Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

Reading Part A

This resource was developed by OET Online


Website: http://oetonline.com.au Email: oetonline@gmail.com
1
Playground Injuries & Playground Surface Material

Part A Summary Gap Fill Time Limit: 15 minutes
Instructions
Complete the following summary using the information in the texts for this
task.
Skim and scan the texts to find the information required.
Gaps may require 1, 2 or 3 words.
Write your answers in the appropriate space in the column on the right hand
side.
Make sure your spelling is correct.
Summary Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

The most common playground-related injuries are
fractures, (1)___ and dislocations, with most injuries
occurring in schools and (2)____. In public
playgrounds the equipment with highest number of
(3)___was climbers, while in home playgrounds it
was (4)___.
The severity of injury is directly related to the
surface material in the playground. While grass is
often believed to have a cushioning effect, it is
(5)___ because the dirt below is (6)___. As a result,
wood fibre, (7)___ and rubber matting are (8)___by
safety experts.
A recent study published in the Public Library of
Open Science investigated the risk of (9)___among
children. According to the study, the two main
determining risk factors are (10)___ and (11)___ .
However, the purpose of the study was to compare
two common playground (12)___, granitic sand and
engineered wood fibre in regard to injury prevention.
Results indicate that the risk of fracture was much
(13)____ in wood fibre surfaced playgrounds than
with (14)___.


14.
Reading Part A

This resource was developed by OET Online
Website: http://oetonline.com.au Email: oetonline@gmail.com
2

Part A Answer Sheet continued
Summary Answers
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.


However, injuries do occur on all surfaces. For
example, orthopaedic injuries such as broken
(15)___and (16)___are often the result of
(17)___falls.

While complete safety can never be guaranteed, the
number and severity of injuries can be (18)___ by
adhering to a safety checklist. A (19)___of 30 cm is
advised when using wood chips, sand or (20)___.
The surface area covered must (21)___ a minimum
of 2m in all directions and play structures which are
over 1m in (22)___ must be at least (23)____apart.
Equipment and surfaces should be checked
(24)___in order to maintain good condition.

Other factors worth considering are that more
injuries occur in the (25)___age group, (26)___have
slightly higher chance of injury than (27)___ and
playgrounds in (28)___ were considered more
(29)___ than playgrounds in high income areas due
to damaged fall surfaces, more rubbish and
(30)___play equipment.
TOTAL SCORE


Reading Part A

This resource was developed by OET Online
Website: http://oetonline.com.au Email: oetonline@gmail.com
3
Part A
Time Limit: 15 minutes
Instructions
Complete the summary on the answer page using the information in the four
texts below.
Skim and scan the texts to find the information required.
Write your answers in the appropriate space in the column on the right hand
side.
Make sure your spelling is correct.

Playground Injuries & Playground Surface Material
Text 1
Playground Injuries: Fact Sheet
Overview
Each year in the United States, emergency departments treat more than 200,000
children ages 14 and younger for playground-related injuries .

Occurrence and Consequences
About 45% of playground-related injuries are severefractures, concussions
and dislocations
About 75% of injuries related to playground equipment occur on public
playgrounds. Most occur at schools and daycare centres.

Cost
In 1995, playground-related injuries among children ages 14 and younger cost
an estimated $1.2 billion.

Groups at Risk
While all children who use playgrounds are at risk for injury, girls sustain
injuries (55%) slightly more often than boys (45%) .
Children ages 5 to 9 have higher rates of playground injuries than any other
age group. Most of these injuries occur at school .

Risk Factors
On public playgrounds, more injuries occur on climbers than on any other
equipment.
On home playgrounds, swings are responsible for most injuries.
Playgrounds in low-income areas were considered less safe than playgrounds
in high-income areas. For example, playgrounds in low-income areas had
significantly more rubbish, rusty play equipment, and damaged fall surfaces.










Reading Part A

This resource was developed by OET Online
Website: http://oetonline.com.au Email: oetonline@gmail.com
4
Text 2
Safety Surfacing
At its most basic, safety surfacing is a cushion that can absorb some of the impact of
falls. While grass may be considered soft and comfortable, the dirt just beneath grass
is actually quite hard and potentially dangerous. In its place, safety experts
recommend surfaces with "give"most commonly, engineered wood fibre, sand and
rubber matting. At proper depths, safety materials lessen the chances of life-
threatening (mainly head) injuries at your playground.
It's important to note that no surface can guarantee safety, especially against
orthopaedic injuries like broken wrists and ankles. In many cases, these injuries result
more from awkward falls than the type of surface material.
There is no single best surface for your playground. Factors like weather, the
availability of maintenance staff, and even budgets play a role in that decision.



Text 3
Injury Reduction through Public Playground Safety Checklist:
Make sure surfaces around playground equipment such as wood chips, sand, or
gravel, are at least 30 cm deep.
Check that protective surfacing extends at least 2m in all directions from play
equipment. For swings, be sure surfacing extends, in back and front, twice the
height of the suspending bar.
Make sure play structures more than 1m high are spaced at least 3m apart.
Make sure spaces that could trap children, such as openings in guardrails or
between ladder rungs, measure less than 12cm or more than 20cm
Check for sharp points or edges in equipment.
Look out for tripping hazards, like exposed concrete footings, tree stumps, and
rocks.
Check playgrounds regularly to see that equipment and surfacing are in good
condition.
Carefully supervise children on playgrounds to make sure they're safe.

Reading Part A

This resource was developed by OET Online
Website: http://oetonline.com.au Email: oetonline@gmail.com
5



Text 4
Source: Public Library of Open Science
Authors: Andrew W. Howard, Colin Macarthur, Linda Rothman, Andrew Willan, Alison K.
Macpherson
Background: The risk of playground injuries, especially fractures, is prevalent in
children, and can result in emergency room treatment and hospital admissions. Fall
height and surface material are major determinants of playground fall injury risk.
However there is limited research comparing different playground surfaces.
Methods and Findings: The risk of arm fracture from playground falls onto granitic
sand versus onto engineered wood fibre surfaces was compared, with an outcome
measure of estimated arm fracture rate per 100,000 student-months. Schools were
randomly assigned by computer generated lists to receive either a granitic sand or an
engineered wood fibre playground surface (Fibar), and were not blinded. Injury data,
including details of circumstance and diagnosis, were collected at each school by a
prospective surveillance system with confirmation of injury details through a
validated telephone interview with parents and also through collection of medical
reports regarding treated injuries. Among all schools, the arm fracture rate was 4.5 per
100,000 student-months for falls into sand compared with 12.9 for falls onto Fibar
surfaces.
Conclusions: Playground fractures are a serious health problem created by an
environment built specifically for children. Prior investigations have consistently
shown height and surfacing to be important risk factors, but no study has
prospectively investigated the effects of an intervention using injury outcomes. This
investigation shows that the risk of a fracture was 4.9 times higher over an engineered
wood fibre playground surface compared with sand. Updating playground safety
standards to reflect this information will reduce the most common and severe injuries
seen on modern playgrounds, without limiting childrens access to healthy outdoor
play.





Reading Part A

This resource was developed by OET Online
Website: http://oetonline.com.au Email: oetonline@gmail.com
6
Playground Injuries & Playground Surface Material

Answer Sheet
1. concussions
2. daycare centres
3. injuries
4. swings
5. potentially dangerous
6. quite hard
7. sand
8. recommended (use passive form)
9. playground injuries
10. fall height
11. surface material
12. surfaces
13. higher
14. sand
15. wrists
16. ankles
17. awkward
18. reduce (change noun to verb)
19. depth (change adjective to noun)
20. gravel
21. extend(change verb to standard form following the modal verb must)
22. height (change adjective to noun)
23. 3 m
24. regularly
25. 5 to 9
26. girls
27. boys
28. low-income areas
29. dangerous (use opposite of safe)
30. rusty
Reading Part A

This resource was developed by OET Online
Website: http://oetonline.com.au Email: oetonline@gmail.com
7
Highlighted Answers
!"#$%&'()* ,)-(&./0 1 !"#$%&'()* 2(&3#4/ 5#6/&.#"
7/86 9
!"#$%&'()* ,)-(&./0: ;#46 2<//6
=>/&>./?
Lach year ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes, emergency deparLmenLs LreaL more Lhan 200,000 chlldren
ages 14 and younger for playground-relaLed ln[urles .

=44(&&/)4/ #)* @')0/A(/)4/0
AbouL 43 of playground-relaLed ln[urles are severe-fracLures, (1)concusslons and
dlslocaLlons
AbouL 73 of ln[urles relaLed Lo playground equlpmenL occur on publlc playgrounds.
MosL occur aL schools and (2)daycare cenLres.

@'06
ln 1993, playground-relaLed ln[urles among chlldren ages 14 and younger cosL an
esLlmaLed $1.2 bllllon.

B&'(C0 #6 D.0E
Whlle all chlldren who use playgrounds are aL rlsk for ln[ury, (26)glrls susLaln ln[urles
(33) sllghLly more ofLen Lhan (27)boys (43) .
Chlldren ages (23) 3 Lo 9 have hlgher raLes of playground ln[urles Lhan any oLher age
group. MosL of Lhese ln[urles occur aL school .

D.0E ;#46'&0
Cn publlc playgrounds, more (3)ln[urles occur on cllmbers Lhan on any oLher
equlpmenL.
Cn home playgrounds, (4)swlngs are responslble for mosL ln[urles.
laygrounds ln (28)low-lncome areas were consldered less (29) (dangerous) safe
Lhan playgrounds ln hlgh-lncome areas. lor example, playgrounds ln low-lncome
areas had slgnlflcanLly more rubblsh, (30)rusLy play equlpmenL, and damaged fall
surfaces.

7/86 F
2#3/6$ 2(&3#4.)%
AL lLs mosL baslc, safeLy surfaclng ls a cushlon LhaL can absorb some of Lhe lmpacL of falls.
Whlle grass may be consldered sofL and comforLable, Lhe dlrL [usL beneaLh grass ls acLually
(6)qulLe hard and (3)poLenLlally dangerous. ln lLs place, safeLy experLs (8)recommend(ed)
surfaces wlLh "glve"-mosL commonly, englneered wood flbre, (7)sand and rubber maLLlng.
AL proper depLhs, safeLy maLerlals lessen Lhe chances of llfe-LhreaLenlng (malnly head)
ln[urles aL your playground.
lL's lmporLanL Lo noLe LhaL no surface can guaranLee safeLy, especlally agalnsL orLhopaedlc
ln[urles llke broken (13) wrlsLs and (16) ankles. ln many cases, Lhese ln[urles resulL more
from (17)awkward falls Lhan Lhe Lype of surface maLerlal.
1here ls no slngle besL surface for your playground. lacLors llke weaLher, Lhe avallablllLy of
malnLenance sLaff, and even budgeLs play a role ln LhaL declslon.

Reading Part A

This resource was developed by OET Online
Website: http://oetonline.com.au Email: oetonline@gmail.com
8

7/86 G
,)-(&$ H9IJD/*(4H/J6.') 6<&'(%< !(K".4 !"#$%&'()* 2#3/6$ @</4E".06:
- Make sure surfaces around playground equlpmenL such as wood chlps, sand, or
(20)gravel, are aL leasL 30 cm (19) (depLh)deep.
- Check LhaL proLecLlve surfaclng (21)(exLend)s aL leasL 2m ln all dlrecLlons from play
equlpmenL. lor swlngs, be sure surfaclng exLends, ln back and fronL, Lwlce Lhe helghL of
Lhe suspendlng bar.
- Make sure play sLrucLures more Lhan 1m (22) (helghL)hlgh are spaced aL leasL
(23)3m aparL.
- Make sure spaces LhaL could Lrap chlldren, such as openlngs ln guardralls or
beLween ladder rungs, measure less Lhan 12cm or more Lhan 20cm
- Check for sharp polnLs or edges ln equlpmenL.
- Look ouL for Lrlpplng hazards, llke exposed concreLe fooLlngs, Lree sLumps, and
rocks.
- Check playgrounds (24)regularly Lo see LhaL equlpmenL and surfaclng are ln good
condlLlon.
- Carefully supervlse chlldren on playgrounds Lo make sure Lhey're safe.
7/86 L
2'(&4/: ubllc Llbrary of Cpen Sclence
M(6<'&0: Andrew W. Poward, Colln MacarLhur, Llnda 8oLhman, Andrew Wlllan, Allson k. Macpherson
N#4E%&'()*: 1he rlsk of (9)playground ln[urles, especlally fracLures, ls prevalenL ln chlldren,
and can resulL ln emergency room LreaLmenL and hosplLal admlsslons. (10)lall helghL and
(11) surface maLerlal are ma[or deLermlnanLs of playground fall ln[ury rlsk. Powever Lhere ls
llmlLed research comparlng dlfferenL playground surfaces.
5/6<'*0 #)* ;.)*.)%0: 1he rlsk of arm fracLure from playground falls onLo granlLlc sand
versus onLo englneered wood flbre (12)surfaces was compared, wlLh an ouLcome measure
of esLlmaLed arm fracLure raLe per 100,000 sLudenL-monLhs. Schools were randomly
asslgned by compuLer generaLed llsLs Lo recelve elLher a granlLlc sand or an englneered
wood flbre playground surface (llbar), and were noL bllnded. ln[ury daLa, lncludlng deLalls of
clrcumsLance and dlagnosls, were collecLed aL each school by a prospecLlve survelllance
sysLem wlLh conflrmaLlon of ln[ury deLalls Lhrough a valldaLed Lelephone lnLervlew wlLh
parenLs and also Lhrough collecLlon of medlcal reporLs regardlng LreaLed ln[urles. Among all
schools, Lhe arm fracLure raLe was 4.3 per 100,000 sLudenL-monLhs for falls lnLo sand
compared wlLh 12.9 for falls onLo llbar surfaces.
@')4"(0.')0: layground fracLures are a serlous healLh problem creaLed by an envlronmenL
bullL speclflcally for chlldren. rlor lnvesLlgaLlons have conslsLenLly shown helghL and
surfaclng Lo be lmporLanL rlsk facLors, buL no sLudy has prospecLlvely lnvesLlgaLed Lhe effecLs
of an lnLervenLlon uslng ln[ury ouLcomes. 1hls lnvesLlgaLlon shows LhaL Lhe rlsk of a fracLure
was 4.9 Llmes (13)hlgher over an englneered wood flbre playground surface compared
wlLh(14)sand. updaLlng playground safeLy sLandards Lo reflecL Lhls lnformaLlon wlll reduce
Lhe mosL common and severe ln[urles seen on modern playgrounds, wlLhouL llmlLlng
chlldren's access Lo healLhy ouLdoor play.

Centres d'intérêt liés