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Task 4 Deep Vein Thrombosis

Part A Summary Gap Fill Time Limit: 15 minutes

Instructions
Complete the following summary using the information in the texts
for this task.
Skim and scan the texts to find the information required.
Gaps may require 1, 2 or 3 words.
Write your answers in the appropriate space in the column on the
right hand side.
Make sure your spelling is correct.

Summary Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

There are various risks associated with flying, one of
them being deep vein thrombosis. Research first
linked the condition to air travel in (1)____. Since
then many case reports and series have been
(2)____. An English study published in the well
known medical journal the (3)____ found that a
persons risk increased directly as a result of (4)____
and that more people died in the (5) ____area than
the (6)_____area. New Zealand and German studies
found similar associations between flying and deep
vein thrombosis. This was (7)____ to a Dutch study
which did found no association between flying and
deep vein thrombosis.

Despite conflicting results, some airlines take a
proactive approach and (8) ____ to passengers on
how to (9)____ of deep vein thrombosis. Their
recommendations include the wearing of loose
clothes, avoidance of (10)____and regular
movements around the plane. Sitting with your legs
crossed is not (11)____ while regular stretching and
(12)____may be beneficial. Finally before
travelling, a (13)____with your doctor is suggested.
13.
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Part A Answer Sheet continued

Summary Answers
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

A recent study by Cannegieter et al, published in
(14)____, investigated the risk factors associated
with various (15)____ and (16) ____. Based on a
study of (17) ____ patients, the researchers found
that travelling by (18)____ had a comparable risk to
that of flying.

For those still prepared to take the risk of travelling,
common symptoms of deep vein thrombosis include
(19) ____ in the leg, often associated with swelling,
redness, increased warmth and bluish (20)____.
However, the most significant symptom linked to
deep vein thrombosis is (21)____.




According to Cannegieter et al (2006) there are
several risk factors among the general population
which may increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis.
Bus or train travellers with factor V Leiden who had
a (22)_____of more than 30, were taller than
(23)____ or who took (24)____ had a relatively high
risk. Whereas air travel led to an (25)____thrombosis
risk for travellers with a height of less than (26)
____.






TOTAL SCORE




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This resource was developed by OET Online
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Part A
Time Limit: 15 minutes
Instructions
Complete the summary on the answer page using the information in
the four texts below.
Skim and scan the texts to find the information required.
Write your answers in the appropriate space in the column on the
right hand side.
Make sure your spelling is correct.


Text 1
Economy Class Syndrome
International flights are suspected of contributing to the formation of
DVT in susceptible people, although the research evidence is currently
divided. Some airlines prefer to err on the side of caution and offer
suggestions to passengers on how to reduce the risk of DVT. Suggestions
include:
Wear loose clothes
Avoid cigarettes and alcohol
Move about the cabin whenever possible
Dont sit with your legs crossed
Perform leg and foot stretches and exercises while seated
Consult with your doctor before travelling

Text 2
Previous research
Venous thrombosis was first linked to air travel in 1954, and as air travel has
become more and more common, many case reports and case series have
been published since. Several clinical studies have shown an association
between air travel and the risk of venous thrombosis.


English researchers proposed, in a paper published in the Lancet, that flying
directly increases a person's risk. The report found that in a series of
individuals who died suddenly at Heathrow Airport, death occurred far more
often in the arrival than in the departure area. Two similar studies reported
that the risk of pulmonary embolism in air travelers increased with the
distance traveled.

In terms of absolute risk, two studies found similar results: one performed
in New Zealand found a frequency of 1% of venous thrombosis in 878
individuals who had traveled by air for at least 10 hours. The other was a
German study which found venous thrombotic events in 2.8% of 964
individuals who had traveled for more than 8 hours in an airplane.

In contrast, a Dutch study found no link between DVT and long distance
travel of any kind.

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Text 3
Symptoms
Pain and tenderness in the leg
Pain on extending the foot
Tenderness in calf (the most important sign)
Swelling of the lower leg, ankle and foot
Redness in the leg
Bluish skin discoloration
Increased warmth in the leg


Text 4

Title: Travel-Related Venous Thrombosis: Results from a Large
Population-Based Case Control (2006)
Authors: Suzanne C. Cannegieter1, Carine J. M. Doggen1, Hans C. van
Houwelingen2, Frits R. Rosendaal
Study
Background
Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of venous thrombosis after
air travel. Nevertheless, questions on the magnitude of risk, the underlying
mechanism, and modifying factors remain unanswered.
Methods
We studied the effect of various modes of transport and duration of travel
on the risk of venous thrombosis in a large ongoing case-control study on
risk factors for venous thrombosis in an unselected population. We also
assessed the combined effect of travel in relation to body mass index,
height, and oral contraceptive use.
Since March 1999, consecutive patients younger than 70 years of age with a
first venous thrombosis have been invited to participate in the study, with
their partners serving as matched control individuals. Information has been
collected on acquired and genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis.
Results:
Of 1,906 patients, 233 had traveled for more than 4 hours in the 8 weeks
preceding the event. Traveling in general was found to increase the risk of
venous thrombosis. The risk of flying was similar to the risks of traveling by
bus or train. The risk was highest in the first week after traveling. Travel by
bus, or train led to a high relative risk of thrombosis in individuals with
factor V Leiden, in those who had a body mass index of more than 30, those
who were more than 190 cm tall , and in those who used oral
contraceptives. For air travel these people shorter than 160 cm had an
increased risk of thrombosis after air travel as well.
Conclusions
The risk of venous thrombosis after travel is moderately increased for all
modes of travel. Subgroups exist in which the risk is highly increased.
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Task 4 Deep Vein Thrombosis

Answer Sheet
1. 1954
2. published
3. Lancet
4. flying
5. arrival
6. departure
7. in contrast
8. offer suggestions
9. reduce the risk
10. cigarettes and alcohol
11. recommended/advised (necessary to deduce fro the context)
12. exercising/exercises
13. consultation (necessary to change verb to noun)
14. 2006
15. modes of transport
16. duration of travel
17. 1906
18. bus or train
19. pain and tenderness
20. skin discoloration
21. tenderness in calf
22. body mass index
23. 190cm
24. oral contraceptives
25. increased
26. 160cm
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Answer Key: Deep Vein Thrombosis


Text 1
Economy Class Syndrome
International flights are suspected of contributing to the formation of
DVT in susceptible people, although the research evidence is currently
divided. Some airlines prefer to err on the side of caution and (8)offer
suggestions to passengers on how to (9)reduce the risk of DVT.
Suggestions include:
Wear loose clothes
Avoid (10)cigarettes and alcohol
Move about the cabin whenever possible
Dont sit with your legs crossed (11) i.e not recommended
Perform leg and foot stretches and (12)exercises while seated
(13)Consult (tation)with your doctor before travelling

Text 2
Previous research
Venous thrombosis was first linked to air travel in (1)1954, and as air travel
has become more and more common, many case reports and case series
have been (2) published since. Several clinical studies have shown an
association between air travel and the risk of venous thrombosis.


English researchers proposed, in a paper published in the (3) Lancet, that
(4) flying directly increases a person's risk. The report found that in a series
of individuals who died suddenly at Heathrow Airport, death occurred far
more often in the (5)arrival than in the (6)departure area. Two similar
studies reported that the risk of pulmonary embolism in air travelers
increased with the distance traveled.

In terms of absolute risk, two studies found similar results: one performed
in New Zealand found a frequency of 1% of venous thrombosis in 878
individuals who had traveled by air for at least 10 hours. The other was a
German study which found venous thrombotic events in 2.8% of 964
individuals who had traveled for more than 8 hours in an airplane.

(7)In contrast, a Dutch study found no link between DVT and long distance
travel of any kind.

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Text 3
Symptoms
(19)Pain and tenderness in the leg
Pain on extending the foot
(21)Tenderness in calf (the most important sign)
Swelling of the lower leg, ankle and foot
Redness in the leg
Bluish (20)skin discoloration
Increased warmth in the leg


Text 4

Title: Travel-Related Venous Thrombosis: Results from a Large
Population-Based Case Control (14) (2006)
Authors: Suzanne C. Cannegieter1, Carine J. M. Doggen1, Hans C. van
Houwelingen2, Frits R. Rosendaal
Study
Background
Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of venous thrombosis after
air travel. Nevertheless, questions on the magnitude of risk, the underlying
mechanism, and modifying factors remain unanswered.
Methods
We studied the effect of various (15)modes of transport and (16)duration of
travel on the risk of venous thrombosis in a large ongoing case-control study
on risk factors for venous thrombosis in an unselected population. We also
assessed the combined effect of travel in relation to body mass index,
height, and oral contraceptive use.
Since March 1999, consecutive patients younger than 70 years of age with a
first venous thrombosis have been invited to participate in the study, with
their partners serving as matched control individuals. Information has been
collected on acquired and genetic risk factors for venous thrombosis.
Results:
Of (17)1,906 patients, 233 had traveled for more than 4 hours in the 8
weeks preceding the event. Traveling in general was found to increase the
risk of venous thrombosis. The risk of flying was similar to the risks of
traveling by (18)bus or train. The risk was highest in the first week after
traveling. Travel by bus, or train led to a high relative risk of thrombosis in
individuals with factor V Leiden, in those who had a (22)body mass index of
more than 30, those who were more than (23)190 cm tall , and in those
who used (24)oral contraceptives. For air travel these people shorter than
(26)160 cm had an (25)increased risk of thrombosis after air travel as well.
Conclusions
The risk of venous thrombosis after travel is moderately increased for all
modes of travel. Subgroups exist in which the risk is highly increased.