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Computer is an electronic, programmable device which manipulates/processes and stores data so that useful

information can be generated.


Computer is an automatic, high speed, digital, electronic data processing device that can be programmed to accept
data (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it away (in a secondary device) for safekeeping or
later reuse. Computer is a machine that performs tasks, such as calculations or electronic communication, under the
control of a set of instructions called program. Program usually resides within the computer and are retrieved and
processed by the computers electronics. he program results are stored or routed to output devices, such as video
display monitors or printers. Computers perform a wide variety of activities reliably, accurately, and !uickly.
Computer Competency Computer Competency means being able to use a computer and perform the basic tasks
needed to work with computing efficiently.
"ecause of the continually increasing use of computers in our daily communications and work, the
knowledge of computer systems and the ability to work with word processing, data management, and spreadsheet
and data analysis programs have become essential re!uirements.
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-. 't is a machine. 't needs human intervention for the computer to work.
.. 't is electronic. 't is made up of electronic components and is powered by electricity.
/. 't is automatic. 't has the ability to e0ecute a set of instructions consecutively once instructed.
1. 't can manipulate data. 't has the ability to come up with an output, given an input data.
2. 't has memory. 't has the ability to store and retrieve information.
3. 't has logical functions. 't has the ability to perform not only mathematical operations but as well as
logical operations.
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-. (peed. Computers process data in a relatively high speed. Computer operations like adding two
numbers are measured in milliseconds, microseconds, nanoseconds and picoseconds.
.. $ccuracy. Computers process users prepared instructions. hat is, if the input is wrong, it will
definitely yield a wrong output 56'6) 7 6arbage in 6arbage )ut8. he so9called :computer errors;
are usually programming 5logic errors8 and encoding errors 5synta0 errors8 that are all human errors.
hus, the computers accuracy is -<<=.
/. %epetitiveness. Computers can work continuously and repetitively without getting bored and fainted.
hey dont take sick leaves or coffee breaks.
1. (torage. Computers can store a vast amount of data for present and future processing, depending on its
capacity. 4ikewise, they can retrieve these data anytime.
2. Programmable. Computers can take a series of instructions and automatically e0ecute each instruction
one after the other. Computers are also programmed to >sense if there are errors in these instructions.
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*raction of a second
millisecond @ .<<- secs. microsecond @ .<<<<<- secs.
nanaosecond @ .<<<<<<<<- secs. picosecond @ .<<<<<<<<<- secs.
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-. Bependence on prepared instructions.
.. 'nability to derive meanings from obCects.
/. 'nability to generate information
1. 't can detect errors but cannot correct wrong instructions.
2. (ubCect to occasional breakdowns.
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$ significant portion of a persons life involves the processing of data, that is, conversion of data into
something useful and understandable. 4ike anyone who makes a decision as an individual as a student, as a head of
a family, as a political leader, or as an owner or manager of a business, large or small, has to process data.

Bata and 'nformation
'n the course of understanding computer concepts, you will often meet the terms :data; and :information;.
hese terms may be taken to mean the same. hey may also be taken to mean different things by observing that
data consist of raw facts or figures gathered from one or more sources and that information is processed data.
Bata is defined as a collection of unorganiDed facts while information consists of data that have been organiDed and
made meaningful to the person or persons receiving it.
'nformation is an essential ingredient for decision making. *or individuals and organiDations to achieve desired
goals, they must make decisions based on relevant information.
'nformation must first be available to the individual or organiDation before significant decision can be
made. his information may be in the form of write9ups, reports, answers to specific !ueries, or in any form that
makes sense to the one making use of it.
'n business, information used in making decisions is called >management information. he system for
providing information for decision making, planning, and control is called >management information system 5+'(8.
+anagement decisions must be based on accurate information. 'f decisions are based on inaccurate and incomplete
information, the actual results of these decisions can be !uite different from the desired results.
'n a manufacturing process, the !uality of the finished product depends largely on the !uality of the raw
materials used to manufacture it. #ence, if defective raw materials are used in production, you will also e0pect the
final product to be defective. he same principle applies in the processing of data. he !uality of information
depends on the !uality of the data used to produce that information. 'ncorrect data generate incorrect information.
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-. $ccuracy. $ccuracy may be defined as the ration of correct information to the total amount of
information over a period of time. *or e0ample, if only five out of one hundred bank statements are
incorrect, the level of accuracy is ninety9five percent 5E2=8. 'naccurate may be due to human error,
machine malfunctions, or both.
.. imeliness. Fhat is the use of accurate information if it arrives too lateG $ccuracy alone is not
enough. 'nformation must be made available to management in time form decision making.
/. Completeness. +ost managers who have to make decisions are frustrated at having information that is
accurate and timely but incomplete. hey have to be provided with well9integrated facts from different
points in a business in order to have complete information.
1. %elevance. )ftentimes, managers are given more information than they actually need. 'mportant
information, along with relatively useless and redundant data, is often buried in stacks or detailed
reports. +anagers are then faced with the problem of having to draw out the needed information
themselves.

Bata Processing
't is defined as the transformation of raw data into useful information. $ll sectors of society are involved in
data processing. *or e0ample, aeronautical engineers are involved in scientific data processing which computes and
forecasts the position of space crafts. "usinessmen, on the other hand are involved in business data processing.
"usiness data processing is the capture, processing, and storage of data on business activities in order to support
business activities and produce information useful for decision making. he system which performs this function is
called >business data processing system. Bata processing can be done by people with or without the help of a
machine and these are called >manual and electronic data processing.
Fhat is a +anual Bata ProcessingG
$ manual data processing is something that one can do all operations from data gathering to information
generation with or without the aid of machines.
Fhat is an &lectronic Bata ProcessingG
$ data processing system that uses a computer is called an electronic data processing (&BP) system. he
computer is an electronic device which operates on its own with minimal human intervention. 'n an &BP system,
the clerk assigned to manually collect, sort, tabulate, and type sales information would only need to enter the sales
information into the computer and push a few buttons. Fithin minutes, after all data have been entered, the sales
report is printed and ready for submission to the sales manager. &BP systems process large volumes of data faster
and more accurately than manual systems.
"asic Bata Processing *unctions
Bata processing system vary widely from firm to firm. he e!uipment and methods that used in data
process will depend on the type of business from its siDe, information needs of its managers, owners, creditors, and
investorsH the funds available to perform the work re!uiredH the volume of dataH and many other factors. %egardless,
of the system used whether from simple manual system to the most sophisticated electronic system. here are
certain steps that must be performed in the processing procedure and these are the followingI
-. )riginating. )riginating means gathering data as business transactions occur. "usiness data can be
gathered through different meansH the most common which is the business form. "usiness forms, or
source documents as they are often called, vary in type. ypical e0amples include sales tickets, time
cards, invoices, and check stubs. "efore the ne0t step is performed, the data on the source document
should be checked to see if they are valid and accurate. 'f its not, therefore, it should be corrected.
.. %ecording. he very act of origination data may also include the function of recording. #owever, in
many instances, this originating is only the initial gathering of data, while recording means entering or
writing data in a formal and somewhat permanent form within a record9keeping system. $ typical
e0ample of this step is entering data manually in general Cournal.
/. Classifying. his function involves in identifying data which have common characteristics and
grouping them together. *or e0ampleI Consumer goods were it can be labeled, classified, and coded
by siDe, color, material, and so on.
1. (orting. )nce data have been classified, they may be arranged into the group or se!uence re!uired.
+anual sorting can be done in various ways. Bata can be physically arranged into groups on the top of
a table, or data can be sorted into a pre9labeled set of pigeonholes or bo0like containers.
2. Jerifying. he careful checking of the recorded data/information for any discrepancy and/or errors.
3. Calculating, comparing, and summariDing. he calculating function uses mathematical computations
involving two or more units of data to produce answers which in themselves are newly created data.
'n data comparison, one data item is compared with another to determine if it is e!ual to, greater than,
or less than the other.
%elated to the calculating function is the summariDing function of data processing. Periodically, there
is a need to determine sums or totals across a given classification of data. )ne good e0ample of these
is total sales for a given period of time. he value of assets owned by the firm, or the total of individual
checks making up a payroll to determine the labor e0pense or the amount of cash needed in the bank to
cover this payroll.
K. %eporting. Bata which have been processed must be presented to the user in a form that is
understandable and usable. his is normally presented in the form of written report that conveys
meaningful information to the user.
L. Buplicating. he reproduction of the data/information into many forms or documents.
E. (toring. Bata could be stored through the simple recording of business transactions and records in
Cournals and ledgers and the filing of reports in filing cabinets as well as through a sophisticated,
computeriDed storage system involving various electronic devices.
-<. +erging. (ets of data/information, after having been sorted by a particular similar key, are put together
to form a single sorted set of data.
--. %etrieving. %efers to recovering a stored data and/or information when it is necessary.
-.. *eedback. %efers to the comparison of the output(s) and the goal set in advance. 'n the event that there
is discrepancy from the information, it will analyDe, corrected and fed back to the origination and/or
stage of processing operation.
&lements of Bata Processing (ystem
)nce a data is collected, it is processed to convert it into useful information. he data is processed again
and again until the accurate result is achieved. his is called data processing cycle.
he data processing is very important activity and involves very careful planning. ,sually, data processing
activity involves three basic activities.
-. 'nput. he term input refers to the activities re!uired to record data and to make it available for
processing. he input can also include the steps necessary to check, verify and validate data contents.
.. Processing. erm processing denotes the actual data manipulation techni!ues such as classifying,
sorting, calculating, summariDing, comparing, etc. that convert data into information.
/. )utput. 't is a communication function which transmits the information, generated after processing of
data, to persons who need the information. (ometimes output also includes decoding activity which
converts the electronically generated information into human9readable form.
1. (torage. 't involves the filing of data and information for future use.
Classification of Bata Processing
-. "usiness Bata Processing. CharacteriDed by the need to establish, retain, and process files of data for
producing useful information. 'n addition, it involves a large volume of input data, limited arithmetical
operations, and a relatively large volume of output.
.. (cientific Bata Processing. 't involves a limited volume of data and many logical or arithmetic calculations.
,nlike business problems, most of the scientific problems are non9repetitive, re!uiring a :one9time;
solution.
+ethods of Processing Bata
-. "atch Processing. $ method in which data to be processed are collected, consolidated into groups (batch) in
order to have a convenient, efficient, and serial processing.
.. )n9line Processing. $ techni!ue that uses devices directly connected to the CP, either for data entry or
in!uiry purposes.
/. %eal9time Processing. $ method which has the capability of a fast response to obtain data from an activity
or a physical process.
1. Bistributed Processing. 't generally consists of remote terminals linked to a large central computer system
to help the user conduct in!uiries about accounts, process Cobs, or other data processing operations.
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Pre9+odern &ra
+anual +echanical Bevices. hese are devices powered by hand and re!uire physical effort from
the user.
o $bacus. he first man9made computing device that uses beadsH invented in China.
o Aapiers bones. $n arrangement of bones wherein numbers are printedH invented by Mohn
Aapier.
o )ughtreds (lide %ule. Consists of movable bars with a precise scale, which uses
appro0imations for solving problemsH invented by Filliam )ughtred.
o Pascaline. he first mechanical calculator (adding machine) that uses cogged wheelsH
invented by "laise Pascal
o 4eibnitD Calculator. he improved Pascaline which could multiply and divideH invented
by 6ottfried 4eibnitD.
&lectro9+echanical Bevices. hese are devices powered by an electric motor and use switches
and relays.
o #olleriths Punch9Card +achine. he first use of punched cards to store data, developed
by #erman #ollerith.
o $utomatic Feaving 4oom. ,ses the concept of punched card to control his looms invent
by Moseph +arie Mac!uard.
o $utomatic (e!uence Controlled Calculator (+$%N-) he first general9purpose
electromechanical computer, invented by #oward $iken.
*irst 6eneration Computers 5-E2- 7 -E2L8
+aCor #ardware *eaturesI Jacuum tubes and magnetic drums
Processing (peedI -, <<<< instructions per second
(iDeI +ainframes
&0amplesI
,niversal $utomatic Computer (,A'J$C ') 7 the first commercial business
computerH developed by Mohn &ckert and Mohn +auchly.
'"+ K<- 7 the generation computer of '"+
'"+ 32< 7 the most popular -
st
generation computer
(econd 6eneration Computers 5-E2E 7 -E3/8
+aCor #ardware *eaturesI ransistors and magnetic core
Processing (peedI -,<<<,<<< instructions per second
(iDeI +ainframes
&0amplesI
%$B'C 7 firs transistoriDed computer
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'"+ K<K<, K<E<, -1<< series
B. hird 6eneration Computers 5-E31 7 -EK<8
+aCor #ardware *eaturesI 'ntegrated circuits or :chips;
Processing (peedI -<,<<<,<<< instructions per second
(iDesI +ainframes and +inicomputers
&0amplesI
'"+ (ystem /L< 7 the most significant /
rd
generation computer
"urroughs "22<<
&. *ourth 6eneration Computers 5-EK- 7 present8
+aCor #ardware *eaturesI +icroprocessor or 4arge9scale 'C
Processing (peedI -<,<<<,<<< instructions per second
(iDesI +ainframes and +inicomputers
&0amplesI
$pple '', %( L<
'"+ (ystem /K<, (ystem /<E<
'"+ PC 7 O based computers
'"+ PC 7 $ based computers
+otorolla 3L</< based computers
*. *ifth 6eneration Computers 5*uture8
+aCor #ardware *eaturesI Circuitry based on gallium arsenide
(uperconductors
)ptical circuitry
Processing (peed
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$. $ccording to Purpose
-. 6eneral9Purpose Computers. Capable of dealing with a variety of different problems.
.. (pecial9Purpose Computers. Besigned to perform a specific task, with limited capabilities
". $ccording to Bata #andled

-. $nalog Computers. Beal with continuously changing physical data such as pressure, temperature. $nalog
Computers definitely used for scientific engineering and process9control purposes.
.. Bigital Computers. Bigital computers work with values that are in a discrete form. 5data that can be
counted8. hey are used for business applications, and also scientific operations, and are ideal when -<<=
accuracy is desired, thus it is resulting to data that are e0act in values.
/. #ybrid Computers. 'ncorporate in a single machine the capabilities of the analog and digital computers.
hey are used in space vehicle simulations and training of astronauts.
C. $ccording to Capacity
Fhat is CapacityG
Capacity refers to the followingI
$mount of data that can be stored in memory
(peed of 'nternet operation of the computer
Capacity of storage devices
Aumber and types of peripheral devices
-. +icrocomputers. (mall computers, which are portable. ,ses microprocessor 5he CP, on a chip8, %ead9
)nly +emory 5%)+8 and a %andom9$ccess +emory 5%$+8. 't is sometimes known as a >(ingle9Chip
Processor or >(ystem9on9a9Chip. &0amplesI Besktop and floor standing units, luggable, laptops,
notebooks, subnotebooks, pocket PCs, and pen computers.
.. +inicomputers. +achines, which are in the middle of microcomputers and mainframes in terms of cost
and capability. Cost is between P .<,<<< and P .2<,<<<< hese act as >servers, which are connected to
several workstation or terminals.
/. +ainframes. he oldest category, these are air9cooled computers bigger in siDes, about the siDe of a Ceep
and cost from P2<,<<< to P 2 million. hey are used mostly by banks, airlines, and insurance companies
that handle millions of transactions.
1. (upercomputers. he biggest and fastest computers. hey can perform 2< million instructions per second
and are used in applications such as nuclear weapon development and accurate weather forecasting. range
from P..2, <<< to more than P/< million. (upercomputers are the fastest calculation devices ever
invented.
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Fhat is a (ystemG 's an organiDed group of related and interdependent elements, parts, or components
interacting with one another in performing the individual and specific tasks for the purpose of meeting one or more
goals or obCectives. Computer (ystem is consists of the followingI
-. #ardware, refers to the internal and e0ternal physical compositions of the computer. (*or complete
discussion, see Chapter .)
.. (oftware. refers to a set of instructions that is to e0ecuted by the computer. (*or complete discussion, see
Chapter /)
/. Peopleware. refers to the personnel involved within the computer installation or it could be anybody who
wants his Cob to be done with the use of computers.
Careers in Computing
a. Computer )perations Personnel
a.-. Computer )perator9 't involves in setting up the processor and related tape and disk drives,
starting the program run, checking to ensure proper operation, and uploading e!uipment at the end of a
run/.
a... Bata &ntry )perator9 't transcribes data from source documents into a magnetic media form thats
suitable for input into a computer system.
a./. Program and +edia 4ibrarian9 't tasked of maintaining and protecting that installations programs
and data.
b. Batabase $dministrator9 't establishes a data dictionary that records organiDation9 wide data definitions
and standards. $ct as a file design and database consultant to others in the organiDation.
c. &ducator9 employed to teach computing concepts.
d. 'nformation (ystem +anager9 't refers to a manager of a department that focuses on activities such as
system analysis/ design or program preparationH must perform the functions of planning, organiDing,
and controlling.
e. Nnowledge &ngineer9 't work closely with human specialists to translate human e0pertise into the facts
and decision rules that can be placed in the knowledge base of an e0pert system.
f. Programmer
f.-. $pplications Programmer9 't takes care of the systems specifications of analysts and transforms
them into effective and well9documented programs that perform specific tasks for users.
f... (ystems Programmer9 performs a support function by maintaining the system software
environment in which application programmers and computer operators work.
g. (ystem $nalyst9 responsible for analyDing how computer data processing can be applied to specific
user problems, and for designing effective custom9made data processing solutions.
h. echnical Friter9 't produces user manuals and other software documentation.
1. Bataware. refers to the steps specifying the manner certain activities are to be accomplished.