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642

THEORY OF
ARCHITECTURE.
Book II.
f:k.7h.
Fig. 710.
AI5 equal to the height of the
window above the ceiling, and through the three points
<J, B, H describe the
semicircle ABC for the head of the window. Divide /tB into any
number of equal parts, as 4 at the
points /i. I, v
;
and h4 into the same number of e(iua
parts at the points 1
, 2, 3.
Through the
points klu draw the lines et,
fu,
gw paralk-1 to dp, and
through the points 1, 2, 3 draw the
lines mg, nr, os. Make Im, 2k, 3o respectively equal
to ke.
If,
vg ;
as also 1
q,
2r, 3s equal to kt,
hi, vw ; that is, equal to ke.
If,
vg.
Then
through the points dmnoh, and also
through pqrs4, draw a curve
which will
form the curb required. In the section X
of the figure, AC shows the ceiling line,
whereof the length is equal to h4, and
AB is the
perpendicular height of tlie
window; hence BC is the slope.
2066. The construction of a niche,
which is a portion of a spherical surface,
and stands on a plan formed by the seg-
ment of a circle, is simple enough ;
for
the ribs of a niche are all of the same
curvature as the plan, and fixed
{fig.
710. ) in planes passing through an axis
corresponding to the centre of the sphere
and perpendicular to the plane of the
wall. If the i)lan of the niche be a
semicircle
{Jig.
711.)
the ribs may be disposed in vertical planes.
2067. In the construction of a niche where the ribs are disposed in planes perpendicular
to the horizon or plan, and perpendicular to the face of the wall, if the niches be spherical
all their ribs are sections of the sphere, and are portions of the circumferences of different
circles. If we complete the whole
circle of the plan
{,fjg.7
1
2. ),
and pro-
duce the plan ofany rib to the opposite
side of tlie circumference, we shall
have the diameter of the circle for
that rib, and, consequently, the radius
to describe it.
20G8.
Of
forming the boards to
cover domes, groins,
Sfc.
The prin-
ciples of determining the develope-
ment of the surface of any regular
solid liave already been given in
considerable detail. In this place we
have to apply them practically to
carpentry. The boards may be ap-
plied either in the form of gores or in
portions of conic surfaces
;
the latter
Fig. 7i2.
is generally the more economical
method.
2069. To describe a gore that shall be tlie
form of
a hoard
fo^
a dome circular on the plan.
Draw the plan of the dome ABD
(Jig.
713.),
aiid its diameter
BD and Ae a radius per-
pendicular thereto. If the sections of the dome about to be
described be semicircular,
then the curve of tlie vertical section will coincide with that of
the plan. Let us suppose
the quadrant A B to be half of the vertical section, which may
be conceived to be raised on the line Ae as its base, so as to be
in a vertical plane, then the arc AB will come into the sur-
face of the dome. Make Ai equal to half the width of a board
and join ei. Divide the arc AB into any number of ecjual parts,
and tlirough the jioints of division draw the lines li, i>j, 3/c, 41,
cutting Ae in the ])oints
efgh and ei in the points ij/d. Produce
the line eA to s, and apply the arcs Al, 12, 23, 34 to Am, mo, oq
in the straight line As. Through the points mnoq draw the
straight lines tn, up, vr, and make mn, op, qr, as also mt, ou, qv,
respectively ecjiial to
ei,fj,
gk; then through the points iiipr to
s, and also througli the points xtuv to s, draw two curves from
the points x and / so as to meet each other in s; and the curves
thus drawn will include one of the gores of the dome, which will
be a mould for drawing tlie boards for covering the surface.
2070. In polygonal domes the curves of the gore will bound
the ends of the boards ; as, for example, in the octagonal dome