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# National Junior College Physics Department

## FOR NJC INTERNAL USE ONLY 1

2012 H2 Physics Preliminary Examinations Suggested Solutions - Paper 2
1 (a) A systematic error is one that occurs consistently more or consistently less than the
actual reading. A random error is one that gives a scatter of readings about a mean
value.
A systematic error may be eliminated whereas a random error cannot be eliminated,
but only reduced, when using suitable experimental techniques.

(b) systematic error: wear and tear at the 0-cm mark (or end) of the metre rule

Random error: eye is not aligned directly with the normal on the marking of the metre
rule, instead eye may be positioned inconsistently at different angles to the normal for
the different readings taken. This results in readings taken to be sometimes higher
and sometimes lower than the actual value.

(c) k = F / x = mg / (x
2
-x
1
) = (0.050 x 9.81) / (0.165 0.15) = 32.7 Nm
-1

k/k = (m/m) + (x/x) = (m/m) + (x
2
+ x
1
)/(x
2
x
1
)
= (0.1/50) + (0.05 + 0.05)/(16.5-15.0) = 0.0687
k = 2.25 = 2 Nm
-1
(1 s.f.)
k = (33 2 ) Nm
-1

2(a)

Acceleration of B = initial acceleration of A = g sin23 = 3.83 ms
-2

Time taken for B to reach 400 m = {2(400) / 3.83} = 14.5s
Velocity of B at time t=14.5s = 14.5(3.83) = 55.4 ms
-1

Velocity of A at time t = 14.5s = (14.5 1.0) (3.83) = 51.7 ms
-1

1.0 14.5

55.4
51.7
0
v / ms
-1

t / s
[1/2]
value
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2 (b) Time taken for B to cover (700 (3*2.0) = 694m) = { 2(694) / 3.83 } = 19.0 s
Distance covered by A in 19.0 s
= (51.7)(13.5) + (51.7 *(19.0 14.5) + (2*3.83)(19.0 14.5)
2
)
= 348.98 +310.21
= 659 m < 694 m
Hence, skier A will not win the race.
Or
Time taken for B to cover 700m = { 2(700) / 3.83 } = 19.1 s

Distance covered by A in 19.1 s
= (51.7)(13.5) + (51.7 *(19.1 14.5) + (2*3.83)(19.1 14.5)
2
)
= 348.98 +318.21
= 666 m < 700 m
Hence, skier A will not win the race as not possible for A to be 3 ski lengths ahead
of B.
Or
Time taken for B to cover 700m = { 2(700) / 3.83 } = 19.1 s

Time taken for A to cover 700m: 14.5 seconds to cover 348.98 m
5.0 seconds to cover (700-348.98)= 351m
Total time for A to cover 700m = 14.5 + 5.0 = 19.5 seconds
Hence skier A will not win as he takes longer to cover 700m
Or
Find time taken for A to overtake B by 3 full ski lengths , let time taken = 14.5 + t
Distance covered by A = distance covered by B + 3(2.0)
Area under graph for A = area under graph for B + 6.0
0.5 (51.7 x 13.5) + 0.5 (51.7 + 51.7 + 2gsin23 t) t = 0.5 (gsin23)(t + 14.5)
2
+ 6.0
t = 6.71 s
So distance covered by A when he overtakes B by 3 full ski lengths
= 0.5 (51.7x 13.5) + 0.5 (51.7 + 51.7 + 2gsin23 t) t
= 868.5 m > 700 m
This only occurs after he crosses the finishing line so A does not win the
competition

3 (a) Their weights will all be the same. [no marks]

The reading on the scales of Case B and C are:
Weight of water in the Beaker + Reaction Force to Upthrust on the wooden object.
Or
the combined weight of water/beaker and block.
The weight of the wooden object = Upthrust on the wooden object = to the weight of
the fluid displaced.
As the fluid displaced + the fluid in the beaker gives back the original Case for A, all
cases give the same reading.
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3 (b) No marks given if
Forces are not properly labelled: T instead of Tension, W instead of Weight
Origin of Upthrust arrow is from the bottom surface of the solid object.

3 (c) (i) Final: X + Z
Initial X + Y
Change is (X + Y) (X + Z) = Y - Z
Or
Considering the system as a whole, initial case: Normal contact force = weight
of beaker + block tension
Final case: Normal contact force = weight of beaker + block
Difference is tension which is Y - Z
Upthrust
Tension
Weight
Contact Force of
water acting on
beaker due to
weight
Normal
contact force
by scale on
beaker
Reaction
Force of the
upthrust
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3 (c) (ii) Balancing Forces on the solid object, we have
ma = W - N U
Solving for a when N = 0 , we have a = (Y-Z) / m
Or
When object loses normal contact, Net force on object = Y- Z
Hence minimum a = (Y- Z) / m

4 (a) The gravitational field strength, g, at a point in a gravitational field is defined as the
gravitational force per unit mass acting on a small mass placed at that point.
(b) The forces in both field follow the inverse square law, that is the field strength is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance away from the centre of the
source mass/charge.
OR
Both the forces involved are examples of non-contact forces.
Gravitational force is attractive in nature whereas electric force can be attractive or
repulsive.

(c) (i)

(c) (ii) The change in potential per km is numerically equal to the g-field strength of
the Earth. From the graph, the field strength decreases with height and thus
the change in potential per km decreases with height.
OR The area under the g vs H graph represent the change in the
gravitational potential. Thus as H increase and g decreases, the area under
10
2.5
6 12 18
Height/ 10
6
m
Field strength/ N kg
-1

1.1
0.6
3
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the graph measured from infinity to that point decreases indicating a
decreasing change in gravitational potential.

(c) (iii) Using conservation of energy:
Total energy on earth = Total energy at infinity
mv
2
+ (-GMm/R) = 0
GMm/R = 1/2mv
2

But GM/R
2
= 10,
Hence v = 1.1 x 10
6
ms
-1

5 (a) By conservation of energy

Work done by the electric field = gain in kinetic energy of electron = energy of the x-
ray photon
eV = hc/
min
(1.6 x 10
-19
)(80 x 10
3
) = (6.63 x 10
-34
)(3 x 10
8
)/
min

min
1.55 x 10
-11
m

(b)

(c) The number of transitions of electrons from the L-shell to the K-shell is more than
from the M-shell.
OR
There is a greater probability that the vacancy in the K-shell is filled by an electron
from the L-shell than the M-shell.

(d) Ionisation energy of K shell Ionisation energy of L shell = energy of K

line
Ionisation energy of L shell
=[ (69.5 x 10
3
)(1.6 x 10
-19
) - (6.63 x 10
-34
)(3 x 10
8
)/ (0.0215 x 10
-9
)]/( 1.6 x 10
-19
)
= 11.7 keV

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6 (a) (i) The spectrum lines observed from the emission spectra depends on the
difference in energy of any two energy levels of the element. Since different
elements will have different discrete energy levels, the emission spectra of
each element will distinct and can be used to identify the element.

(ii) n = 3 to n = 1, = (6.63 x 10
-34
)(3 x 10
8
)/ (13.6 1.51)(1.6 x 10
-19
) = 102.8 nm
n = 3 to n =2, = (6.63 x 10
-34
)(3 x 10
8
)/ (3.40 1.51)(1.6 x 10
-19
) = 657.7nm
n = 4 to n = 2, = (6.63 x 10
-34
)(3 x 10
8
)/ (3.40 0.85)(1.6 x 10
-19
) = 487.5 nm
n = 4 to n =3, = (6.63 x 10
-34
)(3 x 10
8
)/ (1.51 0.85)(1.6 x 10
-19
) = 1883 nm

Transition n = 3 to n = 2 and n = 4 to n = 2 will give rise to photons within the
visible light range.

(b) (i) The time/energy Heisenberg uncertainty principle is the source of an natural linewidth
in photons emitted from atoms when electrons change orbitals.

(ii) E t h/4
E (6.63 x 10
-34
)/4( 1.6 x 10
-9
) = 3.297 x 10
-26
J = 2.06 x 10
-7
eV

7 (a) Enclose the receiver coil in a metal cage/iron shell with an open bottom.
The purpose of the open bottom is so that it can still receive magnetic
signals from objects in the ground.
(b) Magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic material, current-carrying
conductor, or a moving charge experiences a force.

(c)

Field lines should become further apart as you go further away from the coil.

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7 (d) (i) By reading 3 values from the graph, we calculate the value of yx
2

[Show working + explain, 1] No half-marks are given.
x y yx
2

1.0E-02 6.3E-05 6.3E-09
2.0E-02 3.1E-05 1.3E-08
3.0E-02 2.1E-05 1.9E-08
Since yx
2
for all three values are not equal to a constant, k, the equation
2
x
k
y
cannot be true.
7(d)(ii)
B
0.00006283

0.00002094

0.00001257

0.00000898

0.00000698

(e)
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Correct Values Plotted
Good Line of Best Fit
The equation
r
k
B is valid as a straight line of best fit with no anomalies is
obtained when a graph of Log
10
(B/Tesla) versus Log
10
(r/m) is plotted
7(f)(i) Show correct substitution of values for gradient. i.e.
1 2
1 2
x x
y y

Value of Gradient : -1.00
Show calculation of y-intercept using y = mx + C. Cannot read off from graph since it
does not cut [0,0]
y-intercept: -6.20
(f)(ii) Vertical intercept = - lg(k)
K = 6.3 x 10
-7

Calculation of k
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For k=
2
I
o

, we have I =
1
10 4
10 3 . 6 2 2
7
7

o
k

(g) Increase the current in the coil
Accepted: Increase the number of coils / Use thicker wires so that resistance can be
decreased and current increased
(h) Iron is ferromagnetic while gold is not. We have a larger induced current
in iron compared to gold, thus the signal detected in iron is higher.
Accepted: Iron can concentrate magnetic field lines better and it responds
strongly to magnetic field/ Iron is a magnetic material while gold is not
(Student should say ferromagnetic)
Induced magnetic field or emf in iron is bigger/ Eddy currents in iron
are larger.
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8
Description Points
1. Diagram

1m for the overall
feasibility of the set-up (ie
as long as it is
reasonable)
1m for feasible way to
measure extra force.
1m for feasible way to
measure that the slide is
just above the surface of
the liquid

2. Variables
Independent Variable: Perimeter of the slide (P)
Dependent Variable: Extra force (F) to just lift the slide above the liquid
surface.
Control Variables:
- The type of the liquid used must be constant.
-The material of the microscope slide
- Consistent ambient temperature to minimise the change of the physical
properties of the liquid.

1m (for correct IV and
DV)

1m (At least these 2 must
be present)
3. Measurement
i) Set up the apparatus as shown above
ii) Measure the weight (W) of the slide using a electronic balance.
iii) Use vernier calipers to measure the length (L) and micrometer screw
gauge to measure the breadth (b) of the slide and then calculate the

1m for measurement of P
1m for the calculation of
where the height can
be varied in small
increment.
Force sensor attached to
data-logger
clip to hold the
slides
Top view
Slides
Travelling
microscope
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perimeter (P = 2L + 2b).
iv) Insert the slide into a beaker of water, use the adjustable platform and
traveling microscope to adjust the height of the beaker such that the base of
the slide is in line with the general level of the water. Read and record the
force (R) measured by the Newton meter. Determine F using F = R W.

v)Repeat step ii-iv by using different slides of different sizes(and thus
weights) to collect 10 sets of P and F.
F
1m for the repeat step
4.Analysis
A table which contains values of L, b, W, P and F is recorded. A graph of
lg(F) vs lg(P) is then plotted and the gradient and y-intercepts of the graph
are determined. Then the relationship between the P and F could be
determined in the form F = kP
n
, where the constants n is the gradient and k
= 10
y-intercept

1m
5. Precaution
The risks involved in this experiment can be minimal
- Consistent efforts should be made to clear up any spillage of the liquid to
avoid causing anyone from slipping.

1m