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5^0 THEORY OF APX'IinECTURE.

Book
II.
M'hic'h gave a cubic yard of ballast, bold precisely the same ballast with the addition
of
one-sixth in bulk of ground stone lime made with it into concrete, besides about fourteen
pails of water
;
and likewise tended to disprove the assertion that concrete swells in
setting. This cubic yard of concrete weighed 27 cwt. In estimating, allowance must be
made for the loss of material.
lS62a. Expansion taki-ng place in concrete made of nnground lime, during its slaking,
has been taken advantage of by G. L. Taylor in the underpinning of some walls at
Chatham, as detailed in the Transactions of the Institute of British Architects, 1835.
This expansion has been found to average about
|
of an inch for each foot in height, and
the size thus gained the c jncrete never loses. Care must be taken when using it for floors
and for the spandrel of arches, to allow sufficient space, and to lay it in such a way that
this increase may take place without thrusting out the walls, as has occasionally happened.
In old malthouses in the West of England, with concrete floors 5 to 6 inches thick,
fitone walls 2 feet 6 inches to 3 feet thick have bulged out 3 or 4 inches on each side by
the expansi n of the concrete, as also noticed in the Transactions of the above named
society, 1854, p.
74. AVhen ground lime is used the assertion that concrete swells is very
questionable, as s'ated in the previous paragraph. The Metropolitan Board of Works,
under the Met. Man. and Building Acts Amend. Act, 1878, sec. 16, requires the cement
*
to be Portland cement, or other cement of equ il quality, mixed with clean sharp sand
or grit in the proportions of one of cement to four of sand or grit." Concrete
for u-alis
to be
"
of Portland cement and of clean Thames or pit ballast, or gravel, or broken
brick or stone, or furnace clinkers, with clean sand in the following proportions : viz.,
4 of Portland cement, 2 of clean sand, and 3 of the coarse material, which is to be
broken up sufficiently small to pass through a 2-inch ring. The proportions of the
materials to be strictly observed, and to be ascertained by careful admeasurement; and
the mixing, either by machine or hand, to be most carefully done with clean water, and
if mixed by hand, the material to be turned over dry before the water is added."
18626. For water works required to set rapidly, an excellent concrete may be made by
a mixture, the proportions of which were found
by
Treussart as follows:
30 parts of
hydraulic lime, very energetic, measured in bulk, and before being slaked
;
30 parts of
terras of Andernach
;
30 parts of sand; 20 parts of gravel; and 40 parts of broken
fetone, a hard limestone. These proportions diminish one-fifth in volume after manipula-
tion
;
the mortar is made first. When the Italian puzzuolana is used, the proportions
f-hould be 33 parts of lime as before; 45 parts of puzzuolana; 22 parts of sand; and
CO parts of broken stone and gravel. The first of these concretes should be employed
immediately it is made
;
the second requires to be exposed about twelve hours before it
it is put in place. When burnt clay or pounded bricks are used, 30 parts will suffice, but
this mortar must not be used in sea water. If only rich, instead of hydraulic, limos be
used, the quantity of the natural or artificial puzzuolanas must be increased, and that of
the stones and gravel be decreased. (Burn'dl, Limes, ^r.) See par. 1864e.
1862c. Afier many experiments, M. Kuhlmann recommends a cement composed of 30
parts of rich lime, 50 of sand, 15 of uncalcined clay, and 5 of powdered silicate of potash,
as having all the requisite hydraulic properties, especially for cisterns intended for spring
water. In marine constiuctions care should be taken to add an excess of silicate to those
p
irtions of cenieiit which are exposed to the immediate contact of the sea.
1862c?. The object to be aimed at in making hydraulic concrete, is to give such a suffi-
ciency of mortar as will produce the aggregation of the whole mass of rough rubble
materials. In Portland cement concrete, for instance, the proportions for the mortar may
be 1 of cement to 3 of sand, and this mortar may then be mixed with 6 parts of ballast
or shingle. In blue lias lime concrete, the proportions may be 1 of unground lime to
2 or '2\ of sand, and this mortar may be mixed with 3 or 4 parts of ballast ; and it must
be understood in all cases that the mortar must be made first, and that it then should be
thoroughly incorporated witli the ballast or shingle. This concrete as used at the recent
extension of the London Docks by Mr. litndd, consisted of 1 part of blue lias lime with
6 parts of gravel and sand. The proportions for the blocks of the mole at Marseilles
were 3 parts of Theil lime to 5 parts of sand mixed up into mortar, and then added to
2 parts of broken stone. At the Metropolitan Main Drainage works, the proportion of
1 of Portland cement to
5.t
of ballast for sewers, and 1 of cement to 8 of ballast and
sand for backing walls and other works except sewers. The usual proportions are 1 to 6.
A report was delivered to the Aberdeen Harbour Board on the damage caused by the
chemical action of the sea-water on the (Portland?) Concrete entrance works of the
graving dock. 1 he surface had softened from the foundation up to the bottom of the
.
ashlar lining, three feet above low water. The concrete behind four courses of the
ashlar, between high and low water, Mas also softened, loosf^ning the bond. The softened
concrete under the water had been removed, and the face of the wall rebuilt up to low-
water level with Roman cement concrete in bags plastered with Roman cement. The
pressure on the foundations amounts at low water to 5 lbs. on the square inch of surface,
and at high water to 11 lbs.; this cautel a current of sea-water through the
porous