regenerative evaporative
cooling. It was found that the system could achieve thermal COP higher than 1.
Jeong et al. (2010) developed and analyzed the concept of utilizing the exhaust heat
(50) from fuel cell or air conditioning system as the heat source in a four partition
desiccant dehumidification system which led to considerable saving of energy. Results
showed that an optimal rotational speed existed which maximized the dehumidification
performance and improved its COP by 94% as compared to conventional vapour
compression refrigerator.
Fong et al. (2010) designed a solar-assisted desiccant cooling system (SADCS) to control
the cooling load of typical office environment in Hong Kong and optimized its
performance through simulation. Since this system used auxiliary heater for regeneration
of desiccant wheel, so it was important to minimize its usage by optimal design and
control schemes of SADCS. This system was more feasible and had the advantages like
energy efficiency and improved indoor air quality because of sufficient ventilation at
same outdoor conditions.
La et al. (2011) carried out an experimental investigation on solar heating and
humidification using rotary desiccant humidification and evacuated tube solar air
14

collector. The theoretical analysis was done by creating a performance model in
TRNSYS. It was found that system could convert 50% of solar radiation in space heating
and increased indoor air temperature by about 10. The model was validated with the
experimental data and it was pointed that to improve the indoor thermal comfort, solar
heating with desiccant dehumidification should be preferred.
Goldsworthy and White (2011) analyzed the performance of a combined solid desiccant
indirect evaporative cooling system by solving the heat and mass transfer equations for
both the components simultaneously. Analysis was focused on supply/regeneration air
flow ratio and indirect cooler secondary/primary air flow ratio. Results were obtained and
it was found that the electrical coefficient of performance (COP
e
)

was greater than 20
when the regeneration temperature was 70 with supply/regeneration air flow ratio of
0.67 at ambient conditions. Hence this system had potential to achieve substantial energy
saving and reduced green house gas emission.
Ge et al. (2012) developed and simulated a solar power desiccant coated heat exchanger
cooling system and evaluated its performance in Shanghai during summer conditions with
high temperature as well as high humidity ratio. It was found that this system supplied
sufficient air to be conditioned for indoor space in the month of June and July during day
time and its cooling powers were 2.9 kW and 3.5 kW and corresponding solar COP were
0.22 and 0.24 respectively. They also calculated and discussed the effect of main design
parameters on system performance.

2.2 Evacuated Tube Solar Collector
Garg and Chakravertty (1988) developed an empirical relation of evacuated tubular
collector to find out an overall heat loss coefficient for all possible variables. They
compared the efficiency of selectively coated evacuated collector with normal black
painted collectors and found that efficiency decreased in series combinations and
remained constant for parallel combinations in both type of collectors.
Gaa et al. (1996) developed an experimental set-up and investigated the flow inside an
inclined cylindrical open thermosyphon. The cylinder walls were heated by uniform wall
temperature and differential wall heating method and it was found that differential heating
was more efficient than uniform heating.
15

Schnieders (1997) compared one stationary and five dynamic models to predict the
thermal behavior of solar collectors in different ways and found that additional error
might occur in stationary model.
Kumar et al. (2001) studied the thermal performance of community type solar pressure
cooker based on evacuated tube solar collector and mathematical model was validated
against experimental results. It was found that such a system based on evacuated tube
collector supplied heat at higher temperature (~120 ) as compared to normal flat plate
collector.
Behnia and Morrison (2003) investigated a free convective flow in an open ended
inclined evacuated tube solar collector using two heating methods. In steady state uniform
heating, stagnant region was found near the close end of tube. In differential heating,
stagnant region was found when top half of the tube was having lower temperature than
bottom half of the tube which was near close end of the tube. Stagnant region decreased
the effectiveness of heat transfer through open end of the tube.
Morrison et al. (2004) investigated the performance of water-in-glass single ended
evacuated tube solar heater using numerical study of water circulation by thermosyphon.
It was found that there was possible presence of a stagnation region in the bottom of very
long tube which influenced the operation of tube.
Shah and Furbo (2004) carried out an experiment on a prototype collector of parallel
connected evacuated double glass tubes and measured its performance at outside
conditions. In theoretical model they divided the tube into small slices and each slice was
treated as if it was a flat plate collector and integrated the flat plate collector equation
over the whole absorber circumference and determined the shading of tubes as a function
of solar azimuth and compared with measured results. The values of these results had
good degree of similarity. Also, this model was used for theoretical investigation on
vertical placed pipes in Copenhagen (Denmark) and Uummannaq (Greenland) and found
that their high thermal performance were obtained if the distance between tubes was
about 0.2 m and collector azimuth must be 45-60 towards the west.
Morrison et al. (2005) evaluated the characteristics of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar
water heater including assessment of the circulation rate through the single ended tube
and developed a numerical model of heat transfer and fluid flow inside the tube. It was
found that natural convection flow rate in the tube was high enough to disturb the tank
stratification and the tank temperature strongly affected the circulation flow rate through
the tubes.
16

Sharma et al. (2005) investigated the thermal performance of a solar cooker based on
evacuated tube solar collector with a phase change material (PCM) storage unit. Cooking
experiments and PCM storage unit worked simultaneously and it was found that evening
cooking using PCM heat storage was faster than noon cooking and it was not even
affected by noon cooking.
Li and Wang (2006) studied two different fluids (H
2
O & N
2
) in two different solar
evacuated tubes to measure their heating efficiency and temperature using parabolic
trough concentrator. It was found that the water easily boiled when liquid rate was less
than 0.0046 kg/s and gave better efficiency (70-80%) at 90-100 and above 100, N
2

worked well but when temperature reached 320-420 , its efficiency was less than 40%.
Budihardjo et al. (2007) developed a correlation in terms of solar input, tank temperature,
collector inclination and tube aspect ratio for natural circulation flow rate through single
ended water-in-glass evacuated tubes mounted over a diffuse reflector using experimental
and numerical investigation. The developed correlation could be used to determine the
flow rate at any time of the day.
Kim and Seo (2007) studied the thermal performance of different arrangements of a glass
evacuated tube solar collector with different shapes of absorber tube to find the best shape
of the absorber tube for solar collector. Beam irradiation, diffused irradiation and shade
due to adjacent tubes were also considered to obtain realistic estimation of collector
model.
Shah and Furbo (2007) investigated heat transfer and flow structures inside all glass
evacuated tubular collectors for three different tube lengths with five different inlet mass
flow rates at a constant temperature using computational fluid dynamics and found that
the collector with the shortest tube length had highest efficiency. The optimal inlet flow
rate was around 0.4-1.0 kg/min in all the tubes and flow structure in the glass tubes was
relatively not affected by inlet flow rate.
Zhang and Yamaguchi (2008) studied the basic solar collector characteristics using
supercritical CO
2
as working fluid and found that temperature, pressure and mass flow
rate of working fluid (CO
2
) increased with the solar radiation which was different from
those of traditional solar collector using liquid as working fluid and its efficiency was also
higher (above 60%) than that of water based solar collector.
Budihardjo and Morrison (2009) evaluated the performance of water-in-glass evacuated
tube solar water heater and compared it with flat plate solar collector for domestic
purpose in Sydney. The results showed that the performance of 30 evacuated tubes array
17

was lower than a typical two panel flat plate (3.7 m
2
) array but was less sensitive to tank
size.
Tang et al. (2009) developed a two dimensional mathematical procedure to estimate daily
collectible radiation on a single tube of all-glass evacuated tube solar collectors based on
solar geometry. It was found that the annual collectible radiation on unit length of a single
tube was affected by many factors such as central distance between tubes, collector type,
size of evacuated tube, tilt and azimuth angle and use of reflector.
Ma et al. (2010) investigated the thermal performance of single glass evacuated tube solar
collector using one dimensional analytical method and studied the influence of air layer
and solar radiation intensity on heat efficiency. It was found that influence of thermal
resistance of air layer on the heat efficiency was higher. Initially, the efficiency increased
with an increase in solar radiation intensity and finally achieved a constant value.
Zambolin and Del Col (2010) tested on a standard glazed flat plate collector and
evacuated tube collector in same working conditions using steady state and quasi-
dynamic method and compared their daily energy performance. It was found that the
optical efficiency of flat plate collector decreased in morning and afternoon hours due to
more reflection losses whereas evacuated collector tube had higher efficiency for all
range of operating conditions.
Hayek et al. (2011) investigated the overall performance of solar collector using two
types of evacuated tube solar collectors, namely, the water-in-glass and the heat-pipe
designs. It was found that heat-pipe based collector had higher efficiency (about 15-20%)
than the water-in-glass designs.
Tang et al. (2011) studied the comparative performance of two sets of water in glass
evacuated tube solar water heater with different collector tilt angle from the horizon and
found that the heat removal from solar tube to storage tank was not influenced by
collector tilt angle. The results also depicted that the daily collectible radiations and daily
solar heat gains of system were very much affected by collector tilt angle.

2.3 Mathematical Modeling of Desiccant Wheel
Farooq and Ruthven (1991) identified that the main component of the solid desiccant
system was the dehumidifier wheel and its COP could be significantly improved by
improving its performance. So, the analysis of design and operating parameters of
desiccant wheel was necessary.
18

San and Hsiau (1993) developed a one-dimensional transient heat and mass transfer
model to analyze the effect of axial heat conduction and mass diffusion on the
performance of a desiccant wheel and discussed that Biot number (Bi) and number of
transfer unit (NTU) were two important parameters which affected the dehumidification
ability.
Zheng and Worek (1995) investigated the effects of desiccant sorption properties, heat
and mass transfer characteristics and size of the wheel on dehumidification performance.
They also discussed the isotherm shape of desiccant and it was found that to obtain
maximum dehumidification, separation factor should be 0.07.
Majumdar (1998) investigated the performance of adsorption and desorption process
during a single blow operation for a dehumidifier made of composite mixture of silica gel
particles and inert particles. They also discussed the effect of different compositions of
inert material and thermo physical properties of composite desiccant on adsorption and
regeneration performance.
Dai et al. (2001) evaluated the dehumidification performance of desiccant wheel on the
basis of wave shape through wave analysis using psychrometric chart and discussed the
effects of some important parameters, such as heat capacity, adsorption heat, rotational
speed, regeneration temperature, thickness of the desiccant matrix and desiccant isotherm
on the performance.
Zhang and Niu (2002) developed a two dimensional (axial direction and thickness
direction) transient heat and mass transfer model for desiccant wheel and took into
account both gas side and solid side resistance. They compared the performance of a
desiccant wheel used in air dehumidification and enthalpy recovery on the basis of rotary
speed, NTU and specific area.
Niu and Zhang (2002) developed a two dimensional (axial direction and thickness
direction) transient heat and mass transfer model for desiccant wheel to calculate the
optimum rotary speed for sensible heat recovery, latent heat recovery and air
dehumidification which takes into account both gas side and solid side resistance .They
also analyzed the effect of channel wall thickness on the optimum rotary speed used in air
dehumidification and enthalpy recovery.
Zhang et al. (2003) developed a one-dimensional coupled heat and mass transfer model
allowing lumped parameter method to analyze the temperature and humidity profile in
honeycombed rotary desiccant wheel during both dehumidification and the regeneration
process. They also investigated the effects of velocity of regeneration air, regeneration
19

temperature and velocity of process air on the hump curve and it was found important to
accelerate the hump curve moving from duct entrance to duct exit so as to improve the
performance of desiccant wheel.
Gao et al. (2005) described a one dimensional mathematical model considering the heat
and mass transfer within moist air as well as desiccant material to predict the transient
and steady state transport in a desiccant wheel. The effect of desiccant thickness (felt
thickness) and passage shape on the performance of a desiccant wheel was also
investigated.
Xuan and Radermacher (2005) developed a one-dimensional transient heat and mass
transfer model to investigate the performance of the desiccant wheel. Their simulation
results revealed a significant effect of different regeneration temperatures, air flow rates
and wheel speeds on the performance of wheel.
Harshe et al. (2005) presented a two-dimensional steady-state model pertaining to a rotary
desiccant wheel which included the mass and energy balance equations for the air streams
and the desiccant wheel. The model was capable of predicting the steady-state behavior of
a desiccant wheel for process, purge and regeneration sector.
Nia et al. (2006) developed a one dimensional transient heat and mass transfer model.
They determined the optimum rotational speed by examining the outlet adsorption side
humidity ratio to improve the performance of an adiabatic rotary dehumidifier.
Sphaier and Worek (2006) compared one dimensional and two dimensional mathematical
models for both solid side and gas side resistance and found that one dimensional
formulation could be used in desiccant wheel applications whereas a two dimensional
model was needed for an enthalpy exchanger when thermal resistance in desiccant
material was high.
Ruivo et al. (2006) described a one dimensional transient numerical solution of the
conservation equations for heat, water vapour and adsorbed water inside the porous
medium. They found that surface diffusion was the most important mechanism of water
transport within the porous medium by assuming a lumped heat capacitance model in the
cross directions of the channel wall.
Ruivo et al. (2007) developed two mathematical formulations (detailed model and
simplified model) for different lengths of channel of hygroscopic desiccant wheel. In the
detailed model, air flow field was obtained after the solution of two dimensional
conservation equations for the momentum, mass and energy but in simplified model
hypothesis of bulk flow was adopted in air flow domain and the conservation equations
20

were solved as one dimensional. Result showed that use of simplified model for
simulation of real hygroscopic rotor for channel length was greater than 0.1 m.
Ruivo et al. (2007) developed a simplified model (described in part-1) for the behavior of
channel with parallel desiccant walls to analyze the heat and mass transfer phenomenon
in desiccant wheel. The characterization of the corrugate matrix and an inspection of the
effect of the corrugated curvature was presented. They also investigated the influence of
the dimensions of matrix cells, thickness of channel wall, rotation speed and the influence
of air flow conditions on the performance of desiccant wheel.
Golubovic et al. (2007) evaluated the performance of a rotary dehumidifier on the basis of
three sectors namely: purge, process and regeneration. The performance of a desiccant
wheel with a heated effective purge angle was compared with the performance of the
same wheel without a purge angle. It was found that heated effective purge angle had an
overall positive effect on the performance of a rotary dehumidifier.
Ge et al. (2008) presented a review of various efforts that researchers have made to
mathematically model the coupled heat and mass transfer processes occurring within the
wheel. They explained the fundamental principle of heat and mass transfer mechanisms
taking into account both gas side and solid side resistance. They showed that gas and
solid side resistance models were higher in precision and more complex compared to gas
solid resistance.
Bourdoukan et al. (2008) performed a sensitivity analysis of a desiccant wheel
dehumidification using the design of experiments and also studied the effect of operating
parameters on the dehumidification rate of the wheel by experimental and numerical
results.
Zhai et al. (2008) developed a one-dimensional transient heat and mass transfer equations
for a desiccant wheel allowing lumped formulation. The performance model related the
wheels design parameters (wheel dimension, channel size and desiccant properties) and
operating parameters (rotary speed, condition of process and regeneration air and
regeneration air flow rate) to its operating performance. They also discussed the effect of
some practical issues such as wheel purge, residual water in the desiccant and the wheel
supporting structure on the wheel performance.
Ruivo et al. (2008) developed one dimensional transient heat and mass transfer model for
desiccant wheel and presented two approaches. In the first approach, the model was valid
for thickness lower than 0.1 mm while neglecting the transversal heat and mass transfer
21

resistance in micro porous desiccant and for the second approach, the model was valid for
thickness lower than 5 mm while neglecting only thermal resistance.
Chung and Lee (2009) developed a one dimensional transient model to examine the
operating and design parameters (rotational speed and area ratio of regeneration to
adsorption) of desiccant wheel for a range of regeneration temperature (50 -150).
Performance evaluation was based on MRC (moisture removal capacity). Simulations
were focused on the effect of desiccant isotherm on optimal conditions of the operating
and design parameters and also the effect of outdoor air temperature and humidity on the
optimum design parameters were examined.
Antonellis et al. (2010) developed a one-dimensional transient gas side resistance model
for desiccant wheel which considered developing temperature and velocity profiles along
the channels. This model was used to optimize the influence of working conditions,
revolution speed and desiccant wheel configuration on the performance of the desiccant
wheel.
Ge et al. (2010) developed a one-dimensional transient model to predict the performance
of a compound desiccant wheel considering both the gas side resistance and the solid side
resistance. The compound desiccant wheel was found to have a better performance in a
climate with moderate temperatures or in a climate with a high humidity ratio.
Ruivo et al. (2011) developed a one-dimensional transient model which involved both the
gas side and solid side resistances and studied the influence of atmospheric pressure on
the heat and mass transfer rates of desiccant wheel. It was found that heat and mass
transfer rates reduced with a decrease in the atmospheric pressure. Based on the
simulation results, correlations were developed for the correction of heat and mass
transfer rates for the case of desiccant wheels operating at non standard atmospheric
pressure.
Narayanan et al. (2011) developed a one dimensional transient gas and solid side
resistance model and compared the performance of different desiccant wheel designs
(parallel flow, counter flow and additional axial cooling). They found counter flow
desiccant wheel had much better dehumidification performance than parallel flow and a
counter flow with axial cooling improved the dehumidification performance considerably.




22

2.4 Research Gaps from Literature Survey
Many researchers had experimentally and numerically investigated the use of solar
energy, waste heat and natural gas to regenerate the desiccant wheel. Some focused on the
integration of desiccant wheel with various solar collectors such as flat plate collector,
heat pipe vacuum tube (HPVT) collector and compound parabolic concentrator collector
to obtain better regeneration. But none of them focused on the potential of solar energy to
regenerate the desiccant wheel by using normal evacuated tube solar air collector in the
Indian climatic conditions.
Many researchers had experimentally investigated the regeneration of desiccant (silica
gel) either with the help of flat plate collector or compound parabolic concentrator
collector. But none of them compared the performance of various solid desiccants such as
silica gel, activated alumina and activated charcoal at different air flow rates by using
evacuated tube solar air collector.
Many researchers focused on experimental work, comparison between flat plate and
evacuated tube collector, stagnant region in evacuated tube, evacuated tube size (length,
diameter and absorber shape) and tilt angle of evacuated tube with the horizontal for the
purpose of heating of water. Some researchers focused on the performance of evacuated
tube collector with different fluids like H
2
, N
2
and CO
2
flowing through them. But none of
the researchers focused on producing hot air using one end closed evacuated tube
collector in the Indian climatic conditions.
Many researchers developed one dimensional and two dimensional transient gas and solid
side resistance models and compared the models. Some evaluated the performance of
desiccant wheel on the basis of operating and design parameters and some focused on the
different sectors with purge and different wheel designs. But none of them drew the
comparison in the performance of desiccant wheel with the purge sector in both the
directions of rotation (clockwise & anticlockwise) of desiccant wheel.
Some researchers focused on the performance of desiccant wheel with two sectors and
four sectors. But none of them focused on the comparison between them.
Some researchers have also focused the effect of heated purge sector on the performance
of desiccant wheel but none of them focused on the effect of heated and cooled purge in
the same desiccant wheel.
23

2.5 Objectives of the Present Work
Some primary objectives of the present study are:
1. To generate the hot air by using one end closed evacuated tube and to increase the
thermal performance of evacuated tube solar air collector when used in different
cases and attachments in the Indian climatic conditions (Northern India).
2. To experimentally investigate the performance of various solid desiccants in
adsorption process, which are regenerated by using an evacuated tube solar air
collector at different air flow rates.
3. To check the potential of solar energy to regenerate the desiccant wheel by using
normal evacuated tube solar air collector and investigate the adsorption
performance of the desiccant wheel at different rotational speeds and at different
air flow rates.
4. To estimate and analyze the effect of design parameters more accurately using a
mathematical model which considers the heat and mass transfer in both moist air
and desiccant.
5. To compare the performance of desiccant wheel with a purge sector for clockwise
and anticlockwise directions of rotation using numerical simulations.
6. To compare the performances of four sector and two sector desiccant wheels using
numerical simulations and analyze the performance of the two sector desiccant
wheel with heated and cooled purge sectors at different regeneration temperatures.

2.6 Methodology Adopted
In the present work, the methodology adopted is as follows:
1. Exhaustive literature survey has been done and research gaps have been identified.
2. Various designs and operating parameters have been identified.
3. Initially, evacuated tube solar air collector is fabricated. Then it is tested and the
obtained experimental results are analyzed to enhance its performance with
different attachments.
4. After that, the collector is used to regenerate the various solid desiccants and the
obtained experimental results are analyzed.
24

5. Further, the collector is used to regenerate the desiccant wheel under different
operating conditions (rph and air flow rate) and the obtained experimental results
are analyzed.
6. The experimental results are compared with the corresponding numerical results
obtained by solving the heat and mass transfer equations available in the literature.
7. New designs of the desiccant wheel are further analyzed using numerical
simulations.


























25

CHAPTER 3
Experimental Studies on Evacuated Tube Solar Air Collector

3.1 Introduction
A solar powered air heating system using one ended normal evacuated tubes is
experimentally investigated. The main components of one ended evacuated tube solar air
collector which strongly influence its performance are the evacuated tube, header (heat
exchanger), working fluid, reflectors and copper coil. For many years, evacuated tubes
have been used to heat the water. In this chapter, experimental study is done on the
evacuated tube solar collector for the generation of hot air and its performance is
investigated through different attachments like reflector, copper coil and under various
operating conditions like different air flow rate, directions of flow (parallel & counter) in
Indian climatic conditions. The experimental data has been analyzed and the performance
results of one ended evacuated tube solar air collector have been discussed. The
experimental setup is installed at NIT Kurukshetra, India. The results of the experiments
are presented in this chapter.

3.2 Experimental Setup
The aim of the experimental work is to study the performance of a solar air heating with
one ended evacuated tubes and to investigate the temperature of outlet air at different air
flow rates from evacuated tube solar air collector at different operating conditions.
The test section of solar air collector is based on glass evacuated tube as shown in Figure
3.1(a, b). This system consists of forty evacuated tubes and a header (heat exchanger).
The length of tube is 1.5 m and diameter of the outer glass tube and absorber tube are
0.047 m and 0.037 m respectively. In this experimental setup, a header (heat exchanger)
of square cross section (0.19 m x 0.19 m) is used. The length of header is 1.5 m. It
consists of a hollow pipe (circular pipe) at the centre having a diameter of 0.060 m
through which the air flows. The south facing collector is inclined at an angle of 15

relative to horizontal. A blower with power of 0.335 kW is used to blow the air in the
solar air collector. The blower is powered by AC mains supply and air flow rate is
controlled by using a regulator. To enhance the temperature of outlet air, copper coil is
placed inside the circular pipe and reflectors are also used below the evacuated tubes.
26


(a) (b)
Figure 3.1(a, b) Schematic diagrams of evacuated tube solar air collector based on air
heating system

The photographs of the system in parallel and counter flow are shown in Figures 3.2(a)
and 3.2(b) respectively.

Figure 3.2(a) Experimental setup of evacuated tube solar air collector with parallel flow
27


Figure 3.2(b) Experimental setup of evacuated tube solar air collector with counter flow

The system consists of the following parts:
Evacuated tubes
Header (heat exchanger)
Copper coil
Reflectors
Working fluid

3.2.1 Evacuated tubes
The test sections of the evacuated tubes used in this system are shown in Figures 3.3(a-c).
Each evacuated tube consists of two glass tubes made from extremely strong borosilicate
glass and between them vacuum (P 5x10
-2
Pa) is present. The outer tube is transparent
which allows light rays to pass through with minimal reflection. The inner tube is coated
with a special selective coating of aluminum nitride (Al-N/Al) with excellent features
such as solar radiation absorption and minimal reflection properties.
28


(a)

(b) (c)
Figure 3.3 (a-c) Illustration of glass evacuated tube

3.2.2 Header (heat exchanger)
The test section of the header (heat exchanger) used in this system is shown in Figure 3.4.
It consists of a square pipe which is made up of stainless steel. In square pipe, forty holes
are made, 20 holes on each side. Open end of the evacuated tubes are placed in these
holes and the closed ends are supported by the frame. This square pipe consists of a
hollow pipe (made of stainless steel) at the centre having a diameter of 0.060 m. On the
outer surface of square pipe, an insulation of polyurethane is used to prevent the heat
transfer from the header to the atmosphere. This header also contains a vent for the safety
purpose. It is very useful as through this the extra amount of heat is released into the
atmosphere in the form of steam which may be generated due to failure of blower,
electricity etc and may cause damage to the evacuated tubes.
29


Figure 3.4 Schematic diagram of the header (heat exchanger)

3.2.3 Copper coil
A coil made up of copper wire is placed concentrically in the circular pipe through which
the air flows to increase the temperature of outlet air. The copper coil provides
obstruction to the air flow and increases the surface area in the circular pipe due to which
contact time of air with pipe increases hence it decreases the air flow rate and increases
the temperature. The length and diameter of copper coil is 1.12 m and 0.04 m
respectively. The diameter of copper wire is 0.006 m. The schematic diagram of a copper
coil in circular pipe of the header is shown in Figure 3.5.


Figure 3.5 Schematic diagram of a copper coil in circular pipe of the header
30

3.2.4 Reflectors
Two reflectors are used under the evacuated tubes, one on each side of header to reflect
the sunlight on the evacuated tubes. The dimension of each reflector is 1.55 m x 1.20 m.
It is basically GI sheet (Galvanized) which is made up of mild steel with a coating of zinc.
This coating of zinc provides good reflectivity so it can easily reflect the incident solar
radiations to evacuated tubes. By using reflectors, the temperature of outlet air is
increased.

3.2.5 Working fluid
The header and evacuated tubes in the experimental setup contain 108 liters of working
fluid. The working fluid is a mixture of water (80%) and ethylene glycol (20%). The
major use of working fluid is that it acts as a medium for convective heat transfer.
Ethylene glycol is toxic and non inert. Pure ethylene glycol has a specific heat about half
of that of water. So, while providing an increased boiling point, ethylene glycol decreases
the specific heat of water mixture relative to pure water. On mixing with water, ethylene
glycol increases the boiling point of working fluid hence the heat carrying capacity of
fluid is increased.

3.3 Measuring Devices and Instruments
Different parameters measured in these experiments are:
Inlet and Outlet air temperature
Solar radiation intensity
Air flow rate
These parameters are measured by the following devices:
RTD PT100 thermocouples are used to measure the temperature at different points. The
thermocouples are connected with a digital temperature indicator that gives the
temperature with a resolution of 0.1. The solar radiation intensity is measured during
the day using a Pyranometer (model CM11), supplied by Kipp and Zonen, Holland.
The air flow rate is calculated at the beginning of experimental work. A separate probe
anemometer of model AM-4201 is used to measure the velocity of air with an accuracy of
31

{(2%+d
pipe
)} and resolution of 0.1 m/s. It provides fast and accurate readings with
digital readability and convenience of a remote sensor. Low friction ball bearing design
allows free vane movement, resulting in accuracy at both high and low velocity.

3.4 System Operation
In this setup, the working fluid at temperature of 25 is filled in all the forty evacuated
tubes and the header. Every day the system is exposed to solar radiations for 2.5 hrs,
before the readings are taken. Initially, the temperature of working fluid in header lies in
the range of 32 to 36 and some amount of heat remains in the working fluid from the
previous day because the whole heat is not released from the collector during the night.
As the solar radiation falls on the evacuated tubes, the evacuated tubes gain solar energy
from these radiations and transfer it to the working fluid. This working fluid is heated and
starts the process of thermosyphon by which hot working fluid goes upward and cold
working fluid comes downward in evacuated tubes. These evacuated tubes are attached to
square pipe so that the hot working fluid enters the square pipe. This square pipe consists
of a circular pipe through which the air flows. The air gets heated in the circular pipe due
to heat gained from the working fluid. The same thermosyphon phenomenon is
undertaken in the header by which the hot working fluid is at the high head and cold
working fluid is at the low head.
Three cases are taken to find the various results:
Ordinary collector
Ordinary collector with reflectors
Ordinary collector with reflectors and copper coil

3.4.1 Ordinary collector
The schematic diagram of the ordinary collector is shown in Figure 3.6(a). It is an
ordinary collector without copper coil and reflectors.
32


(a) (b) (c)
Figure 3.6 Schematic diagrams of (a) ordinary collector, (b) ordinary collector with
reflectors, (c) ordinary collector with reflectors and copper coil

3.4.2 Ordinary collector with reflectors
The schematic diagram of the ordinary collector with reflectors is shown in Figure 3.6(b).
With the help of reflectors, the solar radiations are reflected to the lower side of the
evacuated tubes.

3.4.3 Ordinary collector with reflectors and copper coil
The schematic diagram of the ordinary collector with reflectors and copper coil is shown
in Figure 3.6(c). The maximum temperature of outlet air is obtained with the help of
copper coil and reflectors.

3.5 Collector Performance Theory
The thermal performance of the glass evacuated tube solar air collector can be estimated
by the solar air collector efficiency (
etc
) which is defined as the ratio of the net heat gain
to the solar radiation energy on area of solar collector A
P
[Ma et al. (2010)].

etc
=
m
c
c
pa
T
out
T
in

I
o
A
p

Area of the Evacuated tube solar collector [Ma et al. (2010)] is given by
A
P
= 2d
E
L
E

33

3.6 Experimental Results and Discussion
In this experimental setup, the main concern is the heating of air at different air flow
rates. The experimental data is collected on the clear sky days. The results are taken in the
month of June, 2011 during which ambient temperature remained in the range of 28 to
40 in most of the days, but reached up to maximum 41.5. The experiments were
carried out from 9:00 hr to 16:00 hr and data is recorded at intervals of 1 hr. Three cases
have been taken for the various results.

Case 1: (i) Ordinary collector with parallel flow
(a) At a low air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr
At a low air flow rate, it can be observed that the temperature of outlet air of the
evacuated tube solar air collector steadily increases as shown in Figure 3.7. The
maximum intensity of solar radiation is achieved a little later after solar noon. The
temperature of outlet air keeps on increasing at a higher rate than ambient temperature
due to the high heat capacity of working fluid in the setup. The working fluid achieves its
maximum temperature 2 hours after solar noon, at around 14:00 hr, and stays nearly as
hot till 16:00 hr. The maximum temperature difference between inlet and outlet air is
20.5 at 14:00 hr and the maximum temperature of outlet air is 59.

Figure 3.7 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity during the day
at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of parallel flow for ordinary collector
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Ambient temperature Outlet temperature Solar intensity
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
34

As shown in Figure 3.8, the efficiency is inversely proportional to solar intensity and
directly proportional to the temperature difference being achieved. Thus, at peak solar
intensity the efficiency is nearby to its lowest. It increases sharply between 13:00 hr and
14:00 hr as the temperature difference is increasing and intensity is decreasing
simultaneously. Rest of the time, the graph is nearly flat as before solar noon, the increase
in temperature difference is countered by increase in intensity. Between 14:00 hr and
15:00 hr, the intensity decreases, but the change in temperature difference is not
significant, hence the efficiency increases, but only a little. Between 15:00 hr and 16:00
hr there is again a sharp decrease in solar intensity, but a very small decrease in
temperature difference, hence the efficiency rises sharply again. In this case, the loss of
energy due to escape of vapour from the vent is a major cause of low efficiency.

Figure 3.8 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity during the day at
an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of parallel flow for ordinary collector

(b) At a high air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr
At a high air flow rate the attained temperature difference slightly decreases as shown in
Figure 3.9. The attained maximum temperature difference is 20.2. As heat is being
transferred out to the air flowing through the circular pipe at a higher rate, the working
fluid in the evacuated tube collector set up attains higher temperature at a much slower
rate. However, the change in temperature difference is insignificant.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Efficiency Solar intensity
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
35


Figure 3.9 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity during the day
at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of parallel flow for ordinary collector

As shown in Figure 3.10, the efficiency in the starting decreases as the temperature
difference in the beginning is low and the increase in solar intensity is high.

Figure 3.10 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity during the day at
an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of parallel flow for ordinary collector

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Ambient temperature Outlet temperature Solar intensity
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Efficiency Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r
i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
36

It can be observed that the efficiency of the system at high air flow rate is much higher
than that of low air flow rate because the air flow rate increases drastically whereas the
change in temperature difference is very small. Also, the temperature of the working fluid
inside the setup is low due to faster dissipation of heat to the air flowing in the circular
pipe. Thus, the loss of efficiency due to escaping vapour from the vent is much lower.

Case 1: (ii) Ordinary collector with counter flow
(a) At a low air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr
At a low air flow rate in counter flow, it can be observed that the temperature of outlet air
from the evacuated tube solar air collector steadily increases as shown in Figure 3.11. The
maximum intensity of solar radiation is achieved a little later after solar noon. The
temperature of outlet air keeps on increasing at a higher rate than ambient temperature
due to the high heat capacity of working fluid in the setup. The working fluid achieves its
maximum temperature 2 hours after solar noon, at around 14:00 hr and stays nearly as hot
till 16:00 hr. The maximum temperature difference between inlet and outlet air is 24.5
at 14:00 hr and the maximum temperature of outlet air is 61.3. The temperature of the
outlet air is higher in counter flow as ambient air first comes in contact with the hot part
of the circular tube, which is in contact with the high head.

Figure 3.11 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity during the
day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of counter flow for ordinary collector
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Ambient temperature Outlet temperature Solar intensity
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
37

As shown in Figure 3.12, the efficiency is higher than that of parallel flow due to high
temperature difference being achieved as a result of counter flow. Since hot working fluid
in the high head is losing heat because ambient air enters from the top end of the circular
pipe and the vapour escaping from the vent is also reduced, hence that further reduces the
losses and gives a higher efficiency. The efficiency first decreases, as the change in
temperature difference in starting is smaller when compared to increase in solar intensity,
later it steadily increases, first due to higher changes in temperature differences and later
due to decrease in solar intensity, 13:00 hr onwards, during this time, the temperature
difference does not decrease much.

Figure 3.12 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity during the day at
an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of counter flow for ordinary collector

(b) At a high air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr
At a high air flow rate the attained temperature difference slightly decreases as shown in
Figure 3.13. The attained maximum temperature difference between inlet and outlet air is
22.6 at 15:00 hr. As heat is being transferred out to the air flowing through the circular
pipe at a higher rate, the working fluid in the evacuated tube collector setup attains higher
temperature at a much slower rate. The temperature difference is slightly higher if it is
compared to that of parallel flow.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.03
0.06
0.09
0.12
0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.27
0.3
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Efficiency Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
38


Figure 3.13 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity during the
day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of counter flow for ordinary collector

As shown in Figure 3.14, the efficiency is more than that of parallel flow due to slightly
higher temperature difference being achieved as a result of counter flow. Since hot
working fluid in the high head is losing heat because ambient air enters from the top end
of the circular pipe and the vapour escaping from the vent is also reduced, which further
reduces the losses and gives better efficiency.

Figure 3.14 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity during the day at
an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of counter flow for ordinary collector
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Ambient temperature Outlet temperature Solar intensity
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Efficiency Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
39

The efficiency first decreases, as the change in temperature difference in starting is
smaller when compared to increase in solar intensity. After that it steadily increases, first
due to higher changes in temperature differences, and later due to decrease in solar
intensity.

Case 2: (i) Ordinary collector with reflectors with parallel flow
(a) At a low air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr
At a low air flow rate, it can be observed that the temperature of outlet air from evacuated
tube solar collector steadily increases as shown in Figure 3.15. The maximum intensity of
solar radiation is achieved a little later after solar noon. The temperature of outlet air
keeps on increasing at a higher rate than ambient temperature due to the high heat
capacity of working fluid in the setup. The working fluid achieves its maximum
temperature sooner than the case when reflectors are not used due to incidence of solar
radiation on the tubes from the lower side too. The maximum temperature difference
between inlet and outlet air is 23.1 at 14:00 hr and the maximum temperature of outlet
air is 63.6.

Figure 3.15 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity during the
day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of parallel flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Ambient temperature Outlet temperature Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
40

As shown in Figure 3.16, the efficiency is slightly higher than the case of low air flow
rate without reflectors. This happens because the temperature difference increases, but
minor losses also increase due to higher amount of vapours escaping from the vent, as
working fluid in the evacuated tubes is heated faster due to more incidence of solar
radiations on the tube.

Figure 3.16 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity during the day at
an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of parallel flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors

(b) At a high air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr
As shown in Figure 3.17, at a high air flow rate, it can be observed that the temperature of
outlet air from evacuated tube solar collector steadily increases, although it is slightly
lower than that of low air flow rate. The maximum intensity of solar radiation is achieved
a little later after solar noon. The temperature of outlet air keeps on increasing at a higher
rate than ambient temperature due to the high heat capacity of working fluid in the setup.
The working fluid achieves its maximum temperature earlier than the case when
reflectors are not used, and stays nearly as hot till 16:00 hr. The maximum temperature
difference between inlet and outlet air is 20.8 at 14:00 hr and the maximum temperature
of outlet air is 62.3. It can be found that after 14:00 hr, the temperature difference
between inlet and outlet air decreases insignificantly.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.03
0.06
0.09
0.12
0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.27
0.3
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Efficiency Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
41


Figure 3.17 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity during the
day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of parallel flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors

As shown in Figure 3.18, the efficiency in this case is much higher than the case of low
air flow rate. This is because the temperature difference reduces insignificantly, but the
air flow rate is about twice.

Figure 3.18 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity during the day at
an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of parallel flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Ambient temperature Outlet temperature Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Efficiency Solar intensity
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
42

In this case, the efficiency is more than the case (i.e. ordinary collector without reflectors)
due to slightly higher temperature difference. However, losses increase due to higher
amount of vapours escaping from the vent, as working fluid in the evacuated tubes is
heated faster due to incidence of solar radiations on the tube at the lower side.

Case 2: (ii) Ordinary collector with reflectors with counter flow
(a) At a low air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr
At a low air flow rate, it can be observed that the temperature of outlet air from evacuated
tube solar collector steadily increases as shown in Figure 3.19. Theoretically it should be
more than the case of parallel flow but due to low solar intensity at that day temperature
difference achieved was low as compared to parallel flow. The maximum intensity of
solar radiation is achieved a little later after solar noon. The temperature of outlet air
keeps on increasing at a higher rate than ambient temperature due to the high heat
capacity of working fluid in the setup. The working fluid achieves its maximum
temperature earlier than the case when reflectors are not used, and stays nearly as hot till
16:00 hr. The maximum temperature difference between inlet and outlet air is 20.4 at
14:00 hr, and the maximum temperature of outlet air is 60.

Figure 3.19 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity during the
day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of counter flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Ambient temperature Outlet temperature Solar intensity
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
43

As shown in Figure 3.20, the efficiency in this case is slightly lower than the case of
parallel flow because of low temperature difference achieved at that day and the losses
occurred are the same in both the cases i.e. parallel flow and counter flow and this was
also not affected by the position of the blower at this low air flow rate.

Figure 3.20 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity during the day at
an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of counter flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors

(b) At a high air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr
At a high air flow rate, it can be observed that the temperature of outlet air from
evacuated tube solar collector steadily increases as shown in Figure 3.21. The temperature
difference increases more than the case of parallel flow as air enters the circular pipe of
the header comes in contact with the hot high head first and its heat is dissipated to the
ambient air which enters through the blower. However, the temperature difference
decreases insignificantly due to a high air flow rate too. The maximum intensity of solar
radiation is achieved a little later after solar noon. The temperature of outlet air keeps on
increasing at a higher rate as compared to the increases in ambient temperature due to the
high heat capacity of working fluid in the setup. The working fluid achieves its maximum
temperature earlier than the case when reflectors are not used, and stays nearly as hot till
16:00 hr. A maximum temperature difference between inlet and outlet air is 23.9 at
14:00 hr and the maximum temperature of outlet air is 60.1.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.03
0.06
0.09
0.12
0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.27
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Efficiency Solar intensity
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
44


Figure 3.21 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity during the
day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of counter flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors

As shown in Figure 3.22, the efficiency in this case is much higher than the case of low
air flow rate. This is because the temperature difference reduces insignificantly and the air
flow rate is almost twice. In this case losses are reduced because few vapours are being
produced in the high head. Hence the losses due to the escape of vapours from the vent
also decrease.

Figure 3.22 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity during the day at
an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of counter flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Ambient temperature Outlet temperature Solar intensity
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Efficiency Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
45

Case 3: (i) Ordinary collector with reflectors and copper coil with parallel flow
(a) At a low air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr
As shown in Figure 3.23, at a low air flow rate, it can be observed that the temperature of
outlet air from evacuated tube solar collector steadily increases. The increase of the
temperature in this case is much higher when compared to the previous cases due to
presence of both the copper coil and reflectors. The copper coil acts as a fin in the circular
pipe enhancing heat transfer from its surface to the air.

Figure 3.23 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity during the
day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of parallel flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors & copper coil

It also provides obstruction to the flow of air and increases the temperature of air
significantly. The maximum intensity of solar radiation is achieved a little later after solar
noon. The temperature of outlet air keeps on increasing at a higher rate than ambient
temperature due to the high heat capacity of working fluid in the setup. The working fluid
achieves its maximum temperature 2 hours after solar noon, at around 14:00 hr and stays
nearly as hot till 16:00 hr. The maximum temperature difference between inlet and outlet
air is 31.4 at 14:00 hr and the maximum temperature of outlet air is 71.2.

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Ambient temperature Outlet temperature Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
46

As shown in Figure 3.24, the efficiency is much higher than the cases without copper coil,
as losses involved in transfer of heat from working fluid of header to circular pipe
through which air is flowing have been significantly reduced. The sudden spike in
efficiency at 12 noon is due to a sudden drop in solar intensity at that time.

Figure 3.24 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity during the day at
an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of parallel flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors & copper coil

(b) At a high air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr
At a high air flow rate, it can be observed that the temperature of outlet air from
evacuated tube solar collector steadily increases as shown in Figure 3.25. The temperature
difference is slightly lower than the case with low air flow rate due to a higher air flow
rate. The maximum intensity of solar radiation is achieved a little later after solar noon.
The temperature of outlet air keeps on increasing at a higher rate than ambient
temperature due to the high heat capacity of working fluid in the setup. The working fluid
achieves its maximum temperature 2 hours after solar noon, at around 14:00 hr and stays
nearly as hot till 16:00 hr. The maximum temperature difference between inlet and outlet
air is 27.7 at 14:00 hr and the maximum temperature of outlet air is 67.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Efficiency Solar intensity
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r
i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
47


Figure 3.25 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity during the
day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of parallel flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors & copper coil

As shown in Figure 3.26, the efficiency observed in this case is very high due to presence
of both the copper coil and the reflectors at a higher air flow rate. Due to the high air flow
rate, the temperature difference drops a little but since the air flow rate is about twice, the
overall thermal efficiency of the system increases significantly.

Figure 3.26 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity during the day at
an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of parallel flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors & copper coil
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Ambient temperature Outlet temperature Solar intensity
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Efficiency Solar intensity
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
48

Case 3: (ii) Ordinary collector with reflectors and copper coil with counter-flow
(a) At a low air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr
At a low air flow rate, it can be observed that the temperature of outlet air from evacuated
tube solar collector steadily increases as shown in Figure 3.27. The temperature increment
in this case is much higher when compared to the previous cases due to the presence of
both reflectors and copper coil. The copper coil which acts as a fin in the circular pipe,
increases heat transfer from its surface to the air, provides obstruction to the flow of air
and increases the temperature of air significantly. The temperature difference further
increases due to counter flow. The maximum intensity of solar radiation is achieved a
little later after solar noon.

Figure 3.27 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity during the
day at an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of counter flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors & copper coil

The temperature of outlet air keeps on increasing at a higher rate than ambient
temperature due to the high heat capacity of working fluid in the setup. The working fluid
achieves its maximum temperature 2 hours after solar noon, at around 14:00 hr and stays
nearly as hot till 16:00 hr. The maximum temperature difference between inlet and outlet
air is 36.8 at 14:00 hr and the maximum temperature of outlet air is 76.5.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Ambient temperature Outlet temperature Solar intensity
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
49

As shown in Figure 3.28, the efficiency in this case is higher if compared to the case with
parallel flow for the same setup with reflectors and copper coil. The efficiency is high due
to counter flow as air enters the circular pipe of the header comes in contact with the hot
high head first and its heat is dissipated to ambient air which enters through the blower.
This also reduces the losses, as less vapours are produced in the high head. Thus, the
losses due to the escape of vapours from the vent also decrease.

Figure 3.28 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity during the day at
an air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr in case of counter flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors & copper coil

(b) At a high air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr
At a high air flow rate, it can be observed that the temperature of outlet air from
evacuated tube solar collector steadily increases as shown in Figure 3.29. The increase in
this case is slightly lower than the previous case due to a high air flow rate. The
maximum intensity of solar radiation is achieved a little later after solar noon. The
temperature of outlet air keeps on increasing at a higher rate than ambient temperature
due to the high heat capacity of working fluid in the setup. The working fluid achieves its
maximum temperature 2 hours after solar noon, at around 14:00 hr and stays nearly as hot
till 16:00 hr. The maximum temperature difference between inlet and outlet air is 33 at
14:00 hr and the maximum temperature of outlet air is 74.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Efficiency Solar intensity
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
50


Figure 3.29 Variation of temperature difference and solar radiation intensity during the
day at an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of counter flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors & copper coil

As shown in Figure 3.30, the efficiency achieved in this case is the highest due to the
coupled effect of reflectors, copper coil, counter flow and high air flow rate. In this case,
heat transfer rate from working fluid to air increases and vapours escaping from vent
decreases so the losses are minimum and efficiency is more.

Figure 3.30 Variation of thermal efficiency and solar radiation intensity during the day at
an air flow rate of 207.36 kg/hr in case of counter flow for ordinary collector with
reflectors & copper coil
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Ambient temperature Outlet temperature Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00
Efficiency Solar intensity
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r
i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
51

3.7 Conclusions
The main conclusions emerging from the experimental studies are:
1. The setup attains a higher temperature difference at a low air flow rate, however the
efficiency is low. At a high air flow rate the efficiency is high, but the temperature
difference slightly decreases.
2. In the counter flow, the efficiency and temperature difference achieved is higher than
parallel flow.
3. On attachment of reflectors beneath the evacuated tubes, the solar radiations incident on
the evacuated tubes practically increases by almost twice. Hence, the efficiency increases.
4. Placement of a copper coil in the circular pipe increases the efficiency of the setup by
increasing the heat transfer because the copper coil acts as a fin.
5. The highest temperature difference achieved by this setup on a summer day is 36.8.





















52

CHAPTER 4
Experimental Comparison of Various Solid Desiccants for Regeneration
by Evacuated Tube Solar Air Collector and Air Dehumidification

4.1 Introduction
In this chapter, the regeneration and the adsorption rates of various solid desiccants like
silica gel, activated alumina and activated charcoal for producing the dry air have been
experimentally investigated. The main objective in this chapter is to study the feasibility
of regeneration of these desiccants using evacuated tube solar air collector. In the
previous chapter, the performance of evacuated tube solar air collector was investigated.
This evacuated tube solar air collector is used to regenerate the various desiccants at
different air flow rates and experimental comparison between various types of desiccants
and after that its air dehumidification performance are analyzed according to Indian
climatic conditions. The results of these experiments are presented in this chapter.

4.2 Experimental Setup
The experiments have been performed to investigate the regeneration rates of silica gel,
activated alumina and activated charcoal. To perform various experiments on
regeneration, some level of moisture content should be present in the desiccants. For this
purpose these desiccants were exposed to humid air over the night. The adsorption
process has been carried out immediately after regeneration process in the evening time.
In this setup, container is integrated with evacuated tube solar air collector. Evacuated
tube solar air collector produces the hot air for regeneration of various desiccants which
are present in the container. In this setup, regeneration of desiccant occurs in day time as
shown in Figure 4.1(a), (b) and adsorption occurs in evening time as shown in Figure
4.1(c), (d).






53



Figure 4.1(a) Schematic diagram of experimental setup for regeneration of silica gel,
activated alumina or activated charcoal



Figure 4.1(b) Experimental setup for regeneration of silica gel, activated alumina or
activated charcoal
54



Figure 4.1(c) Schematic diagram of experimental setup for moisture adsorption onto silica
gel, activated alumina or activated charcoal



Figure 4.1(d) Experimental setup for moisture adsorption onto silica gel, activated
alumina or activated charcoal
55

The experimental system consists of the following two parts as shown in Figure 4.1(a),
(b):
Evacuated tube solar air collector
Container
4.2.1 Evacuated tube solar air collector (discussed in chapter 3 on page 25 to 30)
4.2.2 Container
A container is used to regenerate the silica gel, activated alumina and activated charcoal.
This container is made up of wood and its dimensions are 0.45 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (l x b
x h) as shown in Figure 4.2.


(a) (b)
Figure 4.2 (a) Schematic diagram of the container, (b) Photograph of the container

It consists of two horizontal wire meshes on which the desiccant is placed. There are two
holes on two opposite sides of the container; one for inlet and another for outlet of air.
The diameter of each hole is 0.061 m. The centre of the inlet hole is 0.081 m from the
bottom of the container and the centre of outlet hole is 0.493 m from bottom of the
container. The outlet of the solar air collector and the inlet of the container are connected
by a small pipe so as to minimize the heat losses to the surroundings. The inner sides of
the container are covered with an aluminum sheet so that wood does not absorb the
moisture. There are two horizontal wire meshes in the container and 2.5 kg of desiccant is
56

uniformly distributed over each wire mesh. The size of dry silica gel (blue) grain varies
from 7 mm to 8 mm. The size i.e., diameter of spherical shaped activated alumina (white)
ranges from 4 mm to 5 mm. The size of activated charcoal (black) grain is between 5 mm
and 6 mm. The various solid desiccants are shown in Figure 4.3.


Figure 4.3 Photograph of various solid desiccants

4.3 Measuring Devices and Instruments
Temperature, velocity and solar intensity are measured with the help of RTD PT100
thermocouple, anemometer and pyranometer respectively which have been discussed in
detail in chapter 3.
Relative humidity and temperature of air are measured with a digital hand held Hygro-
thermometer model RHT200C (Elinco Innovations, India) with high accuracy probe
which has a relative humidity range from 0% to 100% and a temperature range from -
10 to 60. The humidity multi-meter measures the relative humidity with a resolution
of 0.1% and accuracy of 2%, and the temperature with a resolution of 0.1 and
accuracy of 0.3.
The humidity ratio of the air has been calculated from the dry bulb temperature and
relative humidity by using a psychrometric calculator.

57

4.4 System Operation
There are three processes in the system as shown on psychrometric chart in Figure 4.4(a)
and 4.4(b):
(a) Sensible heating (1-2): Sensible heating of air is done by using evacuated tube solar
air collector.

Figure 4.4(a) Psychrometric processes during sensible heating and regeneration

(b) Regeneration process (2-3): Hot air is used to regenerate the desiccant in the
regeneration process. Hot air evaporates the water from desiccant and due to moisture the
hot air loses heat and cools down.
(c) Adsorption process (4-5): In adsorption process, the desiccant adsorbs the moisture
from the humid air which flows through it. Moisture is adsorbed on the surface of a
desiccant and gets condensed over it. This heat of condensation raises the temperature of
process air.

Figure 4.4(b) Psychrometric process during adsorption
58

4.5 Analysis of Experimental Data
The regeneration rate was monitored continuously throughout the experimental run by
measuring the flow rate (m
r
) of the regeneration air and the humidity ratio Y
r,in
and Y
r,out

of the inlet and outlet air, respectively [Techajunta et al. 1999].
G
R
= m
r
(Y
r,out
Y
r,in
)
The adsorption rate was also monitored continuously throughout the experimental run by
measuring the flow rate (m
p
) of the process air and the humidity ratio Y
p,in
and Y
p,out
of
the inlet and outlet air, respectively [Techajunta et al. 1999].
G
A
= m
p
(Y
p,in
Y
p,out
)

4.6 Experimental Results and Discussion
In this study, the main focus is on the regeneration rate of desiccant by the evacuated tube
solar air collector and then the adsorption rate at different air flow rates. The experimental
data has been collected in the month of July, 2011 during which the ambient temperature
varied from 31.5 to 43.5 in most of the clear sky days. The experiments are carried
out from 13:00 hr to 21:05 hr and data is recorded at intervals of 30 minutes. During the
day period, the outlet air from the solar air collector is available in the temperature range
of 54.3 to 68.3 and humidity ratio in the range of 0.0180 to 0.0232 kg
water vapour
/kg
dry
air
so it is used for the regeneration process. In the evening time, the temperature of
ambient air is in the range of 31.5 to 39.8 and humidity ratio in the range of 0.0197 to
0.0249 kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
is used for the adsorption process.
The experiments are performed in the day time for regeneration and in evening time for
adsorption. Three cases are considered and various results have been obtained.

(i) Regeneration rate at 88 kg/hr air flow rate
(a) For silica gel
The collector was exposed to the solar radiation for one hour before the readings were
taken. The results have been obtained on a partially cloudy day and the solar intensity as
shown in Figure 4.5 dropped steadily from 13:00 hr to 16:30 hr. The temperature
59

difference was measured from 13:00 hr to 16:30 hr and during this time the temperature
difference varied from 18 to 27.

Figure 4.5 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity for silica gel during the day time at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr

It can be observed in Figure 4.6 that initially, the rate of regeneration is low due to low
surface temperature of silica gel. The rate of regeneration increases with the increase in
surface temperature of silica gel. Once the regeneration rate reaches a maximum limit, the
silica gel attains a steady state surface temperature within its regeneration temperature
range.

Figure 4.6 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature in the regeneration
process for silica gel during the day time at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30
Temperature difference Solar intensity
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
0.44
0.48
0.52
0.56
13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
Time(hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
60

The rate of regeneration remains almost constant due to narrow deviation in the
regeneration temperature. After 14:30 hr the regeneration rate decreases because the
moisture in the silica gel is limited and majority of it has been already regenerated earlier.

(b) For activated alumina
The collector was exposed to the solar radiation for one hour before the readings were
taken. The results have been obtained on a partially cloudy day and the solar intensity
dropped during the experiment conducted from 13:30 hr to 17:00 hr as shown in Figure
4.7. The temperature difference is measured from 13:30 hr to 17:00 hr and during this
time, the temperature difference varied from 15 to 20.

Figure 4.7 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity for activated alumina during the day time at
an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr

It can be observed in Figure 4.8 that initially, that regeneration temperature is low at
13:30 hr. The regeneration rate reaches the maximum value, when the surface
temperature of activated alumina attains a steady value within its regeneration
temperature range. The regeneration rate gradually decreases as the moisture content of
activated alumina decreases.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Temperature difference Solar intensity
Time(hours)
S
o
l
a
r
i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
61


Figure 4.8 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature in the regeneration
process for activated alumina during the day time at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr

(c) For activated charcoal
The collector was exposed to the solar radiation for one hour before the readings were
taken. The results have been obtained on a partially cloudy day and the solar intensity
dropped steadily from 14:45 hr to 16:45 hr as shown in Figure 4.9. The measured
temperature difference during this time varied from 17 to 19.5.

Figure 4.9 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity for activated charcoal during the day time at
an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
0.44
0.48
0.52
0.56
13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
14:45 15:15 15:45 16:15 16:45
Temperature difference Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
62

As shown in Figure 4.10, during the experiment conducted from 14:45 hr to 16:45 hr, the
rate of regeneration of activated charcoal decreases rapidly up to 16:15 hr. After that as
the moisture content decreases, the regeneration rate also decreases.

Figure 4.10 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature in the
regeneration process for activated charcoal during the day time at
an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr

(ii) Regeneration rate at 138 kg/hr air flow rate
(a) For silica gel
The collector was exposed to the solar radiation for one hour before the readings were
taken.

Figure 4.11 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity for silica gel during the day time at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
0.44
0.48
0.52
0.56
14:45 15:15 15:45 16:15 16:45
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(

C
)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
r
a
t
e

(
K
g
/
h
r
)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30
Temperature difference Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
63

The results have been obtained on a partially cloudy day and the solar intensity dropped
steadily from 13:30 hr to 16:30 hr as shown in Figure 4.11. The measured temperature
difference during this time varied from 15 to 25.

It can be observed in Figure 4.12 that initially, at a high air flow rate, the surface
temperature of silica gel is maximum which gives maximum regeneration rate. After that
as the moisture content decreases, the rate of regeneration also decreases. By 16:30 hours,
the silica gel loses all its moisture content, this is also proved by the change in colour of
silica gel from pink to blue.
From the obtained data, it can be concluded that for the same duration of time, silica gel
loses all its moisture at high air flow rate whereas at low air flow rate some moisture
remains in the silica gel.

Figure 4.12 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature in the
regeneration process for silica gel during the day time at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr

(b) For activated alumina
The collector was exposed to the solar radiation for one hour before the readings were
taken. The results show that the solar intensity decreases from 13:00 hr to 14:30 hr as
shown in Figure 4.13. The temperature difference is measured from 13:00 hr to 14:30 hr
and during this time the temperature difference varied from 14 to 22.
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
0.44
0.48
0.52
0.56
13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
r
a
t
e

(
K
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(

C
)
64


Figure 4.13 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity for activated alumina during the day time at
an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr

It can be observed in Figure 4.14 that regeneration rate first increases from 13:00 hr to
13:30 hr due to increase in surface temperature of activated alumina and reaches the
maximum limit. Once, the activated alumina attains a steady-state surface temperature
within its regeneration temperature range at 13:30 hr, the regeneration rate decreases due
to limited amount of water vapour present in the activated alumina.

Figure 4.14 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature in the
regeneration process for activated alumina during the day time at
an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30
Temperature difference Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(

C
)
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
0.44
0.48
0.52
0.56
13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
r
a
t
e

(
K
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
65

The activated alumina takes 210 minutes to regenerate at low air flow rate whereas the
time for regeneration decreases to 90 minutes at high air flow rate.
From the obtained data it can be observed that for the same processing time, activated
alumina loses all its moisture at high air flow rate whereas at low air flow rate some
moisture remains in the activated alumina.

(c) Activated charcoal
The collector was exposed to the solar radiation for one hour before the readings were
taken. The results show that the solar intensity decreases from 13:00 hr to 14:30 hr as
shown in Figure 4.15. The temperature difference is measured from 13:00 hr to 14:30 hr
and during this time the temperature difference varied from 14 to 22.

Figure 4.15 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity for activated charcoal during the day time at
an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr

It can be observed in Figure 4.16 that at 13:30 hour, the regeneration rate reaches the
maximum value. Once, the surface temperature of activated charcoal attains a steady
value within its regeneration temperature range, thereafter, the regeneration rate decreases
and all the moisture is lost by 14:30 hours.
From the obtained data it can be observed that activated charcoal takes 90 minutes to
regenerate completely at high air flow rate and 120 minutes at low air flow rate.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30
Temperature difference Solar intensity
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
66


Figure 4.16 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature in the
regeneration process for activated charcoal during the day time at
an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr

(iii) Adsorption rate at 88 kg/hr air flow rate
(a) For silica gel
It can be observed in Figure 4.17 that the adsorption rate of silica gel decreases from
0.156 kg/hr to 0.039 kg/hr. This decrement in adsorption rate is due to progressive
saturation of the silica gel.

Figure 4.17 Variation of the adsorption rate in the adsorption process for silica gel during
the evening time at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
0.44
0.48
0.52
0.56
13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
0.22
0.24
0.26
17:35 18:05 18:35 19:05 19:35 20:05 20:35 21:05
Time (hours)
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
67

(b) For activated alumina
It can be observed in Figure 4.18 that the adsorption rate of activated alumina decreases
from 0.094 kg/hr to 0.023 kg/hr. This decrement in adsorption rate is due to progressive
saturation of the activated alumina. This shows that activated alumina tends to be
saturated in a shorter duration as compared to silica gel.

Figure 4.18 Variation of adsorption rate in the adsorption process for activated alumina
during the evening time at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr

(c) For activated charcoal
It can be observed in Figure 4.19 that adsorption rate of activated charcoal decreases from
0.083 kg/hr to 0.014 kg/hr.

Figure 4.19 Variation of adsorption rate in the adsorption process for activated charcoal
during the evening time at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
0.22
0.24
0.26
17:15 17:45 18:15 18:45 19:15 19:45
Time (hours)
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
r
a
t
e

(
K
g
/
h
r
)
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
0.22
0.24
0.26
17:55 18:25 18:55 19:25 19:55
Time (hours)
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
r
a
t
e

(
K
g
/
h
r
)
68

This decrement in adsorption rate is due to progressive saturation of the activated
charcoal. The adsorption rate of activated charcoal is less than that of both activated
alumina and silica gel.

(iv) Adsorption rate at 138 kg/hr air flow rate
(a) For silica gel
It can be observed in Figure 4.20 that adsorption rate of silica gel decreases from 0.234
kg/hr to 0.093 kg/hr. This decrement in adsorption rate is due to progressive saturation of
the silica gel. It is also observed that the time taken by silica gel to saturate is less for high
air flow rate as compared to low air flow rate.

Figure 4.20 Variation of adsorption rate in the adsorption process for silica gel during the
evening time at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr

(b) For activated alumina
It can be observed in Figure 4.21 that adsorption rate of activated alumina decreases from
0.237 kg/hr to 0.026 kg/hr. This decrement in adsorption rate is due to progressive
saturation of the activated alumina. It is also observed that the time taken by activated
alumina to saturate is lesser for high air flow rate as compared to low air flow rate.
Adsorption time is also shorter as compared to silica gel at the same air flow rate.
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
0.22
0.24
0.26
18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
69


Figure 4.21 Variation of adsorption rate in the adsorption process for activated alumina
during the evening time at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr

(c) For activated charcoal
It can be observed from Figure 4.22 that adsorption rate of activated charcoal decreases
from 0.127 kg/hr to 0.014 kg/hr. This decrement in adsorption rate is due to progressive
saturation of the activated charcoal. The adsorption rate of activated charcoal is less than
that of both activated alumina and silica gel.

Figure 4.22 Variation of adsorption rate in the adsorption process for activated charcoal
during the evening time at an air flow rate of 138 kg/hr

0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
0.22
0.24
0.26
16:50 17:20 17:50 18:20
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e
(
k
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
0.22
0.24
0.26
17:55 18:25 18:55 19:25 19:55
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
70

4.7 Conclusions
The main conclusions emerging from the experimental studies are:
1. The temperature difference of air from evacuated tube solar air collector is in the
range of 18 to 27 at an air flow rate of 88 kg/hr and 15 to 25 at an air
flow rate of 138 kg/hr.
2. In the regeneration process at 88 kg/hr air flow rate, the maximum regeneration
rate in silica gel is 0.207 kg/hr and minimum regeneration rate is 0.063 kg/hr, it
takes more than 3.5 hours (regeneration time). For activated alumina, maximum
and minimum regeneration rates are 0.299 kg/hr, 0.007 kg/hr respectively; it takes
less than 3.5 hours (regeneration time). For activated charcoal, maximum and
minimum regeneration rates are 0.140 kg/hr, 0.023 kg/hr respectively; it takes 2
hours (regeneration time).
3. In regeneration process at 138 kg/hr air flow rate, the maximum regeneration rate
in silica gel is 0.506 kg/hr and minimum regeneration rate is 0.006 kg/hr, it takes 3
hours (regeneration time). For activated alumina, maximum and minimum
regeneration rates are 0.267 kg/hr, 0.008 kg/hr respectively; it takes 1.5 hours
(regeneration time). For activated charcoal, maximum and minimum regeneration
rates are 0.252 kg/hr, 0.006 kg/hr respectively; it takes 1.5 hours (regeneration
time).
4. In adsorption process at 88 kg/hr air flow rate, the maximum adsorption rate in
silica gel is 0.156 kg/hr and minimum adsorption rate is 0.039 kg/hr, it takes 3.5
hours (adsorption time). For activated alumina, maximum and minimum
adsorption rates are 0.094 kg/hr, 0.023 kg/hr respectively; it takes 2.5 hours
(adsorption time). For activated charcoal, maximum and minimum adsorption
rates are 0.083 kg/hr, 0.014 kg/hr respectively; it takes 2 hours (adsorption time).
5. In adsorption process at 138 kg/hr air flow rate, the maximum adsorption rate in
silica gel is 0.234 kg/hr and minimum adsorption rate is 0.093 kg/hr, it takes 2
hours (adsorption time). For activated alumina, maximum and minimum
adsorption rates are 0.237 kg/hr, 0.026 kg/hr respectively; it takes 1.5 hours
(adsorption time). For activated charcoal, maximum and minimum adsorption
rates are 0.127 kg/hr, 0.014 kg/hr respectively; it takes 2 hours (adsorption time).
71

6. From the above results, it may be inferred that for Indian climatic conditions,
silica gel is best suited desiccant for adsorption and that silica gel has been
regenerated by evacuated tube solar air collector.





















72

CHAPTER-5
Experimental Studies on Solar Powered Desiccant Wheel

5.1 Introduction
The regeneration and the adsorption rates of desiccant wheel for producing the dry air
have been experimentally investigated. In this chapter, an experimental study on the
feasibility of evacuated tube solar air collector with the desiccant wheel has been carried
out. The adsorption and the regeneration rates at different air flow rates & at different rph
for desiccant wheel are analyzed in the Indian climatic conditions. Wheel effectiveness
for adsorption sector and for regeneration sector has also been studied in this chapter.

5.2 Experimental Setup
In this setup, desiccant wheel is integrated with evacuated tube solar air collector and two
blowers. Evacuated tube solar air collector produces the hot air for regeneration of the
desiccant wheel. In this setup, regeneration and adsorption occurs simultaneously during
the day. The schematic diagram and experimental setup of solar powered desiccant wheel
are shown in Figure 5.1(a) and Figure 5.1 (b).


Figure 5.1 (a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup (side view)
73


Figure 5.1(b) Experimental setup of solar powered desiccant wheel

The system consists of following two parts:
Evacuated tube solar air collector
Desiccant wheel
5.2.1 Evacuated tube solar air collector (discussed in chapter 3 on the page 25 to 30)
5.2.2 Desiccant wheel
Desiccant wheel is an air to air heat and mass exchanger with a relatively low rotational
speed (N). The wheel consists of a matrix having layers of desiccant material and matrix
material. The channels in the desiccant wheel can be of various shapes such as sinusoidal,
honeycomb, triangular etc. The shape of channel is sinusoidal in this desiccant wheel. The
desiccant wheel is divided into two sectors according to the air streams passed. In the
angular sector of process air (adsorption sector), dehumidification of air takes place and
in the angular sector of regeneration air (regeneration sector) of the wheel, humidification
of the air takes place. The sector angle of process air and regeneration air are denoted by

p
and
r
respectively. The rotation of the wheel causes periodic regeneration of the
74

adsorption sector. The schematic diagram of rotary desiccant wheel and cross section of
channels are shown in Figure 5.2(a, b).


(a)


(b)
Figure 5.2 Schematic diagrams of (a) rotary desiccant wheel, (b) cross section of channels

The rotary desiccant wheel is made up of desiccant material (silica gel) of 0.370 m
diameter and 0.1 m length as shown in Figure 5.3(a). It is divided into two sectors. The
first sector is the adsorption sector which equals 50% of the total surface area of the
wheel. The second sector is the regeneration sector that equals the remaining 50% of the
total surface area. The two sectors are separated carefully by air sealing. The pitch and
height of flow passage of one channel are 0.0032 m and 0.0018 m respectively and
thickness of channel wall is 0.00034 m. The specifications of the desiccant wheel are
given in Table 5.1. Rotary motor with power of 6 W is used to drive the desiccant wheel
at different rph to alternate the position of the adsorption sector and regeneration sector as
shown in Figure 5.3(b). The schematic diagram of the desiccant wheel box with
dimensions is shown in Figure 5.3(c).
75



(a) (b)


(c)
Figure 5.3 (a) Photograph of the desiccant wheel, (b) Photograph of the driving system,
(c) Schematic diagram of the desiccant wheel box

76

Table 5.1 Specifications of the desiccant wheel
Parameter Dimension
Wheel length, L
w
(m) 0.1
Diameter of wheel, D (m) 0.37
Thickness of the channel wall, (m) 0.00034
Height of flow passage, 2a (m) 0.0018
Pitch of flow passage, 2b (m) 0.0032
The area ratio of air flow passage to the total area of one channel, (A
r
) 0.844
Volume ratio of desiccant, () 0.48
Porosity, 0.4
Density of silica gel,
d
(kg/m
3
) 1129
Density of matrix material,
m
(kg/m
3
) 625
Thermal conductivity of silica gel,

(W/mK) 0.175
Specific heat of matrix materials,

(J/kgK) 1030
Specific heat of silica gel,

(J/kgK) 921
Pore radius, (m) 11 10
10


5.3 Measuring Devices and Instruments
Temperature, velocity and solar intensity are measured with the help of RTD PT100
thermocouple, anemometer and pyranometer respectively which have already been
discussed in detail in chapter 3.
Relative humidity and temperature of air are measured with the help of Hygro-
thermometer which has been discussed in detail in chapter 4.

5.4 System Operation
The three processes taking place in the system as shown in Figure 5.4 are:
(a) Sensible heating (1-2): Sensible heating of air is done by using evacuated tube solar
air collector.

77


Figure 5.4 Psychrometric processes during sensible heating, regeneration and adsorption

(b) Regeneration process (2-3): Hot air is used to regenerate the desiccant wheel in the
regeneration sector. The hot air evaporates the water vapour from desiccant layer; hence
in this process the hot air loses its temperature.
(c) Adsorption process (1-4): Humid air flows through the adsorption sector. The
adsorption sector adsorbs the moisture from the humid air. This moisture is adsorbed on
the surface of desiccant and is condensed over it. The heat released from the condensation
process raises the temperature of the process air.

In Figure 5.5, point 1 indicates the process air inlet from ambient conditions and point
4 indicates dehumidified air through process sector (PS) of the desiccant wheel.

Figure 5.5 Sketch of the desiccant dehumidification unit
78

When process air flows through the desiccant surface in adsorption sector, its vapour
pressure is more than that at desiccant surface due to high humid air condition which
creates high vapour pressure difference. Hence, adsorption occurs.
In the regeneration sector, point 2 indicates regeneration air at inlet from evacuated tube
solar air collector and point 3 indicates humidified air through regeneration sector (RS)
of the desiccant wheel.
When regeneration air flows through the desiccant surface in regeneration sector, it heats
the desiccant surface and raises its vapour pressure which results in an increase in the
vapour pressure difference between the desiccant surface and regeneration air. Hence,
regeneration occurs.

5.5 Analysis of Experimental Data
The rate of the moisture extracted from air by the adsorption is given by
Adsorption rate, G
A
= m
p
(Y
p,in
Y
p,out
)
The rate of the moisture added to air by the regeneration is given by
Regeneration rate, G
R
= m
r
(Y
r,out
Y
r,in
)
Effectiveness of wheel in adsorption sector [Kabeel 2007]
E
A
=
Y
p,in
Y
p,out
Y
p,in
Y
p,out
, ideal

In case of ideal wheel Y
p,out
, ideal = 0 for adsorption
E
A
=
change in humidity ratio of process air
inlet humidity ratio of process air

E
A
=
Y
p,in
Y
p,out
Y
p,in

Effectiveness of wheel in regeneration sector [Kabeel 2007]
E
R
=
change in humidity ratio of regeneration air
inlet humidity ratio of regeneration air

79

E
R
=
Y
r,out
Y
r,in
Y
r,in


5.6 Experimental Results and Discussion
The experimental results of solar powered desiccant wheel are analyzed at different air
flow rates and different rotational speeds under various ambient conditions for the
desiccant wheel with its specifications given in Table 5.1.

5.6.1 Effect of different air flow rates
The collector was exposed to the solar radiation for one hour before the readings were
taken and the experimental data was recorded at intervals of 1 hr during the day time
(10:00 hr to 18:00 hr) from 22 September to 25 September 2011.
When the experiments were performed, the ambient temperature was in the range of
30 to 34 on most of the days, but sometimes it reached up to maximum of 35 also.
The moisture lied in the range of 0.015-0.019 kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
. In this experiment,
wheel speed was kept constant at 22 rph.

Table 5.2 Operating and structural parameters of the desiccant wheel in case of different
air flow rates
Parameters Base value Parametric
variations
Rotational speed, N (rph) 22 -
Air flow rate of process air, m
p,in
(kg/hr)

105.394 105.394 - 210.789
Air flow rate of regeneration air, m
r,in
(kg/hr)

105.394 105.394 - 210.789
Sector angle of process air,
p
180 -
Sector angle of regeneration air,
r
180 -


80

Case 1: Solar powered desiccant wheel performance at an air flow rate of 105.394
kg/hr in both sectors (regeneration and adsorption)
The performance of solar powered desiccant wheel depends upon the evacuated tube solar
air collector and the desiccant wheel. Performance of solar powered desiccant wheel is
analyzed in the form of adsorption rate, regeneration rate, wheel effectiveness of both the
sectors under various operating and structural parameters listed in Table 5.2 and data of
ambient conditions and regeneration temperature listed in Table 5.3.

Table 5.3 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature on
22/09/2011
Time
(hours)
Solar
intensity
(W/m
2
)
Ambient
temperature
()
Regeneration temperature
(outlet air temperature of ETC)
()
Ambient humidity
(ambient moisture)
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
10:00 601 30.6 44.5 0.019252940
11:00 707 32.1 52.5 0.018448770
12:00 874 33.3 60.1 0.016268311
13:00 901 34.5 65.0 0.016108858
14:00 798 34.1 68.3 0.016788584
15:00 669 34.1 71.6 0.016579662
16:00 463 34.3 66.6 0.017581406
17:00 233 33.2 60.0 0.018564130
18:00 37 30.5 52.2 0.019282935

(i) Performance of evacuated tube solar air collector at air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr
Figure 5.6 shows that initially, the temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar
air collector increases with increase in solar intensity and then decreases with decrease in
solar intensity after some time lag. The maximum value of solar intensity is 901 W/m
2

obtained at 13:00 hr but the maximum value of temperature difference of air in solar air
collector is 37.5 obtained at 15:00 hr at an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr due to high
heat capacity of working fluid in the evacuated tube solar air collector. In the morning
when solar intensity increases, working fluid starts absorbing more heat than releasing it
to air till its maximum value is achieved but after solar noon onwards when the solar
81

intensity starts decreasing, working fluid releases more heat to air (stored heat) than it
absorbs through radiation.

Figure 5.6 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr
(m
p
= m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr)

(ii) Regeneration rate of desiccant wheel
Figure 5.7 shows that initially regeneration rate increases with increase in the
regeneration temperature and then decreases with decrease in the regeneration
temperature.

Figure 5.7 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during the day at
an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr (m
p
= m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Temperature difference Solar intensity
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
82

The maximum regeneration rate is 0.552 kg/hr at 13:00 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 65. The minimum regeneration rate is 0.125 kg/hr at 17:00 hr and at the
regeneration temperature 60. The results showed that the average value of regeneration
rate is 0.261 kg/hr at an average regeneration temperature of 49.16 during the day.
Regeneration rate also depends upon ambient moisture, air flow rate in both the sectors
(adsorption and regeneration) and adsorption rate.

(iii) Wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector
Figure 5.8 shows that initially, wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector increases with
increasing the regeneration temperature and decreases with decreasing the regeneration
temperature. The maximum wheel effectiveness on regeneration sector is found to be
0.325 at 13:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 65.0 . The minimum
effectiveness is found to be 0.064 at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of
60.0. The results showed the average value of wheel effectiveness in regeneration
sector to be 0.144 at an average regeneration temperature of 49.16 during the day.
Wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector also depends upon ambient moisture, air flow
rate in both the sectors (adsorption and regeneration) and adsorption rate.

Figure 5.8 Variation of wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector during the day at an air
flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr (m
p
= m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
83

(iv) Adsorption rate of desiccant wheel
Figure 5.9 shows that regeneration temperature directly affects the adsorption rate.
Adsorption rate increases with increasing the regeneration temperature and decreases with
decreasing the regeneration temperature. It is also observed that the maximum adsorption
rate is 0.628 kg/hr at 16:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 66.6 . The
minimum adsorption rate is 0.101 kg/hr at 10:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of
44.5. The results showed the average value of adsorption rate to be 0.318 kg/hr at an
average regeneration temperature of 49.16 during the day.

Figure 5.9 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during the day at an
air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr (m
p
= m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr)

Adsorption rate also depends upon ambient moisture, ambient temperature, air flow rate
in both the sectors (adsorption and regeneration) and regeneration rate.

(iv) Wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector
Figure 5.10 shows that initially, wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector increases with
increasing the regeneration temperature and decreases with decreasing the regeneration
temperature. The maximum wheel effectiveness of adsorption sector is found to be 0.339
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Adsorption rate Regeneration temperature
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
84

at 16:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 66.6. The minimum effectiveness is
found to be 0.050 at 10:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 44.5. The results
showed the average value of effectiveness in adsorption sector to be 0.173 at an average
regeneration temperature of 49.16 during the day.

Figure 5.10 Variation of wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector during the day at an air
flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr (m
p
= m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr)

Wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector also depends upon ambient moisture, air flow
rate in both the sectors (adsorption and regeneration) and regeneration rate.

Case 2: Solar powered desiccant wheel performance at an air flow rate of 210.789
kg/hr in both sectors (regeneration and adsorption)
Solar powered desiccant wheel is analyzed under various operating and structural
parameters listed in Table 5.2 and data of ambient conditions and regeneration
temperature listed in Table 5.4.


0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
85

Table 5.4 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature on
24/09/2011
Time
(hours)
Solar
intensity
(W/m
2
)
Ambient
temperature
()
Regeneration temperature
(outlet air temperature of ETC)
()
Ambient humidity
(ambient moisture)
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
10:00 642 30.4 47.1 0.016588863
11:00 758 31.7 51.7 0.016104483
12:00 822 33.3 58.0 0.017868526
13:00 855 33.2 63.5 0.016108873
14:00 829 34.1 63.8 0.015884244
15:00 672 34.2 64.1 0.016235450
16:00 447 34.0 63.0 0.017559625
17:00 238 32.5 56.2 0.018018738
18:00 29 30.0 50.2 0.018554903

(i) Performance of evacuated tube solar air collector at an air flow rate of 210.789
kg/hr
Figure 5.11 shows that initially, the temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar
air collector increases with increase in solar intensity and then decreases with decrease in
solar intensity.

Figure 5.11 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr
(m
p
= m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Temperature difference Solar intensity
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
86

The maximum value of solar intensity obtained is 855 W/m
2
at 13:00 hr and the
maximum value of temperature difference obtained is 30.3 at 13:00 hr at a air flow rate
of 210.789 kg/hr. Also when the solar intensity starts decreasing, temperature difference
of air becomes steady for some period and then starts decreasing. This happens due to
high air flow rate in the circular pipe which overcomes the effect of heat capacity of
working fluid as discussed in Figure 5.6.

(ii) Regeneration rate of desiccant wheel
Figure 5.12 shows that initially, the regeneration rate increases with increase in the
regeneration temperature and then decreases with decrease in the regeneration
temperature. The maximum regeneration rate is 1.035 kg/hr at 14:00 hr and at the
regeneration temperature of 63.8. The minimum regeneration rate is 0.478 kg/hr at
18:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature 50.2. The results showed that the average
value of regeneration rate is 0.662 kg/hr at an average regeneration temperature of
47.05 during the day.
Regeneration rate is higher due to high air flow rate in both the sectors (adsorption &
regeneration), even the regeneration temperature is low unlike in previous case in which
air flow rate was low.

Figure 5.12 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during the day at
an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr (m
p
= m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr)

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
87

(iii) Wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector
Figure 5.13 shows that initially, wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector increases with
increasing the regeneration temperature and decreases with decreasing the regeneration
temperature. The maximum wheel effectiveness on regeneration sector is found to be
0.309 at 14:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 63.8 . The minimum
effectiveness is found to be 0.122 at 18:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of
50.2. The results showed the average value of wheel effectiveness in regeneration
sector to be 0.186 at an average regeneration temperature of 47.05 during the day.

Figure 5.13 Variation of wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector during the day at an
air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr (m
p
= m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr)

The effectiveness obtained in this case (high air flow rate) is lower as compared to the
previous case (low air flow rate) due to low regeneration temperature and high air flow
rate which minimizes the contact time between desiccant surface and regeneration air.

(iv) Adsorption rate of desiccant wheel
Figure 5.14 shows that regeneration temperature directly affects the adsorption rate.
Adsorption rate increases with increase in the regeneration temperature and then
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
88

decreases with decrease in the regeneration temperature. It is also observed that the
maximum adsorption rate is 1.146 kg/hr at 16:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature
of 63.0. The minimum adsorption rate is 0.262 kg/hr at 10:00 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 47.1. The results showed the average value of adsorption rate to be
0.647 kg/hr at an average regeneration temperature of 47.05 during the day.

Figure 5.14 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during the day at an
air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr (m
p
= m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr)

In this case, the value of adsorption rate is higher due to high value of air flow rate; even
the regeneration temperature is low unlike in previous case, in which air flow rate was
low.

(v) Wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector
Figure 5.15 shows that initially, wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector increases with
increasing the regeneration temperature and decreases with decreasing the regeneration
temperature. The maximum wheel effectiveness of adsorption sector is found to be 0.309
at 16:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 63.0. The minimum effectiveness is
found to be 0.075 at 10:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 47.1. The results
showed the average value of effectiveness in adsorption sector to be 0.180 at an average
regeneration temperature of 47.05 during the day.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Adsorption rate Regeneration temperature
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
89


Figure 5.15 Variation of wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector during the day at an air
flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr (m
p
= m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr)

The effectiveness obtained in this case (high air flow rate) is lower as compared to the
previous case (low air flow rate) due to low regeneration temperature and high air flow
rate which minimizes the contact time between desiccant surface and process air.

Case 3: Solar powered desiccant wheel performance at an air flow rate of 210.789
kg/hr in regeneration sector and at an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr in adsorption
sector
Solar powered desiccant wheel is analyzed under various operating and structural
parameters listed in Table 5.2 and data of ambient conditions and regeneration
temperature listed in Table 5.5.




0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
90

Table 5.5 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature on
23/09/2011
Time
(hours)
Solar
intensity
(W/m
2
)
Ambient
temperature
()
Regeneration temperature
(outlet air temperature of ETC)
()
Ambient humidity
(ambient moisture)
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
10:00 598 29.8 43.9 0.017569216
11:00 744 31.5 50.2 0.018479118
12:00 826 33.1 56.2 0.018027039
13:00 902 34.4 59.8 0.017859883
14:00 833 33.1 60.3 0.017454286
15:00 622 33.1 60.5 0.017069591
16:00 471 34.1 58.8 0.016823417
17:00 230 32.9 54.4 0.018474026
18:00 33 30.2 48.2 0.019648317

(i) Performance of evacuated tube solar air collector at an air flow rate of 210.789
kg/hr
Figure 5.16 shows that initially, the temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar
air collector increases with increase in solar intensity and then decreases with decrease in
solar intensity.

Figure 5.16 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr
(m
p
= 105.394 kg/hr, m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Temperature difference Solar intensity
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
91

The maximum value of solar intensity obtained is 902 W/m
2
at 13:00 hr but the maximum
value of temperature difference obtained is 27.4 at 15:00 hr and at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr due to the presence of high intensity of solar radiations which enhance the
heat capacity (stored energy) of working fluid.

(ii) Regeneration rate of desiccant wheel
Figure 5.17 shows that initially, the regeneration rate increases with increase in the
regeneration temperature and then decreases with decrease in the regeneration
temperature. The maximum regeneration rate is 0.613 kg/hr at 12:00 hr and at the
regeneration temperature of 56.2. The minimum regeneration rate is 0.073 kg/hr at
17:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature 54.4. The results showed that the average
value of regeneration rate is 0.271 kg/hr at an average regeneration temperature of
44.75 during the day.

Figure 5.17 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during the day at
an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr (m
p
= 105.394 kg/hr, m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr)

The obtained value of average value of regeneration rate (0.271 kg/hr) is less than that of
case 2 where the air flow rate in both the sectors (adsorption & regeneration) is high, but
greater than that of case 1 where the air flow rate is low in both the sectors. This happens
due to a high air flow rate in the regeneration sector and low air flow rate in the
adsorption sector.

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
92

(iii) Wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector
Figure 5.18 shows that initially, wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector increases with
increasing the regeneration temperature and decreases with decreasing the regeneration
temperature. The maximum wheel effectiveness on regeneration sector is found to be
0.161 at 12:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 56.2 . The minimum
effectiveness is found to be 0.018 at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of
54.4. The results showed the average value of wheel effectiveness in regeneration
sector to be 0.072 at an average regeneration temperature of 44.75 during the day.

Figure 5.18 Variation of wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector during the day at an
air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr (m
p
= 105.394 kg/hr, m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr)

The effectiveness obtained in this case is lower as compared to both the above mentioned
cases due to high regeneration air flow rate which minimizes the contact time between
desiccant surface and regeneration air.

(iv) Adsorption rate of desiccant wheel
Figure 5.19 shows that regeneration temperature directly affects the adsorption rate.
Adsorption rate increases with increase in the regeneration temperature and decreases
with decrease in the regeneration temperature. It is also observed that the maximum
adsorption rate is 0.562 kg/hr at 13:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 59.8 .
The minimum adsorption rate is 0.144 kg/hr at 10:00 hr and at the regeneration
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
93

temperature of 43.9. The results showed the average value of adsorption rate to be
0.321 kg/hr at an average regeneration temperature of 44.75 during the day.

Figure 5.19 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during the day at an
air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr (m
p
= 105.394 kg/hr, m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr)

The obtained value of average adsorption rate (0.321 kg/hr) is less than that of case 2
where the air flow rate in both the sectors (adsorption & regeneration) is high, but greater
than that of case 1 where the air flow rate is low in both the sectors. This happens due to a
high air flow rate in the regeneration sector and low air flow rate in the adsorption sector.

(v) Wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector
Figure 5.20 shows that initially, wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector increases with
increasing the regeneration temperature and decreases with decreasing the regeneration
temperature. The maximum wheel effectiveness of adsorption sector is found to be 0.298
at 13:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 59.8. The minimum effectiveness is
found to be 0.078 at 10:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 43.9. The results
showed the average value of effectiveness in adsorption sector to be 0.1715 at an average
regeneration temperature of 44.75 during the day. The effectiveness obtained in this
case is low as compared to both the above mentioned cases due to low regeneration
temperature and high air flow rate which minimizes the contact time between desiccant
surface and process air.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Adsorption rate Regeneration temperature
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
94


Figure 5.20 Variation of wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector during the day at an air
flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr (m
p
= 105.394 kg/hr, m
r
= 210.789 kg/hr)

Case 4: Solar powered desiccant wheel performance at an air flow rate of 105.394
kg/hr in regeneration sector and at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr in adsorption
sector
Solar powered desiccant wheel is analyzed under various operating and structural
parameters listed in Table 5.2 and data of ambient conditions and regeneration
temperature listed in Table 5.6.
Table 5.6 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature on
25/09/2011
Time
(hours)
Solar
intensity
(W/m
2
)
Ambient
temperature
()
Regeneration temperature
(outlet air temperature of ETC)
()
Ambient humidity
(ambient moisture)
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
10:00 595 30.5 46.3 0.015722010
11:00 751 32.7 53.3 0.015426768
12:00 829 33.8 63.1 0.015818858
13:00 844 35.1 69.6 0.016043148
14:00 783 36.0 72.6 0.016378594
15:00 668 35.0 70.7 0.015186335
16:00 506 33.3 66.1 0.016434627
17:00 236 32.3 60.9 0.017022040
18:00 30 29.7 53.8 0.016406292
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
95

(i) Performance of evacuated tube solar air collector at an air flow rate of 105.394
kg/hr
Figure 5.21 shows that initially, the temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar
air collector increases with increase in solar intensity and then decreases with decrease in
solar intensity. The maximum value of solar intensity obtained is 844 W/m
2
at 13:00 hr
but the maximum value of temperature difference obtained is 36.6 at 14:00 hr and at an
air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr as a result of heat capacity of working fluid. In the morning
when solar intensity increases, working fluid starts absorbing more heat than releasing it
to the air till its maximum value but afternoon onwards when the solar intensity starts
decreasing, working fluid releases more heat to air (stored heat) than it absorbs through
radiations.

Figure 5.21 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr
(m
p
= 210.789 kg/hr, m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr)

(ii) Regeneration rate of desiccant wheel
Figure 5.22 shows that initially, the regeneration rate increases with increase in the
regeneration temperature and then decreases with decrease in the regeneration
temperature. The maximum regeneration rate is 0.646 kg/hr at 13:00 hr and at the
regeneration temperature of 69.6. The minimum regeneration rate is 0.123 kg/hr at
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Temperature difference Solar intensity
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
96

10:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 46.3. The results showed that the
average value of regeneration rate is 0.336 kg/hr at an average regeneration temperature
of 50.58 during the day.

Figure 5.22. Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during the day at
an air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr (m
p
= 210.789 kg/hr, m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr)

The obtained value of average regeneration rate (0.336 kg/hr) is less than that of case 2
where the air flow rate in both the sectors (adsorption and regeneration) is high, but
greater than that of case 1 where the air flow rate is low in both the sectors. On comparing
the cases 3 and 4, it can be concluded that the regeneration rate is higher than case 3 due
to high air flow rate in absorption sector. Hence, to increase the performance, increasing
the air flow rate in adsorption sector is preferred over regeneration sector.

(iii) Wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector
Figure 5.23 shows that initially, wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector increases with
increasing the regeneration temperature and decreases with decreasing the regeneration
temperature. The maximum wheel effectiveness on regeneration sector is found to be
0.382 at 13:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 69.6 . The minimum
effectiveness is found to be 0.074 at 10:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of
46.3. The results showed the average value of wheel effectiveness in regeneration
sector to be 0.198 at an average regeneration temperature of 50.58 during the day.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
97


Figure 5.23 Variation of wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector during the day at an
air flow rate of 105.394 kg/hr (m
p
= 210.789 kg/hr, m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr)

The effectiveness obtained in this case is higher as compared to all the above cases due to
low regeneration air flow rate and high regeneration temperature which increases the
contact time between desiccant surface and regeneration air.

(iv) Adsorption rate of desiccant wheel
Figure 5.24 shows that regeneration temperature directly affects the adsorption rate.
Adsorption rate increases with increase in the regeneration temperature and decreases
with decrease in the regeneration temperature. It is also observed that the maximum
adsorption rate is 0.664 kg/hr at 13:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 69.6 .
The minimum adsorption rate is 0.090 kg/hr at 11:00 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 53.3. The results showed the average value of adsorption rate to be
0.332 kg/hr at an average regeneration temperature of 50.58 during the day.
The obtained value of average adsorption rate (0.332 kg/hr) is less than that of case 2
where the air flow rate in both the sectors (adsorption & regeneration) is high, but greater
than that of case 1 where air flow rate is low in both the sectors. By comparing case 3 and
case 4 it can be concluded that the adsorption rate is higher than case 3 due to high air
flow rate in absorption sector. Hence to increase the performance, increasing the air flow
rate in adsorption sector is preferred over regeneration sector.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
98


Figure 5.24 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during the day at an
air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr (m
p
= 210.789 kg/hr, m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr)

(v) Wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector
Figure 5.25 shows that initially, wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector increases with
increasing the regeneration temperature and decreases with decreasing the regeneration
temperature.

Figure 5.25 Variation of wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector during the day at an air
flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr (m
p
= 210.789 kg/hr, m
r
= 105.394 kg/hr)

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Adsorption rate Regeneration temperature
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
0.04
0.08
0.12
0.16
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.4
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Time (hours)
99

The maximum wheel effectiveness of adsorption sector is found to be 0.196 at 13:00 hr
and at the regeneration temperature of 69.6. The minimum effectiveness is found to be
0.027 at 11:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 53.3. The results showed the
average value of effectiveness in adsorption sector to be 0.0974 at an average
regeneration temperature of 50.58 during the day.
The effectiveness obtained in this case is lower as compared to all the above cases due to
high adsorption air flow rate and high regeneration temperature which minimizes the
contact time between desiccant surface and adsorption air.

5.6.2 Effect of different rotational speeds
The collector was exposed to the solar radiation for one hour before the readings were
taken and the experimental data was recorded at intervals of 30 minutes during the day
time (12:00 hr to 17:00 hr) from 5 November to 9 November 2011.
When the experiments were performed, the ambient temperature was in the range of
23 to 31 on most of the days. The moisture lied in the range of 0.005-0.009 kg
water
vapour
/kg
dry air
. In this experiment, air flow rates of process and regeneration sector was
kept constant at 210.789 kg/hr. Each day a particular rotational speed of the desiccant
wheel was selected.

Table 5.7 Operating and structural parameters of the desiccant wheel in case of different
rotational speeds
Parameters Base value Parametric variations
Rotational speed, N (rph) - 9-22
Air flow rate of process air, m
p,in
(kg/hr)

210.789 -
Air flow rate of regeneration air, m
r,in
(kg/hr)

210.789 -
Sector angle of process air,
p
180 -
Sector angle of regeneration air,
r
180 -


100

Case 1: Solar powered desiccant wheel performance at 13 rph
The performance of solar powered desiccant wheel depends upon the evacuated tube solar
air collector and the desiccant wheel. Performance of solar powered desiccant wheel is
analyzed in the form of adsorption rate, regeneration rate, wheel effectiveness of both the
sectors under various operating and structural parameters listed in Table 5.7 and data of
ambient conditions and regeneration temperature listed in Table 5.8.
Table 5.8 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature on
05/11/2011
Time
(hours)
Solar
intensity
(W/m
2
)
Ambient
temperature
()
Regeneration temperature
(outlet air temperature of ETC)
()
Ambient humidity
(ambient moisture)
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
12:00 634 28.4 46.6 0.009305306
12:30 702 29.4 49.2 0.009034603
13:00 700 30.0 51.6 0.009168095
13:30 666 30.4 53.3 0.008446712
14:00 583 30.3 53.9 0.008315715
14:30 513 30.0 53.8 0.00776898
15:00 402 30.1 53.3 0.007544347
15:30 301 29.5 52.2 0.007441693
16:00 192 28.9 50.3 0.007965761
16:30 105 27.4 48.8 0.008423177
17:00 066 25.5 46.1 0.008572771

(i) The performance of evacuated tube solar air collector at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr
As shown in the Figure 5.26, it is observed that the temperature difference of air between
inlet and outlet of evacuated tube solar air collector is 18.2 only in the beginning due to
the presence of fog in the early morning. The temperature difference of air increases as
the evacuated tube solar air collector stores the energy from solar radiation. The
temperature difference of air increased from 12:00 hr to 14:30 hr due to high heat
101

capacity of working fluid in the evacuated tube solar air collector while the temperature
of the working fluid remained high till the evening although the solar intensity decreased.

Figure 5.26 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at13 rph

The temperature difference of air reached the maximum value of 23.8 at 14:30 hr and at
solar intensity of 513 W/m
2
which then decreased up to 20.6 at 17:00 hr and at solar
intensity of 66 W/m
2
. However, the minimum temperature difference was 18.2
recorded at 12:00 hr and at solar intensity of 634 W/m
2
.

(ii) Regeneration rate of desiccant wheel
As shown in the Figure 5.27, the regeneration rate is directly related to the regeneration
temperature. When the regeneration temperature increases, the regeneration rate also
increases because the hot air heats the desiccant of regeneration sector and increases the
vapour pressure difference between the desiccant and the regeneration air. Hence, water
vapours move from desiccant (high vapour pressure) to regeneration air (low vapour
pressure). Some irregularities can be observed in the graph as the regeneration rate also
depends on ambient moisture. When ambient moisture increases, the regeneration rate
decreases due to an increase in the vapour pressure of regeneration air. It is observed that
the maximum regeneration rate is 0.709 kg/hr at 14:30 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 53.8.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Temperature difference Solar intensity
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
102


Figure 5.27 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during the day at
an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 13 rph

The minimum regeneration rate is 0.511 kg/hr at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 46.1. The results showed that the average value of regeneration rate is
0.6145 kg/hr at an average regeneration temperature of 50.82 during the day.

(iii) Wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector
As shown in the Figure 5.28, it is observed that the wheel effectiveness of the
regeneration sector is directly related to the regeneration temperature. When the
regeneration temperature is high, wheel effectiveness is also high and vice versa.
However, some irregularities can be observed in the graph because the wheel
effectiveness depends on regeneration outlet moisture (outlet moisture from regeneration
sector) and ambient moisture (inlet moisture in regeneration sector). It is observed that
when the regeneration outlet moisture increases, the effectiveness increases, and when the
ambient moisture increases, the effectiveness decreases. The regeneration outlet moisture
becomes high at high regeneration temperature; hence, the wheel effectiveness increases
at high regeneration temperature.
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
103


Figure 5.28 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in regeneration
sector during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 13 rph

The maximum wheel effectiveness on regeneration sector is found to be 0.433 at 14:30 hr
and at the regeneration temperature of 53.8 . The minimum effectiveness is found to be
0.283 at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 46.1. The results showed the
average value of wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector to be 0.3509 at an average
regeneration temperature of 50.82 during the day.

(iv) Adsorption rate of desiccant wheel
As shown in the Figure 5.29, it is observed that the adsorption rate is directly related to
the regeneration temperature. When the regeneration temperature increases, the
regeneration rate increases because the hot air heats the desiccant in the regeneration
sector which increases the vapour pressure difference between the desiccant and the
regeneration air. This causes water vapour to move from the region of high vapour
pressure of desiccant to the regeneration air which has low vapour pressure. Now, the
regenerated sector has very little moisture content. Due to the rotation of wheel, the
regenerated part now comes to the adsorption sector and hence, is able to adsorb water
vapour from the air i.e. adsorption rate is proportional to regeneration rate. The graph
shows some irregularities in the adsorption rate because of changes in ambient moisture.
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
104


Figure 5.29 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during the day at an
air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 13 rph

The increase in ambient moisture also increases the adsorption rate because these two are
also positively related. It is also observed that the maximum adsorption rate is 0.561 kg/hr
at 14:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 53.9 . The minimum adsorption rate
is 0.237 kg/hr at 12:30 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 49.2. The results
showed the average value of value of adsorption rate to be 0.444 kg/hr at an average
regeneration temperature of 50.82 during the day.

(v) Wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector
As shown in the Figure 5.30, it is observed that the wheel effectiveness of adsorption
sector is directly related to the regeneration temperature. When the regeneration
temperature is high, wheel effectiveness is also high and vice-versa. However, some
irregularities can be observed in the graph because the wheel effectiveness also depends
on process outlet moisture (outlet moisture from adsorption sector) and ambient moisture
(inlet moisture in adsorption sector). It is observed that when the process outlet moisture
increases, the effectiveness decreases and when the ambient moisture increases, the
effectiveness also increases. The process outlet moisture becomes low at high
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Adsorption rate Regeneration temperature
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
K
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
105

regeneration temperature; hence wheel effectiveness increases at high regeneration
temperature.

Figure 5.30 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in adsorption
sector during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 13 rph

The maximum wheel effectiveness of adsorption sector is found to be 0.329 at 15:00 hr
and at the regeneration temperature of 53.3. The minimum effectiveness is found to be
0.124 at 12:30 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 49.2. The results showed the
average value of effectiveness in adsorption sector to be 0.256 at an average regeneration
temperature of 50.82 during the day.

Case 2: Solar powered desiccant wheel performance at 16 rph
Solar powered desiccant wheel is analyzed under various operating and structural
parameters listed in Table 5.7 and data of ambient conditions and regeneration
temperature listed in Table 5.9.



42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
106

Table 5.9 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature on
06/11/2011
Time
(hours)
Solar
intensity
(W/m
2
)
Ambient
temperature
()
Regeneration temperature
(outlet air temperature of ETC)
()
Ambient humidity
(ambient moisture)
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
12:00 732 28.0 50.1 0.009280128
12:30 714 28.1 52.9 0.009262685
13:00 698 29.1 54.8 0.009030682
13:30 687 29.1 56.5 0.008289399
14:00 643 29.2 57.2 0.007773517
14:30 596 29.4 57.0 0.007424290
15:00 487 28.9 56.5 0.006825803
15:30 364 28.7 55.0 0.007026859
16:00 214 27.6 52.4 0.006958737
16:30 126 26.5 50.2 0.007239458
17:00 063 25.0 48.2 0.007136106

(i) The performance of evacuated tube solar air collector at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr
As shown in the Figure 5.31, it is observed that the temperature difference of air between
inlet and outlet of evacuated tube solar air collector is 22.1 in the beginning. The
temperature difference of air increases as the evacuated tube solar air collector stores the
energy from solar radiation. The temperature difference of air increased from 12:00 hr to
14:00 hr due to high heat capacity of working fluid in the evacuated tube solar air
collector while the temperature of the working fluid remained high till the evening,
although the solar intensity decreased. The temperature difference of air reached the
maximum value of 28 at 14:00 hr and at the solar intensity of 643 W/m
2
which then
decreased up to 23.2
o
C at 17:00 hr and at the solar intensity of 63 W/m
2
. However the
minimum temperature difference was 22.1 recorded at 12:00 hr and at the solar
intensity of 732 W/m
2
.
107


Figure 5.31 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 16 rph

(ii) Regeneration rate of desiccant wheel
As shown in the Figure 5.32, the maximum regeneration rate is 0.874 kg/hr at 13:00 hr
and at the regeneration temperature of 54.8.

Figure 5.32 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during the day at
an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 16 rph
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Temperature difference Solar intensity
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
108

The minimum regeneration rate is 0.468 kg/hr at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 48.2. The results showed that the average value of regeneration rate is
0.6974 kg/hr at an average regeneration temperature of 53.70 during the day. Due to
increase in the rph from 13 to 16, the regeneration rate increased as compared to the
previous case because at this rph, desiccants regenerated very well.

(iii) Wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector
As shown in the Figure 5.33, the maximum wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector is
found to be 0.543 at 15:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 56.5. The
minimum effectiveness is found to be 0.311 at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 48.2. The results showed that the average value of effectiveness in
regeneration sector is 0.4225 at an average regeneration temperature of 53.70 during
the day. At this rph, wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector is better than that in
previous case (13 rph).

Figure 5.33 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in regeneration
sector during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 16 rph



42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
109

(iv) Adsorption rate of desiccant wheel
As shown in the Figure 5.34, the maximum adsorption rate is 0.721 kg/hr at 13:00 hr and
at the regeneration temperature of 54.8
o
C. The minimum adsorption rate is 0.404 kg/hr at
17:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 48.2
o
C. The results showed that the
average value of adsorption rate is 0.6031 kg/hr at an average regeneration temperature of
53.70 during the day. Due to an increase in rph from 13 to 16, the adsorption rate
increased as compared to the previous case.

Figure 5.34 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during the day at an
air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 16 rph

(v) Wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector
As shown in the Figure 5.35, the maximum wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector is
found to be 0.446 at 14:30 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 57. The minimum
effectiveness is found to be 0.268 at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of
48.2. The results showed that the average value of effectiveness in adsorption sector is
0.3652 at an average regeneration temperature of 53.70 during the day. At this rph,
wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector is better than the previous case (13 rph).

42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Adsorption rate Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
K
g
/
h
r
)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
110


Figure 5.35 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in adsorption
sector during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at16 rph

Case 3: Solar powered desiccant wheel performance at 19 rph
Solar powered desiccant wheel is analyzed under various operating and structural
parameters listed in Table 5.7 and data of ambient conditions and regeneration
temperature listed in Table 5.10.
Table 5.10 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature on
07/11/2011
Time
(hours)
Solar
intensity
(W/m
2
)
Ambient
temperature
()
Regeneration temperature
(outlet air temperature of ETC)
()
Ambient humidity
(ambient moisture)
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
12:00 721 27.3 51.0 0.008971800
12:30 733 27.4 53.5 0.008423177
13:00 717 28.4 56.4 0.007882010
13:30 672 28.6 58.1 0.006763526
14:00 626 28.5 57.1 0.006331602
14:30 526 28.2 56.6 0.006076589
15:00 427 27.9 55.6 0.006443349
15:30 326 27.8 53.6 0.006499602
16:00 271 26.8 52.6 0.006355362
16:30 156 26.1 50.0 0.005875750
17:00 053 23.2 48.1 0.006899106
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
111

(i) The performance of evacuated tube solar air collector at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr
As shown in the Figure 5.36, it is observed that the temperature difference of air between
inlet and outlet of evacuated tube solar air collector is 23.7 in the beginning. The
temperature difference of air increases as the evacuated tube solar air collector stores the
energy from solar radiation. The temperature difference of air increased from 12:00 hr to
13:30 hr due to high heat capacity of working fluid in the evacuated tube solar air
collector while the temperature of the working fluid remained high till the evening
although the solar intensity decreased. The temperature difference reached the maximum
value of 29.5 at 13:30 hr and at the solar intensity of 672 W/m
2
which then decreased
up to 24.9 at 17:00 hr and at the solar intensity of 53 W/m
2
. However, the minimum
temperature difference at the solar intensity of 721 W/m
2
was 23.7 recorded at 12:00 hr.

Figure 5.36 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air
collector and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 19 rph

(ii) Regeneration rate of desiccant wheel
As shown in the Figure 5.37, the maximum regeneration rate is 0.881 kg/hr at 12:00 hr
and at the regeneration temperature of 51.0. The minimum regeneration rate is 0.4833
kg/hr at 16:30 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 50.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Temperature difference Solar intensity
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
112


Figure 5.37 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during the day at
an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 19 rph

The results showed that the average value of regeneration rate is 0.6604 kg/hr at an
average regeneration temperature of 53.87 during the day. Due to an increase in the rph
from 16 to 19, the regeneration rate slightly decreased as compared to the previous case.
This is because at this rph, the wheel rotated comparatively faster due to which the
desiccant in the regeneration sector was not exposed for enough time to remove the
moisture properly.

(iii) Wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector
As shown in the Figure 5.38, the maximum wheel effectiveness of regeneration sector is
found to be 0.565 at 14:30 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 56.6. The
minimum effectiveness is found to be 0.361 at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 48.1 . The results showed the average value of effectiveness in
regeneration sector to be 0.4514 at an average regeneration temperature of 53.87 during
the day. At this rph, the wheel effectiveness in the regeneration sector is higher than 13
rph and 16 rph.

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
113


Figure 5.38 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in regeneration
sector during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 19 rph

(iv) Adsorption rate of desiccant wheel
As shown in the Figure 5.39, the maximum adsorption rate is 0.673 kg/hr at 14:00 hr and
at the regeneration temperature of 57.1. The minimum adsorption rate is 0.302 kg/hr at
17:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 48.1.

Figure 5.39 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during the day at an
air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 19 rph
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Adsorption rate Regeneration temperature
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
K
g
/
h
r
)
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
114


The results showed that the average value of adsorption rate is 0.5186 kg/hr at an average
regeneration temperature of 53.87 during the day. Due to an increase in the rph from 16
to 19, the adsorption rate decreased as compared to the previous case. This is because at
this rph, the wheel rotated slightly faster due to which the desiccant in adsorption sector
was not exposed for enough time to adsorb the moisture properly.

(v) Wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector
As shown in the Figure 5.40, the maximum wheel effectiveness of adsorption sector is
found to be 0.504 at 14:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 57.1. The
minimum effectiveness is found to be 0.204 at 12:00 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 51. The results showed that the average value of effectiveness in
adsorption sector is 0.3615 at an average regeneration temperature of 53.87 during the
day. At this rph, wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector is lower than the case of 16 rph
but higher than the case of 13 rph.

Figure 5.40 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in adsorption
sector during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 19 rph



0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e


(

C
)
115

Case 4: Solar powered desiccant wheel performance at 22 rph
Solar powered desiccant wheel is analyzed under various operating and structural
parameters listed in Table 5.7 and data of ambient conditions and regeneration
temperature listed in Table 5.11.
Table 5.11 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature on
08/11/2011
Time
(hours)
Solar
intensity
(W/m
2
)
Ambient
temperature
()
Regeneration temperature
(outlet air temperature of ETC)
()
Ambient humidity
(ambient moisture)
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
12:00 687 25.7 49.4 0.008257951
12:30 707 27.0 53.6 0.007300605
13:00 706 27.8 55.5 0.007324564
13:30 682 28.3 56.2 0.006524174
14:00 654 28.4 55.8 0.006026685
14:30 590 27.8 55.0 0.005512498
15:00 529 27.1 54.4 0.005897532
15:30 366 27.6 52.4 0.005703053
16:00 153 26.2 49.6 0.006360384
16:30 078 25.1 47.5 0.006556273
17:00 033 23.9 45.3 0.007331119

(i) The performance of evacuated tube solar air collector at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr
As shown in the Figure 5.41, it is observed that the temperature difference of air between
inlet and outlet of evacuated tube solar air collector is 23.7 in the beginning. The
temperature difference of air increases as the evacuated tube solar air collector stores the
energy from solar radiation. The temperature difference of air increased from 12:00 hr to
13:30 hr due to high heat capacity of working fluid in the evacuated tube solar air
collector while the temperature of the working fluid remained high till the evening
although the solar intensity decreased. The temperature difference of air reached the
maximum value of 27.9 at 13:30 hr and at the solar intensity of 682 W/m
2
which then
116

decreased up to minimum value of 21.4 at 17:00 hr and at the solar intensity of 33
W/m
2
. In this case, this was the minimum temperature recorded.

Figure 5.41 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 22 rph

(ii) Regeneration rate of desiccant wheel
As shown in the Figure 5.42, it is observed that the maximum regeneration rate is 0.745
kg/hr at 12:30 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 53.6 . The minimum
regeneration rate is 0.371 kg/hr at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 45.3.

Figure 5.42 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during the day at
an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 22 rph
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Temperature difference Solar intensity
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
117

The results showed that the average value of regeneration rate is 0.6029 kg/hr at an
average regeneration temperature of 52.24 during the day. Due to an increase in the rph
from 19 to 22, the regeneration rate slightly decreased as compared to the previous case
because at this rph, the desiccant wheel rotated comparatively faster and was not exposed
for enough time to allow the moisture to be properly removed from the regeneration
sector.

(iii) Wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector
As shown in the Figure 5.43, the maximum wheel effectiveness of regeneration sector is
found to be 0.576 at 14:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 55.8. The
minimum effectiveness is found to be 0.240 at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 45.3
o
C.

Figure 5.43 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in regeneration
sector during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 22 rph

The results showed the average value of effectiveness in regeneration sector to be 0.409
at an average regeneration temperature of 52.24 during the day. At this rph, wheel
effectiveness in the regeneration sector is lower than the previous two cases (19 and 16
rph) but higher than the case of 13 rph.

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
118

(iv) Adsorption rate of desiccant wheel
As shown in the Figure 5.44, it is observed that the maximum adsorption rate is 0.668
kg/hr at 13:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 55.5. The minimum adsorption
rate is 0.416 kg/hr at 16:30 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 47.5. The results
showed that the average value of adsorption rate is 0.5119 kg/hr at an average
regeneration temperature of 52.24, during the day. Due to the increase in rph from 19 to
22, the adsorption rate slightly decreased as compared to the previous case because at this
rph, the wheel rotated too fast, so the desiccant in the adsorption sector was not exposed
for enough time to adsorb the moisture completely.

Figure 5.44 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during the day at an
air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 22 rph

(v) Wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector
As shown in the Figure 5.45, the maximum wheel effectiveness of adsorption sector is
found to be 0.444 at 15:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 54.4. The
minimum effectiveness is found to be 0.301 at 16:30 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 47.5. The results showed that the average value of effectiveness in
adsorption sector is 0.3696 at an average regeneration temperature of 52.24 during the
day. At this rph, the wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector is higher than the all the
previous cases of 13 rph, 16 rph and 19 rph.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Adsorption rate Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
K
g
/
h
r
)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
119


Figure 5.45 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in adsorption
sector during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 22 rph

Case 5: Solar powered desiccant wheel performance at 9 rph
Solar powered desiccant wheel is analyzed under various operating and structural
parameters listed in Table 5.7 and data of ambient conditions and regeneration
temperature listed in Table 5.12.
Table 5.12 Recorded data of ambient conditions and regeneration temperature on
09/11/2011
Time
(hours)
Solar
intensity
(W/m
2
)
Ambient
temperature
()
Regeneration temperature
(outlet air temperature of ETC)
()
Ambient humidity
(ambient moisture)
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
12:00 743 28.3 51.3 0.009006157
12:30 775 29.8 52.7 0.008822020
13:00 735 30.5 53.7 0.008966968
13:30 774 31.3 55.2 0.009043478
14:00 783 31.3 55.5 0.008637255
14:30 685 31.4 54.8 0.008658034
15:00 191 30.0 52.6 0.008387054
15:30 178 29.1 50.1 0.008468170
16:00 096 28.5 47.8 0.008742394
16:30 051 28.1 46.0 0.009021170
17:00 028 26.8 43.7 0.009135588
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
120

(i) The performance of evacuated tube solar air collector at an air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr
As shown in the Figure 5.46, it is observed that the temperature difference of air between
inlet and outlet of evacuated tube solar air collector is 23 in the beginning. The
temperature difference of air increases as the evacuated tube solar air collector stores the
energy from solar radiation. The temperature difference of air increased from 12:00 hr to
14:00 hr due to high heat capacity of the working fluid in the evacuated tube solar air
collector. The temperature of the working fluid remained high till the evening, although
the solar intensity decreased.

Figure 5.46 Variation of temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector
and solar intensity during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 9 rph

The temperature difference of air reached the maximum value of 24.2 at 14:00 hr and at
the solar intensity of 783 W/m
2
which then decreased up to the minimum value of 16.6
at 17:00 hr and at the solar intensity of 28 W/m
2
. The solar intensity decreased sharply
after 14:30 hr due to heavy clouds, because of which the temperature difference of air was
lowest as compared to all the previous cases in the evening.


0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Temperature difference Solar intensity
Time (hours)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
S
o
l
a
r

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
W
/
m
2
)
121

(ii) Regeneration rate of desiccant wheel
As shown in the Figure 5.47, it is observed that the maximum regeneration rate is 0.717
kg/hr at 12:30 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 52.2 . The minimum
regeneration rate is 0.433 kg/hr at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 43.7.

Figure 5.47 Variation of regeneration rate and regeneration temperature during the day at
an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 9 rph

The results showed that the average value of regeneration rate is 0.599 kg/hr at an average
regeneration temperature of 51.21 during the day. At this rph, the regeneration rate
slightly decreased as compared to all the previous cases because the wheel rotated too
slowly. Due to this, the desiccant is still in the regeneration sector, even after maximum
moisture was desorbed. On exposure time getting increased due to slow rotation, the
regeneration sector was found to adsorb water vapour which is undesired.

(iii) Wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector
As shown in the Figure 5.48, the maximum wheel effectiveness of regeneration sector is
found to be 0.385 at 12:30 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 52.7. The
minimum effectiveness is found to be 0.225 at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 43.7. The results showed that the average value of effectiveness in
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Regeneration rate Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
k
g
/
h
r
)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
122

regeneration sector is 0.3237 at an average regeneration temperature of 51.21 during
the day. At this rph, the wheel effectiveness in regeneration sector is lowest compared to
all the previous cases.

Figure 5.48 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in regeneration
sector during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 9 rph

(iv) Adsorption rate of desiccant wheel
As shown in the Figure 5.49, it is observed that the maximum adsorption rate is 0.475
kg/hr at 15:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 52.6. The minimum adsorption
rate is 0.374 kg/hr at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 43.7. The results
showed that the average value of adsorption rate is 0.4261 kg/hr at an average
regeneration temperature of 51.21 during the day. Due to sudden decrease in the rph
from 22 to 9, the adsorption rate decreased as compared to all the previous cases because
at this rph, the wheel rotated too slowly and due to this, the desiccant is still in the
adsorption sector even when the equilibrium is reached between air and the desiccant. So
the performance in adsorption sector decreased.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
123


Figure 5.49 Variation of adsorption rate and regeneration temperature during the day at an
air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 9 rph

(v) Wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector
As shown in the Figure 5.50, the maximum wheel effectiveness of adsorption sector is
found to be 0.268 at 15:00 hr and at the regeneration temperature of 52.6.

Figure 5.50 Variation of wheel effectiveness and regeneration temperature in adsorption
sector during the day at an air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr at 9 rph
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Adsorption rate Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
A
d
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
K
g
/
h
r
)
R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00
Wheel effectiveness Regeneration temperature
Time (hours)
W
h
e
e
l

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

R
e
g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
124

The minimum effectiveness is found to be 0.194 at 17:00 hr and at the regeneration
temperature of 43.7. The results showed that the average value of effectiveness in
adsorption sector is 0.23 at an average regeneration temperature of 51.21 during the
day. At this rph, wheel effectiveness in adsorption sector is lowest as compared to all the
previous cases.

5.7 Conclusions
Experimental analysis on solar powered desiccant wheel was done in the month of
October and November under different operating parameters. It was found that in the
month of November when humidity ratio and temperature are very low even then
evacuated tubes produce hot air which regenerates the desiccant wheel and produces dry
air easily.
These experiments were done at different operating parameters like different air flow
rates and different rotational speeds and their results are concluded below:

1. Temperature difference of air in evacuated tube solar air collector depends upon
solar intensity and air flow rates. Its value increases as air flow rate decreases.
2. Regeneration temperature is directly proportional to both the adsorption rate and
the regeneration rate. Higher regeneration temperature provides higher adsorption
and regeneration rate.
3. Air flow rate is also an important operating parameter which affects the adsorption
and the regeneration rates of desiccant wheel. As air flow rate increases, both the
adsorption rate and the regeneration rate increases and vice-versa. It is also
concluded that the increase in air flow rate in adsorption sector is more effective
than increase in air flow rate in regeneration sector for the higher performance of
desiccant wheel.
4. To increase the effectiveness of wheel in both the sectors (adsorption &
regeneration), regeneration temperature should be high and air flow rate should be
low in both the sectors.
5. Rotational speed is also an important operating parameter which affects the
adsorption and the regeneration rate of desiccant wheel. It was found that there
exists an optimum speed of rotation at which maximum adsorption and
regeneration rate occurs.
125

6. If the wheel rotates too fast, the desiccant in the adsorption sector does not have
enough time to adsorb the moisture from the process air. On the other hand, if the
wheel rotates too slowly, the desiccant is still in the adsorption sector even after
the equilibrium is reached.
7. Similarly in the regeneration sector, if the wheel rotates too fast, it does not have
enough time to desorb the adsorbed moisture in the desiccant material. On the
other hand, if the wheel rotates too slowly, the desiccant is still in the regeneration
sector even after maximum desorption.
8. The performance of the adsorption sector depended upon the performance of
regeneration sector and in turn the performance of regeneration sector depended
upon the performance of adsorption sector. Thus the adsorption and regeneration
performances are interrelated.
9. The optimum speed for maximum value of average adsorption rate and
regeneration rate is found to be 16 rph at a constant air flow rate of 210.789 kg/hr
in the regeneration temperature range of 51 to 54 and at humidity ratio range
of 0.007 to 0.009 kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
in the month of November.
10. In all the other cases of rotation i.e at 13 rph, 19 rph, 22 rph and 9 rph, the
maximum value of average adsorption and regeneration rates decreased because
below the optimum speed, the wheel rotates too slowly and above the optimum
speed the wheel rotates too fast.










126

CHAPTER-6
Mathematical Modeling of Desiccant Wheel

6.1 Introduction
The performance of solar powered desiccant wheel depends upon the evacuated tube solar
air collector and the desiccant wheel. The mathematical modeling of desiccant wheel is
required to increase its performance by using novel designs at low regeneration
temperatures which can be easily obtained by the solar energy. In this mathematical
model, the heat and mass transfer equations have been derived and solved by PDE solver
and their results have been validated with the experimental results. In this chapter, design
parameters are optimized and novel designs of wheel are developed which can be easily
regenerated with the solar energy.

6.2 Mathematical Model
The schematic diagrams of a desiccant wheel, cross section of channels and control
volume adopted in the model are shown in Figure 6.1. One sinusoidal channel with a
length dx is selected as the differential control volume. It should be noted that one
matrix material and the desiccant material layer is shared by two channels. Where A
f

represents the cross-sectional area of flow passage of one channel, P
e
is the perimeter of
the air flow passage of one channel and A
t
represent the total cross-sectional area of one
channel.


(a)

127


(b)

(c)
Figure 6.1 Schematic diagrams of (a) rotary desiccant wheel, (b) cross section of
channels, (c) differential control volume

6.2.1 Model assumptions
The following assumptions have been considered:
All air channels are assumed to be adiabatic.
Rotary speed is constant and low enough to neglect the effect of centrifugal force.
Axial heat conduction and mass diffusion in the moist air are negligible.
No leakage between different regions.
All channels in the desiccant wheel are made of the same material and
configuration. There is uniform distribution of matrix material and desiccant
material along the channel.
The matrix material does not adsorb any moisture.
The inlet air conditions are uniform through the channel air domain, but may vary
with time.
The thermodynamic properties of the dry air and the properties of the dry
desiccant material as well as of the matrix material are constant.


128

The diagram of cross section of channels is shown in Figure 6.1(b).
Consider one channel,
The height of flow passage of one channel = 2a
The pitch of flow passage of one channel = 2b
The cross-sectional area of flow passage of one channel, A
f
= 2ab

Total cross sectional area of one channel, A
t
=
1
2
(2a +)(2b +)
Thickness of the channel wall =
The perimeter and hydraulic diameter is given by [Zhang et al (2003)]
Perimeter of flow passage of one channel, P
e
2b +2b
2
+(a)
2

3+
2b
a

2
4+
2b
a

2

Hydraulic diameter of flow passage of one channel, D
h
=
4A
f
P
e


Consider a control volume of one channel having length (dx) as shown in Figure 6.1(c)
Area ratio, A
r
=
cross sectional area of flow passage of one channel (A
f
)
total cross sectional area of one channel (A
t
)

Porosity in desiccant, =
volume of pores (V
pores
)
total volume of layer (V
total
)

Where,
V
total
= V
pores
+ V
d
+V
m

Volume ratio of desiccant in layer, =
desiccant volume (V
d
)
desiccant volume (V
d
)+ volume of matrix material (V
m
)

Total cross sectional area of one channel = A
t

Cross sectional area of flow passage of one channel,
A
f
= A
t
A
r


Cross sectional area of layer (desiccant+ pores+ matrix material) of one channel,
129

A
layer
= (1 A
r
)A
t

Cross sectional area of pores in layer of one channel,
A
pores
= (1 A
r
)A
t
Cross sectional area of layer without pores (desiccant+ matrix material) of one channel
= 1 (1 A
r
)A
t
Cross sectional area of desiccant in layer of one channel,
A
d
= 1 (1 A
r
)A
t

Cross sectional area of matrix material in layer of one channel,
A
m
= 1 (1 A
r
)A
t
(1 )

Mathematical model of desiccant wheel has been derived by applying basic mass and
energy conservation equations.
The mass and energy conservation of air
The mass and energy conservation of desiccant
Considering separate control volume for air and desiccant and deriving the governing
equation of mass and energy conservation for both air and desiccant.

6.2.2 Mass conservation in control volume of air
Let,
u = velocity of air at entrance of control volume

a
= density of air at entrance
A
f
= A
t
A
r
= cross sectional area of flow passage of one channel
dx = length of control volume

Applying mass conservation in control volume of air
Rate of accumulation of mass in control volume = inflow outflow
130


Figure 6.2 Control volume of air for mass conservation

Rate of accumulation of mass in control volume

m
a
t
=

t
(
a
control volume) =

t
(
a
A
t
A
r
dx)
Mass flow rate = density area velocity
m
x
=
a
A
t
A
r
u
Inflow = m
x
=
a
A
t
A
r
u
Using Taylors expansion
m
x+dx
= m
x
+

x
(m
x
)dx
Rate of mass outflow due to convective mass transfer through control volume
N

convective mass transfer


= h
m
surface area driving potential
= h
m
P
e
dx(Y
a
Y
d
)
Outflow = m
x+dx
+N

convective mass transfer



Outflow = m
x
+

x
m
x
dx +h
m
P
e
dx(Y
a
Y
d
)
Rate of accumulation of mass in control volume = inflow outflow
131

a
A
t
A
r
dx = m
x
m
x+dx
+N

convective mass transfer



A
t
A
r
dx

a
= m
x
m
x
+

x
(m
x

)dx + h
m
P
e
dx(Y
a
Y
d
)
A
t
A
r

a
=

x
(
a
A
t
A
r
u) h
m
P
e
(Y
a
Y
d
)
A
t
A
r

a
+A
t
A
r
u

a
= h
m
P
e
Y
d
Y
a

Where,

a
=
da
+
v
=
da
1 +Y
a

The mass conservation in air can be expressed as:



6.2.3. Mass conservation in control volume of desiccant
Applying mass conservation in control volume of desiccant
Rate of accumulation of mass in control volume = inflow outflow
In desiccant layer moisture will be
Adsorbed by desiccant surface
Trapped in pores of desiccant


Figure 6.3 Control volume of desiccant for mass conservation
132

Rate of accumulation of mass in control volume = rate of accumulation of air in pores +
rate of accumulation of water on desiccant surface

=
m
a
t

pores
+
m
desiccant +water
t

desiccant


=

a
volume of air
pores
+

desiccant +water
volume of desiccant
t

= volume of air
pores

da
+
v

pores
+(volume of desiccant)

d
+
w

desiccant

= 1 A
r
A
t
dx
da
Y
d
t
+1 1 A
r
A
t
dx
d
W
t


The diffusion will take place by three mechanisms:
Surface diffusion
Knudsen diffusion
Ordinary/molecular diffusion
Surface diffusion using Ficks law
Let D
S
= surface diffusivity
Inflow
N


x(sur diffusion )
= D
S

x

d
+
w

desiccant
area of desiccant
Outflow
N

(x+dx)( sur diffusion )


= N

x(sur diffusion )
+

x
N

x(sur diffusion )
dx
Ordinary and Knudsen diffusion of air in pores
Let D
comb
= combined diffusivity

133

Inflow
N

x(comb diffusion )
= D
comb

da
+
v

pores
area of pores
Outflow
N

(x+dx)(comb diffusion )
= N

x(comb diffusion )
+

x
N

x(comb diffusion )
dx
Rate of mass inflow due to convective mass transfer
N

convect ive mass transfer


= h
m
P
e
dxY
a
Y
d

Inflow outflow = N

x(sur diffusion )
+ N

x(comb diffusion )
+ N

convective mass transfer



N

(x+dx)(sur diffusion )
+ N

(x+dx)( comb diffusion )



=

x
(N

x(sur diffusion )
)dx

x
(N

x(comb diffusion )
) + N

convective mass transfer


=

x
D
S

d
+
w

desiccant
area of desiccant dx

x
D
comb

da
+
v

pores
area of pores dx
+h
m
P
e
dxY
a
Y
d

=
d
A
d
D
S

d
dx +
da
A
pores
D
comb

da
dx +h
m
P
e
dxY
a
Y
d


Now applying mass conservation
Rate of accumulation of mass in control volume of desiccant = inflow outflow
1 A
r
A
t
dx
da
Y
d
t
+1 1 A
r
A
t
dx
d
W
t
=
d
A
d
D
S

d
dx +
da
A
pores
D
comb

da
dx
+h
m
P
e
dxY
a
Y
d



134

The mass conservation in desiccant is given by:

D
S

()

6.2.4 Energy conservation in control volume of air
Applying energy conservation in control volume of air
Rate of change of stored energy in control volume = inflow outflow

Figure 6.4 Control volume of air for energy conservation

Rate of change of stored energy in control volume
q
storage
= m
a
c
pa
T
a
t
=
a
A
t
A
r
dxc
pa
T
a
t


Rate of flow energy due to advection
Inflow
Q

adv (x)
= mass flow rate energy per unit mass
= (A
t
A
r
u
a
) e,
135

Where, e = c
pa
T
a

Q

adv (x)
= A
t
A
r
u
a
(c
pa
T
a
)

Outflow
Q

adv (x+dx)
= Q

adv (x)
+

x
Q

adv (x)
dx

Rate of energy transfer due to convection
q
convective heat transfer
= hP
e
dx(T
a
T
d
)

Rate of energy transfer due to convective mass transfer
q
convective mass transfer
= mass of vapour c
pv
T
= h
m
P
e
dxY
a
Y
d
c
pv
(T
a
T
d
)
Rate of change of stored energy in control volume = inflow outflow

a
(A
t
A
r
dx) c
pa

T
a
t
= Q

adv (x)
[q
convective mass transfer
+ Q

adv (x+dx)
+ q
convective heat transfer
]

a
(A
t
A
r
dx) c
pa
T
a
t
=

x
Q

adv (x)
dx [q
convective mass transfer
+q
convective heat transfer
]

a
A
t
A
r
dxc
pa

T
a
t
=

x
A
t
A
r
u
a
c
pa
T
a
dx h
m
P
e
dxY
a
Y
d
c
pv
T
a
T
d

hP
e
dxT
a
T
d

a
A
t
A
r
c
pa

T
a
t
+u
T
a
x
= hP
e
T
d
T
a
h
m
P
e
Y
d
Y
a
c
pv
T
d
T
a


136

Here
c
pa
=
da
c
pda
+
v
c
pv

=
da
c
pda
+Y
a
c
pv

Putting this value
The energy conservation for air is described as:

()

6.2.5 Energy conservation in control volume of desiccant
Applying energy conservation in control volume of desiccant
Rate of change of stored energy in control volume = inflow outflow

Figure 6.5 Control volume of desiccant for energy conservation

Rate of change of stored energy = In desiccant +In matrix material
= Volume c
T
t

desiccant
+ Volume c
T
t

matrix material

=
d
A
d
dxc
d

T
d
t
+
m
A
m
dxc
m

T
d
t

Here,


137

Rate of energy transfer due to conduction
Inflow
q
x(conduction )
= k
d
A
d

T
d
x

Outflow
q
(x+dx)(conduction )
= q
x(conduction )
+

x
q
x(conduction )
dx

Rate of energy transfer due to convection
q
convective heat transfer
= hP
e
dx(T
a
T
d
)

Rate of energy transfer due to convective mass transfer
q
convective mass transfer
= mass of vapour c
pv
T
= h
m
P
e
dxY
a
Y
d
c
pv
(T
a
T
d
)

Rate of energy transfer due to heat of adsorption
q
adsorption
= h
m
P
e
dxY
a
Y
d
h
ads


Rate of change of stored energy = inflow outflow

d
A
d
dxc
d

T
d
t
+
m
A
m
dxc
m

T
d
t
= [q
x(conduction )
+q
convective heat transfer
+
q
convective mass transfer
+q
adsorption
] [q
x+dx (conduction )
]

d
A
d
dxc
d

T
d
t
+
m
A
m
dxc
m

T
d
t
=
[

x
q
x(conduction )
dx +q
convective heat transfer
+ q
convective mass transfer
+
q
adsorptio n
]

d
A
d
dxc
d

T
d
t
+
m
A
m
dxc
m

T
d
t
=

x
k
d
A
d
T
d
x
dx +hP
e
dxT
a
T
d

+h
m
P
e
dxY
a
Y
d
c
pv
T
a
T
d
+h
m
P
e
dxY
a
Y
d
h
ads


138

The energy conservation in the desiccant is given by:

()
The governing equations (1) to (4) have five unknown variables T
a
, T
d,
Y
a
, Y
d
and W in
order to solve this set of equations, some auxiliary equations are required.

6.2.6 Auxiliary conditions
Humidity ratio and relative humidity are related as [Ge et al. (2010)]:
Y
d
=
0.62188P
v
P
a
P
v
=
0.62188RH
d
P
a
P
vs
RH
d
5
Where P
vs
is the saturation pressure of water vapour which can be found using the
following relation [Zhang et al. (2003)]:
P
vs
= e
23.196
3816 .44
T
d
46.13

6
The equilibrium isotherm is given by [Pesaran and Mills (1987)]:
RH
d
= 0.0078 0.05759W+24.16554W
2
124.78W
3
+204.226W
4
7
The adsorption heat of regular density silica gel as recommended by [San et al. (1993)]:
h
ads
= h
fg
1.0 +0.2843e
10.28W
8
The latent heat of the water vapour at a different temperature is given by [Charoensupaya
and Worek (1989)]:
h
fg
= (2504.4 2.4425 T
d
) 1000 9
The vapour can diffuse through pores of desiccant by three mechanisms, namely surface
diffusion, ordinary diffusion and Knudsen diffusion with diffusion coefficient of D
S
, D
o

and D
k
. The ordinary diffusion coefficient and Knudsen diffusion coefficients are
combined by combine diffusivity D
comb
. These coefficients can be estimated by the
following expressions [Pesaran and Mills (1987)]:
139

D
comb
=
1

1
D
0
+
1
D
k

1
10
D
S
=
1.610
6

e
0.97410
3
h
ads
T
d

11
Where, is tortuosity factor that account for the increase in diffusion length due to the
tortuous path of real pores and its value is 2.8 for regular density silica gel.
D
o
= 1.735 10
4
T
d
1.685
P
a
12
D
k
= 97r
T
d
M

0.5
13
Sutherland's formula can be used to calculate the dynamic viscosity of an air as a function
of the temperature.
=
0

T
so
+C
0
T +C
0

T
T
so

3
2

(14)
Where,
= dynamic viscosity (Pa s) at temperature T

0
= reference viscosity (Pa s) at reference temperature T
so

T= temperature of air in Kelvin
T
so
= reference temperature in Kelvin
C
0
= Sutherland's constant for the air.

0
= 18.27 10
6
Pa s
T
so
=291.15 K
C
0
=120 K
The Nusselt number for the fully developed flow depends on the channel geometry is
given by [Antonellis et al. (2010)]:
Nu
FD
= 1.1791 1 +2.7701 3.1901
2
+1.9975
3
0.4966
4
(15)
Where, Aspect ratio, =
2a
2b

140

In order to developing the temperature and velocity profile along the channel, Nusselt
number is evaluated by [Antonellis et al. (2010)]:
Nu = Nu
FD
+
0.0841
0.002907 +Gz
0.6504
(16)
Gz =
Re Pr P
e
4L
w
(17)
Re =
uD
h

(18)
Pr =
c
p
k
(19)
The following heat transfer coefficient is adopted:
h =
Nuk
D
h
(20)
The following relations are adopted to relate the Nusselt number and Sherwood number
from Chilton Colburn analogy:
Sh = NuLe

1
3

(21)
Le =
k
c
p
D
m
(22)
The following mass transfer coefficient is adopted:
h
m
=
ShD
m
D
h
(23)
The mass diffusion coefficient of vapour in the air is given by [Zhang et al. (2003)]:
D
m
= 2.302 10
5
P
0
P

T
T
0

1.81
(24)
Where,
P
0
= 0.98 10
5
Pa
T
0
= 256 K

141

6.3 Solution Method
In this model the four governing equations of heat and mass transfer are non-linear and
coupled. The four governing equations are solved using a PDE solver (FlexPDE). This
PDE solver is based on the finite element method (FEM). Two programs in script
language are written for process and regeneration. These two programs are then coupled
in the solver to simulate it with real conditions. Program flow chart for two sector
desiccant wheel is given in Appendix, Figure A-1.

6.4 Performance Index
The dehumidification capacity of the desiccant wheel is representative of the performance
index as the desiccant wheel is installed primarily to remove moisture from the air. The
performance indexes may be moisture removal, relative moisture removal efficiency and
dehumidification coefficient of performance.
The main function of the desiccant wheel is to remove the moisture from process air
therefore moisture removal M
r
is adopted as the performance index to represent the
absolute dehumidification capacity of desiccant wheel:
M
r
= Y
p,in
Y
p,out

Where
Y
p,in
is humidity ratio of process air at inlet and Y
p,out
is the humidity ratio of process air
at outlet.

Relative moisture removal efficiency is also adopted [Ge et al. (2010)]:
=
Y
p,in
Y
p,out
Y
p,in

Here shows the ratio of moisture removal to the humidity ratio of the process air at the
inlet.





142

6.5 Mathematical Validation:
6.5.1 Validation of the model by experimental results
The mathematical model of desiccant wheel is validated through experimental results
obtained by solar powered desiccant wheel with specifications listed in Table 5.1 and
operating parameters listed in Table 6.1 & Table 6.2.
Table 6.1 Obtained ambient humidity, ambient temperature, regeneration temperature
(outlet temperature of air from evacuated tube solar air collector) and solar intensity
obtained on 01/10/2011 (u
p,in
= 4 m/s, u
r,in
= 4 m/s, N = 22 rph)
Time
(hours)
Ambient humidity
(ambient moisture)
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
Ambient
temperature
( )
Regeneration temperature
(outlet air temperature of ETC)
( )
Solar
intensity
(W/m
2
)
10:00 0.01426229 29.0 41.9 620
11:00 0.015024756 32.1 47.0
750
12:00 0.01554008 32.4 54.7
842
13:00 0.015523932 33.1 59.3
848
14:00 0.015239226 33.0 60.2
769
15:00 0.015876031 32.7 60.1
597
16:00 0.016325989 32.0 58.3
383
17:00 0.017090577 31.5 54.6
182
18:00 0.017538372 29.0 50.2
33


Figure 6.6 Moisture removal during the day: comparison between experimental results
and simulation results for different working conditions (u
p,in
= 4 m/s, u
r,in
= 4 m/s,

p
/
r
= 1, L
w
= 0.1 m, N = 22 rph)
0
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
0.002
0.0025
0.003
0.0035
0.004
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Moisture removal (SIM) Moisture removal (EXP)
M
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l
(
k
g
w
a
t
e
r

v
a
p
o
u
r

/
k
g
d
r
y

a
i
r
)
Time(hours)
143

Table 6.2 Obtained ambient humidity, ambient temperature, regeneration temperature
(outlet temperature of air from evacuated tube solar air collector) and solar intensity
obtained on 02/10/2011(u
p,in
= 2 m/s, u
r,in
= 4 m/s, N = 22 rph)

Time
(hours)

Ambient humidity
(ambient moisture)
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
Ambient
temperature
( )
Regeneration temperature
(outlet air temperature of ETC)
( )

Solar
intensity
(W/m
2
)
10:00 0.014401136 28.8 42.3
603
11:00 0.015051968 30.9 50.8
738
12:00 0.016261784 33.4 57.0
805
13:00 0.016378052 33.1 61.7 805
14:00 0.01623816 33.7 64.5 731
15:00 0.017034231 34.5 63.5 580
16:00 0.016218545 33.0 59.9
341
17:00 0.016029797 30.8 54.9
156
18:00 0.017098497 28.8 50.0 29


Figure 6.7 Moisture removal during the day: comparison between experimental results
and simulation results for different working conditions (u
p,in
= 2 m/s, u
r,in
= 4 m/s,

p
/
r
= 1, L
w
= 0.1 m, N = 22 rph)

Experimental results and simulation results shown in Figures 6.6 & 6 .7 are well matched
under various conditions.
0
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00
Moisture removal (SIM) Moisture removal (EXP)
M
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l

(
k
g
w
a
t
e
r

v
a
p
o
u
r

/
k
g
d
r
y

a
i
r
)
Time(hours)
144

6.5.2 Validation of the model by experimental data given in literature
(a) Heat and mass transfer
Experimental results related to the desiccant wheel [Kodama (1995)] are also adopted to
validate the present model. The desiccant wheel channel pitch, height and wall thickness
are 0.0032 m, 0.0018 m and 0.0002 m respectively and the desiccant wheel length is 0.2
m operating under a wide range of operating conditions which are given in Table 6.3.
Table 6.3 Input data used for comparison between experimental data and simulation
results
EXP/SIM Y
p,in
and Y
r,in

(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)
T
p
() T
r
()
p
/
r

EXP A 0.0088-0.0092 25 80 3.3
EXP B 0.0046-0.0051 25 80 3.3
SIM A 0.009 25 80 3.3
SIM B 0.0048 25 80 3.3


Figure 6.8 Variation of Y
p,out
/ Y
p,in
with rotational speed of desiccant wheel:
comparison between experimental data and simulation results for different working
conditions (u
p,in
= u
r,in
= 1 m/s, L
w
= 0.2 m)

Experimental data and simulation results that are shown in Figure 6.8 agree well under
the various conditions. The mathematical model is fully validated and ready for
implement for different wheel designs.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 5 10 15 20 25
EXP(A) SIM(A) EXP(B) SIM(B)
Rotational speed of desiccant wheel (rph)
Y
p
,
o
u
t

/
Y
p
,
i
n

(

)
145

(b) Pressure Drop
The experimental data available for a commercial desiccant wheel verifies the pressure
drop correlation where the geometry of channel is sinusoidal (channel height=0.002 m,
channel pitch=0.004 m and wheel length =0.2 m) [Antonellis et al. (2010)].
The pressure drop was calculated as [Harshe et al. (2005)]:
P =
2fu
2
L
w
D
h
+
K
0
u
2
2

Where f is the friction factor and K
0
represents the velocity head loss at the entry and exit
of the desiccant wheel.
The friction factor f is given by [Antonellis et al. (2010)]:
Friction factor, f = 13/Re
K
0
=0.5 = constant for sudden contraction loss
Table 6.4 shows both experimental data and simulation results of pressure drop for
different values of the face velocity.
Experimental data and simulation results closely match.
Table 6.4 Pressure drop: comparison between experimental data and simulation results
u (m/s) P EXP (Pa) P SIM (Pa)
2.61 104 104.1
3.61 148 144.6
5.17 223 208.8

Good agreement of experimental data and simulation result for pressure drop.





146

6.6 Analysis of Design Parameters to Improve the Performance of Desiccant Wheel
The mathematical model has been used to estimate the optimum design parameters of a
desiccant wheel to reduce the weight and size of the same. The design parameters have
been analyzed under the basic operating conditions of simulation.
This problem aims to use a model considering the heat and mass transfer in both moist air
and desiccant material to estimate and analyze the effect of design parameters more
accurately. The pressure drop is considered in axial direction. It is relevant in the
calculation of the fan power required.
The desiccant wheel is divided into two sectors according to the air streams passed as
shown in Figure 6.9(a). In the angular sector of process air, dehumidification of air takes
place and in the angular sector of regeneration air of the wheel, humidification of the air
takes place. The sector angle of process air and regeneration air are
p
and
r

respectively as shown in Figure 6.9(b). The rotation of the wheel causes periodic
reactivation of the adsorption sector.



(a) (b)

Figure 6.9 Schematic diagrams of (a) rotary desiccant wheel, (b) front view of desiccant
wheel





147

6.6.1 Boundary and initial conditions
For process sector
T
a
(0, t) = T
p, in

Y
a
(0, t) = Y
p, in

For regeneration sector
T
r
(L
w
, t) = T
r, in

Y
r
(L
w
, t) = Y
r, in

The initial temperature of air and desiccant, humidity ratio of the air and water content of
desiccant are assumed to be uniform:
T
a
(, 0) = T
a0

T
d
(, 0) = T
d0

Y
a
(, 0) = Y
a0

W, 0 = W
0


6.6.2 Solution method
In this model the four governing equations of heat and mass transfer are non-linear and
coupled. The four governing equations are solved using PDE solver. The programming is
done in script language of solver. Two programs in script language are written for process
and regeneration. These two programs are then coupled in the solver to simulate it with
real conditions. Program flow chart for two sector desiccant wheel is given in Appendix,
Figure A-1.

6.6.3 Numerical results and discussion
In this model the design parameters of the desiccant wheel given in Table 6.5 are varying
for a fixed range of operating parameters given in Table 6.6. Optimization of the design
parameters has been done to improve the performance of the desiccant wheel.


148

Table 6.5 Design parameters of the desiccant wheel
Parameters Base value Parametric variations
Wheel length, L
w
(m) 0.2 0.1-0.6
The area ratio of air flow passage to the total
area of one channel, A
r

0.8 0.2-0.9
Aspect ratio of channel , 0.5 0.1-1
Pitch of flow passage of one channel, 2b (m) 0.004 0.001-0.01
Height of flow passage of one channel, 2a (m) 0.002 0.001-0.01
Porosity , 0.4 0.1-0.9
Volume ratio of desiccant , 0.7 0.1-0.9

Table 6.6 Operating and structural parameters for optimization of design parameters
Parameters Fixed value
Rotational speed, N (rph) 20
Sector angle of process air,
p
180
Sector angle of regeneration air,
r
180
Inlet temperature of process air,

T
p,in
(


)

30
Inlet temperature of regeneration air,

T
r,in
(


) 70
Inlet humidity ratio of process air,

Y
p,in
(

kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)

0.020
Inlet humidity ratio of regeneration air,

Y
r,in
(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
) 0.020
Velocity of process air, u
p,in


(m/s)

1.5
Velocity of regeneration air, u
r,in
(m/s)

1.5

(i) For wheel length
As shown in figure 6.10, the optimal value of the length of desiccant wheel is found to be
0.3 m because if the length of the wheel is decreased below 0.3 m, the moisture removal
also decreases sharply. Also, if the length of wheel is greater than 0.3 m, the pressure
drop gradually increases but moisture removal increases slightly. This increase in
149

moisture removal is insignificant. Hence, it can be concluded that making a desiccant
wheel of length greater than 0.3 m will make it bulkier, bigger and costlier without adding
much to its moisture removal capacity much and at the same time, the pressure drop
across it would unduly increase.

Figure 6.10 Effect of length of wheel on moisture removal and pressure drop

(ii) For area ratio
As shown in Figure 6.11, when the area ratio increases, the moisture removal decreases.
Area ratio indicates the thickness of desiccant material in a channel. As the area ratio is
increased, the thickness of descant material decreases due to which moisture removal also
decreases.

Figure 6.11 Effect of area ratio on moisture removal
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0
0.0007
0.0014
0.0021
0.0028
0.0035
0.0042
0.0049
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Moisture removal Pressure drop
Length (m)
M
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l
(
k
g
w
a
t
e
r

v
a
p
o
u
r

/
k
g
d
r
y

a
i
r
)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
N
/
m
2
)
0
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Area ratio
M
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l
(
k
g
w
a
t
e
r

v
a
p
o
u
r

/
k
g
d
r
y

a
i
r
)
150

It is also observed that as the area ratio decreases, the thickness of desiccant material
increases due to which moisture removal also increases. The effective range of area ratio
is from 0.7 to 0.8. As the area ratio increases beyond 0.8, there is sharp decrease in
moisture removal. When the area ratio is less than 0.4, the moisture removal is very high
with small air flow passage but in this case the wheel becomes heavier, costlier and the
mass flow rate of air decreases. When the area ratio decreases from 0.7 to 0.4, there is
slight decrease in moisture removal. The best range of area ratio is from 0.7 to 0.8 due to
moderate moisture removal with a lighter wheel. This gives an advantage of reduced
weight, cost as well as quick regeneration and adsorption.

(iii) For aspect ratio
Aspect ratio is the ratio of the height to the pitch of flow passage. When aspect ratio
increases, the moisture removal decreases slowly but the pressure drop decreases
suddenly and reaches a steady state as shown in Figure 6.12.

Figure 6.12 Effect of aspect ratio on moisture removal and pressure drop

When the aspect ratio is low, the air which is passing through the channel comes almost
completely in contact with desiccant surface area. Thus the moisture removal is
maximum and the pressure drop is also high. The optimal range of aspect ratio is found to
be between 0.3 and 0.5. At a value less than 0.3, the pressure drop suddenly increases. For
a value greater than 0.5, the change in pressure drop is not significant but the moisture
removal decreases steadily.

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.0007
0.0014
0.0021
0.0028
0.0035
0.0042
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2
Mositure removal Pressure drop
Aspect ratio
M
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l
(
k
g
w
a
t
e
r

v
a
p
o
u
r

/
k
g
d
r
y

a
i
r
)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
N
/
m
2
)
151

(iv) For pitch of flow passage
As shown in the Figure 6.13, when the pitch is small, the moisture removal is high but
pressure drop is higher because the contact between desiccant and air increases as all the
air comes in contact with desiccant surface area. When the pitch of flow passage
increases (it means area of flow passage increases), the moisture removal and pressure
drop decreases because now all the air is not in contact with desiccant surface.

Figure 6.13 Effect of pitch of flow passage on moisture removal and pressure drop

The optimal pitch of flow passage for 0.002 m height is in the range of 0.002 m to 0.004
m. At a value less than 0.002 m, the increase in moisture removal is insignificant but the
pressure drop increases suddenly. For a value greater than 0.004 m, the pressure drop
decreases slightly but the decrease in moisture removal becomes significant.

(v) For height of flow passage
As shown in the Figure 6.14, when the height of flow passage is small, the moisture
removal increases because the contact between air and desiccant is more. When the height
of flow passage increases, the moisture removal decreases because all the air does not
comes in contact with the desiccant surface. The optimal value of flow passage height for
a 0.004 m pitch is in the range of 0.002 m to 0.004 m. In the range of 0.001 m to 0.002 m,
the moisture removal decreases slightly but the pressure drop decreases sharply. For a
value greater than 0.004 m, the pressure drop does not change much, though the moisture
removal decreases.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0
0.0007
0.0014
0.0021
0.0028
0.0035
0.0042
0.0049
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01 0.011
Moisture removal Pressure drop
Pitch of flow passage (m)
M
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l
(
k
g
w
a
t
e
r

v
a
p
o
u
r

/
k
g
d
r
y

a
i
r
)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
N
/
m
2
)
152


Figure 6.14 Effect of height of flow passage on moisture removal and pressure drop

(vi) For porosity of desiccant
Figure 6.15 shows that moisture removal sharply decreases when porosity increases
beyond a certain limit because the volume of desiccant material decreases (attraction of
vapour reduces due to small surface of desiccant material in the layer of channel).

Figure 6.15 Effect of porosity on moisture removal

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
0
0.0007
0.0014
0.0021
0.0028
0.0035
0.0042
0.0049
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01 0.011
Moisture removal Pressure drop
Height of flow passage (m)
M
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l
(
k
g
w
a
t
e
r

v
a
p
o
u
r

/
k
g
d
r
y

a
i
r
)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
N
/
m
2
)
0
0.0007
0.0014
0.0021
0.0028
0.0035
0.0042
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Porosity
M
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l

(
k
g
w
a
t
e
r

v
a
p
o
u
r

/
k
g
d
r
y

a
i
r
)
153

A porosity of 0.4 to 0.6 seems to be an optimum range as the moisture removal does not
decrease much and at the same time the wheel remains light. On decreasing the porosity
below 0.4, the change in moisture removal is not much, but the wheel becomes heavier.
Also for a value greater than 0.6, moisture removal suddenly drops.

(vii) For volume ratio in desiccant layer of channel
When the volume ratio of desiccant increases, the moisture removal also increases as
shown in Figure 6.16. As the quantity of desiccant material is more in the channel, the
holding of moisture is also more in the pores of desiccant and on the surface. When the
volume ratio is low it means the quantity of desiccant material is low with more matrix
material in the layer of channel. Hence, low quantity of moisture is held by low quantity
of desiccant material.

Figure 6.16 Effect of volume ratio in desiccant layer of channel on moisture removal

The optimum value of volume ratio is between 0.4 and 0.6 for which moisture removal is
optimum. For a volume ratio less than 0.4, the moisture removal is low and above 0.6, the
moisture removal does not increase much, but the wheel becomes heavier and costlier.



0
0.0007
0.0014
0.0021
0.0028
0.0035
0.0042
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Volume ratio in desiccant layer of channel
M
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l
(
k
g
w
a
t
e
r

v
a
p
o
u
r

/
k
g
d
r
y

a
i
r
)
154

6.7 Analysis of Desiccant Wheel with Purge Sector for Improving Its Performance
The analysis of purge sector is very important to find the better performance of the
desiccant wheel. This model has been used to compare the performance of desiccant
wheel with purge sector in both the directions of rotation (clockwise and anticlockwise).
The desiccant wheel is divided into three sectors according to the air streams passed as
shown in Figure 6.17(a). In the angular sector of process air, dehumidification of air takes
place and in the angular sector of regeneration air of the wheel, humidification of the air
takes place. There is another angular sector known as purge sector in which the
dehumidification of air takes place and this dehumidified air becomes an input for the
angular sector of regeneration as shown in Figure 6.17(b). The sector angle of process air,
regeneration air and purge air are denoted by
p
,
r
and
Purge
respectively as shown in
Figure 6.17(c).

(a)

(b) (c)
Figure 6.17 Schematic diagrams of (a) rotary desiccant wheel with purge sector, (b)
desiccant wheel configuration with purge sector, (c) front view of desiccant wheel with
purge sector
155


The schematic diagrams of desiccant wheel with purge sector for clockwise rotation and
anticlockwise rotation is shown in Figure 6.18(a, b).



(a) (b)
Figure 6.18 Schematic diagrams of (a) desiccant wheel with purge sector for clockwise
rotation, (b) desiccant wheel with purge sector for anticlockwise rotation

6.7.1 Boundary and initial conditions
For process sector
T
a
(0, t) = T
p, in

Y
a
(0, t) = Y
p, in

For purge sector
T
a
(0, t) = T
p, in

Y
a
(0, t) = Y
p, in

For regeneration sector
T
r
(L
w
, t) = T
r,in


Y
r
L
w
, t = Y
r,in
= Y
purge air , out


156

The initial temperature of air and desiccant, humidity ratio of the air and water content of
desiccant are assumed to be uniform:
T
a
(, 0) = T
a0

T
d
(, 0) = T
d0

Y
a
(, 0) = Y
a0

W, 0 = W
0

6.7.2 Solution method
The programming is done in the script language of solver. Three programs in the script
language are written for process, purge sector and regeneration of a desiccant wheel.
These three programs are coupled in the solver to simulate it with real conditions.
Program flow charts for three sector desiccant wheel (clockwise & anticlockwise) are
given in Appendix, Figure A-2 and Figure A-3.

6.7.3 Numerical results and discussion
The performance of the desiccant wheel of the specification listed in Table 5.1 is
analyzed under various operating and structural parameters for desiccant wheel with
purge sector listed in Table 6.7.

Table 6.7 Operating and structural parameters for desiccant wheel with purge sector
Parameters Base value Parametric variations
Rotational speed, N (rph) 40 10-60
Inlet temperature of process air, T
p,in
()

30 -
Inlet humidity ratio of process air, Y
p,in

(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)

0.017 0.014-0.026
Regeneration temperature, T
r,in
() 70 50-100
Velocity of process air, u
p,in
(m/s)

2.5 1-5
Velocity of regeneration air, u
r,in


(m/s)

2.5 1-5
Sector angle of process air,
p
180 -
Sector angle of regeneration air,
r
90 -
Sector angle of purge air,
purge
90 -

157

(i) Performance comparison of desiccant wheel with purge sector in clockwise and
anticlockwise direction at different rotational speeds.
Figure 6.19 shows that relative moisture removal efficiency initially increases for both the
directions (clockwise and anticlockwise) with the increase in rotational speed of desiccant
wheel. In anticlockwise direction, its value becomes steady and then starts decreasing
slightly but in clockwise direction, its value keeps on increasing slightly. For all the range
of rph, the relative moisture removal efficiency is better for anticlockwise direction.

Figure 6.19 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency with rotational speed of
desiccant wheel for clockwise and anticlockwise direction

At low rph, effect of direction of wheel rotation is more and it decreases with increase in
rotational speed of desiccant wheel ; for example at rotational speed 10 rph and 60 rph the
difference of relative moisture removal efficiency between anticlockwise and clockwise
direction is 0.128 and 0.033 respectively. Maximum value of relative moisture removal
efficiency for anticlockwise direction is 0.222 at 40 rph and maximum value of relative
moisture removal efficiency for clockwise direction is 0.184 at 60 rph.

0
0.03
0.06
0.09
0.12
0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.27
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
Relative moisture removal efficiency in clockwise direction
Relative moisture removal efficiency in anticlockwise direction
Rotational speed of desiccant wheel (rph)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
158

Figure 6.20 shows that the temperature difference of process initially increases for both
the directions (clockwise and anticlockwise) with the increase in rotational speed of
desiccant wheel. In anticlockwise direction, its value becomes steady and then starts
decreasing slightly but in clockwise direction, its value keeps on increasing slightly. For
all the range of rph, the temperature difference of process air is greater for anticlockwise
direction.

Figure 6.20 Variation of temperature difference of process air with rotational speed of
desiccant wheel for clockwise and anticlockwise direction

At low rph, the effect of direction of wheel rotation is more and it decreases with increase
in rotational speed of desiccant wheel ; for example at rotational speed of 10 rph and 60
rph, the temperature difference of process air between anticlockwise direction and
clockwise direction is 3.97 and 1.045 respectively. Maximum value of temperature
difference of process air in anticlockwise direction is 6.87 at 40 rph and maximum
value of temperature difference of process air in clockwise direction is 5.70 at 60 rph.


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
Temperature difference of process air for clockwise direction
Temperature difference of process air for anticlockwise direction
Rotational speed of desiccant wheel (rph)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(

C
)
159

(ii) Performance comparison of desiccant wheel with purge sector in clockwise and
anticlockwise direction at different regeneration temperatures.
Figure 6.21 shows that relative moisture removal efficiency increases for both clockwise
direction and anticlockwise direction with increase in the regeneration temperature. At
low regeneration temperature, effect of direction of wheel rotation is less but it slightly
increases with increase in the regeneration temperature. For example, at regeneration
temperatures of 50 and 100, the difference of relative moisture removal efficiency
between anticlockwise and clockwise direction is 0.035 and 0.064 respectively.
Maximum value of relative moisture removal efficiency for anticlockwise and clockwise
direction is 0.36 and 0.29 respectively, at a regeneration temperature of 100.

Figure 6.21 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency with regeneration
temperature for clockwise and anticlockwise direction

Figure 6.22 shows that temperature difference of process air increases for both clockwise
direction and anticlockwise direction with increase in the regeneration temperature. At
low regeneration temperature, the effect of direction of wheel rotation is less but it
slightly increases with the increase in regeneration temperature. For example, at
regeneration temperatures of 50 and 100, the temperature difference of process air
between anticlockwise and clockwise direction is 1.10 and 2.14 respectively.
0
0.07
0.14
0.21
0.28
0.35
0.42
40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Relative moisture removal efficiency in clockwise direction
Relative moisture removal efficiency in anticlockwise direction
Regeneration temperature (C)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
160

Maximum value of temperature difference of process air for anticlockwise and clockwise
direction is 11.38 and 9.23 respectively, at a regeneration temperature of 100.

Figure 6.22 Variation of temperature difference of process air with regeneration
temperature for clockwise and anticlockwise direction

(iii) Performance comparison of desiccant wheel for clockwise and anticlockwise
direction at different velocities.
Figure 6.23 shows that relative moisture removal efficiency initially increases and then
decreases for both clockwise and anticlockwise direction with the increase in velocity. At
low velocity, the effect of direction of wheel rotation is less but it slightly increases with
the increase in velocity. For example, at velocities of 1 m/s and 5 m/s, the difference of
relative moisture removal efficiency between anticlockwise and clockwise direction is
0.043 and 0.059 respectively. Maximum value of relative moisture removal efficiency for
anticlockwise and clockwise direction is 0.222 and 0.173 respectively, at a velocity of 2.5
m/s.

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Temperature difference of process air for clockwise direction
Temperature difference of process air for anticlockwise direction
Regeneration temperature (C)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
161


Figure 6.23 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency with velocity for clockwise
and anticlockwise direction

Figure 6.24 shows that temperature difference of process air initially increases and then
decreases for both clockwise and anticlockwise direction with the increase in velocity. At
low velocity, the effect of direction of wheel rotation is less but it slightly increases with
the increase in velocity.

Figure 6.24 Variation of temperature difference of process air with velocity for clockwise
and anticlockwise direction
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
Relative moisture removal efficiency in clockwise direction
Relative moisture removal efficiency in anticlockwise direction
Velocity (m/sec)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l


e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
Temperature difference of process air for clockwise direction
Temperature difference of process air for anticlockwise direction
Velocity (m/sec)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
162

For example, at velocities of 1 m/s and 5 m/s, temperature difference of process air
between anticlockwise and clockwise direction is 1.33 and 1.82 respectively. Maximum
value of temperature difference of process air for anticlockwise and clockwise direction is
6.87 and 5.37 respectively at a velocity of 2.5 m/s.

(iv) Performance comparison of desiccant wheel for clockwise and anticlockwise
direction at different humidity ratio.
Figure 6.25 shows that relative moisture removal efficiency decreases for both clockwise
and anticlockwise direction with increase in the humidity ratio.

Figure 6.25 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency with humidity ratio for
clockwise and anticlockwise direction

At low humidity ratio, the effect of direction of wheel rotation is less but it slightly
increases with humidity ratio. For example at humidity ratio of 0.0014 kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air

and 0.0026 kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air,
the difference of relative moisture removal efficiency
between anticlockwise and clockwise direction is 0.041 and 0.071 respectively.
Maximum value of relative moisture removal efficiency for anticlockwise and clockwise
direction is 0.24 and 0.20 respectively at humidity ratio of 0.0014 kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
.
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.0011 0.0014 0.0017 0.002 0.0023 0.0026 0.0029
Relative moisture removal efficiency in clockwise direction
Relative moisture removal efficiency in anticlockwise direction
Humidity ratio (kg
water vapor
/kg
dry air
)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l


e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
163

Figure 6.26 shows that with an increase in the humidity ratio, the temperature difference
of process air initially increases and then decreases for anticlockwise direction. At low
humidity ratio, the effect of direction of wheel rotation is less but slightly increases with
humidity ratio. For example at humidity ratio of 0.0014 kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
and 0.0026
kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
, the temperature difference of process air between anticlockwise and
clockwise direction is 1.087 and 3.393 respectively.

Figure 6.26 Variation of temperature difference of process air with humidity ratio for
clockwise and anticlockwise direction

Maximum value of temperature difference of process air for anticlockwise direction is
7.29 and for clockwise direction is 5.37, at humidity ratio of 0.0023 kg
water vapour
/kg
dry
air
and 0.0017 kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
respectively.







0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0.0011 0.0014 0.0017 0.002 0.0023 0.0026 0.0029
Temperature difference of process air for clockwise direction
Temperature difference of process air for anticlockwise direction
Humidity ratio (kg
water vapor
/kg
dry air
)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
164

6.8 Comparative Study between Four Sector and Two Sector of Desiccant Wheel
This model is used to analyze and compare the performance of two sector and four sector
desiccant wheel at different rph and at different angular sectors of regeneration air.
In first case wheel is divided into two sectors namely process sector and regeneration
sector as shown in Figure 6.27(a).
In second case, wheel is divided into four sectors as shown in Figure 6.27(b) and air
stream follow the path (process sector-1: regeneration sector-1: process sector-2:
regeneration sector-2).
The performance of four sector and two sector of desiccant wheel are compared at
different rph.

Figure 6.27 Schematic diagrams of (a) desiccant wheel with two sectors, (b) desiccant
wheel with four sectors

6.8.1 Boundary and initial conditions
For two sector and four sector
For process sector
T
a
(0, t) = T
p, in

Y
a
(0, t) = Y
p, in

For regeneration sector
T
r
(L
w
, t) = T
r, in


Y
r
(L
w
, t) = Y
r, in

165

The initial temperature of air and desiccant, humidity ratio of the air and water content of
desiccant are assumed to be uniform:
T
a
(, 0) = T
a0

T
d
(, 0) = T
d0

Y
a
(, 0) = Y
a0

W(, 0) = W
0

6.8.2 Solution method
Two programs in the script language are written for process and regeneration in two
sectors of desiccant wheel. These two programs are coupled in the solver to simulate it
with real conditions. Program flow chart for two sector desiccant wheel is given in
Appendix, Figure A-1.
Four programs in the script language are written for all the sectors of desiccant wheel
namely process sector-1, regeneration sector-1, process sector-2, and regeneration sector-
2. These four programs are also coupled in the solver to simulate it with real conditions.
Program flow chart for four sector desiccant wheel is given in Appendix, Figure A-4.

6.8.3 Numerical results and discussion
The performance of the desiccant wheel of the specification listed in Table 5.1 is
analyzed under various operating parameters as given in Table 6.8 for the case of two
sector and four sector desiccant wheel.
Table 6.8 Operating parameters for the case of two sector and four sector desiccant wheel
Parameters Base value Parametric variations
Rotational speed, N (rph) 40 10-60
Inlet temperature of process air, T
p,in
()

30 -
Regeneration temperature, T
r,in
() 70 -
Velocity of process air, u
p,in
(m/s) 2.5 -
Velocity of regeneration air, u
r,in
(m/s)

2.5 -
Inlet humidity ratio of process air, Y
p,in

(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)

0.017 -
Inlet humidity ratio of regeneration air, Y
r,in

(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)

0.017 -

166

Case 1: For two sector desiccant wheel PS:RS=180:180, for four sector desiccant
wheel PS
1
:RS
1
:PS
2
:RS
2
= 90:90:90:90
(i) For relative moisture removal efficiency and temperature difference
Figure 6.28 shows that at rph less than 30, the relative moisture removal efficiency for the
four sector desiccant wheel is greater than that of the two sector desiccant wheel. In case
of four sector desiccant wheel, relative moisture removal efficiency initially increases and
then decreases with an increasing rph but in case of the two sector desiccant wheel,
relative moisture removal efficiency increases with an increasing rph and later it slightly
decreases. Maximum moisture removal efficiency for the four sector is 0.2528 at 25 rph
but the same relative moisture removal efficiency is obtained for the two sector at 50 rph.

Figure 6.28 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency and temperature difference
of process air with rotational speed of desiccant wheel for two sector (PS: RS=180:180)
and four sector (PS
1
:RS
1
:PS
2
:RS
2
= 90:90:90:90)

The minimum value of relative moisture removal efficiency for the two sector is 0.103 at
10 rph and for four sector is 0.215 at 60 rph. Hence, the performance of four sector is
more stable than the two sector within prescribed range of rph. The graphs of temperature
difference of process air for both the two sector and four sector desiccant wheels follow
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
Relative moisture removal efficiency for two sector
Relative moisture removal efficiency for four sector
Temperature difference of process air for two sector
Temperature difference of process air for four sector
Rotational speed of desiccant wheel (rph)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(

C
)
167

the same pattern as that of relative moisture removal efficiency. Maximum temperature
difference for the four sector is 7.79 at 25 rph but the same is obtained for the two
sector at 50 rph.

Case 2: For two sector desiccant wheel PS:RS=200:160, for four sector desiccant
wheel PS
1
:RS
1
:PS
2
:RS
2
= 100:80:100:80
(i) For relative moisture removal efficiency and temperature difference
Figure 6.29 shows that at rph below 35, the relative moisture removal efficiency for the
four sector desiccant wheel is greater than the two sector desiccant wheel. In case of the
four sector desiccant wheel, relative moisture removal efficiency initially increases and
then decreases with an increasing rph but in case of the two sector desiccant wheel,
relative moisture removal efficiency increases with an increasing rph and later it slightly
decreases.

Figure 6.29 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency and temperature difference
of process air with rotational speed of desiccant wheel for two sector (PS: RS=200:160)
and four sector (PS
1
:RS
1
:PS
2
:RS
2
= 100:80:100:80)

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
Relative moisture removal efficiency for two sector
Relative moisture removal efficiency for four sector
Temperature difference of process air for two sector
Temperature difference of process air for four sector
Rotational speed of desiccant wheel (rph)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(

C
)
168

The maximum moisture removal efficiency for the four sector desiccant wheel is 0.2136
at 25 rph but the same relative moisture removal efficiency is obtained for the two sector
desiccant wheel at 50 rph. The minimum value of relative moisture removal efficiency for
the two sector and four sector desiccant wheel is 0.044 and 0.174 respectively at 10 rph.
Hence, the performance of the four sector desiccant wheel is more stable than the two
sector desiccant wheel within a prescribed range of rph. The graphs of temperature
difference of process air for both the two sector and four sector desiccant wheels follow
the same pattern as that of relative moisture removal efficiency. Maximum temperature
difference for the four sector desiccant wheel is 6.59 at 25 rph but the same is obtained
for the two sector desiccant wheel at 50 rph.

Case 3: For two sector desiccant wheel PS:RS=220:140, for four sector desiccant
wheel PS
1
:RS
1
:PS
2
:RS
2
= 110:70:110:70
(i) For relative moisture removal efficiency and temperature difference
Figure 6.30 shows that at low rph, the relative moisture removal efficiency for the four
sector desiccant wheel is greater than the two sector desiccant wheel. In case of the four
sector desiccant wheel, initially the relative moisture removal efficiency increases and
then decreases with an increasing rph but in case of the two sector desiccant wheel, the
relative moisture removal efficiency increases with an increasing rph and later it slightly
decreases.
The maximum relative moisture removal efficiency for the four sector desiccant wheel is
0.17 at 30 rph but the same relative moisture removal efficiency is obtained for the two
sector desiccant wheel at 60 rph. The minimum value of relative moisture removal
efficiency for the two sector and four sector desiccant wheel is 0.012 and 0.117
respectively at 10 rph. Hence, the performance of the four sector is more stable than the
two sector within a prescribed range of rph. The graph of temperature difference of
process air for both the two sector and four sector desiccant wheels follow the same
pattern as that of relative moisture removal efficiency. Maximum temperature difference
for the four sector desiccant wheel is 5.29 at 30 rph but the same is obtained for the
two sector at 60 rph.

169


Figure 6.30 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency and temperature difference
of process air with rotational speed of desiccant wheel for two sector (PS: RS=220:140)
and four sector (PS
1
:RS
1
:PS
2
:RS
2
= 110:70:110:70)

After analysis of all the above cases, it can be concluded that as the regeneration angle is
reduced, the relative moisture removal efficiency decreases and the maximum moisture
removal efficiency is obtained at higher rph.


6.9 Analysis of Heated and Cooled Purge Sectors of a Desiccant Wheel for
Improving the Performance
The model is used to analyze the effect of heated and cooled purge sectors on the
performance of desiccant wheel at different regeneration temperatures. The desiccant
wheel is divided in four sectors namely process sector, regeneration sector, cooled purge
sector and heated purge sector as shown in Figure 6.31(a). These two purge sectors
exchange their heat and minimize the losses. In the process sector of the wheel,
dehumidification of process air takes place and in the regeneration sector of the wheel,
humidification of the regeneration air takes place. In angular sector of cooled purge air,
cooled purge sector is heated by air of heated purge sector. In angular sector of heated
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
Relative moisture removal efficiency for two sector
Relative moisture removal efficiency for four sector
Temperature differenceof process air for two sector
Temperature difference of process air for four sector
Rotational speed of desiccant wheel (rph)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
(

C
)
170

purge air, heated purge sector is cooled by air of cooled purge sector as shown in Figure
6.31(b). The sector angle of process air, regeneration air, cooled purge air and heated
purge air are denoted by
p
,
r
,
cp
and
hp
respectively. The analysis of purge sector
angles is done to find its effect on system performance.


(a) (b)
Figure 6.31 Schematic diagrams of (a) rotary desiccant wheel with cooled purge and
heated purge for clockwise direction, (b) desiccant wheel configuration with cooled purge
and heated purge


6.9.1 Boundary and initial conditions
For process sector
T
a
(0, t) = T
p,in

Y
a
(0, t) = Y
p,in

For cooled purge sector
T
cp,in
(0, t) = T
hp,out

Y
cp,in
(0, t) = Y
hp,out


171

For regeneration sector
T
r
(0, t) = T
r,in

Y
r
(0, t) = Y
r,in

For heated purge sector
T
hp,in
(L
w
, t) = T
cp,out

Y
hp,in
(L
w
, t) = Y
cp,out


The initial temperature of air and desiccant, humidity ratio of the air and water content of
desiccant are assumed to be uniform:
T
a
(, 0) = T
a0

T
d
(, 0) = T
d0

Y
a
(, 0) = Y
a0

W(, 0) = W
0


6.9.2 Solution method
These four programs are written in the script language followed by the process sector,
cooled purge sector, regeneration sector and heated purge sector when the wheel is
rotated in a clockwise direction. These four programs are coupled in the solver to
simulate real conditions. Program Flow chart for heated and cooled purge sector desiccant
wheel is given in Appendix, Figure A-5.

6.9.3 Numerical results and Discussion
The performance of the desiccant wheel of the specification given in Table 5.1 is
analyzed under various operating parameters as given in Table 6.9 for the case of
desiccant wheel with heated and cooled purge.




172

Table 6.9 Operating parameters for the case of desiccant wheel with heated and cooled
purge.
Parameters Base value Parametric variations
Rotational speed, N (rph) 40 10-60
Inlet temperature of process air, T
p,in
()

30 -
Regeneration temperature, T
r,in
() 70 50-90
Velocity of process air, u
p,in
(m/s) 2.5 -
Velocity of regeneration air, u
r,in


(m/s)

2.5 -
Inlet humidity ratio of process air, Y
p,in

(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)

0.017 -
Inlet humidity ratio of regeneration air, Y
r,in

(kg
water vapour
/kg
dry air
)

0.017 -

Case 1: For desiccant wheel with heated and cooled purge, PS: Purge-1: RS: Purge-
2=160:20:160:20
Figure 6.32 shows that relative moisture removal efficiency increases by increasing rph
and regeneration temperature.

Figure 6.32 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency with rotational speed of
desiccant wheel with two sectors having low purge angle at different regeneration
temperatures
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Relative moisture removal efficiency at 50C
Relative moisture removal efficiency at 70C
Relative moisture removal efficiency at 90C
Rotational speed of desiccant wheel (rph)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
173

At a low regeneration temperature, the relative moisture removal efficiency reaches
steady state earlier but as the regeneration temperature increases, it takes more time to
achieve a steady state of relative moisture removal efficiency with an increasing rph.
Maximum moisture removal efficiency for regeneration temperatures of 50, 70 and
90 is 0.217 at 15 rph, 0.410 at 35 rph and 0.577 at 50 rph respectively. Hence,
desiccant wheel with heated and cooled purge sectors performs better at higher
regeneration temperature.

Figure 6.33 shows that temperature difference of process air increases with an increase in
rph and regeneration temperature. At low regeneration temperatures, the temperature
difference of process air reaches a steady state earlier but as the regeneration temperature
increases, it takes more time to achieve a steady state of temperature difference of process
air with the increasing rph. Maximum temperature difference of process air for
regeneration temperatures of 50, 70 and 90 is 6.68 at 15 rph, 12.92 at 35 rph
and 19.11 at 50 rph respectively.

Figure 6.33 Variation of temperature difference of process air with rotational speed of
desiccant wheel with two sectors having low purge angle at different regeneration
temperatures
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Temperature difference of process air at 50C
Temperature difference of process air at 70C
Temperature difference of process air at 90C
Rotational speed of desiccant wheel (rph)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
174

Case 2: For two sector with heated and cooled purge PS: Purge-1: RS: Purge-
2=140:40:140:40
Figure 6.34 shows that relative moisture removal efficiency increases by increasing the
rph and regeneration temperature. At a low regeneration temperature, the relative
moisture removal efficiency reaches a steady state earlier but as the regeneration
temperature increases, it takes more time to achieve a steady state of relative moisture
removal efficiency with an increasing rph. Maximum moisture removal efficiency for
regeneration temperatures of 50, 70 and 90 is 0.216 at 15 rph, 0.4047 at 30 rph
and 0.5659 at 50 rph respectively.

Figure 6.34 Variation of relative moisture removal efficiency with rotational speed of
desiccant wheel with two sectors having high purge angle at different regeneration
temperatures

After analysis of the above two cases, it is found that when the purge angle is increased
from 20 to 40 then the performance of the desiccant wheel is enhanced at low rph but it
happens at a higher value of regeneration temperature only. It is also found that after
reducing the regeneration angle, relative moisture removal efficiency is comparatively the
same.

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Relative moisture removal efficiency at 50C
Relative moisture removal efficiency at 70C
Relative moisture removal efficiency at 90C
Rotational speed of desiccant wheel (rph)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
o
v
a
l

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
175

Figure 6.35 shows that the temperature difference of process air increases by increasing
the rph and regeneration temperature. At a low regeneration temperature, the temperature
difference of process air reaches a steady state earlier. As the regeneration temperature
increases, the temperature difference of process air approaches a steady state with a slow
rate. Maximum temperature difference of process air for regeneration temperatures of
50, 70 and 90 is 6.64 at 15 rph, 12.71 at 35 rph and 18.74 at 50 rph
respectively.

Figure 6.35 Variation of temperature difference of process air with rotational speed of
desiccant wheel with two sectors having high purge angle at different regeneration
temperatures

6.10 Conclusions
The mathematical model of desiccant wheel has been verified with the help of
experimental results on solar powered desiccant wheel and it shows good match between
experimental results and mathematical results.
The above studied problems like design parameters analysis, desiccant wheel with purge
sector, comparative study between four sector and two sector and desiccant wheel with
heated and cooled purged are concluded separately below:
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Temperature difference of process air at 50C
Temperature difference of process air at 70C
Temperature difference of process air at 90C
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

C
)
Rotational speed of desiccant wheel (rph)
176

1. As the wheel length increases, the moisture removal and pressure drop also
increase. Hence, we should optimize the length to 0.3 m of desiccant wheel
according to the requirement.
2. When the area ratio is low, the thickness of desiccant layer in a channel is more
and the holding capacity of moisture is also high. The optimum value of area ratio
is found to be between 0.7 and 0.8.
3. When the aspect ratio is low, the moisture removal is high. The optimal value of
aspect ratio is found to be between 0.3 and 0.5 for maximum moisture removal.
4. When the pitch of the flow passage is between 0.002 m to 0.004 m, it gives
optimum moisture removal and also lower pressure drop. For height of the flow
passage, the optimum value is found to be between 0.002 m and 0.004 m.
5. Porosity reduces the quantity of desiccant material therefore it decreases the
moisture removal; the volume ratio increases the moisture removal because
quantity of desiccant surface increases in the channel. Porosity and volume ratio
do not have effect on the pressure drop in the channel. Optimum value of porosity
and volume ratio are in the range of 0.4 to 0.6.
6. For all the given rotational speeds of desiccant wheel, the relative moisture
removal efficiency for anticlockwise direction is better than clockwise direction.
At low rph, the difference in relative moisture removal efficiency between
anticlockwise and clockwise direction is more and it starts decreasing as rph
increases.
7. At any regeneration temperature, the relative moisture removal efficiency is much
better for anticlockwise direction as compared to clockwise direction. At high
regeneration temperature of 100, the difference of relative moisture removal
efficiency between anticlockwise and clockwise direction is slightly more as
compared to the difference at low regeneration temperature of 50.
8. At any velocity ranging from 1 to 5 m/s, the relative moisture removal efficiency
for anticlockwise direction is much better as compared to clockwise direction and
the difference in relative moisture removal efficiency between anticlockwise and
clockwise direction slightly increases with the increase in velocity.
9. At any humidity ratio, the relative moisture removal efficiency for anticlockwise
direction is much better as compared to clockwise direction. Relative moisture
removal efficiency is more at low humidity ratio for both clockwise and
177

anticlockwise direction. The effect of direction of wheel rotation is better at high
humidity ratio as compared to low humidity ratio.
10. Relative moisture removal efficiency for the four sector desiccant wheel is higher
as compared to the two sector desiccant wheel at low rph and low regeneration
angle.
11. Maximum moisture removal efficiency for both the two sector desiccant wheel
and four sector desiccant wheel is same but in the two sector desiccant wheel it is
obtained at twice the rph of the four sector desiccant wheel.
12. Purge sector works more effectively at high regeneration temperatures as
compared to low regeneration temperatures.
13. At low rph, the desiccant system with a higher purge angle and a lower
regeneration angle performs better as compared to a lower purge angle and a
higher regeneration angle.














178

CHAPTER 7
Overall Conclusions and Recommendations

The main objective of the present research work was to explore the feasibility of solar
powered solid desiccant dehumidifier for typical hot and humid climates, as an alternative
to the conventional vapour compression systems. Major thrust in this work has been
given to the solar powered solid desiccant dehumidifier due to its advantages of having
lower regeneration temperatures, more maneuverability and its capability to be driven by
renewable energy i.e. solar energy. The main conclusions emerging from the present
work are:
From the analysis of experimental data for the evacuated tube solar air collector, it is
found that the highest temperature difference of air achieved by this collector on a
summer day is 36.8 at low air flow rate of 96.48 kg/hr and 33 at high air flow rate of
207.36 kg/hr. This temperature difference is obtained by attachment of reflectors beneath
the evacuated tubes and placement of a copper coil in the circular pipe, through which the
air is passing.
The performance of various solid desiccants was experimentally investigated for both
adsorption as well as regeneration processes in the Indian climatic conditions. The
regeneration of the various solid desiccants was done using evacuated tube solar air
collector in the temperature range of 54.3-68.3 and it was found that silica gel
performed better as compared to activated alumina and activated charcoal, at different air
flow rates. After regeneration, the air dehumidification performance of these desiccants
was analyzed in the evening and silica gel was again found to be the best adsorbent when
compared with activated alumina and activated charcoal. The maximum adsorption rate
and regeneration rate of the silica gel were found to be 0.234 kg/hr and 0.506 kg/hr at an
air flow rate of 138 kg/hr respectively.
The performance of solar powered desiccant wheel at different air flow rates was
experimentally investigated in the month of September. It was found that higher
adsorption and regeneration rate occurred at high air flow rate and high regeneration
temperature. At high air flow rate (210.789 kg/hr), the performance of the desiccant
wheel was doubled when compared to low air flow rate (105.394 kg/hr). It was also
concluded that the performance of the desiccant wheel was better when air at high rate
179

flows through the adsorption sector rather than it does through the regeneration sector.
Maximum value of average adsorption and regeneration rates at high air flow rate was
0.647 kg/hr and 0.662 kg/hr respectively, during the day.
The performance of solar powered desiccant wheel at different rph was experimentally
investigated in the month of November. The optimum speed for maximum value of
average adsorption and regeneration rates was found to be 16 rph at air flow rate of
210.789 kg/hr of both sectors. During the day, maximum value of average adsorption and
regeneration rates at 16 rph was 0.6031 kg/hr and 0.6974 kg/hr respectively.
The mathematical model of desiccant wheel has been verified with the results obtained
from solar powered solid desiccant wheel and it shows good match between experimental
results and values determined from the mathematical model. This model is used to
optimize design parameters for maximization of moisture removal and minimization of
pressure drop, for desiccant wheel and it was found that the length of desiccant wheel,
area ratio, aspect ratio, pitch, height, porosity were in the range of 0.2 to 0.3, 0.7 to 0.8,
0.3 to 0.5, 0.002 to 0.004, 0.002 to 0.004 and 0.4 to 0.6 respectively.
Performance comparison of desiccant wheel with purge sector in clockwise and
anticlockwise direction has been analyzed under various operating conditions by using
mathematical model. It was found that the performance of the desiccant wheel was
always better for the anticlockwise direction as compared to clockwise direction.
Comparison between two sector and four sector desiccant wheel was drawn by using
mathematical model under the operating conditions listed in the study. It was found that
two sector desiccant wheel required twice the rph of the four sector desiccant wheel to
achieve the same performance level.
Heated and cooled purge sectors of the desiccant wheel were analyzed using a
mathematical model for improving the performance of the wheel. It was found that
desiccant wheel works more effectively at high regeneration temperatures as compared to
low regeneration temperatures. At low rph, the desiccant wheel with a higher purge angle
performs better as compared to a lower purge angle.



180

Suggestion for Future Work
The present work experimentally and numerically investigated the performance of solar
powered desiccant dehumidifier for producing the dry air. Many operating and design
parameters have been covered in this research; however there are still many other issues
that may be investigated. Recommended future studies are as follows:
1. Experimental comparison of various solid desiccants for regeneration by using
different concentrating collectors.
2. Experimental and numerical investigation of performance of compound desiccant
wheel at different operating parameters like low humidity and for high temperature range.
3. Experimental investigation of performance of desiccant wheel for heating and
humidification in winter season according to Indian climate conditions.
4. Numerical investigation of two dimensional (axial direction and thickness direction)
heat and mass transfer model to optimize the design and operating parameters of
compound desiccant wheel.
5. Experimental and numerical investigation of solar powered desiccant cooling system
by integrating the desiccant wheel with rotary heat exchanger and evaporative cooler in
the Indian climatic conditions.









181

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS
International Journals

1. Yadav, A. and Bajpai V.K, 2011, Thermal performance of one-ended evacuated tube
solar air collector at different air flow rates: experimental investigation International
Journal of Ambient Energy, 33, pp. 35-50, Taylor and Francis Publications.

2. Yadav, A. and Bajpai V.K., 2011, Experimental comparison of various solid
desiccants for regeneration by evacuated solar air collector and air dehumidification
Drying Technology: An International Journal, 30, pp. 516-525, Taylor and Francis
Publications.

3. Yadav, A. and Bajpai V.K., 2012, The performance of solar powered desiccant
dehumidifier in India: An experimental investigation International Journal of
Sustainable Engineering, Published on line, DOI: 10.1080/19397038. 2012.707252,
Taylor and Francis Publications.
4. Yadav, A. and Bajpai V.K., 2012, An experimental investigation of solar powered
desiccant wheel with different rotational speeds International Journal of Ambient
Energy, Published on line, DOI: 10.1080/01430750. 2012.711083, Taylor and Francis
Publications.
5. Yadav, A. and Bajpai V.K., 2012, Design parameter analysis to improve the
performance of desiccant wheel using a mathematical model Chemical Engineering &
Technology (Accepted on 9 March 2012), Wiley Publications.
6. Yadav, A. and Bajpai V.K., 2012, Comparison of thermal performances of flat plate
and evacuated tube solar air collector at different flow rates: experimental analysis
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology, (Accepted on 19 March 2012),
Inderscience Publications.
7. Yadav, A. and Bajpai V.K., 2012, Numerical and experimental investigation of
operating parameters of solar powered desiccant wheel in India Heat Transfer-Asian
Research (Accepted on 7 June 2012), Wiley Publications.

182

National & International Conference

1. Yadav, A. and Bajpai V.K., 2011, Study and analysis of desiccant dehumidifier
according to ambient air conditions Proceeding of the National Conference on
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning (NCRAC-2011) IIT Madras, Chennai, 7
th
-9
th
July
2011.
2. Yadav, A. and Bajpai V.K., 2011, An experimental study on evacuated tube solar
collector for heating of air in India Proceeding of the International Conference of
Thermal Engineering (ICTE-2011), Paris, France- 27
th
-29
th
July, 2011.























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design and experimental study of the air-conditioning by desiccant type using solar
energy, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference for Enhanced Building
Operations, Vol. 8, Shenzhen, China.




















195

Appendix
Program flow charts









W





No


Yes




Figure A-1 Program flow chart for two sector desiccant wheel
START
Process program
Regeneration program
Process program



I
STOP





Initialize

and



Initialize
W and



Initialize

and




, ()
=
, (1)

Whether
?





,
=
, ()

,
=
, ()

196







W

W,


,

W

No

Yes






Figure A-2 Program flow chart for three sector desiccant wheel (clockwise)

START
Process program
Regeneration program
Purge program
Process program





I
Regeneration
program


STOP

Initialize

and



Initialize
W and





Initialize






Initialize




, ()
=
, (1)

Whether
?





,
=
, ()


,
=
, ()

197









W


,
W




No

Yes





Figure A-3 Program flow chart for three sector desiccant wheel (anticlockwise)

START
Process program
Purge program
Regeneration program
STOP
Process program



I

Initialize

and





Initialize
W and


Initialize





,
=
, ()


,
=
, ()


, ()
=
, (1)

Whether
?

198








W




No

Yes




Figure A-4 Program flow chart for four sector desiccant wheel


START
Process program 1
Regeneration program 1
Process program 2

STOP
Regeneration program 2









I
Process program 1


Initialize

and





Initialize
W and




Initialize

and



Whether

, ()
=
, (1)

?
Yes




,
=
, ()


,
=
, ()

199








W



,

,

,

,

W




No

Yes




Figure A-5 Program flow chart for heated and cooled purge sector desiccant wheel
START
Process program
Cooled purge program
Regeneration program

STOP
Heated purge program









I
Process program


Initialize

and






Initialize
W and




Initialize

and




, ()
=
, (1)

Whether
?





,
=
, ()


,
=
, ()