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Name: Joel Arakkal

Roll No. 37
Date: 23/08/2014
Academic Year: 2014 - 2015

REFRIGERATION TEST RIG

REFRIGERATION TEST RIG


AIM:
1. To evaluate the cooling capacity in Watts & in Tons of the system.
2. To evaluate actual and theoretical C.O.P. of Vapour Compression Cycle.
3. To plot the actual Refrigeration Cycle on p-h chart.
4. To study various components and controls used in Vapour Compression Cycle.
DESCRIPTION:
Test Rig enables students to study and understand Vapour Compression Cycle, its
components, principle and working. All the components are mounted on rigid steel
frame. The trainer consists of a hermetically sealed compressor; forced convection aircooled condenser, filter/drier, flow meter, expansion device and shell & coil type
evaporator. Separate pressure gauges are provided to record suction and discharge
pressures and digital temperature indicators for various temperatures.
The refrigerant used is R-134a, which is environment friendly.
The calorimeter consists of an insulated stainless steel tank. The evaporator tubes
are made of refrigerated grade annealed copper tubes. This is a direct expansion type
evaporator. The heat absorbed by the refrigerant is balanced by heater input. The heater
is immersion type resistive water heater. The calorimeter temperature can be set by a
digital thermostat. Adequate safety devices such as HP/LP cut-out, heating thermostat,
and overload protection for compressor are incorporated to prevent any malfunctioning
of the system.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:
The Refrigeration Test Rig works on vapour compression cycle. The refrigeration
(i.e. process of maintaining a closed space temperature below ambient temperature) is
accomplished by continuously circulating, evaporating and condensing a fixed supply of
refrigerant in a closed system. Evaporation occurs at a low temperature and low
pressure while condensation occurs at a high temperature and pressure. Thus it is

possible to transfer heat from an area of low temperature (in this case evaporator) to an
area of high temperature (the surroundings).
The compressor pumps the low-pressure refrigerant from the evaporator through
the accumulator, increases its pressure, and discharges the high-pressure gas to the
condenser. The accumulator prevents liquid refrigerant entering the compressor. In the
condenser, the refrigerant rejects its heat to the surroundings by passing air over it. At
that pressure, the refrigerant loses its latent heat and liquefies. Then the refrigerant
passes through the drier/filter where any residual moisture or foreign particles present,
these are plugged. The flow of refrigerant into the evaporator is controlled by expansion
device where its pressure and consequently temperature is lowered to the saturation
temperature at the corresponding pressure. The low temperature refrigerant enters the
evaporator where it absorbs heat from the surrounding medium and evaporates. The
compressor sucks the cold vapours and the cycle repeats.
The required instrumentation is provided to measure the various parameters at
different points. This includes pressure gauges, temperature indicators and controller,
energy-meters, heater for applying load and flow meter to measure the refrigerant flow.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF REFRIGERATION TEST RIG

CAPACITY

600 WATT AT RATED TEST CONDITIONS.

REFRIGERANT
COMPRESSOR
CONDENSER

R-134 a
HERMETICALLY SEALED
FORCED CONVECTION AIR COOLED

CONDENSER FAN MOTOR


DRIER / FILTER
EXPANSION DEVICE
REFIGERANT
FLOW

INDUCTION TYPE
DRYALL MAKE
CAPILLARY TUBE
ROTAMETER

MEASURMENT
HP/LP CUTOUT
PRESSURE INDICATION
ENERGY METER
TEMPERATURE
CONTROL

PROVIDED
PRESSURE GAUGES, 2NOS PROVIDED
L&T MAKE,
AUTOMATIC BY TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER

OF THE CALORIMETER
EVAPORATOR
FOR

SHELL AND COIL TYPE, DIRECT EXPANSION

600 WATT AT RATED TEST CONDITIONS.

CAPACITY
REFRIGERATION TEST RIG
TEMPERATURE INDICATION
INSULATION

FOR

WATER

COIL.
DIGITAL LED
PUF

TANK
SUPPLY

230 VOLTS, 50HZ, 1 PHASE, AC.

CONSTRUCTION

MAIN BODY: 18 G CRCA, POWDER COATED.


CALORIMETER: SS 304

PROCEDURE:
Put the machine in the proper position where its level is horizontal and it is well
ventilated. The machine must have at least 1.5 meters clearances from all sides.
Give 230 volts, 50Hz, and 1 phase supply to the unit.
Incoming cable should be adequate size (at least 4 sq. mm) to prevent overheating of
it.
The electrical point should have a MCB of 16 Amps rating.
Ensure proper earthing.
Fill the water tank with clean water.
Start the compressor by putting the switch ON.
Also switch on the heater; it will start automatically at set point.
Control the water flow to heat exchanger around 3 LPM.
Record all the readings as per the observation table.
Calculate the results as per the procedure mentioned. At various points.

PRECAUTIONS:

The plant should not be left with water in the tank when not in use.
Do-not tamper with the temperature as well as the pressure settings.

STANDARD VALUES AND FORMULAE


Standard Barometric Pressure
Density of Water
Specific heat of water
Gas Constant for Air
Specific Gravity of R-134a at 400

=
=
=
=
=

1.013 bar = 1.013 x 105 N /m2


1000 kg / m3 = 1 kg / liter
4.18 kJ/kg K
287 kg / kJ K
1.2

C
1 Ton of Refrigeration effect

3500 Watts = 3.5 kJ / s

=
=
=

1.1 kg/m3
3600 kJ
14.5 psig

Density of Air at 250 C

1 kWHr (kilowatt-hour)
1 bar

CALCULATIONS: For 2nd Reading


ACTUAL
EFFECT

REFRIGERATION

=
=

M Cp dT
0.086x4.18x4

==

1.45 KW

CAPACITY OF THE TEST


RIG

COMPRESSOR WORK W

= 10x3600/(tx3200) t is in
sec
= 0.34 KW

ACTUAL COEFFICIENT OF
PERFORMANCE

== ACTUAL REFRIGERATION
EFFECT/ ACTUAL COMPRESSOR
WORK
== 1.45/0.34 = 4.26

TO EVALUATE THEORETICAL C.O.P.


WE HAVE AVERAGE REFRIGERANT TEMPERATURES AT SALIENT POINTS:
SUCTION GAS TEMPERATURE = 71oC
DISCHARGE GAS TEMPERATURE= 30oC
TEMPERATURE AFTER CONDENSATION= -5oC
TEMPERATURE AFTER EXPANSION= 0oC
AVERAGE SUCTION PRESSURE IN BAR= 1.5 Kg/cm sq
AVERAGE DISCHARGE PRESSURE IN BAR= 9 Kg/cm sq
ABSOLUTE SUCTION PRESSURE = SUCTION GAUGE PRESSURE+ BAROMETRIC
PRESSURE

= 1.5 + 1 = 2.5 bar

ABSOLUTE DISCHARGE PRESSURE= DISCHARGE GAUGE PRESSURE+ BAROMETRIC


PRESSURE

= 9 + 1 = 10 bar

ACCORDINGLY,
ENTHALPIES OF REFRIGERANT AT SALIENT POINTS ARE
H1=ENTHALPY OF REFRIGERANT AT INLET OF COMPRESSOR= 400 KJ/ KG
H2= ENTHALPY OF REFRIGERANT AT OUTLET OF COMPRESSOR= 450 KJ/KG
H3=ENTHAPLY OF REFRIGERANT AFTER CONDENSATION= 242 KJ/KG
H4=ENTHALPY OF REFRIGERANT AFTER EXPANSION = H3= 242 KJ/KG
THERORITICAL REFRIGERATION EFFECT = N= H1-H4= 158 KJ/KG
THERORITICAL COMPRESSOR WORK = W = H2-H1 = 50 KJ/KG
COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE = C.O.P= N /W = 3.16

RESULTS

CAPACITY

OF

THE

== 1450

WATTS

SYSTEM
0.413 TONS
ACTUAL C.O.P.

=
= 4.26

THEORETICAL C.O.P.

=
= 3.16

OBSERVATION TABLE:
TIME

Water

REFRIGERANT TEMP.

Flow

(0C)

Water
Temp

Rate

PRESSUR
E
Psig
S
uctio

O n

D
isch
arge

R
EFRI

ergy

GERA

Meter

NT

Readin

FLOW

LPH

10

ut
Sec

Kg/s

After

After

Comp. Cond.
T1 oC

T2

After

After

Expn.

Eva.

C T3

T5

T6

C T4 oC

En

for

Pulses
P1

P2

Vr

sec

27.5

0.036

74

31

-2

14

1.5

33

11.5

0.086

71

30

-5

10

1.5

33

0.1

72

29

-7

-7

-7

8.5

34