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1.

Given the following data:


C(s) + F2(g) CF4(g); H1 = 680 kJ mol
F2(g) 2F(g); H2 = +158 kJ mol
C(s) C(g); H3 = +715 kJ mol

calculate the average bond enthalpy (in kJ mol ) for the CF bond.
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(Total 4 marks)

2.

For the process:


C6H6(l) C6H6(s)
the standard entropy and enthalpy changes are:

H = 9.83kJ mol and S = 35.2J K mol .

Predict and explain the effect of an increase in temperature on the spontaneity of the process.
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(Total 3 marks)

3.

Explain in terms of DG , why a reaction for which both DH and DS values are positive can
sometimes be spontaneous and sometimes not.

(Total 4 marks)

4.

Consider the following reaction.


N2(g) +3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
(i)

Use values from Table 10 in the Data Booklet to calculate the enthalpy change, DH , for
this reaction.

(3)

(ii)

The magnitude of the entropy change, DS, at 27C for the reaction is 62.7 J K mol .
State, with a reason, the sign of DS.

(2)

(iii)

Calculate DG for the reaction at 27C and determine whether this reaction is spontaneous
at this temperature.

(3)
(Total 8 marks)

5.

Explain in terms of DG , why a reaction for which both DH and DS are positive is sometimes
spontaneous and sometimes not.

(Total 4 marks)

6.

Consider the following reaction.


N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
(i)

Using the average bond enthalpy values in Table 10 of the Data Booklet, calculate the
standard enthalpy change for this reaction.

(4)

(ii)

The absolute entropy values, S, at 300 K for N2(g), H3(g) and NH2(g) are 193, 131 and
1

192 JK mol respectively. Calculate DS for the reaction and explain the sign of DS .

(3)

(iii)

Calculate DG for the reaction at 300 K.

(1)

(iv)

If the ammonia was produced as a liquid and not as a gas, state and explain the effect this

would have on the value of DH for the reaction.

(2)
(Total 10 marks)

7.

Define the term standard enthalpy of formation, and write the equation for the standard enthalpy
of formation of ethanol.

(Total 5 marks)

8.

Two reactions occurring in the manufacture of sulfuric acid are shown below:
reaction I

S(s) +O2(g) SO2(g)

reaction II

SO2(g) +

(i)

1
2

O2(g)

DH = 297 kJ
SO3(g)

DH = 92 kJ

State the name of the term DH . State, with a reason, whether reaction I would be
accompanied by a decrease or increase in temperature.
(3)

(ii)

At room temperature sulfur trioxide, SO3, is a solid. Deduce, with a reason, whether the

DH value would be more negative or less negative if SO3(s) instead of SO3(g) were
formed in reaction II.
(2)

(iii)

Deduce the DH value of this reaction:


S(s) +

1 12

O2(g) SO3(g)
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

9.

(i)

Define the term average bond enthalpy.


(3)

(ii)

Explain why Br2 is not suitable as an example to illustrate the term average bond
enthalpy.
(1)

(iii)

Using values from Table 10 of the Data Booklet, calculate the enthalpy change for the
following reaction:
CH4(g) + Br2(g) CH3Br(g) + HBr(g)
(3)

(iv)

Sketch an enthalpy level diagram for the reaction in part (iii).


(2)

(v)

Without carrying out a calculation, suggest, with a reason, how the enthalpy change for
the following reaction compares with that of the reaction in part (iii):
CH3Br(g) + Br2(g) CH2Br2(g) + HBr(g)
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

10.

Throughout this question, use relevant information from the Data Booklet.
(a)

Define the term standard enthalpy change of formation, and illustrate your answer with
an equation, including state symbols, for the formation of nitric acid.
(4)

(b)

Propyne undergoes complete combustion as follows:


C3H4(g) + 4O2(g) 3CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
Calculate the enthalpy change of this reaction, given the following additional values:

DHf of CO2(g) = 394 kJ mol


DHf of H2O(l) = 286 kJ mol

(4)

(c)

Predict and explain whether the value of DS for the reaction in part (b) would be
negative, close to zero, or positive.
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

11.

(a)

Propyne reacts with hydrogen as follows:

C3H4(g) + 2H2(g) C3H8(g)

DH = 287 kJ

Calculate the standard entropy change of this reaction, given the following additional
information:

S of H2(g) = 131 J K mol

(3)

(b)

Calculate the standard free energy change at 298 K, DG , for the reaction in part (a). Use
your answer and relevant information from part (d). If you did not obtain an answer to

1
part (a), use DS = 360 J K (this is not the correct value).
(3)
(Total 6 marks)

12.

(a)

The lattice enthalpy of an ionic compound can be calculated using a Born-Haber cycle.
Using lithium fluoride as the example, construct a Born-Haber cycle, labelling the cycle
with the formulas and state symbols of the species present at each stage.
(6)

(b)

Two values of the lattice enthalpies for each of the silver halides are quoted in the Data
Booklet. Discuss the bonding in silver fluoride and in silver iodide, with reference to
these values.
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

13.

But1ene gas, burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water vapour according to the
following equation.
C4H8 + 6O2 4CO2 + 4H2O
(a)

Use the data below to calculate the value of DH for the combustion of but-1-ene.
Bond

C-C

C=C

C-H

O=O

C=O

OH

Average bond
1
enthalpy / kJ mol

348

612

412

496

743

463

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(3)

(b)

State and explain whether the reaction above is endothermic or exothermic.


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(1)
(Total 4 marks)

14.

Calculate the enthalpy change, DH4 for the reaction


C + 2H2 +

1
2

O2 CH3OH

DH4

using Hesss Law and the following information.


CH3OH +

1 12

O2 CO2 + 2H2O

C + O2 CO2
H2 +

1
2

O2 H2O

DH1 = -676 kJ mol

-1

DH2 = -394 kJ mol

-1

DH3 = -242 kJ mol

-1

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(Total 4 marks)

15.

Hex-1-ene gas, C6H12, burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water vapour.
(a)

Write an equation to represent this reaction.


....................................................................................................................................
(1)

10

(b)

Use the data below to calculate the values of DHc and DSc for the combustion of hex1-ene.
Substance

O2(g)

C6H12(g)

CO2(g)

H2O(g)

Standard enthalpy of

-1
formation, DHf / kJ mol

0.0

43

394

242

205

385

214

189

-1

Entropy, S / J K mol
(i)

Value of DHc

-1

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(2)

(ii)

Value of DSc

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(2)

(c)

Calculate the standard free energy change for the combustion of hex-1-ene.
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(2)

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(d)

State and explain whether or not the combustion of hex-1-ene is spontaneous at 25C.
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(1)
(Total 8 marks)

16.

Calculate the enthalpy change, DH4 for the reaction


C + 2H2 +

1
2

O2 CH3OH

DH4

using Hesss Law, and the following information.


CH3OH +

1 12

O2 CO2 + 2H2O

C + O2 CO2
H2 +

1
2

O2 H2O

DH1 = -676 kJ mol

-1

DH2 = -394 kJ mol

-1

DH3 = -242 kJ mol

-1

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(Total 4 marks)

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17.

Methylamine can be manufactured by the following reaction.


CH3OH(g) + NH3(g) CH3NH2(g) + H2O(g)
(a)

Define the term average bond enthalpy.


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(2)

(b)

Use information from Table 10 of the Data Booklet to calculate the enthalpy change for
this reaction.
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(4)
(Total 6 marks)

18.

Methylamine can be manufactured by the following reaction.


CH3OH(g) + NH3(g) CH3NH2(g) + H2O(g)
(a)

Define the term standard enthalpy change of formation.


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(2)

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(b)

The values of standard enthalpy changes of formation for some compounds are shown in
the table.
Compound

DHf / kJ mol

NH3(g)

46

H2O(g)

242

Predict, with a reason, whether the value of DHf for H2O(l) is less than, greater than, or

equal to, the value of DHf for H2O(g).


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(2)

(c)

Use information from the table in (b) and from Table 11 of the Data Booklet to calculate
the enthalpy change for the reaction used to manufacture methylamine.
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(3)
(Total 7 marks)

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19.

(a)

Define the term average bond enthalpy.


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(2)

(b)

Use the information from Table 10 in the Data Booklet to calculate the enthalpy change
for the complete combustion of but-1-ene according to the following equation
C4H8(g) 4CO2(g) + 4H2O(g)
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(3)

(c)

Predict, giving a reason, how the enthalpy change for the complete combustion of but-2ene would compare with that of but-1-ene based on average bond enthalpies.
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(1)

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(d)

The enthalpy level diagram for a certain reaction is shown below.

E n th a lp y

H R
e n th a lp y o f
re a c ta n ts
H P
e n th a lp y o f
p ro d u c ts
T im e

State and explain the relative stabilities of the reactants and products.
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(2)
(Total 8 marks)

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20.

(a)

Define the term standard enthalpy change of formation, DHf .


(2)

(b)

(i)

Use the information in the following table to calculate the enthalpy change for the
complete combustion of but-1-ene according to the following equation.
C4H8(g) + 6O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 4H2O(g)
Compound

DHf / kJ mol

C4H8(g)

CO2(g)

H2O(g)

+1

394

242
(3)

(ii)

Deduce, giving a reason, whether the reactants or the products are more stable.
(2)

(iii)

Predict, giving a reason, how the enthalpy change for the complete combustion of
but-2-ene would compare with that of but-1-ene based on average bond enthalpies.
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

21.

The reaction between ethene and hydrogen gas is exothermic.


(i)

Write an equation for this reaction.


(1)

(ii)

Deduce the relative stabilities and energies of the reactants and products.
(2)

(iii)

Explain, by referring to the bonds in the molecules, why the reaction is exothermic.
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

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22.

(i)

Define the term standard enthalpy change of formation, DHf .


(2)

(ii)

Construct a simple enthalpy cycle and calculate the value of DHf (C2H5OH(l)) given the
following data.

Compound

DHf / kJ mol

H2O(l)

286

CO2(g)

394

C2H5OH(l)

comb/

kJ mol

1371
(5)
(Total 7 marks)

23.

(i)

Define the term average bond enthalpy.


(2)

(ii)

The equation for the reaction of ethyne and hydrogen is:


C2H2(g) + 2H2(g) C2H6(g)
Use information from Table 10 of the Data Booklet to calculate the change in enthalpy for
the reaction.
(2)

(iii)

State and explain the trend in the bond enthalpies of the CCl, CBr and CI bonds.
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

24.

Consider the following reaction:


N2(g) + 3H2(g)
(i)

2NH3(g)

Suggest why this reaction is important for humanity.


(1)

(ii)

Using the average bond enthalpy values in Table 10 of the Data Booklet, calculate the
standard enthalpy change for this reaction.

18

(4)

19

(iii)

The absolute entropy values, S, at 238 K for N2(g), H2(g) and NH3(g) are 192, 131 and
1

193 J K mol respectively. Calculate S for the reaction and explain the sign of S .
(2)

(iv)

Calculate G for the reaction at 238 K. State and explain whether the reaction is
spontaneous.
(3)

(v)

If ammonia was produced as a liquid and not as a gas, state and explain the effect this

would have on the value of H for the reaction.


(2)
(Total 12 marks)

25.

(i)

Define the terms lattice enthalpy and electron affinity.


(2)

(ii)

Use the data in the following table and from the data booklet to construct the Born-Haber
cycle for sodium chloride, NaCl, and determine the lattice enthalpy of NaCl(s).

1
Na(s) + 2 Cl2(g) NaCl(g)

H = 411 kJ mol

Na(s) Na(g)

H = +108 kJ mol

(4)

(iii)

Describe the structure of sodium chloride.


(2)
(Total 8 marks)

20

26.

N um ber of
m o le c u le s

E n e rg y

The diagram shows the distribution of energy for the molecules in a sample of gas at a given
temperature, T1.

(a)

In the diagram Ea represents the activation energy for a reaction. Define this term.
.
.
(1)

(b)

On the diagram above draw another curve to show the energy distribution for the same
gas at a higher temperature. Label the curve T2.
(2)

(c)

With reference to your diagram, state and explain what happens to the rate of a reaction
when the temperature is increased.
.
.
.
.
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

21

27.

(a)

Define the term average bond enthalpy, illustrating your answer with an equation for
methane, CH4.
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(3)

(b)

The equation for the reaction between methane and chlorine is


CH4(g) + Cl2(g) CH3Cl(g) + HCl(g)
Use the values from Table 10 of the Data Booklet to calculate the enthalpy change for this
reaction.
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(3)

(c)

Explain why no reaction takes place between methane and chlorine at room
temperature unless the reactants are sparked, exposed to UV light or heated.
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(2)

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(d)

Draw an enthalpy level diagram for this reaction.

(2)
(Total 10 marks)

28.

The equation for the decomposition of calcium carbonate is given below.


CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)
At 500 K, H for this reaction is +177 kJ mol

(a)

and S is 161 J K mol .

Explain why H for the reaction above cannot be described as Hf .


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(2)

(b)

State the meaning of the term S.


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(1)

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(c)

Calculate the value of G at 500 K and determine, giving a reason, whether or not the
reaction will be spontaneous.
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(3)
(Total 6 marks)

29.

In aqueous solution, potassium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid react as follows.


KOH(aq) + HCl(aq) KCl(aq)+ H2O(l)
The data below is from an experiment to determine the enthalpy change of this reaction.
3

50.0 cm of a 0.500 mol dm solution of KOH was mixed rapidly in a glass beaker with
3
3
50.0 cm of a 0.500 mol dm solution of HCl.
Initial temperature of each solution = 19.6C
Final temperature of the mixture = 23.1C

(a)

State, with a reason, whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic.


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(1)

(b)

Explain why the solutions were mixed rapidly.


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(1)

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(c)

Calculate the enthalpy change of this reaction in kJ mol . Assume that the specific heat
capacity of the solution is the same as that of water.
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(4)

(d)

Identify the major source of error in the experimental procedure described above.
Explain how it could be minimized.
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(2)

(e)

The experiment was repeated but with an HCl concentration of 0.510 mol dm
3
of 0.500 mol dm . State and explain what the temperature change would be.

instead

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(2)
(Total 10 marks)

25

30.

The standard enthalpy change for the combustion of phenol, C 6H5OH(s), is 3050 kJ mol
at 298 K.
(a)

Write an equation for the complete combustion of phenol.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

The standard enthalpy changes of formation of carbon dioxide, CO 2(g), and of water,
1

H2O(l), are 394 kJ mol and 286 kJ mol respectively.


Calculate the standard enthalpy change of formation of phenol, C 6H5OH(s).
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(3)

(c)

The standard entropy change of formation, S , of phenol, C6H5OH(s) at


1

298 K is 385 J K mol . Calculate the standard free energy change of formation,

G , of phenol at 298 K.
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(3)
26

(d)

Determine whether the reaction is spontaneous at 298 K, and give a reason.


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(2)

(e)

Predict the effect, if any, of an increase in temperature on the spontaneity of this reaction.
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(2)
(Total 11 marks)

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31.

The data below is from an experiment used to measure the enthalpy change for the combustion
of 1 mole of sucrose (common table sugar), C12H22O11(s). The time-temperature data was taken
from a data-logging software programme.

Mass of sample of sucrose, m = 0.4385 g


Heat capacity of the system, Csystem = 10.114 kJ K

(a)

Calculate T, for the water, surrounding the chamber in the calorimeter.


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(1)

28

(b)

Determine the amount, in moles, of sucrose.


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(1)

(c)

(i)

Calculate the enthalpy change for the combustion of 1 mole of sucrose.


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(1)

(ii)

Using Table 12 of the Data Booklet, calculate the percentage experimental error
based on the data used in this experiment.
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(1)

29

(d)

A hypothesis is suggested that TNT, 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, is a powerful


explosive because it has:
a large enthalpy of combustion
a high reaction rate
a large volume of gas generated upon combustion
Use your answer in part (c)(i) and the following data to evaluate this hypothesis:
Equation for combustion

Relative
rate of
combustion

Sucrose

C12H22O11(s) + 12O2(g) 12CO2(g) + 11H2O(g)

Low

TNT

2C7H5N3O6(s) 7CO(g) + 7C(s) + 5H2O(g) + 3N2(g)

High

Enthalpy of
combustion
1
/ kJ mol

3406

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(3)
(Total 7 marks)

32.

(a)

Define the term average bond enthalpy.


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(2)

30

(b)

Use the information from Table 10 of the Data Booklet to calculate the enthalpy change
for the complete combustion of but-1-ene, according to the following equation.
C4H8(g) + 6O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 4H2O(g)
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(3)
(Total 5 marks)

31