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Americhem Inc.

Artificial
Weathering,
Durability Testing,
and Fade Resistance
Americhem Inc.
Testing Durability of Synthetic Turf
The purpose of presentation
Review FIFA & ASTM test procedures
Glimpse at the historical background on artificial grass durability
requirements
Methods of testing product performance
Methods of measuring levels of performance
Conclusions
Americhem Inc.
Review current accelerated weathering guidelines for
synthetic turf sports fields, landscapes, and leisure areas
to determine if they correctly assess product
performance .
Americhem Inc.
Testing Durability of Synthetic Turf
The purpose of presentation
Review FIFA / ASTM test procedures
Glimpse at the historical background on artificial grass durability
requirements
Methods of testing product performance
Methods of measuring levels of performance
Conclusions
Americhem Inc.
In December 2011, STC Accepted ASTM & FIFA Procedures
This was a very
important step in
establishing a bench
mark for product
performance in the US.
The STC adopted ASTM and FIFA
procedures and test guidelines to
measure the quality of multiple use
sports playing field. Landscape and
leisure turf is not covered by these
guidelines.
Americhem Inc.
Testing Durability of Synthetic Turf
The purpose of presentation
Review FIFA / ASTM test procedures
Glimpse at the historical background on
artificial grass durability requirements
Methods of testing product performance
Methods of measuring levels of performance
Conclusions
Americhem Inc.
Background on Product
Performance Standards
In 2001, FIFA launched Quality
Concept as a means to test soccer
/ football fields to assess the ball
surface interaction, player surface
interaction and the durability of
fields. This is quote taken from
the Handbook of Requirements
Color changes after weathering should
not be lower than a 3 on a AATCC
gray scale per test EN ISO 20150-A02
Tensile retention after weathering
should be no less than 50% per test
DIN EN 13864.
Rating of 3 on
gray scale = DE
of 3.4 in CIE
LAB values
Americhem Inc.
FIFA Handbook of Test Methods
for Artificial Weathering
FIFA Test Method 10 before 2012 stated:
Use of ISO 4892-3 accelerated weathering conditions will result
in 4896 MJ /m
2
after approximately 3000 hours
FIFAs 2012 handbook states:
Use of ISO 4892-3 accelerated weathering conditions result in
4896 kJ /m
2
after approximately 2500 hours
FIFA set the standards for testing sports fields
I have not found test standards for landscape or leisure
areas
Americhem Inc.
Testing Durability of Synthetic Turf
The purpose of presentation
Review FIFA / ASTM test procedures
Glimpse at the historical background on artificial grass durability
requirements
Methods of testing product performance
Methods of measuring levels of performance
Conclusions
Americhem Inc.
Posted Turf Weathering
Specifications for Sports Fields
Reference Light MJ /m
2
TSR 300-
2450 nm
MJ /m
2
UV 295-
385 nm
Hours
FIFA 2001-2011 UVA 340 - 4896 3000
FIFA 2012 UVA 340 -
4.896
2500
DIN 18035-7 Xenon 7500
- Not stated
LND UVB 313 -
Not stated
2500
Note: 1 megajoule = 1000 kilojoules
Americhem Inc.
ISO 4892-3 for Fluorescent UVs
Irradiance 0.76 W/m
2
at 340
nm
Lamps UVA 340
Chamber
temperature
60 C on light / 50 C
dk. cycle
Light/dark cycle 8 hrs. UV / 4 hrs.
dark
% Humidity
Not specified
Irradiance 0.83 W/m2 at 313
nm
Lamps UVB 313
Chamber
temperature
43 C
Relative Humidity Not specified
Light/dark cycle 4 hrs. light / 2 hrs.
dark cycle
Spray 2 min. in dark cycle
Spectral Power Distribution
Supplied by Q-Lab
FIFA specified ISO 4892-3 UVA-340
LND (Lega Nazionale Dilettanti)
specified ISO 4892-3 UVB-314
Americhem Inc.
ISO 4892-2 for Xenon Arcs
Irradiance 0.50 W/m2 at
340 nm
Filter
combination
Borosilicate in /
out
Black panel
temperature
65 C + /- 3
Chamber
temperature
43 C
Relative
Humidity
50%
Light/dark cycle Continuous UV
Spray
18 min. front spray
every 2 hrs.
SpectralPowerDistributionofaTypeBoroSinner/TypeBoroSouter
filtercombination
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
280 480 680 880 1080 1280 1480 1680 1880 2080 2280
Wavelength(nanometers)
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

I
r
r
a
d
i
a
n
c
e

(
W
/
m

n
m
)
TypeBoroSinner/TypeBoroSouter Sunlight(CIE85;Table4)
Spectral Power Distribution
Supplied by Atlas
ISO-4892-2 is specified in DIN 18035-7
Sports Ground Part 7: Synthetic Turf Areas
Americhem Inc.
This is a Xenon Arc which
we use for ISO 4892-2
Americhem Inc.
This is a QUV which we use
for ISO 4892-3 with UVA-
340. Another is set to run
LNDs ISO 4892-3 UVB-314
Americhem Inc.
MJ /m
2
of Irradiance for
UVA-340 Lamp / ISO 4892-3
The integrated irradiance for UVA
calibrated at 0.76 W/m
2
is
45.1W/m
2
This calculates to 0.163
MJ /m
2
/hr of light cycle
0.163 x 3000 hrs. = 489.6 MJ /m
2
Therefore in 3000 hours of light, a
QUV with a UVA lamp which was
calibrated for 0.76 W/m
2
at 340 nm
will have a total of 489.6 MJ /m
2
of
UV irradiance.
If the test was only run for 3000
hours, with specified light dark
cycle, 489.6 x 0.66 = 323 MJ /m
2
of
UV irradiance.
Spectral Graph &
Calculations Supplied by
Q-Lab
Americhem Inc.
MJ /m
2
of Irradiance for
Xenon Arc Lamp / ISO 4892-2
Based on the spectral power
distribution with Boro S /
Boro S filters at 0.50 W/m
2
calibration; the sum of all
wavelengths is 1177 W/m
2
.
W/m
2
x 0.0036 x 1 Hour =
4.237 MJ /m
2
per hour
SpectralPowerDistributionofaTypeBoroSinner/TypeBoroSouter
filtercombination
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
280 380 480 580 680 780 880 980 1080 1180 1280 1380 1480 1580
Wavelength(nanometers)
S
p
e
c
t
r
a
l

I
r
r
a
d
i
a
n
c
e

(
W
/
m

n
m
)
Spectral Graph & Calculations
Supplied by Atlas
Americhem Inc.
Testing Durability of Synthetic Turf
The purpose of presentation
Review FIFA / ASTM test procedures
Glimpse at the historical background on artificial grass durability
requirements
Methods of testing product performance
Methods of measuring levels of performance
Conclusions
Americhem Inc.
Global Climate Averages for Year 2010
Location Relative
Humidity %
Rain Fall
mm
Ave.
Ambient
Temp. C
TSR 300 2450 nm
Direct Exposure 5
0
MJ /m
2
UV Radiation
295 385 nm
MJ /m
2
Phoenix, AZ 34 401 22 7453 365
Miami, FL 77 1405 23 6198 343
Medina, OH 72 844 10 5100
Sanary, France 58 575 14 5412 194
Guangzhou, China 79 1492 22 4590
Choshi, J apan 78 1682 14 4659
Melbourne, Australia 62 650 16 5385
Information From Atlas Weathering Service Group
Weathering Variables
Americhem Inc.
Comparing Turf Weathering
Specifications to Outdoor Sunlight
Test Light MJ /m
2
TSR 300-
2450 nm
MJ /m
2
UV 295-
385 nm
Hours
of UVA
light
Years
Out Doors
in Arizona
FIFA 2001-2011 UVA 340 - 4896 3000 4896 is
Over
13.3
FIFA 2012 UVA 340 - 4.896 2500
5 days
DIN 18035-7 Xenon 7500
-
At least
1
LND UVB 313 -
-
2500 ?
Phoenix Sunlight 7453 365 - 1
8760 hours in 1 year
Americhem Inc.
NASAs Global
Solar Irradiation For
1 Yr. in (Kilo
Langleys)
Kilo Langleys Can be Used to
Establish Guidelines
Americhem Inc.
To Convert Exposure in Langleys to Q-Sun Test Times
Enter exposure in kiloLangleys here: 140
Conversion to joules (300-3000 nm) 5,857,600,000 joules 5,857,600.00 kJ 5,857.60 MJ
Conversion to joules (300-800 nm) 3,151,388,800 joules 3,151,388.80 kJ 3,151.39 MJ
Enter Q-Sun Set Point Here: Can be a
340 or 420 nm set point--check
appropriate column for correct time of
exposure 0.5 W/m
2
Filter
340 nm
Conversion Factor
340 nm
control point:
Time in hours
420 nm
Conversion
Factor
420 nm Control
Point: Time in
Hours
Extended UV -- Quartz 1752.7 1857 883.3 3684
Extended UV -- Q/B 2100.0 1550 863.0 3771
Daylight -- B/B 1988.6 1636 877.0 3711
140 Kilo Langleys Requires
1636 Hrs of Testing
Conversion Table
Supplied by Q-Lab
Americhem Inc.
If markets from 80 to 160 kLs per year of total solar radiance
are targeted, they need minimum of 9,350 hours to a
maximum of 18,700 hours of testing under ISO 4892-2. This
is for 10 years exterior predicted or estimated performance.
800 kLs = 9,350 hrs
ISO 4892-2
1600 kLs = 18,700 hrs
ISO 4892-2
Americhem Inc.
Example of 3000 hrs. Pass / 6000 Fail
y =1E-06x
2
- 0.0021x +1.9671
R
2
=0.9974
y =5E-07x
2
- 0.0012x +1.1841
R
2
=0.9989
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
hours
D
E
0.1 RED 184
1.0 RED 184
Poly. (0.1 RED 184)
Poly. (1.0 RED 184)
Americhem Inc.
Testing Durability of Synthetic Turf
The purpose of presentation
Review FIFA / ASTM test procedures
Glimpse at the historical background on artificial grass durability
requirements
Methods of testing product performance
Methods of measuring levels of performance
Conclusions
Americhem Inc.
Conclusions
Test standards need to meet todays demands for
weathering product performances of 5 to 10 years out
doors.
Predictions of product life or warranties are dependent
on the climate of the installation area. 3,000 hours of
accelerated weathering is inadequate. Consider 9,000
to 17,000 hours depending on test method, location, and
number of years expected life of field.
Test procedures help improve quality of performance.
Developing products for this type of performance criteria
are demanding, time consuming, and expensive.
Americhem Inc.
Special Thanks for Technical Assistance and Input From
Sean Fowler Q-Lab
Matt McGreer Ameteks Atlas Div.
Special Thanks
Krista Willey Shaw Turf
Kelly Wootten Americhem
Rick Doyle
Pictures of Synthetic Turf