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For the Long Haul

Hucks next-generation lockbolt puts the


fast in fastening systems. The new BobTail
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all Huck fasteners, the BobTail is engineered
to never loosen, no matter how vibration
intensive the environment. And BobTail
tooling is small, ergonomic, and lightweight,
helping to provide lower installed costs and
low maintenance. With record installation
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Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 1
From the editors desk

Focus

Technical innovations
Giving diesel engines an oxygen boost
Hoses prevent damage caused by biodiesel fuel
Maintaining electronic connector integrity in
corrosive environments
Simulation system speeds development
Customized test rigs used for in-development
technology
Model-driven design of vehicle wiring systems
National Instruments extends LabVIEW for
multicores, wireless
In the news
Original equipment
Deeres wheeled wonder
Case IH revises combine lineup with new flagship
Kubota gets powerful with sub-compact tractor
Cub Cadet and Yanmar utilize small diesels
Carraro tractor: No dime needed to change
direction
Thomas steers clear of the competition
Hitch your wagon to a Western Star
Tools of the trade
Classified advertising
Companies mentioned
Advertiser index
Departments
20 Electrohydraulic
engineers embrace
integration
Software improvements help both
engineers and operators as
architectures evolve.
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On the cover
John Deere has expanded
its excavator line with two
new models, 190D W
and the 220D W, both
wheeled and both named
for their weight, 19 and
22 t (21 and 24 ton),
respectively. They replace
the 180C W and the
210C W wheeled models.
Audited by
Features
48 Top products
of the year
The editors highlight some of the
top offerings from the industrys
component and system suppliers.
43 Top Technologies
of 2008
The editors look back at some of the
most significant technological
innovations during the past year
according to readers.
26 Indestructible
from the start
OEMs and suppliers are investing
in testing equipment, facilities,
and software to ensure proper
performance of components prior
to being placed in the field.
39 To 2010 and beyond
Engineers working on emissions-
control systems for heavy-duty
engines already are preparing for
ever more stringent regulations later
next decade.
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SAE Off-Highway Engineering

(ISSN 1528-9702), Nov/Dec 2008, Volume 16, Number 8. Published 8 times a year (February, March,
April, June, August, September, October, December) by SAE International and printed in Brimfield, OH. Annual subscription for SAE
Off-Highway Engineering is $83 North America, $123 Overseas, additional copies $26 North America, $31 Overseas. Periodical postage
paid at Warrendale, PA, and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Please return form 3579 and address changes to SAE Off-
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publication date. Copyright 2008 by SAE International

. The SAE Off-Highway Engineering title is registered in U.S. Patent and


Trademark Office, and SAE Off-Highway Engineering is indexed and abstracted in the SAE Global Mobility Database

.
As Americas largest recycler, we recycle millions of tons of steel every year.
Turning what would have wasted away in landflls into school roofs, supports for bridges,
or hospital foundations. And now that we engineer Special Bar Quality steel for
heavy machinery, our steel now takes an active role in the recycling process.
Helping push, haul, and lift Nucors title of Americas largest recycler to a whole new level.
www.nucor.com/sbq
Its Our Nature.

47701 NUC SAE Off-Highway.indd 1 11/18/08 10:45:42 AM


As Americas largest recycler, we recycle millions of tons of steel every year.
Turning what would have wasted away in landflls into school roofs, supports for bridges,
or hospital foundations. And now that we engineer Special Bar Quality steel for
heavy machinery, our steel now takes an active role in the recycling process.
Helping push, haul, and lift Nucors title of Americas largest recycler to a whole new level.
www.nucor.com/sbq
Its Our Nature.

47701 NUC SAE Off-Highway.indd 1 11/18/08 10:45:42 AM


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Editor
Thomas J. Drozda
Director of Publications
thomasdrozda@sae.org
Kevin Jost
Editorial Director
Jean L. Broge
Editor
Lindsay Brooke
Senior Editor
Patrick Ponticel
Assistant Editor
Ryan Gehm
Assistant Editor
Matt Monaghan
Assistant Editor
Matthew Newton
Assistant Editor
Kami Buchholz
Detroit Editor
Richard Gardner
European Editor
Jack Yamaguchi
Asian Editor
Contributors
Terry Costlow, Harry Evans,
Jenny R. Hessler, Linda Trego,
Jennifer Shuttleworth
Wayne Silvonic
Art Director
William L. Schall Jr.
Graphic Artist
Lucy Matyjaszczyk
Contributing Artist
Scott Sward
Publisher, Periodicals &
Electronic Media
ssward@sae.org
Marcie Hineman
Global Field Sales Manager
hineman@sae.org
Carolyn A. Taylor
Marketing Manager
carolt@sae.org
Jodie Mohnkern
Circulation and Mail List Manager
mohnkern@sae.org
SAE Off-Highway Engineering
400 Commonwealth Drive
Warrendale, PA 15096-0001, U.S.A.
Web: offhighway-online.org
Editorial
Phone: 724-772-8509
Fax: 724-776-9765
E-mail: sohe@sae.org
Advertising
DisplayLinda Risch
Classied/WebDebby Catalano
Phone: 888-875-3976
724-772-4086 (Outside U.S. & Canada)
Fax: 724-776-3087
E-mail: CustomerSales@sae.org
Subscriptions
Phone: 877-606-7323
724-776-4970 (Outside U.S. & Canada)
Fax: 724-776-0790
E-mail: CustomerService@sae.org
Addressing an attentive audience at
the SAE 2008 Commercial Vehicle
Engineering Congress and Exhibition
in October, Ron DeFeo, Terex
Chairman and CEO, said that when
he joined the company in 1992,
profitability was right around the
corner. I just didnt know how long
that corner was. The opportunity for
change at Terex was dramatic. We
didnt have anything that worked.
He revealed an industry secret: At
the time, Terex was essentially gov-
erned by a No strategy.
Productively using every single
finger on one hand, he said, We
had no money, we had no future, we
had no plans, we had no distribution,
we had no engineering bias.
We didnt have much of any-
thing, but we had desire.
And when you have desire and
the belief that you can look at an
industry and see opportunity, hard
work can actually result in progress.
At the time that DeFeo started at
Terex, revenue was about $1 billion,
but $300 million of that was from
Fruehauf; were not in that business
anymore. And another $400-500
million was from Clark; were not in
that business anymore. After a cou-
ple of years on the job, DeFeo pared
Terex back to a business of about
$300 million, and the company ran
lean before a lot of the world knew
what lean was.
It was around then that Terexs
strategy changed to a Yes strat-
egy, at least in terms of acquisitions.
We decided to get in the crane
business.
Why?
Caterpillar wasnt in it, said
DeFeo. We actually had a chance to
be successful.
Terex began rebuilding itself
around the edges of the industry,
frankly; around
the missed market opportunities that
presented themselves and we went
on an aggressive strategy.
Speaking in terms of cranes, we
set out on a course to take a non-
value-added approach to the indus-
try. We asked our engineering team
to focus on outsourcing, to focus on
being flexible, to not take the atti-
tude of designing in a legacy but take
the attitude of designing in the most
simple, reliable way to deliver perfor-
mance to the customer, said DeFeo.
However, as the company pro-
gressed, it took cost savings to such
an extreme, DeFeo couldnt get any-
body to spend a dime.
DeFeo had the company regroup.
You cannot save your way to prog-
ress. We looked at our engineering
functions differently, we began to
think about the company in a more
natural and holistic way.
Terexs story is one of success. Still
often referred to in terms of the
many acquisitions it has made over
the years, it in fact went from $3 bil-
lion in revenue in 2003 to $10.5 bil-
lion today, with 90% of that growth
organic.
That said, like any other company,
Terex is not immune to the current
economic conditions. In October, it
announced that it would be laying
off hundreds of people in areas in
which its equipment is not selling
well. Yet it has maintained a Yes
strategy; in November the EU ap-
proved Terexs acquisition of
Fantuzzi.
Today, profitability is again right
around a possibly long corner for
many companies. The opportunity for
change throughout the industry is
expected to be dramatic for at least
another year. In the meantime, we all
have to spend our dimes wisely.
Spending
toward progress
9 1 4 2
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7 4
1 7 6 5
6 2 4 9 7 8 1
3 5 1 6
6 3
5
9 2 8 1
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For components that t your equipment puzzle, get the right solution with MICO.
*Please visit mico.com for answer to puzzle #8.
MICO HAS THE SOLUTION.
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6 SAE OHE Nov/Dec 2008
David L. Schutt
SAE Executive Vice President
and Chief Operating Ofcer
Just imagine what
we will do
On a recent Thursday evening, I had the
privilege of participating in a celebration
of the 250th anniversary of the naming of
Pittsburgh, PA.
The room was filled with business ex-
ecutives and community leaders of
Pittsburgh as well as Pennsylvanias
Governor and other state government
officials. The purpose of the evening was
to celebrate and recapitulate what the
City of Pittsburgh had accomplished over
the last 14 months throughout the year-
long celebration.
It was an impressive list of accomplish-
ments. An aggressive set of goals had
been established and a strategic plan had
been put in place to ensure that the myri-
ad activities, the thousands of volunteers,
and the time and financial commitments
of all involved were focused. The awe-
inspiring success of the effort reflected
the outstanding leadership capabilities of
the Chair, Vice Chair, and the Board of
Directors.
What intrigued me most, though, was
the slogan that inspired thousands of vol-
unteers, shaped their activities, and pro-
vided a future-oriented purpose for the
entire celebration. The slogan: Imagine
what you can do here.
As I drove home that evening and to
work the next day, the words of that slo-
gan resonated with the optimism that Jim
Press, Vice Chairman of Chrysler, used at
a recent gathering of engineers during
Convergence 2008 in Detroit.
Imagination truly is a historical corner-
stone of the mobility industry.
Imagine a vehicle that propels itself.
Imagine a network of autonomous heavy-
equipment vehicles working together in
an open-pit mine. Imagine an airplane
that travels at supersonic speed. Imagine
a combine that uses
satellite navigation
to guide it through
the fields.
At one point in time, these were just
crazy fantasies. Today, they are very much
a part of our reality.
And what are the vehicles and prod-
ucts that are being imagined today?
Where will todays dreams take us?
How about a self-navigating, emis-
sions-free automobile; or a convoy of
trucks that is led by a single driver while
the other trucks follow autonomously be-
hind via sensing technology; or perhaps
even hypersonic aircraft that can safely
transport passengers from New York to
Tokyo in two hours?
These dreams and these imaginations
are what propel us as a society into the
future.
Also, they help transcend and over-
come challenging times like we face to-
day. While such times can strike paralyzing
fear into many, an unbridled imagination
can lift us out of such doldrums and help
to create a new economy.
We can wish for the days when things
were better and when economic times
had a rosier tint. Or, we can meet these
challenges head on; we can imagine what
is possible and then make it happen. That
is what engineers dowe make the fu-
ture happen.
Emily Dickinson once wrote, The pos-
sibles slow fuse is lit by the imagination.
Those words are evermore true today
when describing the mobility engineering
profession.
As always, I welcome your feedback
and constructive input to this topic and
any other issues on your mind. Please feel
free to e-mail me at focus@sae.org.
SAE Section, Group,
and Affiliate Activities
SAE International has 86 sections and
groups located in the United States,
Canada, Mexico, Taiwan, Russia, Belarus,
Egypt, Hong Kong, Romania, Italy, Malaysia,
Ukraine, and Israel. Also, SAE affiliates
operate in the United Kingdom, Brazil,
and India.
A complete listing, along with their
respective officers, can be found at www.
sae.org/sections/sectlist.htm.
Additional information regarding a
particular section or group is available from
SAE Headquarters, Membership and Section
Programs, by contacting Sections@sae.org.
SAE International
Board of Directors
Officers
Thomas W. Ryan III
2008 President
Richard O. Schaum
2007 President
James E. Smith
2009 President Nominee
Ronald York
Vice President - Aerospace
Jacqueline A. Dedo
Vice President - Automotive
Richard E. Kleine
Vice President - Commercial Vehicle
Terence J. Rhoades
Treasurer
Carol A. Story
Assistant Treasurer
David L. Schutt
Executive Vice President
and Chief Operating Officer
Directors
David J. Andrea
Aravind S. Bharadwaj
Gregory W. Davis
Mazen Hammoud
Iftekhar Ibrahim
Robert L. Ireland
Andrew J. Jeffers
Cuneyt L. Oge
Douglas Patton
Mark L. Pedrazzi
Nicholas K. Petek
Brian R. Richardson
Victor E. Saucedo
Ronald R. Smisek
Ahmed A. Soliman
David Stout
Leonard Tedesco
Bharat S. Vedak
SAE Publications Board
Michael D. Madley - Chairman
Nicholas P. Cernansky
Andrew J. Jeffers
Daniel R. Kapellen
Douglas Patton
Mark L. Pedrazzi
POWERED WITH ELECTRICITY, GAS,
AND AUTOMATICALLY-GENERATED CODE.
THATS MODEL-BASED DESIGN.
To create a two-mode hybrid
powertrain, engineers at GM
used models to continuously
verify their design, test prototypes,
and automatically generate the
embedded code.
The result: a breakthrough HEV,
delivered on time.
To learn more, visit
mathworks.com/mbd
Accelerating the pace of engineering and science
2008 The MathWorks, Inc.
C M Y K
Litho-Art, Inc. 212 242-7650 A
4
sf
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Giving diesel engines an oxygen boost
The U.S. Army is working with civilian industrial
companies through Small Business Innovation
Research grants to reduce fuel consumption and en-
hance the power density of diesel engines used in
field generators.
Since the Army uses a range of generators from
2.0 to 100 kW (3.0 to 134 hp), the solution must
work across all sizes, without adding much weight or
complexity to the diesel engines themselves. The first
obvious choice is to turbocharge the engines.
However, that would require reinforced engine blocks
because smaller diesel engines cannot withstand the
high peak pressure from turbocharging.
An alternative is to provide engine boost by in-
creasing the amount of oxygen in the air, somewhat
the same as turbocharging but without the draw-
backs. It is a simple concept: to get more power,
more oxygen should be put into the engine to burn
fuel more efficiently. The benefit is that oxygen en-
richment results in much lower peak pressures than
turbocharging for the same increase in power.
Mainstream Engineering Corp. focuses on tran-
sitioning advanced thermal control and energy con-
version technology into cost-effective commercial
products. Dr. Paul Yelvington, Senior Chemical
Engineer and technology lead for energy conversion
projects at Mainstream, says that oxygen-enriched
combustion (OEC) has already been used for indus-
trial combustion processes such as process heating,
melting, metal cutting, and incineration.
In fact, Army researchers had already experi-
mented with the oxygen enrichment of flames to
produce electricity using thermoelectric devices,
which brought about the interest in trying to apply
the technology to an engine, he said.
The issue with developing this technology into a
viable process has always been that the oxygen-en-
richment system for use in engines has never really
been perfected. People have tried putting these two
together, but they really never optimized the tuning
of the engine or the operation of the air separation
membrane, said Yelvington.
He explained that OEC offers several advantages
for diesel engines aside from boosting power.
Products of incomplete combustion (e.g., CO, hydro-
carbons, soot) are reduced by increasing the oxygen
concentration at a constant fueling rate. Also, burn
duration and ignition delay are reduced, which al-
lows faster cold starts and the ability to use lower-
quality fuels.
Through experimentation, Mainstream found that
certain polymeric membranes are preferred for sepa-
rating air to generate an oxygen-enriched airstream.
These membranes have the best balance of size,
weight, power consumption, and durability for this
application when compared to competing meth-
odsi.e., pressure swing adsorption, cryogenic distil-
lation, mixed conducting ceramic membranes, said
Yelvington. Polymeric membrane modules consist of
a bundle of hollow membrane fibers encased in a
cylindrical enclosure. When a pressure differential is
applied across the membrane, the difference in par-
tial pressures creates a flow through the membrane,
generating an O
2
-rich permeate stream and a N
2
-rich
retentate stream.
Mainstream built computational models for the
Mainstream found that certain polymeric membranes are preferred for
separating air to generate an oxygen-enriched airstream. Shown is its
2.0-kW diesel generator with membrane module installed.
Cutaway shows the air separation membrane module designed for the
2.0-kW generator.
0
2

CO
2

H
2
O
0
2
-rich air
N
2
-rich air
Air
Air
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smallest and largest engines used by the Army, the theory be-
ing that all models in between would be easily accommodated.
Pressure transducer and thermocouple assemblies were applied
to the engines to measure key parameters such as cylinder
pressure, intake pressure, exhaust temperature, and oil tem-
perature. Fuel consumption was measured, as were CO, NO,
and NOx emissions.
Yelvington noted that the membrane technology selected
allowed them to make the device as compact as possible. For
the 2.0-kW system, the OEC unit is only about a foot long and
under five inches in diameter. It fits right into the frame of the
small generator and only adds about 10 pounds to the unit.
The result is a compact OEC unit that gives diesel engines a
boost in power; reduced CO, hydrocarbons, and soot emis-
sions; faster cold starts; and minimal stress on small engine
blocks. Preliminary designs have shown that increases in power
of 15% are easily attainable, and increases of 30% or more are
expected after further tweaking of the engine controller and
air-separation equipment.
The next step is a transition to diesel-powered vehicles.
With air-separation membranes, you can produce nitro-
gen-enriched air as easily as oxygen-enriched air. Producing
nitrogen-enriched air is perfect for a vehicle because it greatly
reduces the amount of NOx in the exhaust, said Yelvington.
One way NOx reduction is currently done in diesel engines is
using exhaust gas recirculation, where some of the exhaust is
recycled back into the engine.
However, you have to live with recycling unburned hydro-
carbons and soot back into the engine, resulting in fouling of
components, he said. Using nitrogen-enriched air, you get
Predicted performance maps are for both
ambient and oxygen-enriched air. Contours
are thermal efficiency. Parasitic losses have
not been subtracted to show upper bound
of potential OEC performance gains.
Graph shows the
measured effect of
oxygen concentration on
the combustion event
in Mainstreams single-
cylinder test engine.
the same thing or better, reducing the NOx without fouling the
engine. Actually Mack Truck and Caterpillar are currently
looking at nitrogen enrichment to control NOx.
The real niche for OEC is the small engine because large
engine blocks can handle turbocharging. OEC will allow small-
er engines to be used in applications now using larger, costlier
generators.
The nice thing about oxygen enrichment is that you get
more power out of the engine without increasing the cylinder
pressure and stressing the block, said Yelvington. You can
get away with using standard, naturally aspirated diesel blocks
without increasing the mechanical strength of the block.
Joyce Laird
Hoses prevent damage caused by biodiesel fuel
The growing adoption of biodiesel fuels, combined with the
increasing percentages of biodiesel in those blends, is prompt-
ing changes in many conventional engine components. Among
them are hoses, which must be reformulated to withstand
biodiesel properties.
Eaton Fluid Power Group has rolled out its GH100 line of
hoses designed for applications that have 20% biodiesel or
higher percentages and/or operating temperatures above
120C (248F).
At temperatures over 100C (212F), some biodiesel blends
above B20 can bake out the elastomers that keep hoses flex-
ible. This situation is particularly problematic in vehicles that
may see a variety of fuel blendsB5 in one tank and B20 or
higher in the next fill-up.
If hoses arent compatible with biodiesel, they may swell or
soften, said Doris Showalter, Senior Product Manager for
Transportation Products, Eaton. These fluids can quickly make
ordinary hose products brittle and prone to cracking.
The need for biodiesel-compatible hoses is expected to in-
crease quickly. Caterpillar, Deere, Cummins, Volvo, and oth-
ers have announced B20 projects in response to higher fuel
prices and a growing effort to trim emissions. Biodiesel can
reduce emissions by as much as 16%, said Showalter.
GH100 hoses feature a hydrogenated nitrile rubber tube,
which is resistant to damage caused by the various materials
used to make biodiesel. They are qualified for underhood use
with B2 to B20 up to 150C (302F) and B100 up to 125C
(257F).
Beyond temperature, changing percentages and the multi-
tude of materials added to conventional diesel fuel make it
difficult to determine what type of hoses are needed.
Biodiesel blends change continuously, said Showalter. If
youre using B2 to B5 and have temperatures around 100 to
110C, existing hoses are fine.
21% O
2
29% O
2
B
M
E
P
,

b
a
r
B
M
E
P
,

b
a
r
1000 2500 4000 1000 2500 4000
Engine speed, rpm Engine speed, rpm
21 vol % oxygen
25 vol % oxygen
29 vol % oxygen
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b
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70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
-45 0 45
Crank angle, degree
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10 SAE OHE Nov/Dec 2008
The hoses are also designed for use with synthetic lubri-
cants used in high-temperature truck transmission oil cooler
applications. Peak temperatures go up to 175C (347F) in
these applications.
An aramid/poly braid reinforcement and a polyester abra-
Hoses formulated specifically for biodiesel fuels can withstand higher
temperatures and higher percentages of biodiesel than traditional
hoses.
sion-resistant cover were used to ruggedize the hoses. They are
fully compatible with industry-standard threaded fittings and
formed tubes and Eatons threadless STC connectors.
The initial product offering will include sizes 6 through 12.
Other sizes can be produced to meet specific customer require-
ments, said Showalter.
The new hoses bring a mild pricing premium over conven-
tional hoses. However, Showalter noted that premium is below
the cost of other alternatives.
This is 10 to 12% higher than CPE hoses, but its still less
expensive than Teflon. Customers wanted something thats
more flexible than Teflon, which is very stiff, she said.
She also noted that higher ratios for biodiesel will require
metal tubing. When youre going up to B100, stainless steel
should probably be used.
Terry Costlow
Maintaining electronic connector integrity in
corrosive environments
Electronic connectors can be found everywhere, from automo-
biles to airplanes. Consequently, the effects of their failure
range from the inconvenient to the tragic. The number of such
failures can be reduced by better methods of sealing connec-
tors against the conditions that lead to corrosion.
Due to their very nature, connectors are the most vulnerable
points in a circuit. Corrosion, from either oxidation or galvani-
zation, reduces current-carrying capacity and results in inter-
mittent, ultimately permanent failure of the circuit. In harsh
environments, the major cause of connector failure is galvanic
corrosion, a process in which dissimilar metals give up or col-
lect electrons in the presence of an electrolyte, usually water.
Although many connectors are designed for use in harsh
environments, too often their service lives are limited by corro-
sion due to gaps and other leak paths (even microscopic poros-
ity) in the wires, insulation, plastic housing, and pins. Prior to
complete failure, a corroding connector may only cause its cir-
cuit to fail intermittently, causing downtime and maintenance
expense while frustrated technicians search for the source of
the problem.
Temperature cycling causes the dissimilar materials in con-
nectors to expand and contract at different rates. Exacerbated
by this and other stressful conditions such as vibration or re-
peated bending, leak paths allow penetration by the main cul-
pritmoisture. In some cases, leak paths even function as
wicks drawing in moisture.
Harsh environments where connectors are commonly used
include automobile engine compartments; military, aircraft,
and aerospace equipment; outdoor devices; and a wide range
of industrial facilities. Lubricants and coolants used to keep
automated assembly lines running can attack plastic insulating
materials. In marine applications such as shipping and offshore
oil rigs, corrosion is further accelerated by sea salt.
There are two basic ways to minimize corrosion: plating and
sealing. For many years, the plating of an electronic connectors
contacts with a layer of tin has been a common practice, espe-
cially where copper and aluminum are both present. This not
only reduces electron transfer but also lowers resistance and
prevents the discoloration of bare copper. Aluminum contacts,
if not plated, are often coated with an oxide-inhibiting com-
To impregnate electronic connectors, assemblies, or entire wiring
harnesses, they are placed in a wire basket and lowered into a resin
chamber. Air is then evacuated. The return to normal atmospheric
pressure forces the resin into all leak paths.
Hot water cures the resin. Anaerobic methacrylate polymer resins do
not require air to cure.
In some respects, the future is really easy to
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By Lars Tinggaard
Johannesen
M.Sc. Chem. Eng.
Notox A/S Transformervej 4
DK-2730 Herlev Denmark
Phone +45 7023 8989
sales@notox.com www.notox.com
Member of the Group
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pound. However, neither practice is effective against harsh en-
vironments in the long run.
Sealing, if done properly, closes off the leak paths that
moisture and oxygen can follow. Sometimes sealing is done in
addition to plating. Silicone-based sealants are effective in
many applications, as are epoxy-based potting compounds.
Both types are typically applied by hand to the connectors, but
this is a relatively expensive solution to the corrosion problem.
In some cases, these hand-applied sealants may make final
assembly more difficult and time-consuming, since they are
usually not uniformly applied. And, in some automated assem-
bly machines, connectors that do not slide together easily can
shut down the whole assembly line.
A recent advance in connector sealants, methacrylate poly-
mer resin, provides maximum protection for connectors in
harsh environments. Instead of being painted or brushed onto
individual connectors one by one, these nonconductive resins
can uniformly and economically seal a large batch of connec-
tors, assemblies, and wiring harnesses all at once, in a process
called vacuum impregnation.
Vacuum-impregnation technology has been employed for
decades in the complete sealing of leaks resulting from poros-
ity in metal castings and powdered-metal parts. The resins,
either thermoset or anaerobic, are introduced as a liquid into
all voids in a casting, usually via vacuum and pressure. The ma-
terial is then washed and cured, completely sealing porosity
and leaving the part leak-free even under pressure.
There are four common methods of impregnation: dry vac-
uum and pressure, internal pressure, wet vacuum and pressure,
and wet vacuum only. The leak paths and porosity in connector
components are easily filled with the wet-vacuum-only ap-
proach. Inside a vacuum chamber, connectors, assemblies, or
entire wiring harnesses are placed in a bath of low-viscosity
impregnating resin and air is entirely evacuated from the cham-
ber. All air in the connectors, wires, etc. rises to the surface of
the bath and is removed from the chamber. Once the vacuum
is drawn, the return to normal atmospheric pressure is enough
to drive the resin into all leak paths.
At this point, the product is water-washed prior to curing to
prevent the sealant from interfering with conductivity. Next,
the resin is cured in a hot bathusually at about 140F (60C).
Though not necessary for the curing process, ions from copper,
aluminum, or iron inside connectors can actually function as a
catalyst, assisting in the curing process. These metals give up
electrons to the resin as if it were a more cathodic metal.
Anaerobic resin has proven particularly effective for sealing
connectors because it does not require air to cure.
Once cured, the resin is irreversibly cross-linked and will not
reliquify. It will withstand temperatures up to 350F (177C)
and resist solvents, Freon, steam, oil, gasoline, glycols, and
printing inks. Yet another benefit of these resins is their poten-
tial for flexibility. When necessary for the anticipated applica-
tion, the resin can be formulated to cure to a flexible state.
Until recently, there has been a drawback to most impreg-
nated thermoset resinsthey tend to ignite when exposed to
fire. Fortunately, fire-resistant resins are now on the market.
After the impregnation process, a simple air-pressure test
can be performed to prove the connector assembly is thor-
oughly sealed against ambient moisture and salts that could
otherwise cause corrosion and product failure.
The durability of connectors sealed in this manner can be
especially helpful in installations with prolonged conditions of
thermal cycling, vibration, and moisture changes, such as those
encountered in many military/aerospace applications.
In tanks and other land vehicles, vibration and frequent
temperature changes call for rugged, tightly sealed connec-
tions. Humidity, rain, and washdowns supply plenty of mois-
ture, which is of course more abundant for ships, boats, and
amphibious vehicles.
The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory has concluded
that corrosion at the junctions of connectors carrying signals is
one of the most frequent causes of intermittent failure and
other erratic performance in aircraft electrical systems.
High-altitude pressure drops can draw trapped air out of a
connector, possibly opening new pathways for corrosion-caus-
ing moisture. Moisture can then quickly enter such pathways in
wet weather or during washdown/de-icing operations.
Condensation or water vapor in humid air could be forced into
the pathways as the aircraft descends and air pressure rises. A
connector totally sealed using vacuum impregnation has no air
pockets, since they are filled with resin.
This added reliability, together with high, repeatable sealing
percentages and low-cost benefits due to bulk processing,
makes the vacuum-impregnation process an economical solu-
tion for all connectors subjected to mild environments and a
must for connectors in harsh environments.
Peter Gebhard, the Principal Investor in IMPCO Inc., wrote this article for SAE Off-
Highway Engineering.
Leak paths (even microscopic porosity) allow penetration by moisture,
causing corrosion that shortens the life of an electronic connector.
(+) Less noble (anodic)
Magnesium
Aluminum
Zinc
Chromium
Iron
Cobalt
Nickel
Lead
Copper
Mercury
Silver
Platinum
Gold
(-) More noble (cathodic)
Metals at the
top of this list of
electromotive elements
are anodiclikely
to give up electrons
to more cathodic
metals (bottom of
list) in the corrosion
process. The farther
apart the names of
two metals appear on
the list, the greater
the potential for
corrosion. Aluminum,
for example, gives up
electrons to copper,
and it is not unusual
to find both of these
conductive metals in a
connector.
Plastic connector housing
Leak path petween
wire and insulation
Copper pin Leak path
between pin
and base
Harness sheathing
Copper wire
Leak path
wire insulation
Wire insulation
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Simulation system speeds development
CPUTech is now offering its SystemLab PS system for automo-
tive and off-highway vehicle control simulations, it announced
at the recent Convergence 2008 conference in Detroit. First
developed for the U.S. Armys Bradley armored vehicle pro-
gram, the company believes automotive engineers will benefit
from its speed and ability to model systems with high fidelity.
The problem we see with the traditional way vehicle con-
trol systems are developed is that requirements are specified by
an OEM, then given to the suppliers. The suppliers develop
their system components and come back six to nine months
later with prototypes. These are then pieced together and test-
ed. When the whole [control] system does not work, there is
little visibility into what is not working, explained Robert
Beanland, Vice President of Marketing for CPUTech. He went
on to explain that issues could include any individual ECU, in-
teractions between ECUs, or even cabling. The process also
leads to vertical development within technical silos, rather
than a balanced, integrated approach.
systems are those that involve interaction of multiple systems.
Testing individual components or testing separately from soft-
ware will not identify these bugs. SystemLab PS also allows
developers to inject faults into the system to determine robust-
ness and tolerance.
While many today expect a hardware-independent solution
for simulationsoftware that runs on virtually any computing
platformCPUTech opted to provide its SuperQ X3 specialized
hardware in an integrated solution. Component models, such
as ECUs and buses, are contained in the SystemLab software.
Libraries of such models make for easier system development,
including many components available from CPUTech.
SystemLab PS hosts object-level code, so users can model pro-
prietary real-time operating systems as well as most commer-
cial versions. Why real-time? Real-time performance speeds
the product development process by speeding the identifica-
tion of problems sooner, said Beanland. While the server
needs to host an entire vehicle modela memory-intensive
propositionBeanland believes from his experience that three
to five individual automotive systems could be stored in a sin-
gle server.
He also believes CPUTechs system eases collaboration
through its client-server architecture. This breaks down the si-
los. While the fast server resides in a central location, clients
can be distributed geographicallywithin an organization or at
supplier locations. IP is protected through black box system
models. There is an option to hide details of the models from
unauthorized viewing. The system currently also accepts
Simulink models created in The Mathworks software.
Beanland also described near-term upgrades to make it
more applicable to the mass automotive market. Such up-
grades include better AUTOSAR interfacing and more third-
party software integrations such as the current Simulink.
There will be challenges as well as benefits to using this lev-
el of detailed simulation, as with any new technology.
Managing an increased level of detail will require more con-
figuration management. Existing product development pro-
cesses may need adjusting to create and simulate detailed con-
trol system models earlier in the cycle. All parties may need to
trust that IP will indeed be protected. Our goal ultimately is to
not change anything an OEM might be doing now. Rather, we
want to fill in the gaps what we think they are looking for
very high-fidelity, high-performance system simulations with
complete visibility earlier in the process, said Beanland.
Bruce Morey
CPUTechs SystemLab PS system for automotive and off-highway
vehicle control simulations allows developers to inject faults into the
system to determine robustness and tolerance.
According to Beanland, SystemLab PS simulates the entire
vehicle control system down to the smallest components; en-
ables fast, real-time simulation at the actual speed of the hard-
ware; and provides visibility into all aspects of the control sys-
tem. You can see and track in real time any signal, any mem-
ory, any register, any processor or controller, and any line of
code, he said. Typically, the most difficult bugs in a system of
Customized test rigs used for
in-development technology
A suspension supplier took the customization route to obtain a
comprehensive apparatus for testing and verifying in-develop-
ment technology for passenger vehicles.
The typical shock absorber dynamometer rig is capable of
only displacing the damper. In our active air systems, the damp-
er and the variable-spring-rate air suspension is a single unit.
Our system incorporates the controls to make adjustments to
the air system pressures on the fly while evaluating the damp-
er, explained Brian Saylor, Manager of ArvinMeritors Vehicle
Dynamics Technology Center.
Because ArvinMeritors Active Air Suspension (AAS) system
is unlike anything on the market today, there has never been
anything designed to test and develop this sort of product,
said Saylor, who added that the test rigs custom controls al-
low us to test an infinitely variable spring rate easily.
A component test bench can run the AAS module without
the presence of the electronic control unit, and it can control
pressures within the air spring and piston based on force and
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fers the right connection for every current range.
The introduction of the Power Pack 1000 has made Delphis selection of
high-current/high-power connectors the most comprehensive in the market. Now you can nd the
connections you need to cover everything up to
250 amps. The new Power Pack 1000 can manage 145 amps in an efcient packaging solution.
Like all of Delphis Power Pack components, the 1000 can mate in an in-line or right-angle direction
for greater application exibility. Delphis extensive line of high-current/high-power connectors are
just a
sampling of the products made available by the transportation specialists at TTI. So you can expect
excellent local sales support, a 98% on-time delivery and
inventory assurance supply chain programs.
No matter your current needs,
we have the connection.
With the new Power Pack 1000 as a complement to
Power Pack 2000, Delphi offers the right connection
for every current range.
The introduction of the Power Pack 1000 has made Delphis selection of
high-current/high-power connectors the most comprehensive in the market.
Now you can nd the connections you need to cover everything up to 250
amps. The new Power Pack 1000 can manage 145 amps in an efcient
packaging solution. Like all of Delphis Power Pack components, the 1000
can mate in an in-line or right-angle direction for greater application exibility.
Delphis extensive line of high-current/high-power connectors are just a
sampling of the products made available by the transportation specialists at
TTI. So you can expect excellent local sales support, a 98% on-time delivery
and inventory assurance supply chain programs.
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16 SAE OHE Nov/Dec 2008
pressure. An external input into the spring module can be gen-
erated via load or displacement.
The test bench and supporting equipment are capable of
measuring the response time of all components in the system
and the system itself. Response rates are as fast as 80 ms for
full inflation, and the response rate for partial adjustments is
even quicker. In addition, batch tests can be run to generate
design-of-experiments data, noted Jeff Lloyd, Advanced
Chassis Engineering Team Leader for ArvinMeritor.
Testing and development work on the AAS system has been
under way for about two years. End-of-2008 testing involves
validating durability, all-weather performance, and NVH per-
formance on select vehicle-specific applications to meet the
start of production requirement of 2011, said Lloyd.
ArvinMeritor also developed a customized testing rig for its
adaptive damping technology. For valve development, we
wanted a flow bench that could be operated bidirectionally so
we could evaluate compression and rebound in the same test
setup. It was important to be able to measure accurately high
flow rates up to 80 L/min and low flow rates less than 2 L/min.
In addition, we wanted the ability to have servo-control over
the valve environment via pressure and flow control so we
could properly characterize and evaluate the valve performance
over a wide range of parameters, explained Jim Keane,
Advanced Chassis Engineering Team Leader for ArvinMeritor.
The suppliers Adaptive Damping technology goes into pro-
duction in early 2009 for an off-highway seat suspension ap-
plication. Testing for adaptive damping, AAS, and other ad-
vanced products is done at ArvinMeritors Vehicle Dynamics
Technology Center in Troy, MI. We look at our testing capa-
bilities as an advantage over other companies, said Saylor.
Developing customized test rigs for advanced products is
definitely common at ArvinMeritor. For products that are
unique to the testing environment, we will start with a rig that
is close and make the necessary modifications. If nothing is
close, then we can design the test rig 100% to fit our needs,
said Saylor.
Kami Buchholz
The ArvinMeritor-designed Active Air Suspension test bench is
designed to measure pressure and spring-rate response times under
a variety of load and input conditions to determine performance
characteristics.
ArvinMeritors Jim Keane stands near an adaptive damping flow test
bench that tests adaptive damper valves at various flow rates for
performance characteristics and durability.
Model-driven design of vehicle wiring systems
Model-driven development has been standard practice in the
design of electronics, integrated circuits (ICs), and printed cir-
cuit boards (PCBs) for many years. According to Mentor
Graphics, model-driven processes have allowed companies to
move from a manual design process for ICs and PCBs to an
automated process that allows designers to create more com-
plex designs much fasterit has been the model-driven ap-
proach, as much as improvements in manufacturing science,
that has delivered technology improvements to consumers.
The model-driven approach is not just for electronic de-
signit works for electrical design too. The last few years have
seen the emergence of this methodology into the wiring-sys-
tems development domain because wiring integration chal-
lenges are a perfect fit for this approach.
Issues that make electrical-systems integration complex and
challenging include:
The systems and subsystems data to be integrated is typically
described in diverse, heterogeneous artifacts: text documents,
spreadsheets, sketches, design handbook guidelines, etc. Not
only is the ability to re-use this data compromised, but the data
itself does not naturally serve virtual-prototyping activities.
The physical manufacture of a wire harness is a complex and labor-
intensive activity. Electrical design software can automate each
step in the design process from architectural schematics to physical
harnesses.
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Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 17
Engineering intellectual property (IP) for wiring integration
often resides in the heads of skilled, experienced engineers
not in a form that allows crucial best practice to be captured
and leveraged.
Design change occurs constantly, and reacting rapidly but
accurately to design changes is difficult. Any delay within the
integration group often causes a knock-on effect with manu-
facturing planning because systems integration is typically one
of the latest tasks to be completed.
Significant process improvements can be realized when the
entire wiring systems development process is considered as a
whole, rather than as independent steps. True process innova-
tion is enabled only by improving the entire process.
For example, when systems and subsystems design data is
captured in a form that makes re-use easy and able to drive
downstream decision making, then wiring integration can be
simplified. When IP is captured as re-usable design constraints,
then all this information can be used by wiring integration to
repeatedly and consistently generate the physical wiring imple-
mentation with each vehicle program.
Such factors are the underlying principles of the model-driv-
en process: to provide engineers with the ability to describe the
electrical design at a high level, and use software to generate
the detail.
The model-driven approach is often referred to as the gen-
erative design process, and the software tools used to support
the approach are called generative design tools. Generative de-
sign tools provide the wiring designer with a framework to cap-
ture all aspects of the design process at a high level and then
provide functions that can automate each step in the design
process from architectural schematics to physical harnesses.
At the start of the generative process, electrical systems and
subsystems are captured in a form that pictorially represents
signal connectivity. Added to this connectivity are parameters
that describe the operating characteristics of the equipment
and signals.
For example, power and signal characteristics, EMC classifi-
cations, and other attributes are added to the high-level con-
nectivity description. At this point there is a fully defined logical
signal model. Integrated simulation functions allow the design
to be analyzed for FMEA, sneak circuits, and a multitude of
other effects.
Since there is no physical or wiring information as yet, any
changes that need to be made can be identified and imple-
mented quickly and cheaply. The logical signal model does not
contain any vehicle-specific information; it can be used and
re-used repeatedly on successive vehicle programs, reducing
development time and ensuring that best practice is captured
and applied.
Proceeding along the design cycle, a physical harness model
is created complete with corresponding geometric and environ-
mental constraints, usually extracted from the 3-D MCAD do-
main. There may be areas or zones that have special require-
ments for the wiring system: high heat, wet areas, etc. This
information is described with codified constraints that are ap-
plied to the locations within the physical representation. These
constraints are re-usable and can be put in a library for future
use on other programs.
Constraints are core to a model-driven development pro-
cess. Constraints drive part selection, physical distribution of
some components (such as fuses), determine correct signal
routing based on EMC compatibility, define splicing, implement
grounding strategies, and many other systems integration de-
sign tasks. From a quality perspective, constraints are the way
to automate decision making so that it is guaranteed to adhere
to regulatory and other design mandates.
At this point, the designer can generate the physical wiring
designs by invoking the wiring synthesis function. Wiring syn-
thesis is a process of integrating the systems and subsystems
information with geometric, environmental, and electrical de-
sign constraintssignals defined in the high-level-connectivity
diagrams are routed in the 3-D physical definition, obeying the
associated routing and electrical constraints, to create the wir-
ing paths. Integrated electrical simulation algorithms within the
wire synthesis process ensure that the wires are correctly rated,
and other algorithms ensure that the customer-option/variant
requirements are correctly engineered.
Wiring diagrams are important outputs from wiring system
generation. These diagrams depict the physical as-built engi-
neering configuration of the wiring information. In a model-
A typical electrical systems design process spanning system design,
system integration, simulation and analysis, and engineering.
Companies such as Terex have discovered that significant process
improvements can be realized when the entire wiring systems
development process is considered as a whole, rather than as
independent steps.
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National Instruments (NI) has beefed up its design and test-
ing tools, making it simpler for engineers to create and test
prototypes. Its upgrade of the LabVIEW graphical system de-
sign software will help engineers move to multicore architec-
tures and utilize wireless technologies.
LabVIEW 8.6 has been upgraded to increase the throughput
of test and control systems with multicore processors. The lat-
est version of the software also helps engineers develop FPGA-
based controls in less time and more easily create distributed
measurement systems to acquire data remotely.
To meet the performance and efficiency demands of test-
ing wireless devices and designing hybrid vehicles,
users must have the ability to quickly incorporate the latest
technologies such as multicore processors, FPGAs, and wireless
communication, James Truchard, CEO of NI, said at its
NIWeek gathering in August.
Though multicore devices are still used only rarely in auto-
National Instruments extends LabVIEW
for multicores, wireless
motive applications, most observers feel that dual-core CPUs
will see steady acceptance. The worlds largest semiconductor
supplier reasserted its strategy during NIWeek.
Going forward, multicore is not an option; its the future,
said Jonathan Luse, Marketing Director at Intels Embedded
Group. However, he also noted that creating software for
multicores is a heck of a lot more difficult than programming
conventional CPUs.
Graphical programming techniques help developers seg-
ment tasks to each core, noted Tim Dehne, Senior R&D Vice
President at NI. With the LabVIEW 8.6 Control Design and
Simulation Module, system engineers can execute simulation
models in parallel up to five times faster, he added.
The new tools also help automakers implement FPGAs,
which are expected to grow at 20% per year from a tiny
base, according to iSuppli. LabVIEW 8.6 provides a new
Component-Level Intellectual Property (CLIP) Node to easily
import existing VHDL (VHSIC hardware description language)
data into the LabVIEW FPGA Module. LabVIEW 8.6 also offers
fixed-point IP including a fast Fourier transform (FFT) core that
helps engineers offload spectral analysis functions.
The enhancements for wireless will help engineers test pro-
totypes and design systems like tire pressure monitors and re-
mote keyless entry. Wi-Fi tools will also facilitate the design of
communication systems for downloading music, video, and
other software to the vehicle.
Test engineers can develop applications to test wireless de-
vices up to four times faster with the latest version of the NI
Modulation Toolkit for LabVIEW. On the hardware side, the
company unveiled 10 new Wi-Fi and ethernet data-acquisition
boards that let developers add wireless sensor capabilities to
measurement applications without learning new software.
Terry Costlow
LabVIEW 8.6 focuses on multicores, FPGAs, and wireless
communications.
Author John Wilson,
Product Marketing
Manager, Integrated
Electrical Systems
Division, Mentor
Graphics, believes that
model-driven processes
have allowed companies
to move from a manual
design process for
ICs and PCBs to an
automated process that
allows designers to
create more complex
designs much faster.
driven development process, this wiring information has al-
ready been determined via constraints and other design deci-
sions as previously described. The wiring diagram is essentially
a visual representation of the wiring generation results.
Since all the wiring data is fully defined, wiring diagram
creation becomes an automated documentation step. Instead
of the diagram being a manually created document that is
susceptible to data reentry errors, it becomes a generated arti-
fact of the wiring model. If the model data changes, a subse-
quent regeneration of the document is easily done. Any gen-
eration of the wiring diagram will reflect the current state of
the wiring data.
At any time along the development process, electrical virtual
prototyping and analysis can be done. The electrical data is in a
form that makes analysis simple. Logical and physical steady-
state or time-domain simulation can be undertaken while the
actual design is evolving, ensuring that design changes can be
implemented when it is most cost-effective and convenient.
John Wilson, Product Marketing Manager, Integrated Electrical Systems Division, Mentor
Graphics Corp., wrote this article for SAE Off-Highway Engineering.
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The digital revolution
is creating major changes in off-highway
equipment, bringing new features and
functions to owners and operators. The
era of electronics is also changing many
aspects of hydraulic-system design as
software and networking become central
aspects of system development.
The transition to electronic controls is
driving a number of changes in electro-
hydraulic systems. Instead of worrying
about routing hoses, engineers now focus
on hardware architectures, including
both controllers and networks. They are
also making major advances in the soft-
ware that makes everything work.
Integrating all these aspects with
traditional components such as pumps
and valves is a complex job. Engineers
are examining their architectures, deter-
mining whether intelligence should be
centralized or distributed. At the same
time, the focus on software continues to
grow, with some vendors turning to
standards to facilitate reuse.
Electrohydraulic
engineers
embrace
integration
Software improvements help
both engineers and operators as
architectures evolve.
by Terry Costlow
Hydraulic controls on a motor grader were cluttered (left) before Cat opted for
electronic controls (right).
20 SAE OHE Nov/Dec 2008
Eatons 395 dual-path pumps have intelligence built in.
Model-based design
was used to let a
range of engineers
provide input for
Caterpillars 272C
skid steer.
Get with the program
The shift to electronic controls brings programming to the fore.
Software makes it possible to provide a growing number of
features such as autodig and bucket leveling that make equip-
ment simpler to use.
Many programs are written by the design teams that create
electrohydraulic systems. But these supplier programs are
usually viewed as a starting point by OEMs, who typically add
a few tweaks that they feel add benefits or bring the systems
look and feel more in line with their existing products.
Whether the OEMs are tweaking these programs or writing
their own software, hydraulic-system vendors are striving to
make it easier for OEMs, distributors, and others to program
these controllers. Providing a versatile software environment is
a key drive for many electrohydraulic-system manufacturers.
Graphical programming is a key aspect of the Plus+1 tools
from Sauer-Danfoss. It lets product developers drag and drop
icons so that hydraulic engineers and others who are not ex-
perienced programmers can design a complete system.
Bosch Rexroth calls its offering BODAS. It includes a num-
ber of software modules that can be linked together for many
functions. BODAS also includes tools that help engineers write
their own programs.
The Bosch tools let programmers work with either the C
language or IEC 61131-3, an international standard. Eaton also
offers both C and IEC 61131-3, but has made the IEC specifica-
tion a mainstay of its software architecture.
Our graphical software is based on IEC 61131-3, which is
used by hundreds of companies, so its standardized, said A.J.
Smith, Strategic Programs Marketing Manager, Eaton. Using
this standard helps people create reusable software.
Standardization also helps OEMs who are using components
from a range of suppliers, since there is a greater chance of
compatibility. These benefits extend to aftermarket suppliers
and distributors, who find it easier to handle standard software
than code written in several proprietary formats.
Software cools hot potatoes
Distributors do a lot of this customization. For example, DTS
Fluid Power is a hydraulics distributor that designs custom
mobile systems such as potato and cucumber planters, which
require a fair amount of alteration from conventional planters.
They typically cost more than $500,000, using hydraulics to
power a range of actuators.
The availability of flexible software tools was a key reason
that DTS tapped Eaton as a primary hydraulics supplier. That
flexibility extends to its list of component and subsystem sup-
pliers.
Using IEC 61131-3 really gains us a lot, said Trent Tegg,
Sales Vice President, DTS. If a company cant deliver what
weve designed in, or if their price is higher, we can switch to
another component without rewriting our software.
Standards and suppliers software environments are not the
only tool in corporate arsenals. Most engineering departments
are turning to model-based design, which use graphics and
math to describe design goals.
This design technique helps companies work in todays
global environment, making it simpler for engineers to under-
stand a design even when they are not in a position to ask those
who created the models for clarification. The tools also let a
broader range of engineers work with complex aspects of a
system.
The graphical development environment of control systems
available in tools like The MathWorks Simulink aid in explain-
ing system functionality and is easily picked up by most college
grads, said Christopher Beaudin, System Engineering Manager,
Caterpillar.
These tools offer benefits far beyond eliminating the com-
plexity that sometimes plagues text-based system requirements.
When these requirements are created using models, engineers
can feed data to automated code-generation tools and do other
tasks while they are waiting for software.
Industry standards are used to write software for Eatons controllers.
Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 21
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Electronic controls are attractive to de-
signers and equipment operators, but
they also appeal to those who have to
repair equipment. Eliminating hydraulic
hoses opens up a lot of space, while
adding digital controls makes it easier to
troubleshoot many problems.
Operators in the field may decry the
move to electronics, which make it more
difficult to make minor mechanical re-
pairs without calling maintenance ex-
perts. But modern designs are making
life easier for those experts.
Electrohydraulics also allows diag-
nostic equipment to be used in servicing
the equipment by recording fault codes
to help identify and resolve issues faster,
said John Mount, System Senior Design
Engineering Specialist, Caterpillar.
Replacing mechanical controls with
controllers and networks also saves a lot
of space while adding flexibility.
Electrohydraulic systems may be more
complex technologically, but they sim-
Adding electronics makes it easier for
maintenance personnel to get inside Cats 963.
plify the hose layout by reducing the
number of pilot lines, which reduces
potential leak points and improves acces-
sibility, making tilt cabs and servicing
machines much easier, said Doug
Koehler, Steering/Implement/Brake
System Engineering Manager, Cat.
System suppliers also note that com-
bining networks and distributed controls
can reduce the amount of wiring in a
vehicle. Eliminating wiring, like eliminat-
ing hoses, eliminates many of the poten-
tial failure points.
Theres also a savings in the long run
when a technician in the field doesnt
have to chase down a wiring problem
when there are 50 to 100 wires, said
Joseph Maher, Business & Product
Development Vice President at Hydro
Electronic Devices Inc.
Electrohydraulic systems can also pre-
vent some of the catastrophes that can
cause major damage to vehicles. Sensors
in the seat can tell when operators leave,
Electronics help in a fix
With model-based auto coding we can have engineers
focus on developing these control systems and not worry about
developing embedded code, said Beaudin.
Locating the brains
When engineers combine microcontrollers with hydraulics, the
architecture of the system becomes an important design con-
sideration. One facet of such consideration is whether the intel-
ligent control systems are centralized or distributed.
Myriad elements come into play, ranging from the size of
the vehicle to the type of controls that engineering teams are
most familiar. Many companies have architectural guidelines,
preferring to focus on one powerful controller or to distribute
processing power around the vehicle. Even the cost of wiring
comes into play.
In larger vehicles, you want to look at where the I/O and
controllers are located, said Joseph Maher, Business & Product
Development Vice President at Hydro Electronic Devices Inc.
On a large fire truck or crane where runs are 30 to 40 feet, its
not effective to have one central controller. You can spend more
and they can send a message over the
network to alert control modules.
Our operator-presence system auto-
matically sets the parking brake and neu-
tralizes hydraulic functions if the opera-
tor leaves the cab without setting the
brake said Jennifer Rojas, Six Sigma
Black Belt at Cat.
Terry Costlow
on cabling and wiring than you save by eliminating a control-
ler.
On smaller vehicles, it is often quite effective to put most of
the hydraulic controls in one ECU. However, that raises some
networking issues. When controllers are centralized and com-
mands must sometimes arrive in a few milliseconds, network
overloading can be a concern.
Distributing some intelligence helps relieve this. Intelligent
components can make decisions and they can do some process-
ing before putting commands onto a bus, reducing bandwidth
requirements.
We put 32-bit chips in our valves, so all real-time control
for the valve can be performed locally, said Tony Welter,
Product Manager, Eaton Fluid Power.
OEMs credit networking for letting them make significant
improvements throughout the vehicles. The Monarch motor
grader that Cat released last year uses electrohydraulic steering,
which brings significant benefits to operators as well as to the
design team.
Both groups gain with a significantly streamlined cab. The
controls went from eight or more mechanical levers to two
multifunction joysticks. Operators appreciate a reduction of
hand-and-arm movement that nears 80%, while engineers save
the time and expense of managing all the mechanical con-
trols.
The steering controls were designed so the electronics would
not be a failure point for this mission-critical function. The
electrohydraulic steering system has two separate ECMs to
provide redundancy. They communicate to each other and with
supporting subsystems over CAN networks.
The Monarch would not be possible without networking,
said Lonnie Devier, Hydraulics Component/System
Engineering Supervisor, Cat. SOHE
On large vehicles, distributing intelligence can reduce wiring and
save costs.
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MPG in mind
Ricardo Inc. has received a contract as part of the
Fuel Efficient Ground Vehicle Demonstrator (FED)
program launched by the U.S. Armys Tank
Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering
Center (TARDEC) to identify the best combinations
of technologies for achieving the highest possible
fuel efficiency for military ground vehicles while
maintaining vehicle performance. For the first phase
of the project, Ricardo will apply its Total Vehicle Fuel
Economy modeling and simulation capabilities to
predict the performance of various combinations of
current and emerging technologies for the entire ve-
hicle, including conventional and hybrid drive sys-
tems, transmissions, suspension systems, body con-
figurations, and other vehicle systems. Ricardo ex-
pects to deliver the first set of proposed vehicle con-
figurations within nine months.
On the move
Volvo Construction Equipment will move the ma-
jority of its motor grader activities currently located in
Goderich, Ontario, Canada, to the companys facility
in Shippensburg, PA. The decision to consolidate the
industrial operations for road machinery in North
America to Shippensburg was taken to improve the
competitiveness and profitability of the total road
machinery business and to reduce exposure to ex-
change rate fluctuations within North America. The
move, which will affect 500 employees in total, will
take place in various phases, concluding no later than
2010. The central parts warehouse currently located
in Goderich will be relocated to the Volvo Parts ware-
house in Columbus, OH.
Deere details
Deere & Co. said it has acquired full ownership of
ReGen Technologies Inc., a remanufacturing com-
pany located in Springfield, MO. Deere had already
owned 50% of the business. The operations will be
more fully integrated with remanufacturing opera-
tions in Edmonton, Canada, and the overall name of
the business will be John Deere Reman. Deere also
recently announced plans to form a joint venture
with Ashok Leyland Ltd. to initially manufacture
and market backhoes and four-wheel-drive loaders
that will be sold in India and exported to other mar-
kets. Initial production is planned for early 2010. The
joint venture will build a manufacturing facility in
India and is currently evaluating site locations.
Virtual venture
Caterpillar Inc. and Trimble have formed a new
joint-venture company and signed a distribution
agreement. The new company, VirtualSite
Solutions, will integrate the expertise of both parent
companies in the areas of product design and soft-
ware development to transform the way contractors
manage their businesses. The joint venture will be
located in Westminster, CO, home of Trimbles engi-
neering and construction product development and
marketing organization. An office will also be estab-
lished in Peoria, IL, where the joint-venture staff will
work closely with Caterpillars Electronics &
Connected Worksite Division. The joint venture will
initially focus on applications for road construction,
paving, heavy construction, and quarry/aggregates
worksites.
Breaking new ground
Genie Industries, a manufacturer of aerial work
platforms, broke ground at its new manufacturing
facility in Changzhou, China. Production is planned
to begin in mid-2009. The facility will manufacture
Genie equipment for the first time in the local Asian
market. Initial production will focus on preparing a
line of personnel lifts, but over time a full range of
aerial work platform products is expected to be pro-
duced from this facility. When the facility is ramped
up with multiple product lines, it could employ up to
400 people.
Forming a trio
Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Hitachi
Construction Machinery Co. Ltd., and TCM Corp.
have reached an agreement to form an alliance with
respect to their wheel loader businesses, consisting
of joint research and development and a spin-off of
Kawasakis wheel loader operation and Hitachis in-
vestment in the newly created Kawasaki subsidiary. In
anticipation of Tier 4 emissions regulations, the three
companies will combine their respective technologies
and know-how and jointly conduct research and de-
velopment of new models of wheel loaders that will
comply with the regulations. An arrangement will be
made so that the three companies will have divided
manufacturing responsibilities and will supply to one
another such jointly developed products.
Take two
Manitex International Inc., a provider of engi-
neered lifting solutions including boom truck cranes,
rough terrain forklifts, and special-mission-oriented
vehicles, has acquired the assets of Crane and
Machinery Inc. and Schaeff Inc. for $3.7 million.
Crane and Machinery is an authorized dealer for
Terex rough terrain and truck cranes, Fuchs material
handlers, andManitex boom trucks and sign cranes. It
also is a supplier of secondhand equipment, replace-
ment crane and equipment parts, and repair and
maintenance services. Schaeff designs, manufactures,
and sells a line of indoor electric sit-down and stand-
up forklifts.
System Architecture Rapid Prototyping ECU Autocoding HIL Testing ECU Calibration
sohex.hotims.com/16186-225
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Indestructible
from the start
OEMs and suppliers are
investing in testing equipment,
facilities, and software to
ensure proper performance
of components prior to being
placed in the field.
by Matt Monaghan
To test the engine ECU of
its heavy-duty equipment,
Caterpillar has begun using
dSpaces hardware-in-the-loop
simulator and its Automotive
Simulation Models (ASM).
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A
s construction, mining, demolition, and forestry have
become increasingly complex tasks as a result of tight-
ening emissions and government regulations, the
equipment used to perform these tasks has also become more
complex as devices such as electronic control units (ECUs) have
proliferated and new systems have become necessary to help
limit particulate emissions.
To combat this added complexity and ensure the quality
and reliability of these ECUs and engine components, off-
highway OEMs and suppliers are investing in additional test
equipment, test facilities, and software in an effort to validate
performance.
Perkins and Denso have recently invested 19 million and
8 billion, respectively, in new test facilities and equipment.
Companies, such as Caterpillar, have also been extensively
employing software as a way to validate the electronic systems
of new machinery.
The standard method for productive development of ECUs
at Cat involves software-in-the-loop (SIL) and hardware-in-
the-loop (HIL) testing. SIL testing is conducted to test and
validate the entire controller software under development at
an early stage.
With software-in-the-loop, I can run a simulation of the
engine vs. the actual software thats written, but not necessar-
ily run it in real time; Im not running it on the actual hardware
ECU, said Jace Allen, Manager, HIL Engineering, dSpace. But
then when you go to hardware-in-the-loop, we run a simulation
of the engine against the ECU and make sure that it functions
and does what its supposed to do.
To test the engine ECU of its heavy-duty equipment, Cat
uses the diesel engine model and physical turbocharger
model from dSpaces Automotive Simulation Models (ASM).
ASM functions as part of the HIL system, allowing for real-time
simulations of engine injection interfaces that require ex-
tremely accurate timing characteristics in terms of data cap-
ture.
The ASM models were integrated within Dynasty, Cats
in-house simulation environment, and co-simulated with its
Enterprise engine simulation models. During co-simulation
the ECU code was connected to the inputs of the ASM diesel
engine model and the steady-state simulation results were
checked against measurement data. The simulation results of
the ASM models matched the reference signals, leading the
ASM Diesel Engine Simulation package to now be used at Cat
for controller validation during offline simulation and for ECU
validation during HIL simulation.
We try to validate the ASM before we move to the hard-
ware-in-the-loop test lab because that equipment is expensive
and the running operating ROI is limited, said Mark Yu, a
Design Engineer at Caterpillar. We dont want to validate the
The results of the test data, Caterpillars Enterprise engine simulation models, and dSpaces
ASM matched closely.
Caterpillar equipment,
such as this backhoe
loader, has seen
an abundance of
electronic control units
added in recent years.
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model on those simulators because you dont want to waste
the time there. We validated the model offline first, running a
co-simulation to validate the model before we can move to the
dSpace hardware-in-loop simulator. That way, we can have
confidence that this model will work.
Yu said that the ASM has made parameterization easier,
since parameters are available early in the development process
when SIL is performed.
Weve helped [Caterpillar] essentially successfully param-
eterize an engine model to accurately reflect one of their current
engines that theyre simulating to test an ECU with, Allen
said.
Cell growth
As for the engines themselves, testing continues to take on
greater importance as off-highway OEMs and suppliers work
toward achieving the Tier 4 emissions targets. Many labs are
already heavily engaged with testing to meet the Tier 4 Interim
phase targets of 2011 and will only increase the proportion of
work for Tier 4 as the final phase approaches in 2014.
Weve got quite a bit of pull-ahead work in fact for Tier 4
Final, so were actually overlapping two standards doing the
development work concurrently, said Robin Woodward,
General Manager of Perkins Engine Co. Ltd.s Global Engine
Development (GED) center. Were still growing and the fore-
seeable next five or six years are going to be really flat-out on
Tier 4.
As part of its 19 million test facility investment, Perkins
will be installing 12 new mechanical validation cells and five
endurance cells at its GED in Peterborough, U.K., over the next
two years.
GED currently has around 20 performance and emissions
test cells equipped with data acquisition systems supplied by
D2T of France. To make room for the 12 additional cells, Perkins
is reallocating space previously used by other test cells and
stripping out the old equipment and replacing it with all new
systems.
The GED has always conducted engine development tests;
however, as aftertreatment and associated control systems have
become necessary, complexity has grown and led Perkins to
invest in these additional cells.
If youre using, for example, an EGR system and a diesel
particulate filter kind of system, theres a lot of extra data that
you really want to collect as you go along, so data richness is
a critical requirement for us, Woodward said. And that will
become even greater when we have further NOx reduction
systems at Tier 4 Final.
This added complexity and often around-the-clock test cell
operation has made maintaining the data quality resulting from
these tests increasingly difficult.
As the test throughput goes up, youll find that people are
less and less able to keep an eye on whats happening,
Woodward said. You have to have some real technological
help to enable you to detect anomalies that are going on in the
data collection. Equipment goes wrong every now and again
and you need to be able to detect those things before you collect
a lot of data that is of poor quality.
With all the changes being made as a result of Tier 4, there
can also be a great impact on the engines NVH characteristics.
Robin Woodward (second from
left), General Manager of Perkins
Global Engine Development (GED)
center, said the addition of 12
new mechanical validation cells
will allow Perkins to put its Tier 4
engines through the most stringent
validation tests.
The GED currently has 50 test cells and seven additional
specialist cells undertaking a variety of validation tests, including
performance and emissions, mechanical development, endurance,
and transient development.
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sohex.hotims.com/16186-229
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In April 2010, Denso will
begin conducting tests
of its diesel common-rail
systems at a dedicated
facility at its Zenmyo
Plant in Nishio, Japan.
Shown is a diesel engine
test bench at its Aachen,
Germany, facility.
In response to this, GED also upgraded some of the data ac-
quisition systems of its hemi-anechoic noise chambers.
Once basic calibrations for the engine have been selected,
engines are placed inside the chamber and data is collected on
the noise and a noise ranking is determined. To determine the
proper noise characteristics for an engine, there is a lot of in-
teraction with outside clients.
We work very closely with our customers, many of whom
are internal customers to us now within Caterpillar, to really
get a package of a machine that works from a noise, vibration,
and harshness perspective, Woodward said. You can do a
lot with the engine, but when you install things you can actu-
ally either undo some of that good work or you can improve
a situation a lot just by paying attention to the right things in
the vehicle itself.
Woodward said that while engineers are getting better and
better at predicting overall engine noise, noise character is not
something that can be very well predicted.
[Noise character] is one of the things that more subjec-
tively people are interested in, Woodward said. Thats
something you cant really do through simulation. There are
some rules of thumb that you can use, but you really need to
get in there and test it.
Rail station
By offering reductions in engine noise and emissions and im-
provements in power and fuel economy, the demand for diesel
common-rail systems has grown exponentially in recent years.
Denso, which launched the first diesel common-rail system for
trucks in 1995, recently announced that it is using its 8 billion
investment to build a new facility at its Zenmyo Plant in Nishio,
Japan, for testing of the systems for commercial vehicles and
construction machines.
Construction of the 9000-m (97,000-ft) facility will begin
in May 2009 and be completed in March 2010. The test facility
will employ 70 people at the start of operations in April 2010
and an additional 50 employees will be added by 2012.
Currently, all tests and evaluations of common-rail systems
performed in Japan are conducted at Denso headquarters in
Kariya. Common-rail design and development testing will
continue at the headquarters, but performance evaluations and
durability tests will take place at the new facility in the Zenmyo
Plant, which manufactures the common-rail systems.
The common-rail system launched in 1995 had a fuel injec-
tion pressure of 1200 bar (17,400 psi) and enabled two injections
during each combustion stroke. Todays production systems
have a fuel injection pressure of 1800 bar (26,100 psi) and per-
form five injections per combustion stroke. As a result of this,
the equipment used to test these systems has become increas-
ingly more complex.
The evaluations for heavy-duty diesel common-rail sys-
tems are required to be conducted with significantly higher
injection pressure for a longer time compared to passenger-car
common-rail systems, said Yukihiro Shinohara, General
Manager of Densos Diesel Injection Engineering Department
I.
Denso exports the diesel common-rail systems to North
America, Europe, and Asia, including China, therefore the
systems are tested to comply with the latest emissions regula-
tions in all of those markets.
Denso has been supplying diesel injection systems for truck
manufacturers and construction vehicles manufacturers,
Shinohara said. With the increasing demands for heavy-duty
common-rail systems corresponding to stricter emission regu-
lations, we are expanding our business in and outside
Japan.
In addition to conventional validation tests, tests are under
way to determine the systems compatibility with biofuels.
We are evaluating the reliability of common-rail-system
products for various biofuels [related to] products performance
variation with time and the affects to components, including
abrasion of parts and encrustation, Shinohara said. SOHE
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Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 31
Deeres wheeled wonder
Excavators are the workhorses of most heavy lifting,
demolition, and digging operations, hence the many
variations available. Tracked models are more com-
mon, but for smaller spaces and travel on finished
surfaces, a wheeled model offers speed and delicacy
not available with either tracked or truck-mounted
excavators. John Deere has expanded its excavator
line with two new models, both wheeled, to better
meet the needs of its customers.
The 190D W and the 220D W are both named for
their weight, 19 and 22 t (21 and 24 ton), respec-
tively. The primary differences are weight, boom
length, and breakout force. They replace the 180C W
and the 210C W wheeled models.
Both new models are powered by the same
Isuzu 5.2-L four-cylinder Tier 3-compliant diesel,
producing 159 hp (119 kW), which is both turbo-
charged and intercooled. This power is transmitted
to all four wheels via a Funk Powershift two-speed
transmission that is protected by only being allowed
to downshift between certain parameters. Both
models can reach more than 20 mph (32 km/h),
allowing for greater range of motion and situational
accommodation.
While not quite as capable off-road as tracked
models, these models are envisioned more for use on
highway and in-town projects. The 190D W and
220D W are highly productive in digging ditches,
repairing streets and sewers, or moving Jersey barri-
ers, said Mark Wall, Excavator Product Marketing
Manager, Deere.
Both models come with the Powerwise III engine/
hydraulic-management system that maximizes power
output and delivers smooth, predictable multifunc-
tion operation while saving fuel. The Powerwise sys-
tem is designed to activate the hydraulics smoothly
and without delay.
Operators are cushioned by fully adjustable seating
and console areas, and the new models offer in-
creased legroom and lower noise levels.
Hydraulic flow can be observed via an LCD moni-
tor, allowing for real-time changes in hydraulic flow,
maintenance tracking, onboard diagnostics, and ser-
vice monitoring. A variety of attachment needs can
be adjusted from inside the cab, and joystick control-
lers come pre-fitted for auxiliary controls, making it
easy and inexpensive to add auxiliary hydraulics. Both
vehicles come standard with low-flow, medium-pres-
sure assist hydraulics for operating thumbs, rotators,
or tilt buckets.
The cab comes with many standard details that
make using the vehicle less of a chore, including an
AM/FM radio, tilt steering wheel, climate-control sys-
tem, and a 12-V port for cell phone charging. There
is also space for a lunch box as well as cupholders
and a hot/cold box. A high-efficiency cooling fan,
noise-suppression muffler, and isochronous high-idle
speed work together for improved noise reduction in
the cab. Also helping are silicone-filled mounts that
isolate operators from noise and vibration.
The frame is shared by other D-series excavators
and has reinforced side frames to resist impacts.
Welded bulkheads within the boom resist torsional
stress, and heavy-duty covers on the outriggers help
protect the hydraulic cylinders from damage.
Large access panels allow for easy daily access,
with oil and fuel filters positioned to be changed
without difficulty.
Tungsten-carbide coating provides a wear-resis-
tant surface to protect the bucket-to-arm joint. Major
joints also have extended service intervals, with pow-
dered-metal, oil-impregnated bushings allowing
grease intervals to 500 h for the arm-and-boom joint
and 100 h for the bucket joint.
Harry Evans
The 190D W and the 220D W are both named for their
weight, 19 and 22 t (21 and 24 ton), respectively. The
primary differences are weight, digging depth, and
breakout force. They replace the 180C W and the 210C W
wheeled models.
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Case IH revises combine lineup with new flagship
The Axial-Flow combine has been a staple of the Case IH line-
up for 30 years, and that has not changed with the introduc-
tion of several new models. The relatively simple system con-
sists of a single rotor rather than a previously used, more com-
plex design.
This system is entirely carried over to the new models; how-
ever, power on the six redesigned and revamped models varies
from 265 hp (198 kW) and 250-bushel capacity to 483 hp (360
kW) and 350-bushel capacity.
The 5088 and 6088 (replacing the 2577 and 2588, respec-
tively) models are powered by an 8.3-L Cummins engine while
the brand-new 7088 sports a 9.0-L Cummins engine. The com-
panys first Class IX combine, the 9120, is powered by the
12.9-L Cursor 13 diesel. Rounding out the 2009 combine line-
up are the 7120 (replacing the 7010) and the 8120 (replacing
the 8010).
Cases 9120 is for larger operators looking for high-end
productivity features like CVT drives and rotor-reversing, com-
bined with Axial-Flow single-rotor combine technology, said
Leo Bose, Case IH Combine Marketing Manager. Few er
moving parts, fewer belts, gentle grain-on-grain threshing,
more grain savings, matched capacityall the Axial-Flow core
principles from more than 30 years ago are still here, just on a
larger scale.
Axial-Flow combines are available with a variety of tire op-
tions, and weve just added another one, said Bose. The
8120 and 9120 models can be equipped with the Quadtrac
track system on the front axle for greater flotation and less soil
compaction.
Quadtrac uses two 36 in (914 mm) wide rubber tracks,
which reduce ground pressure by 50 to 60% compared to
dual-drive tires, says Case.
Productivity has never been more important than now, and
Case has increased power across the board to allow for more
harvesting in less time. The self-leveling cleaning sieves now
stay level on slopes of up to 14%, reducing waste. Cutting
heads for up to 12 rows of corn are available, and the Case
MagnaCut straw chopper has 126 blades for finely dicing re-
sidual wastes.
Styling of combines has never been a selling point, but Case
has taken steps to make the bodies of the new models more
practical. A low trim panel at the rear helps to keep dust levels
down and residues from accumulating. In an effort to use
products from the fields in which Case models work, two of
the side access panels are made of soybean-based products.
The 88 series has also been lengthened and given a wider
front axle. This allows a better weight distribution of 60:40 as
well as the elimination of previously needed weights on the
rear when using a wider header.
The headers themselves are now interchangeable among
both the 20 and 88 series models, a plus for farms with more
than one harvester.
Harry Evans
The Class VII 7088 is the largest of the 88 series combines from Case.
Also offered in Class V and VI versions, this series features upgraded
engines and grain tanks.
The Class VII 7120 combine from Case is revised for 2009 and offers
360 rated hp (269 kW), 415 maximum hp (310 kW), and 315-bushel
grain tank capacity along with the proven Axial-Flow rotor design.
Kubota gets powerful with sub-compact tractor
Kubota Tractors new BX2660 sub-compact tractor adds to the
companys BX series. With a 25.5-hp (19-kW), three-cylinder
D1005 Kubota diesel engine and two-range hydrostatic trans-
mission, the four-wheel-drive BX2660 can tackle mowing,
landscaping, and hauling jobs.
Described by the company as having a sleek and practical
design, the BX2660 features halogen headlights for work
from dawn to dusk, along with a sturdy metal hood and fend-
ers. The tractor has a mass of 1289 lb (585 kg) and is 95.5 in
(2425 mm) long, with a category I three-point hitch included.
It is 44.5 in (1130 mm) wide, stands 70.4 in (1788 mm) tall,
and is equipped with a 6.6-gal (25-L) fuel tank.
The BX2660 comes standard with a reclining seat to help
the operator remain comfortable during long projects. Cabin
features include standard cruise control, digital tachometer,
and hydrostatic power steering. The operator deck has been
designed for improved room and comfort with split forward
and reverse hydrostatic transmission pedals positioned ergo-
nomically to the right.
A front four-position valve provides quick and easy attach-
ment of front-mounted implements. The performance-
matched Kubota LA243 front loader, which has a breakout
force of 992 lb (4.4 kN), can lift up to 745 lb (338 kg) at the
maximum pivot pin height. Additionally, the front loaders 48-
in (1219-mm) wide bucket has a 4.9-ft (0.14-m) capacity that
can be lifted up to 71.3 in (1811 mm). The BX2660 allows the
loader and mower to be attached simultaneously for easy tran-
sitions between jobs.
Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 33
A 54-in (1372-mm) fine-cut, side-dis-
charge mower featuring a 5-in (127-mm)
deep deck, along with 54-in and 60-in
(1524-mm) standard side-discharge
mowers, is available. Each mower model
for the BX2660 has a cutting height of 1
to 4 in (25 to 102 mm) and can be man-
ually adjusted in 0.25-in (6-mm) incre-
ments with the included dial gauge. In
addition to front loader and mower at-
tachments, the BX2660 is compatible
with a variety of Kubota implements in-
cluding front blade, front and rear snow
blower, and sweeper.
Jean L. Broge
The Kubota BX2660s operator deck
comes standard with cruise control, digital
tachometer, and hydrostatic power steering
for maximum ease of operation.
In addition to performance-matched front
loader and mower attachments, the BX2660
is compatible with a variety of Kubota
implements including front blade, front and
rear snow blower, sweeper, and post digger.
Applied Process, Inc. is a leader in the heat treating
industry specializing in Austempering a
high-performance heat-treatment process that
can increase the strength, toughness and durability
of ferrous materials over conventional heat treatments.
Since 1984, the company has pioneered the
development of new, better, and more cost-efcient
austempering technologies.
High-Performance Solutions

Austempered Ductile Iron. (ADI)
Weighs less than aluminum, costs less than steel.

Austempered Steel.
A tough alternative to quench and temper processes.

Carbo-Austempered
TM
Steel.
Remarkable impact and fatigue properties.

Austempered Gray Iron. (AGI)
Excellent dampening and wear-resistance.

Carbidic Austempered Ductile Iron. (CADI)
Greater wear-resistance than Grade 5 ADI.
High-Performance Solutions
APPLIED PROCESS
SM
INC
www.appliedprocess.com
Tel: (734) 464-8000
Michigan Wisconsin Kentucky China
Australia England India
APPL032_4.5x10.indd 1 10/27/08 9:03:12 AM
sohex.hotims.com/16186-233
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Cub Cadet and Yanmar utilize small diesels
The Cub Cadet and Yanmar joint venture has resulted in two
new products for 2009. Yanmar diesel engines will be offered
in a Cub Cadet utility vehicle (UV) while a new small tractor
will be badged Cub Cadet Yanmar.
The Volunteer 4X4D is part of a line of UVs available from
Cub Cadet, but the addition of a diesel makes it more competi-
tive with other UVs. While gas-powered UVs with long suspen-
sions have dominated the off-highway market, the Volunteer
combines its diesel with a fully independent suspension with 8
in (203 mm) of travel and 3-in (76-mm) welded steel frame for
both comfort and working advantage.
The Yanmar 854-cm
3
, three-cylinder inline diesel produces
36.9 lbft (50 Nm) at 2400 rpm and pushes the payload and
towing capacities to 1400 lb (635 kg) in the 14.4-ft
3
(0.4-m
3
)
bed. This is connected to a continuously variable transmission
and onto a Hilliard locking front differential.
Four-wheel hydraulic disc brakes slow the vehicle from a
maximum speed of greater than 30 mph (48 km/h). A wide
variety of accessories include an enclosed cab, bed liner, snow-
plow, and electric bed lift.
The new diesel tractor from Cub Cadet Yanmar is the
Ex450. While it is relatively small, it is on a larger frame to al-
low a wide array of attachments, including a front loader with
a universal quick-attach bucket, backhoe, and three-point im-
plements, allowing the Ex450 to be used for everything from
cutting grass to backhoe trenching and excavation. Designed
The Cub Cadet Volunteer utility vehicle shares almost everything
except the engine with present models. The Yanmar diesel will allow
it to compete more evenly with other utility vehicles, although the
Volunteer should be more capable off road.
Delphi Power Pack Connections
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Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 35
for small farm and ranch owners, landscapers, and lawn care
businesses, the Ex450 comes with a 2000-h, two-year limited
warranty on the tractor, with 2000 h and three years covering
the engine and drivetrain.
The direct-injection, four-cylinder Yanmar offers 45 hp (34
kW) and is mated to an 18-speed transmission, with nine gears
in each direction. The column shifter has a Synchro-Shuttle that
allows for easy transitions in direction.
While a variety of implements are available, the three-point
hitch can lift more than 2400 lb (1089 kg), and the power
steering aids maneuvering in rough terrain.
Harry Evans
The Yanmar three-cylinder inline diesel produces 36.9 lbft (50 Nm)
and pushes the payload and towing capacities to 1400 lb (635 kg) in
the 14.4-ft (0.4-m) bed.
The Ex450 is small but capable around
ranches, estates, and lawn care services.
sohex.hotims.com/16186-235
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Carraro tractor: No dime needed to change direction
Although attachments can be used at each end of Carraros SRX
10400, even weight distribution is achieved by using only a rear
attachment.
The StarLight cab makes it easier to work year-round. It comes
standard with heating and air conditioning and has a panoramic roof,
needed when working with higher implements.
Tractors have always had a variety of uses, and over the years
some unique designs have been introduced. Many domestic
tractors are very typical looking; however, the Italian company
Antonio Carraro has a long history of unique designs, and its
new SRX 10400, part of the Ergit 100 series, is no different.
Rather than go along with the usual design process, Carraro
adopted a kakushin philosophy in the development of the
Ergit 100 tractors. Kakushin does not just involve simplifying
existing production processes but enables, according to the
company, profound, courageous, and not entirely painless
change in product development.
Specifically designed for tightly spaced row crops, the 10400
has several unique features that are well suited to varying ter-
rain. The most notable for the TRX model is RGS, or reversible
drive system. Activating the system enables the tractor to head
back in the direction it came, using an implement at each end.
The process takes 5 s, and because the steering comes about
through the chassis flexing in the center, the problems associ-
ated with rear steering are gone, claims the company.
With the steering in the center, more maneuverability is
gained in tight spaces, and to add to this, Carraro has added a
Quick Steer to SRX 10400 models. Through a control on the
dashboard, the operator can obtain a full steering turn by mov-
ing the steering wheel just half a turn, allowing more rapid
changes of direction and less driver fatigue.
The power for the 10400 comes from a 96-hp (72-kW)
four-cylinder diesel with an intercooler. Power is sent through a
32-speed gearbox, with 16 in each direction to allow equal
speeds no matter which way the operator is facing. It also has
a synchronized inverter that allows the drive direction to be
changed even while the tractor is in motion.
The oscillating chassis can flex 15 in a twisting motion, al-
lowing constant grip in undulating terrain. The weight balance
is 60% front, 40% rear, or with a rear-mounted attachment,
equal, offering better traction vs. traditional tractor design.
A StarLight cab, so called because of the partially clear roof,
is optional, making the tractor more capable in changing
weather. The cab comes with full heating and air conditioning,
and the seat and control console are mounted on four Silent
Block bearings that are intended to protect against transverse
movements. The anti-reflective gauges and optional joystick
controls further simplify operations.
As the 10400 is envisioned to be working in tight spaces,
the braking system is geared for constant use. It has internal oil
bath discs with hydraulic controls that do not need to be ad-
justed. The two hydraulic systems, one for the attachments
front and rear, the other for the braking, steering, clutch and
reversible drive, are separate to maintain pressure and full con-
trol in both.
Harry Evans
Thomas steers clear of the competition
While fuel prices have somewhat stabilized, the economy re-
mains daunting. As such, homeowners are seen taking on
more improvement projects themselves, allowing some ad-
vances in rental and light construction markets. Skid steers are
a staple of both areas and are pushing into other fields as bud-
gets tighten.
Thomas Equipment has recently unveiled the 185 to
replace the previous 175 model and hopes that it will be able
to meet more than just the demands of do-it-yourself proj-
ects. Petter Etholm, President, said, The Thomas 185 re-
flects our aim to help productivity on construction, agricul-
tural, mining, and other work sites from grading and paving
to lifting and loading.
The 185 is powered by a Kubota V2003T four-cylinder die-
sel that meets Tier 3 regulations. The 2-L engine produces 59
hp (44 kW) and 122 lbft (165 Nm). Its hydrostatic transmis-
sion allows for a top speed of 7.7 mph (12.4 km/h).
The diminutive 185 has a mere 139-in (3531-mm) overall
length but has a hefty operating mass of 7200 lb (3266 kg)
and a breakout force of more than 2 ton (18 kN). Twin hydrau-
lic bucket cylinders allow for a bucket height of greater than
11 ft (3.4 m), a maximum dump height of over 9 ft (2.7 m),
and a lift capacity of 1850 lb (840 kg).
All rollover-protection systems and falling-object-protec-
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Thomas Equipments new 185 features two inline hydrostatic pumps
for improved lift, pull, and hoist capabilities.
The 185 has a reach of 111 in (2819 mm) and is ready for a variety of
attachments.
tion systems regulations are met, and the cab is also lined for
sound suppression. A protective seat bar applies the parking
brake for user safety, and roof and rear glass help to keep
some debris and dust from the operator. Work lights, a dome
light, horn, and locking fuel and hydraulic caps are all includ-
ed, and the electronics are ready for future additions, as
Thomas offers a large number of compatible accessories for
the 185.
Harry Evans
P: 800.223.1236
F: 937.438.9755
www.laddinc.com
Contact LADD Industries for
all your Deutsch connector
needs.
Deutsch Industrial electrical
connectors are ideal where dust,
dirt, moisture, salt spray, and rough
terrain can contaminate or
damage electrical connections.
Protect your electrical systems from harsh
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sohex.hotims.com/16186-237
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Hitch your wagon to a Western Star
Off-highway transport trucks have strenuous lives and are ex-
pected to haul large loads in all conditions; therefore, strength
and durability are paramount. In an effort to capture some of
the mining and quarry market, Western Star has joined with
J&J Truck Bodies to build a truck for all extremes.
Using the 6900XD platform, the Western Star offers the
power to move up to 40 ton (36 t), provided by the 14-L tur-
bocharged Detroit Diesel inline six-cylinder engine. The pow-
erplant produces 1550 lbft (2102 Nm) at 1350 rpm and 475
hp (354 kW), and with the fully automatic Allison transmission
with six forward gears, is capable of 43 mph (69 km/h) when
fully loaded.
The truck rides on a 6x4 chassis with a 28,000-lb (12,700-
kg) front axle and twin 110,000-lb (50,000-kg) heavy-duty rear
axles with Chalmers suspension.
The 6900, produced since 1990, has proven itself at fulfilling
heavy-duty obligations.
Off-highway trucks are not known for their fuel-efficiency,
but the Western Star incorporates features that the company
says enables it to average 7.13 gal/h (27.0 L/h) on long hauls.
The brakes are dry drums, not wet discs that use more fuel due
to the drag, and the tires are high pressure and have less rolling
resistance than flotation tires.
The truck is built in Portland, OR, where the only robots in
the plant are in the paint booths. The remainder of the truck is
built by hand to meet individual customer orders. Once the cab
and chassis are completed, the trucks are sent to Somerset, PA,
to J&J Truck Bodies and Trailers, where the dump body and
truck are united.
The Hardox 400 steel dump box is designed for mining work
and comes with an auto lift tailgate and wide cab overhangs to
protect the operator from debris. It has a single front-mounted
hoist, as opposed to a more traditional two-cylinder setup.
The cab is equipped with air ride and a full HVAC system to
make the operator as comfortable as possible no matter what
the terrain. With 6900XDs operating around the world, the
truck is also available with right-hand drive and in export specifi-
cations.
Harry Evans
The 6900 has been produced since 1990 and has proven itself at
fulfilling heavy-duty obligations. Although the design is older, many
parts are interchangeable with other Western Star products.
MAHLE Test Systems delivers speed, versatility and durability.
You can program and validate control modules in half the time.
Reduced cycle times wont slow down your production line.
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MANUFACTURING DIAGNOSTICS
FROM PRODUCTION TO PASS
IN SECONDS
08 TS prdctn2pass:Layout 1 11/14/2008 1:25 PM Page 1
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Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 39
Engineers who recall
the challenges facing light-duty gasoline
engine emissions control in the mid-
1970s can relate to where heavy-duty
diesel emissions control stands as it faces
the 2010 decade, said Dr. Mike Traver.
Weve had a lot of technology forced
on diesels in a very short period of time,
and currently there is uncertainty regard-
ing which solutions will end up in pro-
duction, said Traver, Diesel Team
Manager at powertrain engineering spe-
cialists IAV. We have to get over the
hump on NOx. Systems cost will rise. But
well see optimization of the aftertreat-
ment, improved controls, better combus-
tion technology.
By later next decade, Traver expects
no worries about aftertreatment. Itll be
To 2010
and beyond
Engineers working
on emissions-control
systems for heavy-
duty engines already
are preparing for
ever more stringent
regulations later next
decade.
by Lindsay Brooke
Diesel-emissions technology and compliance are a major focus of powertrain R&D specialists including AVL.
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a commodityjust part of the engineering effort.
The U.S. EPAs 2010 heavy-duty emissions regulations con-
tinue the phase-in of the U.S. 2007 standards. These called for a
significant drop in particulate matter (PM), forcing OEMs to
install diesel-oxidation catalysts and particulate filters (DPFs)
the standard light- and medium-duty aftertreatment set. But the
regulations being phased in from 2010 will ultimately require a
minimum 85% reduction of NOx from the 2007 baseline.
The heightened focus on NOx and further PM reductions
will begin with on-road vehicles but will soon expand to in-
clude off-road diesel equipment, which experts say will ben-
efit from the on-road technology solutions. Significantly more
stringent NOx levels are also expected in Europe when the
Euro 6 standards currently being formulated arrive in 2013-14.
Japan will follow closely, and experts believe China, India, and
other emerging markets will move steadily to tighter laws in
the near term.
Global regulatory activity is driving a lot of decisions at
the OEMs regarding the aftertreatment system as a whole,
Traver noted. Selective-catalytic reduction (SCR) using urea
injection to reduce tailpipe NOx levels has been proven in
Europe in recent years. SCR minimizes the fuel-economy pen-
alty, making it an apparent favorite with heavy-duty vehicle
OEMs for the 2010 North American market. Various low- and
high-pressure exhaust-gas-recirculation (EGR) strategies will
drive down engine-out emissions.
There is so much technology in play right now at our cus-
tomers for possible next-decade applications, he observed.
Steve Charlton, Vice President of Heavy-Duty Engineering
at Cummins Engine, sees the issue of CO
2
, its direct impact on
vehicle fuel economy, and the overall issue of climate change
really coming to the fore early next decade.
The U.S. 2010 and Euro 6 standards will drive NOx and PM
pretty much to zero, Charlton said. We do have some obliga-
tion to onboard diagnostics that come along in 2013, but the
heavy-duty industrys main emphasis next decade will be on
fuel economyprimarily led by demanding customers.
Low-backpressure filters
PM filter technology that enabled OEMs to meet U.S. 2007
and Euro 4 standards is underpinning R&D for even more
efficient DPFs. Todays filtration focusing on particulate/soot
mass will not be adequate to meet the particulate-count stan-
dards coming with Euro 6, for example. Engineers also expect
integrated NOx/particulate filter systems to replace todays
discrete hardwareand without precious metal content in
the NOx element of the system, said Bruno Tronchetti-
Provera, CEO of Pirelli ECO Technology, the Italian tire-
makers fast-growing exhaust-emissions technology group
based in Milan.
Tronchetti-Provera said new generations of materials devel-
oped to allow PM filters to withstand the high thermal loads of
light-duty engines will transfer to heavy-duty to improve re-
generation efficiency and robustness. He explained that the
silicon-carbide substrate in Pirellis Feelpure DPF easily with-
stands 1500 C, but even more durable materials are coming.
Veteran filter-materials supplier Corning is evolving its
proven cordierite-based substrates to reduce exhaust back-
pressure, which it hopes will result in greater fuel efficiency
and engine performance.
Looking beyond 2012 we are working in the laboratory on
cordierite-based materials that could offer up to 40% lower
backpressure than the U.S. 2007 baselineabout half the back-
pressure allowed by our current Dura Trap AC cordierite
substrate, said Curt Weinstein, Vice President and General
Manager at Corning Heavy Duty Diesel Technologies.
From the higher thermal durability requirements of light-
duty DPF applications came Dura Trap AT, an aluminum-
Ricardos John Pinson believes new
engine-out emissions solutions will
help reduce the aftertreatment
burden in the 2015 time frame.
Pirelli ECO is moving beyond DPF development
into SCR technologies. Shown is the companys
latest Feelpure DPF used in Europe.
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titanate-oxide-based material. It has even higher thermal
capacity than cordierite- and silicon-carbide-based substrates,
with exceptionally high soot-mass limits. It can also be ex-
truded into large monoliths of diameter up to 13 in
(330 mm), which heavy-diesel engineers prefer.
In the next decade, OEMs will select DPF types based on
their regeneration strategies as they all pursue the same end
gamelower fuel consumption, Weinstein explained. For
those aiming to achieve it through reduced regeneration fre-
quency, the Dura Trap AT is practical because it can be loaded
up with much more soot than a typical cordierite product.
In the cylinder
Diesel engineers said beyond 2010, there will be a continuous
effort to reduce the requirements for aftertreatment, resulting
in less urea consumption, and a simplified system for better
packaging and lower cost. There is much innovation going on
in ammonia-delivery systems. There are solid-urea concepts
based on ammonia salts being evaluated, as well as higher-
concentration liquid versions.
Regarding engine-out, experts are confident that increas-
ingly sophisticated fuel delivery, variable-geometry turbo-
charging systems, and engine control systems (more processing
power, memory, and I/O) will enhance combustion and reduce
Steve Charlton with Cummins
ISX series diesel featuring 2010
technologies.
Sophisticated common-rail fuel injection
is a key enabler for heavy-duty emissions
reduction in the future.
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emissions constituents before they exit the exhaust ports.
Five years in the future, I dont expect the typical heavy-
diesel aftertreatment system to look anything like it does to-
day, predicted Dr. John Pinson, Ricardo North Americas Vice
President of Light & Heavy Duty Diesel Engineering.
Pinson believes the focus on reducing engine-out NOx
emissions will require far less aftertreatment. He said systems
on the road in 2013 will be far more elegant and a lot less
onerous to implement and maintain. And with more power-
ful control methodologies, and more precise fuel delivery and
cylinder charging/EGR techniques, theres a chance well see
some applications avoid aftertreatment in the 2015 time frame,
he said.
The leading powertrain R&D firms are quite active in help-
ing their OEM customers develop very precise cylinder pres-
sure controls for heavy diesels. Such systems, featuring indi-
vidual cylinder pressure sensors, are critical to even more ac-
curate combustion control and potentially lower engine-out
emissions. Theyve recently entered production on Volkswagen
and General Motors light-duty diesels in Europe. But the
technology is not yet ready for prime time in the HD market,
said Dean Tomazic, Vice President of FEV Inc.s Engine
Performance and Emissions Division.
Durability is still a big challenge for implementing cylin-
der-pressure monitoring in heavy diesels, so OEMs are opting
to stay away for the moment, he asserted. They want to see
how it performs in light-duty applications.
Once durability is proven, the technology has several ad-
vantages, Tomazic noted. Fuel-quality differences are some-
thing the heavy-duty engine manufacturers would like to ac-
count for, by measuring the individual cylinder pressure
traces then adjusting the injection
strategies so the customer doesnt
observe misfiring, white smoke, noise,
or other combustion irregularities. He
explained that the degree of drift, in
addition to sensor durability, is a key
issue that needs further resolution.
Cooled EGR will play a major role
in 2010-and-beyond heavy diesel emis-
sions compliance. Until recently it
appeared that Cummins would opt for
EGR rather than SCR for its near-term
NOx-reduction path on heavy-duty
products, while employing SCR on
medium-duty units. However, the
company finally declared it will in-
deed use SCR technology on the big
engines after all.
What prompted the shift in strat-
egy is a fairly simple storySCR
technology did not stand still, ex-
plained Charlton. Its made signifi-
cant progress in the last year and a half.
That was really the driver for us.
Charlton said the key enabler is a
coating material called copper zeolite.
Codeveloped by Cummins catalyst
suppliers and the companys in-house
Emissions Solutions aftertreatment
group, the synthetic zeolitic material
features micropores specially configured to help boost the
SCR catalysts thermal durability, while reducing fuel-poi-
soning characteristics.
It translates into much better capability to reduce NOx
from the engine, he said. We see the potential for greater
than 90% conversion using the SCR technology. This allows
us to take an engine at U.S. 2007 levels and treat it to meet
the 2010 standards.
Charlton noted that while Cummins has not yet declared a
technology position on the final stage of U.S. Tier IV off-highway
regulations (it will use cooled EGR to meet the interim Tier IV
rules), historically on-road technology implementation has led
off-road by four years. He acknowledges that SCR cannot be
ruled out for future off-highway applications.
In the short term well see a lot of EGR in heavy-duty ap-
plications; Caterpillars ACERT system uses low-pressure EGR
fitted downstream of the turbo and DPF, noted IAVs Traver.
And the combination of high- and low-pressure EGR can give
multiple NOx-reduction benefits while lowering demand for
expensive aftertreatment components. He said IAV is col-
laborating with BorgWarner on such a system.
Despite hitting emissions reduction as hard as they possibly
can, diesel engineers know they do not have it optimizedno
matter how much fuel economy takes center stage. SOHE
Cornings Dura Trap AT DPF substrate materials were developed for the
high thermal loads of light-duty diesels. They offer lower backpressure
and other benefits for HD engines.
Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 43
Eyes on diesel research
Using quartz and sapphire components, high-powered lasers,
and scientific cameras, researchers can see inside an operating
engine, and that vision is proving to be a valuable aid for find-
ing ways to reduce diesel emissions.
Researchers in the Energy Application Techniques Division at
IFP (French Institute of Petroleum) in Rueil-Malmaison,
France, use the optical engine as a tool to get visual data, to
get quantitative data, and to better understand the physical
processes that are occurring in an engine.
An optical engineessentially akin to a standard, all-metal
engine but with certain parts fashioned in quartz and sap-
phirehas been a part of the research community since the
1980s. The transparent engine of today, however, is serving a
vital role in the development of greener diesel engines.
In one set of tests currently being conducted in the engine
laboratory, an optical diesel engine is fitted with a quartz cylin-
der and quartz piston bowl. Laser-spectroscopy techniques en-
able scientists to visualize the physical processes occurring in-
cylinder, including the time span from the injection of fuel into
the cylinder on through engine combustion.
In the past few years, the homogeneous-charge compres-
sion-ignition (HCCI) diesel engine has received optical atten-
tion. To get an HCCI diesel engine on the market, researchers
need to look at increasing the low-load operating range limi-
Looking inside
the combustion
chamber of the
optical engine
via a 45-degree
mirror, which is
housed inside an
extended piston.
The bluish light
corresponds
to combustion
luminosity.
tation to really maximize the benefits of low-temperature die-
sel combustion. But when combustion temperatures are re-
duced, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions are
problematic, which is why it is important to see and under-
stand what is happening in-cylinder to get to the source of
the problem.
Dynamometer for hybrid drivetrains
Sakors HybriDyne
dynamometer for
hybrid drivetrains
and components,
shown in the test
lab, calibrates
the performance,
efficiency, and
durability of all
aspects of hybrid
drivetrains.
Sakor Technologies has launched HybriDyne, a comprehen-
sive test solution for calibrating the performance, efficiency,
and durability of all aspects of hybrid drivetrain systems, in-
cluding electrical assist, diesel electric, and fully electric ve-
hicle systems.
The HybriDyne system itself is a hybrid, integrating major
components of Sakors DynoLAB PT engine test cell supervisory
system with elements of its DynoLAB EM electric motor test
system. Coupled with one or more of Sakors AccuDyne ac
motoring dynamometers, the modular HybriDyne is capable of
thoroughly testing individual mechanical and/or electrical com-
ponents, integrated subassemblies, and complete drivetrains
with a single installation.
Top Technologies of 2008
The editors look back at some of the most significant technological innovations
during the past year according to readers.
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MEMS is the word for engines
induced bearing failure significantly earlier than conventional
sensors. The sensors could be in use in a few years in mili-
tary aircraft such as fighter jets and helicopters. However, the
technology also has potential applications in both light- and
heavy-duty ground vehicle engines.
Researchers claim that this will be the first time that a
MEMS component will be able to work in such a harsh envi-
ronment. Engines typically have high temperatures, are messy,
oil is everywhere, and high rotational speeds subject hardware
to extreme stresses.
MEMS combine electronic and mechanical components on
a microscopic scale. MEMS needs to be small enough to not
interfere with the performance of the bearing itself, while
withstanding extreme heat: engine bearings must work reliably
in environments that can reach 300C (572F).
The new sensors directly monitor the temperature of engine
bearings, whereas conventional sensors work indirectly by
monitoring the temperature of engine oil, yielding less specific
data.
The MEMS devices will transmit temperature data wirelessly,
eliminating the need for batteries, which do not perform well
in high temperatures. Power will be provided using inductive
coupling, which uses coils of wire to generate current.
Purdue says the major innovation will be the miniaturization
and design of the MEMS device, allowing it to be installed
without disturbing the bearing itself. Data from the onboard
devices will not only indicate whether a bearing is about to fail,
but also how long it is likely to last before it fails.
MEMS wireless sensors are being developed to detect
impending bearing failure in jet engines, but have potential
applications in ground vehicles.
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Researchers at Purdue University have developed microelec-
tromechanical systems (MEMS) that can survive the harsh con-
ditions inside jet engines to detect impending temperature-
Sakor claims the HybriDyne system is capable of simultane-
ously determining the performance and efficiency of each com-
ponent and subsystem being tested, as well as the entire sys-
tem as a whole, in real time. The mechanical control and data-
acquisition components of HybriDyne manage and monitor all
engine and mechanical system functions, while the electrical
subsystem monitors and controls all electrical values from low
voltage control as well as high-voltage dc and three-phase ac
busses. The inherent dynamic profile capabilities of DynoLAB
provide for traditional steady-state testing, as well as complete
road-load and in-use simulation.
Hydraulic steering without the hydraulics
was too complex, or had to be developed and
implemented by the OEM.
Five standard configurations of the TFD are
available, with torque densities ranging from
2.5 to 12 Nm (1.8 to 8.9 lbft). They are tested
to more than 10 million revolutions at 120 rpm,
and are engineered to operate in ambient tem-
peratures from -35 to +60C (-31 to +140F).
The TFD has a footprint as small as 3.25 x 4 in
(83 x 102 mm) and is available as a stand-alone
component that can be integrated into nearly
any electric or steer-by-wire system, or as part
of a larger Danaher Motion vehicle system.
TFDs provide a variable torque output in
proportion to a dc input by applying state-of-
the-art friction materials and a patent-pending
electromagnetic actuation system. The devices
also incorporate redundant sensors for failsafe shaft feedback
and serviceability.
Danaher Motions Torque Feedback Device
(TFD) combines tactile and position or velocity
feedback with a steering wheel interface in a
compact, IP66-rated package. This combina-
tion allows designers of electronic vehicle sys-
tems (EVS), personal mobility equipment, and
other off-highway equipment to deliver the
performance and maintenance benefits of
electric or steer-by-wire systems with the tac-
tile response of a hydraulic system.
The TFD provides input to a controller that
commands the actuation mechanism in steer-
ing and other by-wire applications. The device
also provides continuously variable torque out-
put to simulate the feel that users of hy-
draulic systems are comfortable with, allowing
operators to more easily adapt to an electric-
steer or steer-by-wire vehicle system. Danaher says that with
legacy electric steering systems this functionality did not exist,
Danaher Motion says its
Torque Feedback Device uses
an electromagnetic actuation
system to provide position or
velocity feedback with the feel
of hydraulics in electric-steer and
steer-by-wire systems.
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Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 45
Cool answer to a hot issue
Specialist coating company Zircotec has conducted what it
terms independent testing by one of the U.K.s leading test
and development centers to confirm that the use of advanced
flame-sprayed ceramic coatings can reduce heat transfer by up
to 26.7%. This led to a surface temperature reduction at the
exhaust manifold of up to 136C (245F), according to the
company.
Flame-sprayed ceramic coatings were originally developed
by the nuclear energy industry and are used by Formula One
and other race teams.
The independent testing program was instigated to demon-
strate the effectiveness of the coating on a V8 gasoline engine
fitted with two sets of manifoldsone in standard condition,
the other with a zirconia-based coating.
The manifolds were encapsulated to simulate underhood
airflow conditions, and testing was conducted on an engine
dynamometer, simulating various driving conditions and road
speeds.
Zircotec says the results clearly demonstrate that the coated
exhaust manifold transmits significantly less heat to its sur-
roundings than the uncoated standard part, reducing heat
transfer at all the different loads and simulated road speeds of
35 and 70 mph (56 and 112 km/h). For harsher applications,
the greatest gains were achieved when the loads and speeds
were at their highest.
In addition to the thermal barrier properties, the coating is
more durable than traditional wrap, is easily packaged, and
provides a fit-and-forget solution for a variety of vehicles, says
the company.
The Zircotec process can coat most metals, and a recently
developed innovation also allows carbon-fiber composites to
be coated.
The results of independent tests involving flame-sprayed ceramics
used to achieve underhood heat reduction. Surface temperatures at
location TC15 for cooling flow of 450 kg/h.
Baseline
3500 rpm
Zircotec
3500 rpm
Baseline
2500 rpm
Zircotec
2500 rpm
Engine load, %
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
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0 20 40 60 80 100 120
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C
345 Canal Park Dr.
Suite 300
Duluth, MN 55802
218.722.7884
Client: Job #: Version#-Date:
AE: Artist: Spell Check: Yes No
Pub: Date Due to Pub: Publish Date:
Ad Size (trimmed): Bleed: Yes No Ad Type: Color B&W
Proofed By: Date Proofed:
L&M Radiator 16777 #1 - 4/23/07
Paul Jeff Spry
SAE Off-Highway
7.0 x 4.875 x x
x
1414 East 37th Street, Hibbing, MN 55746 USA 218-263-8993 Toll Free in USA and Canada 800-346-3500 mesabi.com
STANDS APART.
ME S A BI

a p a r t t h a t
TIER II AND III DESIGNS AVAILABLE
During WWII, the British discovered a weak part on their tanks the radiator.
One bullet hole was all it took to stop a tank. This led to development of radiators
featuring individual cooling tubes held in headers with flexible rubber seals. The seals
allowed battle-damaged tubes to be removed and replaced in the field, and without
removing the radiator. The seals also eliminated soldered seams that could crack and
leak. The concept seemed like a good idea for all heavy-duty off-road equipment and
was brought to North America in 1957 by what would become L&M Radiator. The
cooling concept first applied to MESABI

engine radiators now applies to MESABI


oil coolers, charge air coolers and tube and shell coolers.
For radiator and heat exchanger reliability specify MESABI

4
8
M
O
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W
A
R
R
A
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T
Y
Manufactured by Radiator, Inc.
Flexible Core Heat Exchangers


2007. MESABI

is a registered trademark of L&M Radiator, Inc.


The British Matilda II infantry tank was the product of an urgent
rearmament in June of 1938. A strong case can be made for this
tank being retrotted with a replaceable tube-type radiator.
sohex.hotims.com/16186-245
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46 SAE OHE Nov/Dec 2008
This cross-
section
transmission
electron
microscope
image shows
a nanoscale
multilayer PVD
coating.
Volvo goes green with hybrid wheel loader
The battery-powered hybrid technology used throughout the
automotive industry is making its way into the off-highway
marketplace. Volvo Construction Equipment demonstrated
a prototype of its L220F hybrid wheel loader at ConExpo, saying
the vehicle can save fuel and extend engine lifetimes.
The wheel loader augments its D12 engine with an inte-
grated starter generator (ISG), which sits between the engine
and the transmission, charging when the engine is at rest and
Volvos wheel loader brings electric hybrid technology to the off-
highway industry, offering reduced fuel consumption and increased
engine life.
powering the transmission during startup. It is coupled to a
lithium battery pack that has significantly more capacity
than lead-acid batteries. The battery pack provides power at
levels when diesels falter. Electric motors provide a torque
boost to augment the low torque of diesel engines operating
at low engine speeds.
The torque of electric motors is high from the beginning.
During startup or takeoff, the boost from the electric motors
lets the diesel operate at lower revs so theres much less stress
on the engine.
In addition to reducing wear and tear on diesel engines,
running the diesel at lower speeds will reduce noise, which is
important in many urban areas. The batteries also power the
climate-control system so engines do not have to idle to keep
operators comfortable.
During the prototype testing phase that will continue for
around a year, Volvo will be studying and quantifying factors
such as reduced emissions and fuel conservation. The company
is promising at least a 10% improvement in fuel consumption.
The company believes that continuing technical advances
should boost fuel savings. The prototype now being tested
charges its batteries when the diesel is not working, but pro-
duction versions set to ship late next year will use regenera-
tive braking.
Pressure rises for diesel-engine nanotechnology
The diesel-engine industry is literally facing great pressure for
technology advances to provide the level of combustion effi-
ciency essential to meet environmental demands. Next-
generation diesel-injection systems will use extremely high
pressures to produce smaller fuel droplets, which will provide a
greater surface area for combustion.
Typically, pressures in common-rail turbodiesel car engines are
now in the 1600-1800 bar (23.2-26.1 ksi) range, but are set to
go considerably higher soon as the need to further reduce CO
2

levels continues. The raising of pressures will bring fresh technol-
ogy challenges to ensure enduring system precision. These in-
clude a demand for tighter tolerances on injector components.
Currently, many injector components are coated with DLC
(diamond-like carbon), but this can flake away under very high
pressures. Specifically, DLC does not adhere satisfactorily using
traditional physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques, so it
cannot be built up to any great thickness, said Professor
Papken Hovsepian, head of the Nanotechnology Center for
Physical Vapor Deposition Research (NTCPVD), part of the
Materials and Engineering Research Institute at Sheffield
Hallam University in the U.K.
Although DLC has very good sliding wear, which makes it an
attractive material for automotive applications, it is not suffi-
ciently tolerant to shear forces. Seeking a solution to this prob-
lem, and other coating issues, is the Innovatial project, which is
supported by the European Commission through the Sixth
Framework Program for Research and Development. The project
involves 24 high-profile European partners, all operating within
the automotive and aerospace sectors, and is focused on devel-
oping innovative processes and materials to allow high-perfor-
mance nanostructured coatings to be applied to components.
NTCPVD has a key role in the project and, as a world lead-
er in the sector, has taken the lead in a groundbreaking tech-
nology for applying several types of coating materials in a
superlatticebuilding up, at the atomic level, dense coat-
ing layers.
The new technology is called HIPIMS (High Power Impulse
Magnetron Sputtering) PVD, which may prove to be the most
significant breakthrough in PVD in the last 30 years.
Within the HIPIMS chamber at Sheffield, there are four plas-
ma sources that vaporize and ionize the surfaces of up to four
target (donor) materials. Magnetic and electric fields then draw
the individual ionized material toward the components to be
coated, which are rotated within the chamber so that they can
receive from each of the donors.
NTCPVD is also working on new coatings for valves and
piston rings (which are subjected to very high heat levels) and
has recently deposited alternating layers of chromium alumi-
num yttrium nitride and chromium nitride.
sohex.hotims.com/16186-247
Cat sets plan of attack on ac
electric drive
In the D7E powertrain, the diesel
engine drives a generator to produce
electricity that ultimately powers
two ac-electric-drive motors, which
are connected to a differential
steering system.
Caterpillar took advantage of advances of
both price and size in powerful semicon-
ductors to provide its newly announced
D7E track-type tractor with a brushless
ac-electric-drive system. The D7E will
ramp up in production and roll out into
regulated markets next year, with the DR7
it is replacing to eventually be discontin-
ued in North America. Compared to the
D7R Series II, Cat says that even with the
same blade, the D7E will deliver 25%
more material moved per gallon of fuel,
10% more productivity to the ground,
and 10% lower lifetime operating costs.
Using the ac electric drive enabled
engineers to design the system so that
the engine operates over a very narrow
engine-speed band, reducing the rated
speed from the DR7s 2100 rpm down to
about 1700 rpm. Getting into a narrow-
er engine operating range reduces fuel
consumption and enhances engine ef-
ficiency and durability.
A 235-hp (175-kW) C9.3 ACERT en-
gine is used in the D7E to drive a genera-
tor that produces electricity to power
two ac-electric-drive motors, which are
connected to a differential steering sys-
tem. The generator is controlled by a
power converter, which is what allows
for the brushless design and elimination
of solid-state electronics.
A traditional mechanical transmission
is not needed because the electric mo-
tors essentially function as a continu-
ously variable transmission. The electric
drivetrain has 60% fewer moving parts,
and thus fewer parts to maintain, com-
pared to the previous D7s, with compo-
nents such as the driveshaft, torque con-
verter, clutch, valves, and belts being
eliminated.
Eliminating parts also contributed to
design flexibility, allowing engineers to
put components at optimal locations in
the machine to increase visibility and
increase performance. Engineers were
able to make use of the electricity on
board to provide power to accessories
such as the electric drive pump, electric
fuel pump, and electric air-conditioning.
The electric air-conditioning system is
a self-contained module that is mounted
outside the cab, much like a window
unit in a house. An electric-driven com-
pressor is all in one box so there are no
lines running through the tractor.
Despite so many electric accessories
available with the electric drive, the steer-
ing system still uses a hydraulic pump: the
tracks are not driven with a motor on
each side. Instead, the two motors act as
a single motor, so the differential can be
driven via a hydraulic system.
48 SAE OHE Nov/Dec 2008
Top products of the year
The editors highlight some of the top offerings from the
industrys component and system suppliers.
Keylock management
Encompassing a wide variety of
latch styles, including compres-
sion latches, push-to-close latch-
es, cam latches, cam locks, and
multi-point latches, Southcos
key choice system is designed to
accommodate the physical de-
mands of diverse applications. It
provides a solution to the com-
mon problem of coordinating
keylocking latches and key codes
to meet end-use requirements.
By separating the key code speci-
fication decision from the latch
specification decision, the system
offers flexible options for manag-
ing security. Recreational vehicles,
utility trucks, buses, and off-high-
way equipment benefit from the
convenience of managing all of
the locks on the vehicle, from
entry locks to access panels and
storage compartments inside and
outside the vehicle, with a single
key.
alone unit or bundled into a
multi-axis inertial measurement
unit, the MicroGyro can be used
by industries such as agriculture,
construction, and a host of recre-
ational vehicles. With its piezo-
electric quartz turning fork de-
sign, the angular-rate sensor can
withstand conditions up to 125C
(257F), and its continuous built-
in test provides true continuous
monitoring of sensor health and
simultaneous rate sensing. These
features make the MicroGyro
suitable for the harsh conditions
of farming and construction and
for helping off-highway vehicles
remain stable while driving.
bar (3046 psi). The unit commu-
nicates with Druck Intecal soft-
ware, which supports both labo-
ratory and field calibrations.
cated geometries using stationary
or moving meshes. It provides
an improved meshing process
and the ability to simulate physics
phenomena that have been typi-
cally beyond the reach of main-
stream CFD technology. The CAE
platform performs simulations
including combustion, multiphase
flow, heat transfer, conjugate
heat transfer, melting and solidifi-
cation, and stress. It provides
improved treatment of porous
media and polyhedral meshes, as
well as additional options for
finite volume stress analysis in-
cluding orthotropic elastic materi-
als, automatic time step control
based on plastic strain, and im-
proved solution mapping from
mesh to mesh.
Angular-rate sensor
The quartz MEMS gyro from
Systron Donner Automotive
measures a range of angular
rates. Available either as a stand-
Pneumatic pressure
controller/indicator
The Pace 5000 high-precision
modular instrument from GE
Sensing & Inspection
Technologies employs full digital
control to provide stability and
high slew rate, while its modular
concept allows users to enjoy
quick parts replacement and sig-
nificantly reduced instrument
downtime. The system is based
on the Druck DPI 520 platform. It
incorporates the latest generation
of piezoresistive devices, offering
significant improvements in over-
all precision, long-term measure-
ment stability, and control perfor-
mance. Multiple units can be
combined to provide a range of
pressure calibration capability
from 25 mbar (0.36 psi) to 210
Mobile crane controller
Because of its performance and
flexibility, the Inter Control digsy
mobile turbo controller (MTC)
process and communication con-
troller is suitable for use in vari-
ous mobile applications with a
need for mathematical calcula-
tions in real time. The digsy MTC
can satisfy these requirements
with its 32-bit microprocessor,
which is based on PowerPC tech-
nology and a 64-bit floating point
unit. Since it is a standard for
mobile cranes to perform inten-
sive data logging and to hold the
manual in the control system, the
digsy MTC can be equipped with
a large capacity of memory (32
MB RAM, 1 GB flash). These
memory capacities also satisfy the
requirements of the mobile crane
manufacturers for a central con-
trol system concept.
Multiphysics simulation
STAR-CD V4.06 from CD-adapco
solves problems involving com-
plex multiphysics and compli-
Engine performance
simulation
Wave 8.0 from Ricardo extends
engine performance and controls
simulation further for off-highway
applications. Turbo compressor
models have improved transient
Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 49
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surging operation, new controlled-
shape multi-pulse fuel injectors,
and selective catalytic reduc-
tion added to the aftertreatment
suite. An updated controls inter-
face and expanded element library
enable fuel-economy innovations
such as a cylinder-deactivation
strategy to be incorporated easily.
The softwares fast 1-D engine
gas-dynamics are strongly coupled
with 3-D CFD in the Wave3D,
speeding detailed study of mani-
fold flows to avoid poor exhaust
gas recirculation distribution early
in the design.
brass inserts for mounting. The
knob can be customized for spe-
cific customer requirements. At
the customers request, the fric-
tion feature holds the lever in a
fixed position.
include flexibility, controlled en-
gine temperature, low hysteresis,
minimal loss of hydraulic energy,
and compact design.
perature range of -40 to +85C
(-40 to +185F) with a wider tem-
perature range of up to 125C
(257F) available optionally. With
a rugged package for harsh envi-
ronments, the 9360 is suitable for
high-vibration applications in
heavy equipment, off-highway,
and marine markets. Specific uses
include throttle control and brake
pedals, wheel positioning for
tractors, farm implement position
feedback, and forklift position
sensing.
Torsional bellows
Tru-Flexs BT and BTL bellows
meet 2007, 2010, and 2011 EPA
regulations for on- and off-high-
way vehicles and equipment re-
quiring that exhaust systems be
leakfree from the turbocharger
through the treatment system.
Available in inside diameters rang-
ing from 2.5 to 5 in (63.5 to 127
mm), BT and BTL designs offer
solutions for a no-leak decoupler
that will accommodate all four
motions, including torsion. An
interlocked liner improves durabil-
ity and reduces static loss and
noise, and the thermal-insulation
properties eliminate the need for
extra insulation. Various end con-
nection styles are available.
Self-tensioned
engine belt
Hutchinson Belt Drive
Systems Stretchybelt is a self-
tensioned POLY V belt that pro-
vides cost savings by eliminating
tensioning systems while remain-
ing maintenance-free. The belt
includes several cord modulus
options that optimize the sys-
tems natural frequencies for im-
proved NVH. The rubber alterna-
tor decoupling pulley filters en-
gine vibrations and reduces the
effects of alternator inertia, thus
extending the life of belts, ten-
sioners, and engine accessories.
Hydrostatic
fan drive system
Bosch Rexroths hydrostatic fan
drive provides maximum fan
speed independent of engine
speed and incorporates the com-
panys F series pump and motor
technology, making it suitable for
various applications. The drive
works in a range of ambient tem-
perature conditions, from -40 F
to 212 F (-40 C to +100
C). The fan drives can be used in
applications including construc-
tion machines, agriculture and
forestry vehicles, and road and
rail vehicles. Hydrostatic fan
drives dissipate heat transferred
by engine coolant as it flows
through the radiator. Features
Hall-effect sensor
Designed with BEI Duncan
Electronics second-generation
Hall-effect chip technology, the
9360 sensor features 360 rota-
tion capabilities to meet a broad
range of sensing needs, including
rotary position for specialty ve-
hicles. The noncontacting rotary
dual-output device combines the
durability of Duncans existing
9900 sensor technology with the
new Hall-effect technology that
allows 360 of absolute position
feedback and infinite rotation.
Performance characteristics in-
clude an electrical angle of
0-359.9 and an operating tem-
Power amplifiers
Spectrum Microwaves QB-900
series provides up to 4 W of out-
put power and is internally
matched for 2000 to 6000 MHz.
The line of high-power amplifiers
features a surface-mount pack-
age with an optional high-perfor-
For immediate answers to your technical needs,
contact Christopher Althausen, Manager of Sales at 216-383-3376
or calthausen@pioneersolutionsllc.com
www.pioneersolutionsllc.com
PRODUCTIVITY
Increased productivity is the universal goal.
Users expect it from their equipment.
You require productivity from your engineering source.
Experience enables us to quickly be productive for you.
Our design productivity will improve your equipment
productivity.
sohex.hotims.com/16186-249
Rotary throttle control
Williams Controls WM539
series rotary throttle is a versatile,
compact design that uses either
contact or Hall-effect noncontact
sensors. The sensors body is
glass-filled nylon with threaded
50 SAE OHE Nov/Dec 2008
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mance heat sink as well as offers
wide band performance. The
QB-900 series does not require
external circuitry, just a dc power
supply and a good ground. The
amplifiers feature internal block-
ing caps, biasing circuitry, and RF
matching. Suitable for a wide
range of applications including
jammers, pre-amp drivers, and
other high-end applications, the
cost-effective QB-900 series fea-
tures small and lightweight pack-
aging.
operation for calibration and
verification of the companys
dynamic signal analyzer models
640e, 640u, 650e, and 650u.
Upon completion of calibration,
this package creates a report that
documents specific device infor-
mation, each calibration and veri-
fication step executed, and pre-
and post-calibration data. It also
provides the ability to perform
verification of the
ZonicBook/618E and the
WaveBook/516E. The calibration
module for the 600 series is a
software add-in to National
Instruments calibration execu-
tive software, and is intended for
use in a metrology laboratory.
straight threads and O-ring nose
seals. Features include improved
installation and removal, while
the nose seal prevents leakage
around the straight threads. The
body is composed of brass or
stainless steel, and nose seals are
viton or buna-N. The line is of-
fered in various thread sizes with
an orifice range of 0.004 to
0.094 in (0.1 to 2.4 mm).
Suitable for metering the flow of
liquids or gases, orifices are used
in compressed air or vacuum sys-
tems as well as water or oil sys-
tems, for flow restriction or flow
rate control in timing circuits, or
as precision reference standards
in leak-detection systems.
Aluminum pistons
A cooled aluminum ring carrier
piston from Mahle was devel-
oped for the heavy-duty range of
commercial vehicle diesel engines
with peak cylinder pressure of
200 bar (2900 psi). Features in-
clude use of high-temperature-
resistant aluminum alloy and a
cooled ring carrier to further ex-
tend service life and lower the
bowl edge temperature by up to
30C (54F). Other benefits in-
clude improved oil consumption,
blow-by, and appearance of the
pistons as well as production-
tolerant dimensions.
ECU interface
The XETK-V1.0 high-speed inter-
face from ETAS offers a direct-
to-PC ethernet connection and
faster measurement performance
for electric-motor monitoring in
hybrid powertrain applications,
as well as gasoline engine appli-
cations using in-cylinder pressure
sensing. Suited for use in ECU
bypass and calibration applica-
tions, the XETK can connect di-
rectly to a PC or ethernet hub
and does not require a separate
interface module, thereby lower-
ing overall system cost. The unit
also offers multiple client and
multiple host relationships with
PCs and application software.
Multiple XETKs can be connected
to one PC or software applica-
tion at a time or multiple PCs
and/or software applications can
be connected to one XETK at the
same time.
Calibration module
IOtechs calibration module for
its 600 series provides intuitive
automated and manual mode
Threaded orifices
A line of precision orifices from
OKeefe Controls employs
Retrofit or OE First Fit
Passive PM Filters
Active PM Filters
Partial Filters
Diesel Oxidation Catalysts
Urea SCR Catalysts
NOx Adsorber Catalysts
Catalysts and Systems
Emissions Reduction
Diesel Engine Emissions
Control Solutions for
PM HC CO NOx
Johnson Matthey Makes Them Run Cleaner
Johnson Matthey
The World Runs on Diesel Engines
1-800-RX For Air (800-793-6724) www.jmcatalysts.com hdd@jmusa.com
Johnson Matthey
Catalysts
sohex.hotims.com/16186-250
Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 51
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Spotlight:
Materials & manufacturing
Twin-motor nutrunner
The LTP 61 truck and bus assem-
bly tool from Atlas Copco Tools
& Assembly Systems is twice
as fast as its predecessor, the LTP
51, according to the company.
The standard shut-off nutrunner
with a high-speed twin motor
improves tightening by building
up continuous torque to pro-
duce improved quality in the tightening phase without compromising
the process during the rundown phase. Features include improved ac-
curacy and productivity as well as an ergonomic design. Exhaust air is
piped through the handle into a hose, minimizing noise from the pneu-
matic system and decreasing noise generated by the actual process.
Reaction force is handled by a torque-reaction bar, minimizing wrist and
arm strain for the operator.
Aluminum machining
MAG Hller Hilles NBH 5+ Speed hori-
zontal machining center is suitable for
large aluminum parts and tombstones.
It combines a large work envelope with
a 15,000-rpm motorized spindle, 90 m/
min (295 ft/min) linear feeds, and 80-
rpm B-axis. The machines 500-mm
(19.7-in) pallet clamping area handles
part mass to 800 kg (1764 lb), while a
compact footprint of 5.25 x 5.3 x 3 m
(17.2 x 17.4 x 9.8 ft) provides an 800- x
1000-mm (31.5- x 39.4-in) work envelope. Features include a one-piece
cast-iron bed that is ribbed for improved rigidity and vibration damping,
as well as a Siemens 840D control to provide processing power and to
maintain top speeds in curves. The spindle delivers 35 kW ( 46.9 hp) and
120 Nm (89 lbft) in continuous duty.
Cable drag chains
Designed for quick assembly and
disassembly, MP 52.2 PowerLine
and MP82.2 HeavyLine chains
from Murrplastik save up to
59% per production step, accord-
ing to the company. During instal-
lation, the individual side links of
the chains are assembled at an
angle to each other, and a click
signals the pieces have engaged
together properly. To disengage,
the side links are turned back to
each other and levered apart with
a screwdriver. Murrplastik chains
provide a heavy-duty connection
between the frame bridge and the
side wall; without this type of
lock, dismantling can be more
cumbersome and time-consum-
ing. The chains save assembly
time, while the design features
allow improved disassembly when
a cable configuration needs to be
changed, preventing prolonged
downtime.
Silicon adhesives
Hot-melt silicone-based sealant technology
from Dow Corning replaces drilled bolts and
rivets on watercraft. Traditional boat assembly
and part joining can provide an avenue for
water to leak into the instrument panels, cock-
pit cabinets, cabin, and hull. The drilled holes
create pockets for moisture and debris to ac-
cumulate, which can lead to leaks, corrosion,
contamination, and potential screw loosening.
Bolts and screws also concentrate tension into
stress points that can result in fatigue, crazing,
and cracking. The hot-melt sealant forms a
bond almost immediately, eliminating bottle-
necks, and is more flexible than mechanical
fasteners by absorbing much of the stress
caused by thermal expansion. In addition, sili-
cone sealant adheres well to materials com-
monly used in boat assembly, such as metal,
wood, painted surfaces, glass, and plastics.
Automation solution
The KR 1000 Titan
industrial robot
from Kuka
Robotics features a
payload lift of 1000
kg (2205 lb) with a
reach of 4000 mm
(157 in) as well as
precision and han-
dling flexibility.
Developed for sec-
tors such as the automotive industry, the Titan is a series-
manufactured machine and therefore a more cost-effective
solution than conventional systems. The company wanted
to develop a new robot type that is suitable for handling
of heavy, large, or bulky workpieces. For example, the
Titan is capable of moving whole car bodies entirely un-
aided. Nine motors are installed in the robot, which to-
gether deliver the power of a midsize car, and it can also
withstand a static torque of 60,000 Nm (44,250 lbft).
52 SAE OHE Nov/Dec 2008
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Portable refrigerant leak
detector
Designed for use in the heavy-
duty/diesel industries, the TP-
9360 PRO-Alert from Tracer
Products is a portable refrigerant
leak detector that features heat-
ed-diode sensor technology to
detect refrigerant leaks down to
0.03 oz (0.9 g) per year. The PRO-
Alert features dual-sensitivity
controlsa high-sensitivity set-
ting when initially checking the
general leak area, and a low-
sensitivity setting to zero in on
the exact leak site. The compact,
cordless device is self-calibrating
to neutralize background con-
tamination and is sensitive to
both R-12 and R-134a refriger-
ants. PRO-Alert is 17 in (432 mm)
long and chrome-plated with a
flexible metal probe that reaches
tight spots and holds its position
for thorough inspection. A built-
in positive-displacement pump
draws a test sample into the de-
tector for sensing, and a rugged
plastic carrying case is included.
Hub timing pulleys
Timing pulleys from Misumi USA
are offered in a variety of materi-
als and sizes, including high-
torque versions. One feature of
the pulleys is their configurable
hub that suits virtually any shaft
hole and flange requirement.
Dimensions for the shaft hole and
overall hub diameter are configu-
rable in increments of 1.0 mm
(0.04 in), while the hub shoulder
height is configurable in incre-
ments of 0.5 mm (0.02 in). This
development provides more de-
sign options and avoids tooling or
minimum order charges. The
pulleys come in several aluminum
grades with clear anodize, elec-
troless nickel plating, or hard
anodized surface treatment.

Portable measuring arm
Romers INFINITE 2.0 measuring
arm includes features that en-
hance usability and expand work
session productivity. The portable
arm features Tesa Kinematic
probes, a redesigned ergonomic
wrist with an integrated USB
digital camera, spin grip, a probe
holster, and upgraded Wi-Fi with
a wireless range up to 200 ft
(61.0 m), even through walls. The
six- and seven-axes arms offer
high-precision probing and op-
tional scanning capabilities for
mobile measurement, inspection,
and reverse engineering.
Available in measuring ranges
from 4 to 12 ft (1.2 to 3.7 m),
the arm measures to 0.016 mm
(0.0006 in) in the volumetric
length accuracy test.
Mini joystick
The J1 mini joystick from Elobau
Sensor Technology is suitable
for various industrial applications.
Operated by thumb or fingertip
P81802
Participate. Attend. Exhibit. Sponsor.
SAE 2009
Truck & Off-Road
Global Summit
Palais des Congres of Lyon
Lyon, France
May 13-14, 2009
www.sae.org/offroad
Improving Efciency and
Reliability through Electronics
For more information on the SAE 2009
Truck & Off-Road Global Summit visit
www.sae.org/offroad
To participate in the SAE 2009 Truck &
Off-Road Global Summit contact Greg Muha
at 1-724-772-4071 or gmuha@sae.org
Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 53
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actuation, it is designed to be
incorporated into a larger, manu-
al joystick for secondary tasks or
into a control panel with limited
space. Typical applications include
vehicle uses such as crane con-
trol, remote wireless controls,
teach-in functionality on indus-
trial robots, or single special-use
functions on machine tools or
other machinery. Featuring reli-
able noncontact sensor actuation,
the J1s magnet rotates around a
Hall-effect sensor located in a
sealed housing with the connec-
tor and lead wire. The J1 joystick
operates in a range from -25 to
+85C (-13 to +175F).
Multi-protocol tools
Vectors Bomag MPH 125 stabi-
lizer/recycler offers an extensive
electronic system and CAN
nodes. Developers mapped the
machines modular product con-
cept to a modular CAN-based
network cluster. CAN 1, as the
central Body-CAN bus, is con-
nected to most bus nodes, and its
operation is based on the
CANopen protocol, which en-
ables the use of standard auto-
mation components. The power-
train bus, CAN 2, interconnects
the vehicles main computer, en-
gine controller, steering, and driv-
ing levers. A third CAN 3 data
bus may be used, depending on
how the MPH 125 is equipped.
Bomag implements software
tools from Vector such as
CANalyzer/CANoe options for
J1939 and CANopen. The tools
offer various capabilities for test-
ing the overall system and for
efficient electronic control unit,
module, and integration tests.
Diagnostic testing and simulation
are also possible.
White light borescopes
Tracer Products Cobra and
Cobra-Plus borescopes feature
built-in UV and white light LEDs
that enable technicians to inspect
and leak-check hard-to-see com-
ponents such as pistons, intake
valves, A/C evaporators, fuel sys-
tems, radiators, and evaporative
emissions systems without disas-
sembly. The UV LED is suitable for
detecting refrigerant leaks, fluid
leaks, and surface flaws, while
the white light LED works for
component inspection. The TP-
9350 Cobra features a 24-in
(610-mm) shaft, and the TP-
935036 Cobra-Plus offers an
extra-long 36-in (915-mm) shaft
for inspections requiring addi-
tional reach. A clip-on inspection
mirror is included to detect flaws
hidden from view. Fluorescence-
enhancing glasses for use with
UV light and fluorescent leak
detection dyes also are included.
medium-duty, heavy-duty, large-
bore, linear-positioning, and met-
ric ISO cylinders. The companys
NFPA tie rod cylinders are suitable
for a range of industrial hydraulic
applications and operating pres-
sures and feature high-tensile
steel tie rods with rolled threads;
wear-resistant sealing system;
case-hardened and chrome-plat-
ed piston rod for extended seal
life; and a one-piece easily re-
movable bearing made of ductile
iron for tighter tolerances.
Efficient fan drives
In an effort to improve airflow
and engine cooling in the wake
of changing emissions standards,
diesel engine manufacturer
Horton offers Stratis Viscous Fan
Drives, DM Advantage On/Off
and Two-Speed Fan Drives, and
Arctis On/Off Fan Drives. Stratis
Viscous Fan Drives are managed
by the engines electronic control
unit for fan speed control and
feature a reservoir, actuator, and
valve system. DM Advantage On/
Off and Two-Speed Fan Drives
offer improved components and
torque, while Arctis On/Off Fan
Drives are lighter with the great-
est torque. All offer decreased
fuel consumption and generate
better airflow, according to the
company.
Harsh-environment
alerts
Low-frequency magnetic audio
buzzer alerts from Transducers
USA are now available with ter-
mination and mounting style
choices that cover application
needs in harsh environmental
situations. The TRIE-26XXX4H
Series with an operating tem-
perature range of -40 to +80C
(-40 to +176F) is available in
termination configurations with
quick-connect tabs, printed cir-
cuit terminals, and a selection of
wire leaded connection types,
suitable for either PC board or
panel bracket mounting on mo-
bile outdoor equipment, off-road
vehicles, semi-trailers, or any use
subject to harsh weather condi-
tions. The Series has a sound
output of 95 dB minimum at a
frequency of 400 Hz, with mod-
els available in operating voltage
ranges from 4 to 28 V dc.
Tie-rod hydraulic
cylinders
The Bosch Rexroth Industrial
Hydraulics Group offers a free
250-page catalog detailing its line
of NFPA tie-rod hydraulic cylin-
ders. Details include data sheets,
service instructions, mounting
details, schematics, and technical
specifications for the companys
sohex.hotims.com/16186-253
SAE assumes no responsibility for the statements set forth in any listing or the
availability or existence of such listed positions. SAE does not review or warrant
the qualifications or statements of those responding to a listing
Classified Advertising
COLD CELL TESTING
Automotive Enviro Testing (AET) is now supporting low
temperature testing (including large off road machines and
components) in three 1000 -40C cold cells.
Automotive Enviro Testing (AET)
Baudette, MN 56623
(218) 634-2041
aet@wiktel.com
www.aettesting.com
PRODUCT APPLICATION ENGINEER
The R.H. Sheppard Co., Inc., a nationally recognized
manufacturer of heavy duty power steering assemblies, diesel
engine fuel pumps and other precision products, seeks a
Product Application Engineer to join our team. This highly
motivated professional will be responsible for steering system
proposals, reviewing product requirements and conformance
of proposed Sheppard products to those requirements. This
key position will also be responsible for all assigned application
reviews of Sheppard products at our customers facilities and is
the primary source for sales technical support.
The ideal candidate will possess a Bachelors degree in
Mechanical Engineering (BSME) with minimum three to five
years of engineering design experience design experience
related to steering and/or truck related components a plus.
The successful candidate must possess a strong technical
background, be able to communicate effectively, and have
experience with CAD solid modeling software preferably Pro-E.
This position will require the successful candidate to obtain a
CDL license to test drive trucks within one year of hire.
We offer a competitive salary and benefits package to the
person who will complement our sales and service teams.
Visit the www.rhsheppard.com website and click on Jobs
for instructions on applying for this position. Please be sure
to reference the requisition code AE#307-08 when applying.
Mail resume, to include salary history/salary expectation, with
completed application and applicant data form to:
R.H. Sheppard Co., Inc.
Director of Human Resources
101 Philadelphia St., P.O. Box 877
Hanover, PA 17331
AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER
Snap Rings From Stock
Smalley Steel Ring now offers
additional Snap Rings series from
stock. The new XAH/XAS and XDH/
XDS series contain over 300 rings
that are interchangeable with Eaton


style rings. Smalleys standard snap
rings, series FH/FS and FHE/FSE,
are also readily available from stock
in both carbon and 302 stainless
steel.
www.smalley.com/snaprings
Smalley Steel Ring Company
555 Oakwood Road
Lake Zurich, IL 60047
847-719-5900 - Fax: 847-719.5999
info@smalley.com
54 SAE OHE Nov/Dec 2008
Isuzu Diesel Engines 4LE1
Generator: 33 HP @ 1800RPM
Industrial Drive : 50 HP @ 2600 RPM
Standard features:
U.S. EPA Tier 4 Interim
Displacement: 2.2 L
Naturally aspirated
Peak torque: 106.0 LB/FT
@ 1800 RPM
Fuel consumption: .410 LB/HP-HR
Flywheel housing: SAE 4 & 5 with
additional unique hydraulic
pump adaptor
Electric & self-priming fuel lift pump
12V and 24V available
Glow plug starting aid
High angularity oil pan
250-hour service intervals
5-year / 5,000-hour warranty
Isuzu Motors America, Inc
PowerTrain Division
46401 Commerce Center Drive,
Plymouth, MI 48170
PH: 734.582.9470 FX: 734.455.7581
engineswebmaster@isza.com
www.isuzuengines.com
tech-lit file
Receive FREE literature from featured suppliers. Go to www.aei-online.org, click on GET PRODUCT INFO in the left menu
bar, and enter the circle number listed. To advertise your companys literature, call 888-875-3976 or 1-724-772-4086.
sohex.hotims.com/16186-255
sohex.hotims.com/16186-256
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Wepuko Hydraulik GmbH
& Co. KG
49.7123.1805-0
www.wepuko.de
Wepuko Pahnke
Engineering LP
1.937.399.4340
www.wepuko.com
Werum Software &
Systems AG
4941318900123
www.werum.com
Wescon Products
Company
316-942-7266
www.wesconproducts.com
Westaex Automobile
33320896767
westaex.fr
Whelen Engineering
Company
860-526-9504
www.whelen.com
WhereNet
408-845-8500
www.wherenet.com
Whiston Industries Ltd.
441384560606
White Drive Products
270-885-1110
www.whitedriveproducts.com
White Products BV
31165336656
www.whiteproducts.nl
WhiteOak Controls Inc
319-752-4093
www.whiteoakcontrols.com
Whitesell International
FabriSteel
313-299-8500
www.fabristeel.com
Wientjes Emmen BV
31591669666
Wiest S/A
55474517790
www.wiest.com.br
WIKA Instrument
Corporation
770-513-8200
www.wika.com
Wika Instruments Canada
Ltd.
780-463-7035
www.wika.ca
Wilder Data Services, Inc.
765-759-6868
Willi Hahn GmbH & Co.
497841648131
www.hahn.de
Williams Controls, Inc.
503-684-8600
www.wmco.com
Wintek Corp.
972-496-6067
www.wintek.com
Winter, Fritz
Eisengiesserei GmbH &
Co. KG
496428178493
Wipac Group Sales Ltd.
www.wipac.com
Wirex Cable SA
551121919451
www.wirexcable.com.br
Wiseco Piston Co. Inc.
440-951-6600
www.wiseco.com
Witzenmann GmbH
49-72 31-5 81-0 or
723-158-1214
www.witzenmann.com
Wix Filtration Products
704-864-6748
www.wixlters.com
Wolverine Advanced
Materials
313-562-6400
www.eaglepicher.com
Wonderware Corporation
949-727-3200
www.wonderware.com
WTI Fasteners Ltd.
01530 273100
www.wireinserts.com
X Cel-Tek
Industries Co., Ltd.
714-997-8655
www.xcel-tek.com.tw
Xantrex Technology Inc.
604-422-8595
www.xantrex.com
Yanmar America
847-541-1900
www.yanmar.com
See our ad on page 8. 9
Yazaki Corp.
81334558811
www.yazaki-group.com
YEAD
515-502-3191
www.yeadconsult.com
Yuasa Corp.
81726866181
www.yuasa-jpn.co.jp
Yuken Kogyo Co. Ltd.
219-465-4197
www.yuken.org
Zanini, S.A.
www.zanini.com
ZB Elektronik
49712145984
Zeroshift
44 190-830-303000
www.zeroshift.com
Zetec, Inc.
425-392-5316
www.zetec.com
ZF Boge Elastmetall
Australia P/L
61395587422
www.zf.com/boge-elastmetall
ZF Lemforder TVA
344-317-2150
ZF Lemforder UK Ltd.
441215264441
ZF Micro Devices
650-940-4478
www.zfmicro.com
ZF Sachs AG
499721989860
www.sachs.de
ZF Sachs
Automotive of America
734-416-6200
zfworld.zf-group.de
ZF Sales and Service
North America LLC
847-478-6848
www.zf.com/na
Zhongou Auto Electric
Co., Ltd.
865775660187
www.zhongou.com
Zippertubing Co.
310-527-0488
www.zippertubing.com
Zitzmann
Druckguss GmbH
499-265-8090
www.zitzmann-druckguss.de
Zizala Lichtsysteme GmbH
437-416-5050
www.zkw.at
Zocca S.r.l.
390516720150
www.zocca.it
Zodiac
925-833-8187
www.heimdata.com
Zodiac Data Systems
248-347-9423
www.zds-us.com
Zodiac of North America
410-643-4141
www.zodiac.com
Receive FREE literature from featured suppliers.
Go to www.sohe-online.org, click on GET PRODUCT
INFO in the left menu bar, and enter the circle number
listed. To advertise your companys literature,
call 888-875-3976 or 1-724-772-4086.
tech-lit
file
sohe.hotims.com/16183-286
Austempering
Applied Process 8-page brochure is an
information-packed guide to the
Austempering process, a high
performance heat treatment for steel,
gray iron, and ductile iron that delivers
improved toughness, wear-resistance,
and fatigue strength. Learn how
Austempering can boost product
performance, and reduce manufacturing
costs. Applied Process offers this
brochure - and the expertise of their
application engineers! - to show you
how. For more information contact:
Applied Process, Inc., 12202 Newburgh
Road, Livonia, Michigan 48150; TEL:
734-464-8000; FAX: 734-464-6314;
www.appliedprocess.com.
New Priority Flow Control Valves
with Built-In Relief
New patent-pending FRRV valves are dual-function
fixed, pressure compensated, priority flow controls with
built-in adjustable relief on the priority leg, and an
integral damping chamber in the priority section to
improve stability. They are well-suited for applications
that require re-combining the priority flow to the bypass
flow. Having two valve functions in a single cartridge
can reduce space requirements and cost in a hydraulic
system.The larger size is rated for maximum inlet flows
of 20 gpm/76 lpm, fixed priority flows to 12 gpm/45
lpm, and system pressures to 4000 psi/276 bar.
HydraForce, Inc.
Lincolnshire, IL 60069
Toll Free: 1-800-682-6875
Phone: 847-793-2300
Fax: 847-793-0086
Web: www.hydraforce.com
Quality Electrical Wiring Supplies
Waytek offers quality electrical wiring products,
great customer service and competitive prices.
We have over 5,000 products in stock and we
offer same day shipping on most orders. Visit
www.waytekwire.com to browse our extensive
product line including: wire, cable, terminals,
connectors, relays, fuses, circuit breakers,
switches, cable ties, loom, tools, heat shrink
tubing and more!
Waytek, Inc.
P: 800-328-2724
F: 800-858-0319
sales@waytekwire.com
www.waytekwire.com
sohe.hotims.com/16183-288
000SG SUPP(65-86)New.indd 86 7/25/08 3:52:07 PM
sohex.hotims.com/16186-254
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Nov/Dec 2008 SAE OHE 55
Company Page
Allison ........................................................38
Antonio Carraro .........................................36
ArvinMeritor...............................................14
Ashok Leyland ............................................24
Atlas Copco Tools & Assembly Systems ......51
BEI Duncan Electronics ...............................49
BorgWarner ................................................42
Bosch Rexroth ................................21, 49, 53
Case IH .......................................................32
Caterpillar .............4, 9, 21, 22, 24, 27, 42, 47
CD-adapco .................................................48
Chalmers ....................................................38
Chrysler ........................................................6
Clark ............................................................4
Corning ......................................................40
CPUTech .....................................................14
Crane and Machinery .................................24
Cub Cadet ..................................................34
Cummins ..........................................9, 32, 40
D2T ............................................................28
Danaher Motion .........................................44
Deere ...............................................9, 24, 31
Denso .........................................................27
Detroit Diesel .............................................38
Dow Corning ..............................................51
dSpace .......................................................27
DTS Fluid Power .........................................21
Druck Intecal ..............................................48
Eaton .....................................................9, 21
Elobau Sensor Technology ..........................52
ETAS ...........................................................50
Fantuzzi ........................................................4
FEV .............................................................42
Formula One ..............................................45
French Institute of Petroleum .....................43
Fruehauf .......................................................4
Fuchs ..........................................................24
Funk ...........................................................31
General Motors ..........................................42
Genie Industries .........................................24
GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies .......48
Hardox .......................................................38
Hilliard .......................................................34
Hitachi Construction Machinery .................24
Horton ........................................................53
Hutchinson Belt Drive Systems ...................49
Hydro Electronic Devices ............................22
IAV .............................................................39
IMPCO........................................................12
Intel............................................................18
Inter Control ...............................................48
IOtech ........................................................50
iSuppli ........................................................18
Isuzu ..........................................................31
J&J Truck Bodies .........................................38
John Deere Reman .....................................24
Kawasaki Heavy Industries.........................24
Kubota .................................................32, 36
Kuka Robotics ............................................51
Mack Truck ...................................................9
MAG Hller Hille ........................................51
Mahle .........................................................50
Mainstream Engineering ..............................8
Manitex International ................................24
MathWorks ..........................................14, 21
Mentor Graphics ........................................16
Misumi USA ...............................................52
Murrplastik ................................................51
National Instruments ...........................18, 50
OKeefe Controls ........................................50
Perkins .......................................................27
Pirelli ECO Technology ................................40
Purdue University .......................................44
ReGen Technologies ...................................24
Ricardo ...........................................24, 42, 48
Romer ........................................................52
SAE International .........................................4
Sakor Technologies .....................................43
Sauer-Danfoss ............................................21
Schaeff .......................................................24
Sheffield Hallam University ........................46
Siemens......................................................51
Southco ......................................................48
Spectrum Microwave .................................49
Systron Donner Automotive .......................48
TARDEC ......................................................24
TCM ...........................................................24
Terex ......................................................4, 24
Tesa Kinematic ...........................................52
Thomas Equipment ....................................36
Tracer Products ....................................52, 53
Transducers USA ........................................53
Trimble .......................................................24
Tru-Flex ......................................................49
U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory .............12
U.S. Army ..........................................8, 14, 24
U.S. EPA ................................................40, 49
Vector.........................................................53
VirtualSite Solutions ...................................24
Volkswagen ................................................42
Volvo ............................................................9
Volvo Construction Equipment .............24, 46
Western Star ..............................................38
Williams Controls .......................................49
Yanmar .......................................................34
Zircotec ......................................................45
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56 SAE OHE Nov/Dec 2008
Two Ways to Get Product Info
from SAE Off-Highway
Engineering

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Alcoa Fastening
Systems - Huck ............ 397 ... Cover 2 ..... sohex.hotims.com/16186-397
Applied Process ............... 233 ... 33 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-233
Ashcroft Inc ..................... 223 ... 23 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-223
Cinch Connectors ............ 247 ... 47 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-247
Dana Off-Highway
Systems ....................... 399 ... Cover 4 ..... sohex.hotims.com/16186-399
Deutz AG ......................... 213 ... 13 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-213
dSPACE Inc ...................... 225 ... 25 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-225
Glacier Garlock
Bearings Inc................. 229 ... 29 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-229
Hayes
Manufacturing Inc ....... 253 ... 53 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-253
HydraForce Inc ................ 254 ... 54 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-254
Isuzu Motors
America Inc ................. 255 ... 54 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-255
John Deere
Power Systems ............ 219 ... 19 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-219
Johnson Matthey ............ 250 ... 50 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-250
L&M Radiator Inc ............ 245 ... 45 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-245
Ladd Industries LLC ......... 237 ... 37 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-237
Mahle Powertrain LLC ..... 238 ... 38 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-238
MICO Inc ......................... 205 ... 5 ............... sohex.hotims.com/16186-205
Murphy FW ..................... 398 ... Cover 3 ..... sohex.hotims.com/16186-398
Notox A/S ........................ 211 ... 11 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-211
Nucor Corporation .......... 202 ... 2,3 ............ sohex.hotims.com/16186-202
Pioneer Solutions LLC...... 249 ... 49 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-249
Power & Signal ............... 234 ... 34 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-234
Smalley Steel Ring Co ..... 256 ... 54 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-256
Stork Technimet Inc ......... 235 ... 35 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-235
The MathWorks ............... 207 ... 7 ............... sohex.hotims.com/16186-207
TTI Inc ............................. 215 ... 15 ............. sohex.hotims.com/16186-215
Advertiser Circle Page Website
Murphys PV1000 display helped us overcome some big hurdles when we transitioned to Tier 3.
We wanted to integrate a lot of functions that were not standard like air pressure, hydraulic
temperatures and dual hydraulic pressures.
Murphy completely customized the PV1000 display for us. We picked the parameters and added
additional analog parameters through Murphys XM500 i/o module. They even custom programmed
the display screens to fit each model.
Now our panels are clean, streamlined and easy to install. We used to spend up to two hours
wiring gages, circuit boards and the harness assembly. Today it takes 10 minutes to attach two plugs
and stick it in. Two hours vs. 10 minutes thats a 92% savings in time and labor.
For something this complicated, Murphy made it simple. Now we use the PV1000 display on 100%
of the Sno-Cats we manufacture each year.
BEEN THERE.
SOLVED THAT
TM
.
FW Murphy
Industrial Panel Division
P.O. Box 470248, Tulsa, Oklahoma - +1 918 317 4100
e-mail ipdsales@fwmurphy.com
www.fwmurphy.com
Steven Tucker,
Purchasing Manager, Tucker Sno-Cat

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WE DROPPED OUR PANEL AND WIRING INSTALL TIME
BY 92% WITH FWMURPHYS PV1000 DISPLAY.
0810294 SAE Off-HiTucker ad 7/30/08 1:53 PM Page 1
sohex.hotims.com/16186-398
Building quality drivetrain systems from the ground up.
At Dana, we design and create powerful drivetrain solutions to reduce your operating costs and boost your
productivity. These systems feature superior electronic controls, planetary and single-reduction axles,
transaxles, powershift transmissions, driveshafts, and end fittings available individually or as an integrated
system. Dana drivetrains deliver performance you can count on year after year. More information from the
worlds leading drivetrain system supplier is waiting for you at dana.com/offhighway_systems.
Construction | Agricultural | Mining | Forestry | Material Handling | Outdoor Power | Leisure/Utility
From lightweight lift trucks to specialized
movers, Dana meets the demands of
the material handling industry. We offer
complete drivetrain systems in a variety
of lift capacity, axle, transmission, and
driveshaft torsional rating configurations.
Technology that drives performance.
2008 Dana Limited
sohex.hotims.com/16186-399