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SEPTEMBER 2013

Imaging
Smaller, faster, higher denition: crash test
cameras are more capable than ever
Battery safety
Research into how electric and hybrid
vehicle batteries perform in a crash
The future of crash testing
at style-led Jaguar Land Rover
The latest crash test technology
awaiting visitors to Automotive
Testing Expo North America
Chryslers senior manager for
vehicle safety engineering on
the transatlantic cooperation
with Fiat and the emphasis on
virtual technologies
CRASH TEST ZONE UNIVERSITY FOCUS
How data acquisition systems are
stressed to remarkable levels to
develop crash barriers at Penn State
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
for life
Andrew Regan
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CONTENTS
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 001
Were back! Life moves quickly
for many of us, including crash
test engineers and researchers.
Each year brings new regulations
and targets along with new
technologies to help meet
them as efciently as possible.
The increasing importance of
virtual crash testing is highlighted
by a number of features in this
issue, on subjects as diverse
as whiplash and battery safety.
This reects the wider vehicle-
development arena, where
simulation is increasingly taking
the lead to replace evaluation
prototypes. Jaguar Land Rover, for
example (the subject of our cover
story on p40) is currently putting
US$6.2m a year into around
50 projects across its business,
to eliminate any major gaps in
the virtual engineering tools it
has available.
However, its also the case that
simulation wont entirely replace
physical testing any time soon,
as witnessed by JLRs upcoming
investment in head-impact rigs. As
someone who might one day benet
from the high levels of crash safety
now being engineered into cars,
I take comfort from knowing that
dummies have gone before me
and lived to tell the tale to a data
acquisition system!
Graham Heeps
Editors note
Editor
Graham Heeps
Assistant editors
Rachel Evans, John OBrien
Production editor
Alex Bradley
Chief sub editor
Andrew Pickering
Deputy chief sub editor
Nick Shepherd
Proofreader
Frank Millard
Head of production
& logistics Ian Donovan
Deputy production
manager Lewis Hopkins
Production team
Carole Doran, Cassie Inns,
Robyn Skalsky
Art director
James Sutcliffe
Art editor
Anna Davie
Design team
Louise Adams, Andy Bass,
Andrew Locke, Craig
Marshall, Duncan Norton,
Nicola Turner, Julie Welby,
Ben White
Contributors this issue
Jim McCraw, Keith Read
Circulation manager
Suzie Matthews
Publication director
Mike Robinson
(mike.robinson@ukipme.com)
Publication manager
Aboobaker Tayub
(aboobaker.tayub@ukipme.com)
CEO
Tony Robinson
Managing director
Graham Johnson
Editorial director
Anthony James
The views expressed in the articles and technical papers
are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed
by the publisher. While every care has been taken during
production, the publisher does not accept any liability for
errors that may have occurred.
ISSN 2051-6096.
This publication is protected by copyright 2013.
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40 Phil Glyn-Davies, JLR
The senior manager for vehicle safety
discusses crash testing with John Challen
CONTENTS
02 Volkswagen XL1
Crash testing the super-efcient car from VW
05 Daimler vehicle safety center
A vast new facility in Sindelngen, due 2016
10 Whiplash
Keith Read learns how new crash dummies
could result in safer seats for fewer injuries
26 Battery testing
Research projects examining the crash safety
of batteries. Rachel Evans reports
32 Cameras
John OBrien nds out where innovations in
camera technology are heading
46 University focus: LTI, Penn State
Anti-terrorism work in Pennsylvania places
extreme demands on its crash test equipment
54 Crash Test Zone
The latest in crash test technology at
Automotive Testing Expo North America
80 Crash test legends
The Controlled Impact Demonstration
COVER STORY
FEATURES
20 Andrew Regan, Chrysler
A transatlantic collaboration with colleagues
from Fiat is at the heart of Chryslers latest
crash test developments. By Jim McCraw
INTERVIEW
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
16 Humanetics: Virtual reality for dummies
18 DTS: Solution in motion
36 Vision Research: Rugged camera family
38 AOS Technologies: Picture perfect
44 GMH: Data overload
52 Engenuity: Carbon-ber crashworthiness
60 Messring: The benets of LED lighting
62 AMS: Crash data management
64 BIA: Battery abuse tests
66 Instron: Advanced sled capabilities
68 Orme: Contour tracking algorithm
70 Meggitt: Extra versatility for accelerometers
71 Hyge: Metering pin design tool
72 Luminys: Classic three-point lighting
73 L&T: Crash safety simulation partner
74 Lemo: Rugged connectors
75 HuDe: Component crash-test system
76 measX: Standardization in crash analysis
77 Encopim: Pedestrian and occupant safety
78 Products and services roundup
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 002
WHATS NEW?
Five years, some rst-principles work with carbon ber and
more than a thousand virtual crash tests: the innovative XL1s
crash program is arguably VWs most ambitious yet
WORDS BY GRAHAM HEEPS
The Volkswagen XL1
is a limited-production
showcase for efciency:
the L1 in its name comes from
its remarkable, sub-1-liter/100km
[282mpg] fuel consumption.
But this 795kg featherweight
was also subjected to a crash-test
program to ensure it easily met
the requirements of small series
type approval across 27 European
countries, which involves front,
rear and side barrier impacts, a
side-pole test and pedestrian and
rollover protection.
Crash simulation was the key tool
to deliver the desired performance.
According to Andreas Keller, safety
simulation engineer for the XL1
program, the car underwent more
than 1,000 such tests over its
ve-year gestation, from the original
tandem-seat concept of 2007, via
2009s L1 concept, to the production-
ready car unveiled at the Geneva
Motor Show in March 2013.
Volkswagen uses PAM-Crash
for safety simulation. For the XL1s
aluminum components it was
business as usual, but the cars
high CFRP content, including the
monocoque and a side crash
structure ahead of the rear wheels,
demanded that the team return to
rst principles.
We built our experience of
carbon-ber during the XL1s
development, says Keller. We started
from zero, testing materials to build
our database and then working
up to the full structure. Most of
the development of the carbon-ber
parts was done in simulation; we
got to a point where we knew before
the rst physical test how the CFRP
structure would work.
However, when it came to
the physical tests to conrm the
simulation results, the XL1s carbon
structure meant that only two of the
expensive prototypes were required.
The car was able to perform four
tests, starting with the front impact,
then the side impact, then the rear,
and nally the pole impact, with any
crucial parts that had been damaged
being repaired between tests.
The XL1s gullwing doors
demanded that a solution be found
to a post-rollover scenario. The doors
will not open when the car is on
its roof, so when the car detects that
it is upside-down, pyrotechnic
separating screws are activated to
release the door when a door handle
is operated. No physical rollover
testing was performed, however the
mechanism was tested by placing
a prototype on its roof with test
engineers inside!
Nor were any physical
compatibility crash tests conducted,
this scenario being covered instead
entirely by simulations. Although
the XL1 is only 1,153mm in overall
height, Keller notes that its structure
is the same height as regular series
production cars. As a result the
structural compatibility should not be
an issue, although he acknowledges
the big difference in mass compared
with more conventional cars.
The dummy values we got during
testing are very good. Were a long
way from the minimum values, Keller
concludes. The car is very safe.
BELOW: Crumple
zones made from
aluminum protect
the monocoque.
A catch-hook at
the bottom of the
door ensures that
it will not ride up
over the sill during
a side impact
XL1
Volkswagen
The most important dates for
your diary in 2013
We had a goal in mind, in terms of enquiry numbers, and
weve almost doubled that. Theres been a steady
flow of very qualified people speaking to us,
asking some great questions
Gary Parente, product manager, NI

3
October 22, 23 and 24, 2013
THE SUBURBAN COLLECTION SHOWPLACE, NOVI, MI, USA
ZONE
2013
INCORPORATING
WHATS NEW?
005
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
23m in height. A key feature of the
building is the wide, pillarless span
of the test area. That gives us the
freedom to perform car-to-car crash
tests at all angles and offsets, not just
full car-to-car impacts, says Merker,
noting that it may even be possible to
use the test area to simulate accidents
involving more than two vehicles, or
as Messring puts it, any test scenario
imaginable.
Messring will be responsible
for a whole host of system solutions
during the project, including testing
systems for passenger cars, trucks,
buses, as well as a sled test system for
simulating full-vehicle crashes.
Another advantage will be the
technology driving the cars: we will
have 100% control over the speed
of the vehicle and all the control
systems will be inside the building,
adds Merker. The LED lighting
and high-speed cameras will also be
all-new technology.
The center will incorporate LED
spotlight system solutions that are
planned, produced and supplied by
Messring, which believes that this
lighting technology will gradually
added new technology, in particular
high-speed cameras, but because of
safety issues were not allowed to do
crashes with alternative powertrains
there hybrids, CNG powertrains,
electric vehicles. We need a facility
that can handle those vehicles.
But thats far from the only reason
to build what will be one of the most
advanced vehicle testing facilities
in the world, measuring 273m in
length, 172m in width, and up to
Daimler AG is investing in a
new, forward-looking vehicle
safety technology center, to be built
next to its existing crash test center
in Stuttgart-Sindelngen. The
contract for the facilitys construction
has been awarded to Messring.
Our existing safety center is now
an old building, explains Thomas
Merker, director of body, safety
and telematics for Mercedes-Benz
passenger cars. Over the years weve
Messring has been contracted by Daimler AG to supply a
huge new vehicle safety technology center, scheduled to
be opened in Sindelngen in 2016
TOP: Messrings
M=LIGHT LED
spotlight systems will
be installed at the new
vehicle safety center
LEFT: The facility will
be located next to
Daimler AGs existing
development center in
Stuttgart-Sindelngen
Daimler center
006
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
replace metal halide lamps in the
market (see also The benets of LED
Lighting, page 60).
In addition to the aforementioned
alternative drive technologies, the
vehicle safety technology center
is also designed to carry out tests
with Daimlers PRE-SAFE functions,
reecting the growing importance
of integrating active and passive
safety. But this isnt the only area in
which the new facility will bring
disciplines together.
We will have 100% of the test
workow concentrated under one
roof preparing for the test, the test
itself, and post-crash analysis, says
Merker. Everything will be close to
where the test actually happens. All
the crash simulation people will be
in there too, for pre- and post-crash
evaluation, so that the correlation
between what the computer
simulation predicts and the results
of the real-life accident will be done
close to the scene of the impact.
The center will boast a total
oor area of 55,000m
2
and a testing
facility measuring 8,100m
2
, enabling
the Stuttgart-based company to carry
out a comprehensive range of vehicle
WHATS NEW?
and sled tests. Additional equipment
for durability tests on the body
structure and for simulating airbag
deployment will be housed in the
building, along with the preparation
center for the latest hybrid crash
test dummies.
In a press release announcing
his companys part in the project,
Messrings CEO Dierk Arp
commented, In terms of total
volume, this project is one of the
largest in Messrings history. At the
same time, it also represents a huge
milestone, as its the 100
th
complete
crash test facility weve planned and
built ourselves since 1970. We take
pride in the fact that Daimler has
chosen us, and we look forward to
working with this renowned brand.
We were already well aware
that Messring is a leading company
with exceptional expertise in crash
test and data acquisition systems,
added Professor Norbert Schaub,
head of passive safety testing at
Daimler AG. Messring proved
itself in a highly competitive
environment and were 100%
certain that we chose the right
company to build the worlds
most cutting-edge vehicle safety
technology center.
Groundbreaking has begun
on the new center, in parallel with
other preparation work and detail
planning. Construction will begin
in 2014 and if all goes to plan, the
facility will be open for testing from
mid-2016.
We will have 100% of the workow
under one roof test preparation, the
test itself, and post-crash analysis
Thomas Merker, director of body, safety and telematics, Mercedes-Benz passenger cars
TOP: New Mercedes
vehicles like the
S-Class, which has
a hybrid version and
complex pre-crash
systems, demand a
state-of-the-art test
environment
More new exhibitors,
more new technology
For me, the show is better than last year.
Theres more variety, and more
representation from wider areas
Bob McCarville, Hitachi

3
October 22, 23 and 24, 2013
THE SUBURBAN COLLECTION SHOWPLACE, NOVI, MI, USA
ZONE
2013
INCORPORATING
North Americas ONLY automotive test, evaluation
and quality engineering trade show
www.testing-expousa.com
AUTOMOTIVE TESTING EXPO NORTH AMERICA 2013
UKIP Media & Events Ltd
Abinger House, Church Street
Dorking, Surrey, RH4 1DF, UK
Tel: +44 1306 743744
Fax: +44 1306 877411
email: expo@ukipme.com
October 22, 23 and 24, 2013
THE SUBURBAN COLLECTION SHOWPLACE, NOVI, MI, USA
3
Focused Relevant
Unmissable

Everyone that I really need to talk to


is here, under one roof
Matt Williams, lead performance
development engineer, Mahle

3
ZONE
2013
INCORPORATING
010
Safer seats for fewer whiplash injuries could result
from the physical and virtual dummies developed as
part of a newly completed European research project
WORDS BY KEITH READ
cracked
WHIPLASH
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
Sport Whip
011
The worlds rst virtual crash test dummy
representing a 50
th
percentile female
EvaRID together with a prototype 50
th

percentile female ATD BioRID 50F are set to
transform the quest by vehicle and seat manufacturers
to design safer car seats to reduce the huge nancial
impact and substantial human suffering caused
by whiplash. Both are products of the ADSEAT
(ADaptive SEAT to reduce neck injuries for female
and male occupants) Project, a 3.5-year EU-funded
research project within the 7
th
Framework
Programme, which ended in March.
Whiplash injuries sustained in vehicle crashes are
a worldwide problem. In the EU alone, an estimated
800,000 people suffer whiplash injuries every year
40,000 resulting in long-term suffering. The majority
of whiplash victims are females, who are up to
three times more at risk than males. And the socio-
economic impact of the most serious whiplash injuries
amounts to a staggering 10bn (US$13bn) a year.
Taking a global view of the whiplash problem, the
gures become astronomical, which is why a group
of 12 interested organizations under the leadership
of VTI the Swedish national road and transport
research institute came together to propose the
ADSEAT Project and successfully apply for EU
funding. Project coordinator Dr Astrid Linder,
from VTI, says the overall objective was to improve
seat design to reduce whiplash injury for males and
females, but focusing on females.
Before the project, only one crash test dummy
for rear-impact testing was commercially available
the BioRID representing a 50
th
percentile male.
Insurance industry data shows that its use over a
number of years has resulted in seats that benet
males more than females in rear impacts, hence the
focus on a 50
th
percentile female dummy.
However, a 50
th
percentile female is not simply a
scaled-down 50
th
percentile male occupant model,
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
WHIPLASH
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BIA France Tel: +33 1 34 90 22 22
contact@bia.fr
www.bia.fr
Automotve Safety Testng Engine & Powertrain Testng Vehicle Dynamics Testng
Components for Test Systems Climatc Test Chambers

Beyond Expections
A company of
Roof Crush & Door Intrusion Seat Belt Anchorage
Head & Seat Back Restraint Universal Impac Simulaton
WHIPLASH
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 013
Q&A with Humanetics
Michigan-headquartered
Humanetics is a world
leader in ATDs. Paul Lemmen, from
Humanetics Europe, was part of the
ADSEAT project team. What, in his
view, are the implications for virtual
and physical testing by OEMs and
suppliers following the project?
Lemmen: ADSEAT clearly showed
the need to consider females in
developing future safety devices
to reduce the risk of sustaining
whiplash. A long period, with further
research and studies, is needed
to implement such ndings into
regulations and consumer testing. So
initially the implications are limited.
If further studies follow, OEMs and
suppliers will get involved in the
research to further develop adequate
means for implementation. Finally,
when new tools and test procedures
are adopted a period of something
like 10 years the industry will need
to address them in their designs.

What further work will Humanetics
be undertaking to produce ATDs
designed to incorporate the ndings
of the ADSEAT Project?
Lemmen: Humanetics
will develop the required
tools in close cooperation
with research groups and
industry. It might be that
the protection of females
in rear-end collisions is
addressed by numerical
simulations only so-
called virtual testing.
This could require further validation
and renements of the EvaRID model,
as well as the development of injury
assessment criteria and thresholds.
Apart from this, a long list of other
items such as objective validation
of the quality of the seat model, the
dummy model seating procedure and
the scenario/pulse applied need
to be investigated. Such activities
are typically done in European
Framework Projects like ADSEAT
where partners from research,
industry closely collaborate toward
a joint goal.

What will be the role of these ATDs
in the future and how will they
contribute to occupant safety?
Lemmen: As I said earlier, protection
of females in rear-end collisions
could also be addressed using
numerical simulations. Although
further steps are to be taken,
it is a trade-off between developing
new hardware tools, which is a long
development process, and newer
assessment methods. However,
when looking at ndings from
projects like IMVITER, virtual
testing is clearly the future.
In any case, whether applying
virtual or experimental
testing, the introduction of tools
representing females in rear-
end impacts contributes
to the trend of addressing
occupant diversities in crash
safety, thereby offering
protection to a wider
range of occupants.
their vehicle seats. It wont, at the moment,
inuence the testing for legislation but it might
do so in the future.
Response to the results of the project has, she
says, been positive. The car manufacturers have
been very interested. We beneted greatly, of course,
from having one manufacturer Volvo on board
throughout the project, and seat maker Faurecia
contributed signicantly as one of the 12 partners.
During the project we met regularly with Toyota
Europe and the organization of German car
manufacturers [VDA] to keep them aware of
everything and seek input from them.
Volvo was represented in the project by Professor
Dr Lotta Jakobsson, senior technical leader of safety
and injury prevention at the companys car safety
center, who has dedicated much of her career to
reducing whiplash injuries. She helped to introduce
the Volvo Whips seat system in 1998. Id be very
happy if ATD manufacturers, such as Humanetics,
were to take on the project to develop the female 50
th

percentile crash test dummy for use in development
from whiplash protection systems, she says.
But she stresses that it was not the intention of
the ADSEAT project to produce a physical dummy.
BioRID 50F was just a mock-up that symbolizes the
50
th
percentile female ATD. However, she accepts
that it will take the arrival of a validated production
version of BioRID 50F to leverage maximum benets
of the ADSEAT project.
To ensure that anti-whiplash designs in seats
do not compromise occupants of differing sizes
(as a result of using the 50
th
percentile male ATD),
Jakobsson explained that Volvo combines component
testing with its physical and virtual testing.
Component testing and virtual testing are important
parts of evaluating the overall performance of the
seat, she says. Then you can also have the EvaRID
model, which is smaller than the BioRID. But results
of the ADSEAT project are unlikely to change the way
in which we test components. We know that people
are different and its not just the head we have to
concentrate on but the spine and other parts of the
back. We have to ensure that there are no hard parts
in the seat that can trigger the whiplash motion and
cause injury. The evenness of the whole seatback is
very important.
The major benet to global OEMs and seat
manufacturers from the ADSEAT project, says
Jakobsson, is that there is now an additional tool
says Linder. Lengths, widths, weights, stiffness, etc
must be adapted separately.
Human beings differ vastly from each other,
she expands. Factors such as posture, and different
comfort levels and needs leading to different
seat settings, etc are behind the great variety in
pre-crash situations and is often the reason for
whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). A car seat
delivering a high level of protection would be more
benecial than a car seat that is highly desirable but
poorly adjusted.
Although successfully achieving the EvaRID
computational model, efforts to further develop
the BioRID 50F prototype ATD were thwarted. We
made an application for funding within the EUs 7
th

Framework Programme to continue development
of an average female dummy, explains Linder.
Unfortunately, with the tough competition
for funding, we were not successful. I expect
development of the physical dummy will, at some
stage, continue. But it will take more time.
In the meantime, she says the results of the project
specically the EvaRID virtual model will help
all manufacturers who want to enhance the safety of
TOP RIGHT: Anthropometric
difference between EvaRID
(red represents an average
female) and BioRID (blue
represents an average male).
BELOW: BioRID and EvaRID
dummy models side-by-side
WHIPLASH
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 014
available that not only reduces development time but
also provides much more data than was previously
available. This tool is a good complement to the
BioRID model, simply because you now have two
different models and two different points to test. And
all car manufacturers use virtual testing in all car
projects way before they have access to the physical
components or vehicle. We really are arriving at
the point where physical testing is more a case of
validating what the computational testing has shown.
EvaRID gives OEMs the possibility of going
beyond what regulation demands, she says. It allows
them to address their ambitions for the safety of
female occupants. And although the benets cannot
currently be validated by a physical crash test, she
points out that in ve years or so when data from
actual vehicle accidents is available the benets
will be proved. The value of the virtual model should
not, she says, be underestimated. It is extremely
important. These three years have shown us so much.
For Ines Levallois, manager of R&D, safety and
regulations at Faurecia, one of the worlds leading
suppliers of automotive seat frames and mechanisms,
the most important nding from the ADSEAT project
was that not all seats giving a good response for
a 50
th
percentile male show a good response for a
50
th
percentile female. Also, the correct positioning
of head-restraints for all occupants especially
mid-sized and small females is critically important
for optimum protection against whiplash injuries.
However, she is not entirely condent that the
time is right for the industry to rely solely on virtual
testing. Currently, the BioRID virtual model does not
entirely reect what is happening in real tests.
Virtual testing is very good for helping me make
design decisions. But is it good on absolute bio-
mechanical values with the BioRID virtual model? Im
not yet convinced about that.
For me, virtual testing is interesting to make
the right design decisions during development, she
adds. We are not yet at a point where we are able
to substitute virtual testing for physical testing for
the moment we need to keep physical testing with
the BioRID ATD. We can benet from the ndings
of the project without the need for a new 50
th

percentile female physical dummy.
But she says that both virtual and physical testing
undertaken during the ADSEAT project have given
good indications as to how head restraints can be
improved for the 50
th
percentile female. The project
ndings also conrmed that Faurecia is already
moving in the right direction. We have already
integrated some of the ndings and new solutions
will be incorporated in future products.
Only one real surprise for Levallois emerged
during the ADSEAT project. We discovered that
some types of integrated head restraints are less
good for 50
th
percentile females than we originally
thought, she explains. There is more room for
improvement in this area. As a seat manufacturer, the
ndings of the ADSEAT project were interesting and
will help us to make improvements without the need
for additional testing. I dont need, in all cases, to use
EvaRID in order to understand what to do. However,
once those improvements have been made, it will be
necessary to go back to EvaRID, and virtual testing,
to make even more improvements.
In the meantime, Levallois says that one of the
most important messages to emerge from the project
is that all car occupants should ensure that head
restraints are correctly adjusted, both for current
designs and for the improved seats that will appear
following the ADSEAT project: It is important for us
to convey to the public that even a very good seat and
a very good head-restraint system are not enough if
the restraint is not adjusted to the right position.
This tool is a good complement to the
BioRID model. You have two different
models and two different points to test
Dr Lotta Jakobsson, senior technical leader of safety and injury prevention, Volvo Cars
TOP RIGHT: The EvaRID
virtual dummy model
BELOW: BioRID 50F ATD
(courtesy of Dynamore)
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Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
SIMULATION
016
For almost two decades, the Computer-
Aided Engineering (CAE) group at
Humanetics has been developing world-
class nite element (FE) models of a variety of
anthropometric test devices (ATDs), more commonly
known as crash test dummies. Over time, the CAE
group has expanded the range of models from a
single dummy to a full range of dummies in several
widely used FE codes such as LS-DYNA, PAM-
CRASH, RADIOSS and Abaqus. The demand
for these models has grown considerably in recent
years, because OEMs and their suppliers, along
with research institutions, rely heavily on simulation
models to accurately predict occupant injuries in a
virtual environment. This in turn is used to better
understand and improve the design of their safety
systems. By using nite element modeling, these
organizations reduce both cost and development time
by reducing the amount of physical testing required
to achieve superior crash test results.
As part of the largest and most established
manufacturer of physical ATDs, the Humanetics
CAE group has the latest up-to-date information
on dummy hardware, leading to the development
of the most state-of-the-art dummy models available
on the market. Access to the hardware ensures that
the delivered model incorporates the latest geometry,
materials and production techniques used. In fact in
a growing number of cases, the hardware engineers
have begun to work closely with the FE model
developers to guide their physical design processes.
User feedback has always been a critical part of
the continuous improvement effort across the range
of models. Feedback about a particular point in a
single model can lead to an improvement across
the entire line of FE models. This communication
with the customers leads to delivering more robust,
accurate and easy-to-use models, and is widely
encouraged by Humanetics.
As with all nite element models, crash test
dummy models have three critical components:
geometry, material modeling and model constraints
and boundary conditions. The geometry of the
dummy models is based on the same CAD data
used to produce the physical counterparts. When
simple CAD geometry is insufcient to represent
Material characterization and modeling
in Humanetics FE dummies have become
increasingly important over time
Virtual reality Virtual reality
for dummies
Humanetics is continually improving its nite element
models of crash test dummies to ensure higher accuracy
in the design of safety systems
the physical part in the model, such as a part that can
be easily deformed, laser scanning is then performed.
Additionally, the geometry of some critical parts is
captured by using CT scanning to achieve accurate
geometry of both the exterior vinyl and internal
foam. Many components within the dummy models
are considerably deformed when compared with their
freestanding shape, which has necessitated building
the model in a virtual environment, similar to the
way the dummy is built physically. In other words,
undeformed parts are virtually assembled in the
solver to construct the full dummy assembly. This
process captures the interaction between all parts
of the dummy including the preloaded stress state
of the dummy components prior to impact.
Material characterization and modeling in
Humanetics FE dummies have become increasingly
important over time, as more accurate model
responses are required. The use of advanced material
models and extensive material testing has allowed
for a more accurate representation of non-linear
and rate-dependent responses in a number of key
components. Different modes of quasi-static and
dynamic material tests allow the material specimen
to better capture the complex response associated
with different modes of deformation, as seen in
a number of components in full-scale crash tests.
Unlike most metallic components, the rubbers and
foams in a physical dummy exhibit variation between
different batches of material. To account for this
variation, Humanetics has created a material database
system containing data from material tests carried
out over a number of years and of different batches of
material. With a sufcient amount of data collected,
the variability of these materials could be accounted
for during development, which will enable the end
SIMULATION
ABOVE: Recently released
Humanetics dummy models
(in LS-DYNA, PAM-CRASH,
RADIOSS, and Abaqus FE
solvers) from left to right: Q10
(10-year-old child for frontal
crash), Hybrid III 5
th
female
(small female for frontal crash),
Hybrid III 50
th
male (mid-size
adult male for frontal crash),
SID-IIs (small female for lateral
crash), Q6 (six-year-old child
for frontal crash), Flex-PLI
GTR (mid-size adult male
pedestrian safety impactor)
in-house and in very close cooperation with its
partners, Humanetics is able to better control the
environment of each test, and build validation models
where all boundary conditions are well known.
With increasing pressure to reduce the cost
and development time of improved safety systems,
and the introduction of newer and more advanced
physical dummies into the market, the need for
high-performance, predictive FE models has never
been greater. By ensuring that every detail that
is put into their models is as accurate as possible,
Humanetics strives to provide FE models for
occupant and pedestrian safety simulation that will
take the future of occupant safety to a higher level.
CONTACT
Humanetics
Tel: +1 734 451 7878
Email: fe.support@humaneticsatd.com
Web: www.humaneticsatd.com
ONLINE READER ENQUIRY NUMBER 501
017
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
users to better match the specic age and condition
of the dummy used in physical testing.
To validate each dummy model, Humanetics
carries out an extensive number of component,
subassembly and full-dummy tests. Some of these
tests are required to certify the dummy hardware,
but most are non-certication tests carried out
specically for model validation purposes. These
validations are necessary to ensure the functionality
and response predictability of the models across
a wide spectrum of loading conditions. This is
especially important where the typical injury criteria
are signicantly below those measured in dummy
certication tests. For example in the US New Car
Assessment Program (US NCAP), the Hybrid III
adult male (50
th
percentile male) chest deection
certication corridor is between 63.5mm and
72.6mm, although a recent review of US NCAP crash
test database showed an average chest deection of
only 25mm for vehicles with model years between
2008 and 2013. By carrying out much of this testing
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 018
DTS has developed an angular rate sensor that
enables testers to measure complex kinematic
motion in high-shock environments
Accurately quantifying angular motion
has always been a challenge in the
dynamic test world. Before the days of
microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensing
technology and tiny microprocessors, the most
common methods employed bulky, power-hungry
gyros comprising rotating masses suspended
by mechanical gimbals. If the test environment
allowed, lm or image analysis was used to plot
motion frame by frame. Sophisticated computer-
based modeling software is often used to predict
complex motion, however modeling software still
requires real-world validation.
The question often arises is an angular rate
sensor (ARS) the same as a gyroscope? Wikipedia
denes a gyroscope as A device for measuring or
maintaining orientation, based on the principles
of angular momentum. Mechanically, a gyroscope
is a spinning wheel or disc in which the axle is free
to assume any orientation. While both gyros and
ARS may use moving inertial masses to measure
angular rates, today the gimbal-mounted rotating
gyro has been replaced with oscillating inertial
devices on tiny silicon chips.
Angular motion can be quantied by position,
acceleration or angular velocity. Old mechanical
gyros usually measured position (angle) and had
very limited frequency response, far below what
is required for high-delity shock and vibration
work. While advances in sensing technology made
it possible to produce smaller angular rate and
acceleration sensors, it wasnt until more recently
that advanced semiconductor technology made
extremely small, low-mass angular rate sensors
truly practical. In 2006, when Diversied Technical
Systems (DTS), based in Southern California, set out
to manufacture a new angular rate sensor, the goal
was clear: design a sensor that makes it easy to
measure complex kinematic motion.
After years of research and renement, todays
ARS PRO uses silicon-based MEMS technology to
measure angular rates. DTS engineers faced three
major hurdles along the way.
Challenge 1: Impact, crash and blast testing are
obviously tough environments, but even tests that
appear to require low rate measurement capability
may experience signicant shock and vibration. A
good example is pitch, roll and yaw measurements
in a vehicle crash or rollover test. When a vehicle or
component impacts an object, barrier or oor, local
vibration in structures and sheet metal can cause
signicant errors if the sensor is not capable of
tolerating short duration acceleration spikes or
Solution
in motion
SENSORS
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
SENSORS
019
OPPOSITE AND ABOVE:
The ARS PRO, shown
mounted in a mouth guard,
is used worldwide for a
variety of biomechanics and
in-dummy applications
LEFT: Results from DTSs
rotary impact test machine
comparing the ARS PRO
with another sensor
BELOW LEFT: A pendulum
impact comparing the output
of a precision rotary position
sensor with the integrated
output of the ARS
Todays ARS PRO uses silicon-based
microelectromechanical systems
technology to measure angular rates

vibration. The entire ARS PRO line is packaged in
compact, rugged enclosures with shock ratings up
to 10,000g with superb angular rate accuracy even
in high shock and vibration environments. No other
angular rate sensor comes close, says Mike Beckage,
DTS VP and co-founder.
Challenge 2: Without solid, linear response all
the way down to steady-state or DC, it is difcult
to make sense of angular rate data. DC response
combined with state-of-the-art shock and
vibration tolerance makes it possible to use simple
integration to calculate accurate angular position
using the ARS PRO.
Challenge 3: Sensing devices are only linear over
certain measurement ranges and frequency ranges
or bandwidths. DTS has carefully designed its ARS
PRO product line-up to meet a wide range of needs
in the testing community. All models are very linear
over their rated range and comply with SAE and
ISO recommended practices for frequency response
in all applications. DTS offers full-scale ranges
from 300 to 50,000/sec and bandwidths up
to 2,000Hz, fully supporting CFC 180, 600 and
1,000 testing requirements.
DTS claims that other key features such as low
power requirements, high output voltage and shunt
check capability put the ARS PRO in a class of its
own. The result: an extremely reliable and accurate
sensor that has changed the testing landscape.
DTS has developed unique test devices and
methods to prove its designs. For example, the rst
graph (left) shows results from DTSs rotary impact
test machine comparing the ARS PRO with another
sensor. The test places ARS devices on the end of
a rotating beam that stops very quickly. The graph
shows a 10ms time history where the blue trace is
acceleration, red is sensor A and green is sensor B
(the ARS PRO). The graph demonstrates the ability
of the ARS PRO to read angular position even when
exposed to almost 1,100g.
The second graph (below left) shows a pendulum
impact comparing the output of a precision rotary
position sensor with the integrated output of the
ARS. Pendulum motion was initiated by a hammer
impact resulting in roughly 250g peak-to-peak
acceleration at the ARS. The ARS PRO tracks the
true motion of the pendulum very accurately.
CONTACT
Diversied Technical Systems
Tel: +1 562 493 0158
Web: www.dtsweb.com
ONLINE READER ENQUIRY NUMBER 502
3
EXHIBITOR
INTERVIEW
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 020
Fiats emergence as the majority shareholder has
led to transatlantic cooperation on crash testing at
Chrysler, with an emphasis on virtual technologies
WORDS BY JIM McCRAW
Atlantic
crossing
INTERVIEW
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 021
Since 2009, when Chrysler put Cerberus
Capital Management and bankruptcy
behind it and became part of Fiat, the
crash-test engineering departments of Fiat in Turin
and Chrysler in Auburn Hills have been working
around the clock on new programs including the
Jeep Grand Cherokee, the Ram 1500 pickup truck,
the Dodge Dart C-car and the new Jeep Cherokee,
the latter two of which are both based on the Alfa
Romeo Giulietta chassis.
Andrew Drew Regan is a Chrysler veteran of
32 years and ve administrations/ownerships, and
has been in crash-test engineering the entire time.
He says that being handed a system of parts
like the Alfa Romeo Giulietta, designed to meet
Euro NCAP 5-star crash-test standards and not
sold in the USA, and then turning them into the
crash systems of the American Dodge Dart and
then the Jeep Cherokee, was certainly a challenge.
One of the great things about this is that, as
soon as the merger happened, when Fiat bought
Chrysler and we were given approval to work
together, it was pretty much open-book on both
sides. There was not a long, drawn-out exchange
of information, says Regan.
On the Dart, once that program was starting
to pull together, my team went over to Italy to
work with our Fiat counterparts and learn about the
Giulietta and try to understand what its performance
was, typically, and how to adapt it for our market. We
had access to all the information, both their
models and their testing, and we also had access
to our counterparts over there. After a few hours
of getting to know each other, it was pretty much
an open forum on doing the new car and adapting
the Giulietta chassis to meet our requirements.
Regan says that Fiat and Chrysler developed the
crash architecture of the common chassis jointly, and
that the early modeling was performed at Fiat, where
they adapted the Giulietta model to what the new
architecture was going to be like as a derivation of
the Giulietta. Once the early modeling was done, the
Chrysler team started transitioning to Auburn Hills.
After a few months we ended up with the whole
project, and consulted back and forth.
Because the Alfa Romeo Giulietta was never
intended to be sold in the USA, the Chrysler team
had to modify its chassis for both the Dodge Dart
and the Jeep Cherokee.
The Giulietta has ve stars from Euro NCAP, so it
was a great starting point, says Regan. The primary
frontal-impact test for Euro NCAP is the 40% offset
test, the same one that IIHS runs, so that was good.
What was different was that to go to NHTSA NCAP,
we were looking at a full at barrier at 35mph, and
that requires a different approach. So we looked
at softening the pulse a little bit, reducing the
accelerations to make sure that we optimized both
the NCAP xed-barrier and the IIHS deformable
barrier with the offset. You have to lengthen the
LEFT: Chryslers Andrew
Regan has more than 30
years experience in the eld
of automotive crash testing
When Fiat bought Chrysler, and we were given
approval to work together, it was pretty much
open-book on both sides
Andrew Regan, senior manager vehicle safety engineering, Chrysler
Finite Element Models
an important piece of the puzzle
Crashtest_AD_2012.indd 1 7/31/2013 10:08:42 AM
INTERVIEW
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 023
pulse out a little bit and soften it so that you can still
achieve good performance in both tests.
Regan says that, in order to soften the pulse, the
team modied the rails from the Giulietta design by
lengthening them slightly and optimized the metal
gauges for both tests.
When you push on a column, its going to buckle
at its weakest point. To get controlled crush, you
want to make sure that you have a good base to
support the extra length. The US NCAP tends to
drive softer pulses, and we also have to worry about
unbelted occupants, which the Europeans dont
have to do.
Regan explains that the software compatibility
between Fiat and Chrysler was good, since both
companies use LS-DYNA for non-linear, nite-
element modeling, enabling both crash-test teams to
go back and forth easily. He says that, fortunately, the
huge CAD database that Chrysler has accumulated
over the years using CATIA software could be
relatively easily converted to Fiats system using
Siemens Teamcenter conversion software.
He adds that both Fiat and Chrysler expect very
good accuracy on software-to-crash comparisons
these days, well within 5% on known structure,
displacement, velocities and accelerations. Thats
pretty much what we would expect. When you go
into occupant modeling, it gets a little trickier. Euro
NCAP is pretty demanding for chest deections and
other injury criteria, and thats where the modeling
is very tricky. The industry is working toward better
solutions on that, but right now, we think we have
a good handle on structure.
He says, The fun of it is that we are getting
better and better at it every year. Our focus is where
we need to improve. Ten years ago, models with 3.5
million elements being completed in eight hours or
less would have been impressive. Now we expect
that type of performance and we focus on where our
correlation needs improvement. I think the industry
is seeing that the simulation of the crash dummies
is probably the biggest challenge for us.
The relatively new European pedestrian protection
regulations that have migrated to the USA, says
Regan, have prompted Chrysler to apply extensive
resources to the problem. The mapping of the hood
to get the impact points, and then making sure that
each one meets our requirements for the vehicle,
is very, very intensive and we use an awful lot of
computing power simulating that. The good news
is, because its structural, we do pretty well on the
simulations for that. He says that both Chrysler
and Fiat ship number-crunching tasks to a center in
Chennai, India, where they are worked on overnight
and returned the next day.
ABOVE: Jeep Grand Cherokee
image from the IIHS moderate
overlap test, where 40% of
the front of the vehicle crashes
into a rigid barrier
BELOW: An Alfa Romeo
Giulietta undergoing a frontal
impact test for Euro NCAP
The US NCAP tends to drive softer
pulses, and we also have to worry
about unbelted occupants
Andrew Regan, senior manager vehicle safety engineering, Chrysler
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 024
GHBMC for free
In early August, the Global
Human Body Models
Consortium (GHBMC) offered
to license a sophisticated human
model to research institutions
free of charge in the interest
of furthering automotive safety.
Commercial licenses will also be
available to companies interested
in evaluating crash-induced
injuries of vehicle occupants.
GHBMC was formed in 2006
to consolidate research and
development activities in human
body modeling into a single, global
effort to advance crash safety
technology. The consortium
brings together research leaders
in computer modeling, automotive
engineering and biomedical
research to further rene crash
simulation and injury prediction.
The result of their efforts is
Phase I, the worlds most detailed
Finite Element Human Body Model
ever created for an average size
male (50
th
percentile) in the seated
position.
Chrysler Group is one of six
OEMs in the group, as well as
supplier Takata and NHTSA.
Five research institutes function
as centers of excellence to the
consortiums work: Wake Forest
University, Wayne State University
and the University of Virginia in
the USA, the University of Waterloo
in Canada, and the French Institute
of Science and Technology for
Transport, Spatial Planning,
Development and Networks. The
consortium is now working on
Phase II of the project, which will
include extra models for different
size males and females in different
postures.
Regan cites more examples of close cooperation
between the Fiat and Chrysler crash-test engineering
staff to include the slightly different aspects of
the relatively new European 18mph, lateral 90 pole
test versus the US 20mph pole test at a lesser angle.
He says that occupant modeling has to get a lot
better, and thats where his colleague Guy Nuscholtz
comes in.
Nuscholtz, a cosmologist and research scientist
recruited by Chrysler from the University of
Michigan, where he performed more than 200
human autopsies, has written more than 200
papers on the subject of human body physiology,
behavior and modeling in automotive crash-test
situations.
Nuscholtz echoes Regans concerns that the
current generation of crash-test dummies still does
not reect reality because they are mechanical, not
human. He believes that, while all the accumulated
human-body modeling data collected over the years
points to much more accurate mathematical models
taking the place of physical dummies in the future,
nothing much will happen in this important area
unless NHTSA can be made to believe in and trust
the data that the industry has presented to it.
Dodge Dart images from
the IIHS side-impact (LEFT)
and small overlap tests
(BELOW). In the latter, 20%
of the front of the vehicle
crashes into a rigid barrier
INTERVIEW
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Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 026
BATTERY TESTING
027
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
BATTERY TESTING
Research has been carried out
to further understand the crash
behavior of batteries and, as a
result, improve their safety in
electric and hybrid vehicles
WORDS BY RACHEL EVANS
Electric and hybrid vehicles are
becoming an increasingly popular mode
of transportation. But while a battery
has the potential to store large amounts of energy,
there is an added problem in terms of safety. Batteries
can be severely hazardous in case of an accident,
which can cause them to short-circuit and catch
re, or give off harmful gases.
Hazard damage depends on three main factors:
battery cell chemistry and construction; battery
pack and module design; and the integration of
the battery pack into the vehicle.
Cooling helps reduce the risk of overheating and
work has been done to increase the protection of
battery packs. In addition, researchers are developing
tests to determine failure mechanisms and hazard
levels with nite element models to validate these
results. The underlying aim is to better understand
battery crash behavior, and as a result improve their
overall safety.
Currently there are no dened standards to
specically test the crashworthiness of a battery
pack alone, although there are some related industry
Safety Danyer:
cells
For all the different cell types, there
is a huge difference in the behavior
in the worst case scenario
Gernot Trattnig, team leader of the material modeling group, Virtual Vehicle Research Center
standards. ECE-R100 has a requirement for the
construction and functional safety of battery electric
vehicles, while SAE J2464 addresses the safety and
abuse testing of energy storage systems. In addition,
FMVSS 305 has a requirement for electrolyte spillage
and electrical shock protection.
At the Virtual Vehicle Research Center in
Graz, Dr Alexander Thaler and Dr Gernot Trattnig
have worked together on a battery safety project,
to investigate further, the issues involved with
modeling the crash behavior of batteries. Thaler
notes, There are tests that have to be fullled for
transportation and these procedures deal with
deformation. But there are really only standards
on a component level because the battery system
in every car will be different.
The team have undertaken work to realize a
shape for deformation that isnt hazardous to the
battery system after the crash.
The team has also looked at improving the
nite element models for batteries. A key challenge,
says Trattnig, is that for all the different cell types,
there is a huge difference in the behavior in the
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Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 029
BATTERY TESTING
worst-case scenario. Unfortunately, the energy
density of the battery system has a direct impact
on safety. Having a better driving range and more
energy usually requires additional safety measures.
A recent EU-funded program called SmartBatt,
involved several teams of industry experts including
the Technical University of Graz (TU Graz, VSI),
Fraunhofer, Ricardo, Austrian Institute of Technology
(Mobility, LKR), SP Technical Research Institute
of Sweden, Impact Design Europe, Johnson Matthey
Battery Systems and Volkswagen. The program was
devised with the aim of developing a multifunctional,
lightweight and safe concept for an electric energy
storage system.
The system was developed as an integrated
structure for the body-in-white (BiW) of a internal
combustion-engine driven car.
Most of the crash test work was carried out by a
team at Impact Design Europe and TU Graz. Peter
Luttenberger, project manager at the Vehicle Safety
Institute of TU Graz, says Building a safe housing
for the battery with a novel mix of materials to ensure
a lightweight design was a challenge and presented
the need for additional FE-validation processes,
which introduced the possibility of further problems.
The teams role at TU Graz was to perform all
crash simulation and testing of the cells and of
the pack, to dene safe areas in which to place
the battery in the car, as well as to determine
rescue guidelines and structural improvements.
During the project, Luttenberger explains,
Our focus was on deformation of the battery
housing with the aim to achieve no deformation
of the battery cells at all.
He describes the step-by-step process of the
project. To prove the crash safety of the battery,
we ran full-vehicle crash simulations. The battery
was integrated into a demonstrator FE model
(of the BiW) and virtually evaluated according to
range, and crash safety, a list of possible housing
concepts were derived from the CAD-data of the BiW.
These results were the validation input for the
ME [macro element] model, which was used for
the battery integration process. For this purpose,
the team performed a pre-evaluation of different
battery positions/envelopes with the developed
ME model, which minimized calculation time
and therefore allowed a view on a huge amount
of possible battery designs within the specied
areas, says Luttenberger. The nal FE model
then considered only the best pack locations,
fullling all requirements.
Due to space restrictions, the team was limited
in terms of where it could place the battery pack.
We couldnt build a sandwich oor, for example,
so we had to focus on placing the battery in positions
where there was space, so as not to inuence the
positions of the vehicle occupants. A detailed
design of the oor panel with the battery housing
incorporated in its structure was derived.
One part of the battery was integrated below the
front seat, the other below the rear seats. A tunnel
combined both parts and was used for mounting
LEFT: FE model developed
within SmartBatt, of the oor
panel showing the battery.
The front and the rear pack
have nearly no deformation.
The side absorber collapsed
as planned
Flexible future
Tomasz Wierzbicki, director of
the impact and crashworthiness
laboratory at Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, believes there
is a way to make batteries more
resilient. He has studied the physical
limitations of lithium-ion batteries by
subjecting cells to forces mimicking
frontal, rear and side impacts.
Using data from these
experiments, he and his team
developed virtual models that
accurately simulate how a battery
can deform and short-circuit under
various crash scenarios.
In summary, the researchers
found that a batterys shell casing
may contribute differently to
overall resilience, depending
on the scenario. Making casings
more ductile or exible, the team
believes, may be one way to improve
the safety of lithium-ion batteries.
Wierzbicki says the teams
model may be used to design new
batteries, as well as to test existing
batteries. The model may also be
incorporated into whole-vehicle
simulations to predict a battery
packs risk of thermal runaway.
More information including full
results can be found in volume
241, November 2013, p467-476
of Journal of Power Sources.
ABOVE: TU Graz conducted
side-pole impact crash tests
using a vehicle oor panel.
The battery is shown in blue;
there are 16 plastic modules
containing cells. It has the
same layout as the functional
pack without the wiring
between the modules
different specications including UNECE and
FMVSS regulations (e.g frontal offset barrier crash,
side pole impact, rear and side barrier test).
He continues, For the evaluation of safe locations,
the FE model of the car was investigated in different
crash scenarios considering the baseline conventional
vehicle and a simple remodeled electric vehicle. In
parallel, with the predened requirements for weight,
M
I
T
IMAGES COURTESY OF TU GRAZ, VSI
BATTERY TESTING
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 030
LEFT: Test bench module
for pouch cells used in
the acceleration tests
conducted as part of
the SmartBatt project
electric devices. All original oor panel parts around
the front and the rear pack were cut out of the
simulation model and redesigned with the focus on
better force distributions and oor-panel stiffness.
Next, physical crash tests were conducted with a
battery pack containing real modules. Luttenberger
and his team are yet to validate the results with
simulation and integrate it into a demonstrator FE
model. We havent done that yet because there is
no model of a used cell available. We did the test but
validation of the model of a real module hasnt been
done. The virtual tests described were conducted
with foam inside the pack but with no real [cell]
module structure.
The conducted test was a side pole impact test.
This is a crucial test when looking at deformation
patterns of the vehicle that can be dangerous to the
cells, says Luttenberger.
Due to cost and time restrictions, the team
only tested half the battery pack, specically
the front pack, where higher deformations in the
surrounding structure were expected: We only
took the battery pack with the side oor panel into
account, and the rocker. The mounting points were
designed to have the same boundaries as in the FE
model of the full vehicle.
Luttenberger claries, You would also check
the rear but only with full vehicle simulations. So
it was more or less a validation process to show with
a test, that the numerical model is correct and valid.
Then you can validate a pole crash at the rear.
Unfortunately, time restrictions meant the team
were unable to model battery cell behavior. With
different cell chemistries reacting differently in
an impact, this will be an important area of future
research in the sector, although work is already
underway elsewhere (see Soft cell, p29).
Additional testing during SmartBatt revealed
that shock damage to cells in an impact may not
be as big a problem as expected. Luttenberger
says, We worked with a partner in Linz. Single
acceleration sled tests showed that this doesnt
seem too much of a problem, at least on a cell level.
Further analysis could be to look at correlations
between different deformation levels and internal
short circuits. That would require testing of
a large number of cells in order to prove the
statistical behavior of all cells, explains Luttenberger.
We are still some way from dening hazard
levels for crash testing and then putting them
into the FE model.
Within this particular project, Luttenberger
says that due to specied requirements, the best
choice for the cell selection process was a small
prismatic cell with a lithium manganese cobalt oxide
cathode. But for simulation purposes, only a solid
foam structure inside the battery was modeled
to measure deformations, instead of the original
cell model. The next logical step is to nalize the
numerical cell validation, and evaluate the virtual
optimization process of the pack by integration of
the numerical cell model instead of the solid foam.
We are still some way from dening
hazard levels for crash testing and then
putting them into the FE model
Peter Luttenberger, researcher, Technical University of Graz
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Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 032
CAMERAS
The biggest revolution in modern times, for high-speed
cameras, was the transition from analog to digital. But
with HD and high speeds now commonplace in consumer
electronics, where does camera technology head next?
WORDS BY JOHN OBRIEN
Sport
Snap
shot
CAMERAS
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 033
Even at a commercial level, digital cameras
pose many benets beyond the traditional
lm-based setup. The ability to shoot
and delete on demand, with little to no waste, is
the crux of their argument, but at an industrial
level this convenience becomes so much more.
The switch to solid-state memory for high-speed
cameras has been regarded by some as one of the
most signicant advances in cameras since the
introduction of charge-coupled device systems
in the 1980s. Cameras have never been so exible,
but following an industry-wide slowdown during
the global recession, will there be another digital-
style revolution any time soon?
Id say one of the biggest changes was the
move to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor
(CMOS) sensors, says Andrew Bridges, director
of sales and marketing at Crash Test Zone exhibitor,
Photron. This has greatly increased the light
sensitivity of cameras over the past ve years or so.
It is light sensitivity that is central to a successful
camera installation at a crash test facility. This has
been aided in other areas, with advances in lighting
techniques and equipment a switch to LED-based
light banks is helping illuminate impact sites and
reduce energy consumption considerably but
ultimately it is the camera that is key to these
developments. The more light sensitivity we can
provide, the less light or shorter shutter-times test
centers need for operation, conrms Bridges. This
enables the operators to see more without blur.
Less blur means a sharper image, and a sharper
image results in more detailed analysis of the impact.
This image analysis has been aided through the
transition to high-denition (HD) quality resolutions.
Weve denitely seen a shift in demand for resolution,
explains Rick Robinson, vice president of marketing
at Vision Research, moving from sub-megapixel
type resolution, which has been quite popular
until recently, toward HD and 2MP quality.
Offboard we are now using HD, at around
1920x1080 resolution, explains Bridges. We have
cameras up to 4MP, and I know some companies that
specialize in broadcast have gone even higher.
The problem with increased resolution, counters
Robinson, is that it does tend to come at the penalty
of sensitivity, so understanding the sensitivity of
these smaller pixel, higher resolution cameras, and
the effects they have on lighting budget, is something
that must be considered.
It is a bit of a contradiction in a sense, agrees
Bridges. People want higher resolution, better light
sensitivity, all in a smaller camera size. Unfortunately,
only two of those three are possible at once; Im
not convinced that all three are not without
a signicant increase in cost. For the record, most
of our cameras fall into the square aspect ratio of
1000x1000, but I think theres more demand now
for at least 1280x720 HD, if not 1920x1024.
It was a request from our Munich lm studio
that we have high-denition cameras, conrms
Johannes Heilmaier, engineer for passive safety and
crash test at ADAC. Our old setup ran at a resolution
of just 512x384, but now we are offboard, we are up
to 1920x1080 HD quality.
LEFT: A Photron camera
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CAMERAS
ADACs lm studio is responsible for
creating professional quality material for
publicity and publication use, and also
uses a static photo camera for taking
much larger resolution images for print
publications. It is controlled by a unique
ECU that is tied into the system. The
cameras we have run at 1,000fps and the
HD cameras offer good resolution for lm,
but for print we need that little bit more.
Packaging is another area that has
changed considerably over the past decade
with increased numbers of test runs
and higher velocities, the demand for
smaller yet more rugged cameras that
can withstand multiple impacts has,
understandably, increased too.
These cameras are used in very rough
environments, begins Bridges. Typically
they have to withstand up to 100g for
10ms, but if you are doing 10 tests a day,
for ve or even seven days a week, then
they do take a bit of a battering. Even
if they are still functioning well, they
dont look particularly prestigious.
It is this repeated high-shock testing
that led Vision Research to introduce
a revised version of its M-Series camera.
The R-Series features revisions to the case
material switching from molded plastic
to a more durable metal construction
as well as revisions to the fan bearings,
and mountings for the battery and
mass-storage device to ensure a stronger
foundation on which to build the new
camera. Internal moving parts were
also minimized, with the removal of the
internal mechanical shutter (see Rugged
camera family, p36).
We wanted to make that particular
feature an option, explains Robinson.
It is possible that, over time, at least
in these repeated high-shock events, it
might not hold up particularly well, so we
designed the more robust camera around
these potential failure points.
Although sturdy is good, smaller is
better. Reducing the overall package size
of the camera allows for a much more
versatile setup and enables test engineers
to pinpoint and monitor exact locations
much better than before. When we introduced the
MH-4, we had one division at General Motors that
absolutely loved it, explains Photrons Bridges.
This was because they had to add only a couple
of ounces of weight to the sled bars, rather than
the several kilograms of hardware that they used
before. That, in turn, required more support just
to stop the camera ying off the mount, or getting
too much motion because the support arm was
exing. So smaller is better in that respect, but again
it comes at the cost of light sensitivity and possibly
overall performance.
What most manufacturers and test facilities are
opting for is a multiple camera setup to circumvent
the shortfalls of either option. Around the crash
area we just use tripods to mount our cameras, says
ADACs Heilmaier. Because we undertake many
different crash tests for different types of vehicles,
we have to be exible. The same goes for the onboard
system, which is a very special system with small
camera heads and an external control unit that is
mounted in the trunk of the car with just a small
cable linking the two. This enables us to mount the
heads to places like the headlining with just screws.
ABOVE LEFT: ADAC has recently
made the transition to HD-quality
cameras, which has proved
benecial in both testing and
commercial opportunities
ABOVE: Heilmaier says that
the ADAC lab doesnt need LED
lighting yet because the latest
camera sensors require less light
CAMERAS
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 036
In demand
From 2008 through 2011,
it seemed there was a
slowdown in the whole automotive
market that we sell into, explains
Rick Robinson at Vision Research.
I dont think there was a lot of new
capacity being put in place, and
people werent upgrading their
existing tools and infrastructure.
But moving into 2012 and carrying
on into 2013, were seeing lots
of new investments being made;
upgrades to equipment, new
facilities and so on.
The last cameras we had were
replaced after 12 years. They
are quite expensive things to
renew, explains Johannes
Heilmaier at ADAC. We last
updated our system around
two years ago. With each
camera costing around 40,000
(US$53,000), we are trying to
keep them as long as possible!
It is Photrons MH-4 camera series that forms the
basis of ADACs setup. For offboard use, there are
eight Photron Fastcam SA6 cameras, and the onboard
footage uses the Fastcam MH-4 system, with four
individual camera heads.
Our smaller cameras are ideal for onboard use
as they can be positioned around the dummys feet,
or even on things like the steering knuckle, agrees
Bridges. These smaller cameras that maybe dont
have the higher resolution, but can be positioned
in difcult positions, are much more favorable. Plus,
if they are destroyed in an impact, they are part of
a relatively low-cost system with a remote processor,
so it is a case of just replacing a camera head.
So where do small, high-resolution, high-speed
cameras go from here? One opportunity that has
opened up recently is the advent of advanced driver
assistance systems (ADAS), with high-speed cameras
proving to be an ideal solution for analyzing such
an intensive stream of data. Yet, the application of a
camera on a static crash-test compared with a high-
speed moving vehicle is very different. Crash testing
is a lot easier to create a camera for, says Bridges.
There are many known quantities as you know
roughly where and when the collision will occur. On
a moving car, the camera has to analyze every pixel to
work out whats changing in a threatening manner.
Because we undertake many different
crash tests for different types of
vehicles, we have to be exible
Johannes Heilmaier, engineer for passive safety and crash test, ADAC
CONTACT
Vision Research
Tel: +1 973 696 4500
Email: phantom@visionresearch.com
Web: www.visionresearch.com
ONLINE READER ENQUIRY NUMBER 503
The Phantom Miro digital high-speed camera family from
Vision Research now includes the ruggedized Miro R-Series
The Phantom Miro R-Series from Vision
Research, a manufacturer of digital
high-speed imaging systems, is the third
member of the Phantom Miro family. The camera,
which has a ruggedized body, is targeted at
applications in harsh environments where the
camera must survive high shock and vibration as
well as a broad range of operating temperatures.
The Miro R-Series is offered in the same four
performance levels as other Miro body styles:
110, 310, 120 and 320S.
The Miro R-Series is ideal for applications
in automotive crash tests, high-speed sleds and
explosives research. They are small, lightweight,
rugged digital high-speed cameras packed with
advanced features. The cameras have features
previously available on cameras at twice the
price, are easy to master and use, and address
applications in a wide variety of industries.
As with the other Miro models, the R-Series
has an external rechargeable battery (BP-U30 only)
and the popular CineFlash data storage system.
These removable, non-volatile storage devices slide
into the camera body and provide a way to quickly
save raw cine les from the cameras memory
without the need for time-consuming and costly
RIGHT: Miro R120 is part
of the larger Phantom Miro
R-Series of cameras and
operates at 1920x1200
resolution at 730fps, or
1920x1080 at 800fps
Rugged camera family
downloads. Later, users can remove the CineFlash
module from the camera and insert it into the
docking station connected to a computer. Cines
stored on the CineFlash are then immediately
available on the computer. Users can also transfer
the cines from the camera to a computer and edit
the images using the Vision Research Phantom
Camera Control software. In addition, the
Miro R-Series cameras are exible tools for both
qualitative and quantitative analysis, and are
Phantom RCU compatible.
Scientists and engineers can take advantage
of up to 3.2GP/sec throughput, precise timing,
camera synchronization, exible triggering,
excellent light sensitivity and many other
advanced capabilities to gain insight into products
and processes. The camera enables the user to see
what cannot be seen with the human eye.
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CAMERAS
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 038
AOS Technologies has developed
two electrically and mechanically
identical cameras with different
resolutions and frame speeds
Todays onboard high-speed cameras
must often be tailored to meet a specic
application within crash testing. A short
but secure setup procedure and a fast turnaround
time between tests are prominent features of
modern high-speed high-g cameras. The Q-MIZE
and S-MIZE high-speed cameras from AOS
Technologies look like identical twins but offer
different resolutions and different frame speeds.
Users can choose the camera they need for the
specied area, and count on an identical mechanical
and electrical interface, reducing turnaround time
between tests substantially.
Standard cameras for onboard tests have a
resolution of 800x600 pixels up to about 1MP.
Most frame speeds at these resolutions are between
1,000 and 2,000fps. The eld of view in onboard
applications is normally limited by the application
and depends on where the camera is mounted. The
pedal area in the footwell usually has a narrow eld
compared with an area where, for example, a dummy
impact is recorded from the outrigger.
Over the past 18 months it has been observed that
test engineers are starting to demand cameras with g
ratings in excess of 100g, preferably able to withstand
frequent spikes up to 200g, and not just for single tests
but for the lifetime of the camera. For such demanding
applications, self-contained cameras are simpler
to handle and provide advantages compared with
tethered cameras, which are connected to a bulky,
heavy control box. The weight of a box, which is
somewhere centrally located, can inuence test results
considerably, whereas lighter self-contained cameras
are evenly distributed on the test setup and reduce
most of the effects of additional weight.
It is highly desirable for different cameras to have
identical mechanical constructions. This makes it
easy to t and change the camera if other resolutions
and frame speeds are required for the next test.
Identical setups only require a one-time effort to
place and position camera mounts and supporting
brackets, and provide the necessary cabling. The
cabling can be limited to a simple trigger since the
AOS cameras have built-in rechargeable batteries.
AOS Technologies Q-MIZE and S-MIZE models
have the same mechanical layout for tting the camera
onto the test setup. The interface components
Picture
are identical as well. A Gigabit Ethernet interface
for fast data transfer and a solid, rugged Lemo
connector for all discrete I/O signals are standard.
This setup makes it simple to change the cameras
when different resolutions and frame speeds are
required. The S-MIZE comprises a sensor with a
resolution up to 1,280x1,024 pixels and delivers
crisp, clear images with a resolution of 900x700
at 1,000fps. This camera is ideal for viewing under
the seat or in-detail recordings of subsystems. The
sister camera, which is named Q-MIZE, offers a
1,360x1,014 pixel resolution at 1,000fps. It is useful
for shooting an area where higher resolutions are
needed. Both cameras are piloted via the same
software, and the image data is stored in the same
native format, making it easy to import sequences
into standard analysis programs.
The S-MIZE and Q-MIZE come in a standard
housing with all the connectors on the back of
the camera. Sometimes it is desirable to have the
connectors on the side and the lens looking out
at 90 for better mounting and tting in the test
environment. And there are cases where a recessed
head is important since the lens cannot stick out
too far due to space considerations.
A ash card and an external
hot-swappable battery for
up to 2.5 hours of autonomous
operation are available for
both the Q-MIZE and the
S-MIZE, with the same
operational software
perfect
CONTACT
AOS Technologies AG
Tel: +41 56 4833488
Email: info@aostechnologies.com
Web: www.aostechnologies.com
ONLINE READER ENQUIRY NUMBER 504
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ANN_AUCRASH_90x250_en_Testing Technology 06.08.12 15:17 Page1
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 040
COVER STORY
Phil Glyn-Davies, senior manager, vehicle safety at
Jaguar Land Rover, discusses the changing mix of
crash testing faced by the design-led manufacturer
WORDS BY JOHN CHALLEN
and substance and substance
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 041
When, after more than two decades working
for Millbrook, Phil Glyn-Davies decided
to move back to an OEM, one destination
stood out, largely because of a long-standing
relationship. Jaguar Land Rover was, and still is, a
big customer for Millbrook. When I was there I ran the
full-scale crash sled, conducted various component
safety testing and worked on vehicle telemetry,
recalls Glyn-Davies. As such, the now senior manager,
vehicle safety, at Jaguar Land Rover, got to know
his current employers vehicles very well and clearly
liked what he saw. At the time I was impressed by
the rigor applied to the vehicle safety process here.
But he also saw room for improvement and since
arriving at Jaguar Land Rovers Coventry base in
October 2011, Glyn-Davies says the main changes
he has made have been metric-driven: adding targets
and assessing external suppliers against the targets
that theyve been set, as well as applying lessons that
have been learned. We are possibly more focused
on the development side. I have someone from the
advanced product creation team for every Jaguar
Land Rover project conducting detailed virtual
analysis from early concept, he says.
It may surprise some people, then, when he states,
Jaguar Land Rover doesnt have vehicle safety as a
key element of its DNA, but it is a fact that rings true.
The company is very design-driven, which, in some
ways, makes vehicle safety more challenging. Our
job is not to deliver something that is class-leading in
safety even though we have very high safety targets
but to deliver those targets without compromising
the other attributes that the company wants.
Glyn-Davies says it is an approach that sits well
with him. It creates challenges and we need a very
good engineering team to make sure we maintain
and meet the targets we set. So far the targets are
being hit, as are top Euro NCAP scores. It wasnt
something we needed if you look at what would sell
a Range Rover, a ve-star Euro NCAP rating isnt one
of the priorities, admits Glyn-Davies, especially as he
is slightly at odds with the gradings. A large vehicle
such as a Range Rover has a lot more safety in it than
a smaller vehicle, and that fact sometimes gets a little
lost within Euro NCAP, he reasons. Physics comes
into the equation, but the nature of the testing doesnt
fully appreciate vehicle-to-vehicle accidents.
Glyn-Davies says he is happy with the range of
test equipment available to him and his team and
reveals that Jaguar Land Rover has no plans to invest
in full-scale crash capabilities. He explains that
it makes more sense to target available funds at
LEFT: Phil Glyn-Davies would
welcome a single global
standard for vehicle safety
COVER STORY
Physics comes into the equation, but
the nature of the testing doesnt fully
appreciate vehicle-to-vehicle accidents
Phil Glyn-Davies, senior manager, vehicle safety, Jaguar Land Rover
and substance
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
COVER STORY
042
Numbers game
Vehicle development times may
be getting shorter, but crash
test programs are becoming more
involved. We crash more vehicles,
to comply with the legislative and
consumer-related targets we have to
meet, conrms Phil Glyn-Davies.
The biggest change has been
that previously the bulk of the testing
was used purely for model sign-off,
whereas now at least 50% of the
crashes we do are to support the
sensing-related information. We
have multiple sensing points and
two-stage airbags, which require
specic trigger points. To deliver
good safety, you need the restraints
integrated into the vehicle as early
as possible and ensure they dont
inadvertently deploy.
Glyn-Davies says that the 50%
accounts for up to 40 crashes for
sensing alone. There is a different
mix, because during the previous
Range Rovers development, we
didnt have as much Euro NCAP
consumer testing to deal with, and
on the legislative side there werent
side pole or high-speed rear impact
requirements or offset tests in the
USA. If you divide the number of tests
by the number of test modes, we did
more testing on the old Range Rover,
and a lot more mule and prototype
testing than with the new one.
delivering better safety performance on the vehicle;
JLR cannot match the higher utilization to which,
for example, a new dummy would be subjected at a
supplier such as Millbrook or MIRA, to justify capital
investment in this area.
The situation is different when it comes to
component testing at JLR, however. We are looking
to improve our [test] offerings in interior head
impact and pedestrian protection test work, as well
as our facilities, says Glyn-Davies. Evidence of this
commitment can be seen in the Jaguar Land Rover
sites in the UK Midlands, especially Gaydon, which
is now the companys global headquarters of vehicle
safety testing on the components side, and is being
extended to accommodate more safety evaluation
equipment. We currently have a medium sled
capability, a deceleration sled to run component tests
up to buck size, two robot interior head impact
(IHI) guns, and we will be adding another pedestrian
rig, as well as more equipment for head-impact work,
he details, adding that a computer-controlled airbag
deployment facility is in the early planning stages.
The investment in head-impact rigs is a direct
response to heightened US legislation in that area,
which is proving a challenge for Glyn-Davies and
his colleagues. The legislation is written in a very
generic way, but models still have to perform to meet
those targets, he says. You need to mark out the
vehicle in a very prescriptive process, which is driven
by legislation, but it can be a challenge when dealing
with issues such as tight packaging constraints.
The lack of standardization is also a headache
for Glyn-Davies the biggest issue being the
continuation of regulations for unbelted occupants in
North America but he maintains that the goal is to
deliver a vehicle that delivers good results according
to IIHS, US NCAP and Euro NCAP. The majority
of the other NCAPs are contained within those,
apart from China, which has a bigger focus on rear
occupancy, he explains, although the updates to
Euro NCAP, which are due for 2015/16, include this.
Elsewhere in North America there has been
some concern with the IIHSs (Insurance Institute of
Highway Safety) small overlap tests, whose standards
are proving hard for auto makers to reach, with many
SUVs not making the grade. In the evaluation, 25%
of the vehicles total width strikes the crash barrier
on the drivers side, but Glyn-Davies reasons that
because SUVs have high articulation and are heavier,
it is more challenging.
It is one thing about the IIHS tests that I dont
fully support, he admits, hopeful that further work
with NHTSA will make life easier for manufacturers.
The test simulates a co-linear small offset vehicle-
to-vehicle impact, probably the most common type
of crash; a small angular difference, with partial
sideswipe; and an impact with heavy roadside
furniture, such as a tree, which is not a particularly
common accident event, explains Glyn-Davies. The
test doesnt really represent car-to-car impacts, more
an object-against-vehicle impact. Hopefully with the
NHTSA test there will be an amount of engagement,
but with a barrier that is more representative of the
[real-world] scenario.
We are putting a lot of research work into
this area, particularly changing our side-curtain
deployment strategy, and are making sure that in a
predominantly frontal accident, the curtain airbag is
deployed in a small offset, he continues. If you look
at the tests that have received the poor rating, most
have reasonable head and chest [protection] levels. It
is the lower extremities that need protection, so that
is where we are working on improving the structure.
NHTSA has put a research project out for response,
to take an existing vehicle in the western market and
adapt it to meet a good IIHS test, because they have
concerns about the amount of mass that will be
added to the vehicle if you engineer additional
protection into existing products.
Glyn-Davies believes that there are plenty of
areas where legislators could help out the vehicle
manufacturers. In the Euro NCAP environment,
OEMs would like more details early on and the rules
to be set earlier, he states. We are quite happy with
the roadmap, but want it to be consistent and not
changed three or six months before implementation,
because that creates extra challenges for us.
A single global standard would make our lives
easier, and we welcome the GTRs [global test
regulations] that are coming in to try and help this,
for example in relation to pedestrian impact.
TOP: The latest Range Rover
undergoes a side impact test
for Euro NCAP certication
BELOW: The same vehicle
during its safety development
High Speed Vision GmbH
Gerwigstrae 10 | 76131 Karlsruhe | Germany
fon: +49 (0)721 66324-22 |fax: +49 (0)721 66324-29
mail: info@hsvision.de
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Designed for Automotive Testing
Indias ONLY Automotive Testing, Evaluation
and Quality Engineering Trade Fair
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AUTOMOTIVE TESTING EXPO INDIA 2014,
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Tel: +44 (0) 1306 743744
Fax: +44 (0) 1306 877411
email: expo@ukipme.com
www.testing-expoindia.com
Our knowledge partner is
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 044
RAILROAD
The rugged, high-quality data acquisition system
developed by GMH Engineering has proved to
be a useful tool in rail vehicle crash testing
overload
An economical, modular, rugged and
high-quality data acquisition system (DAS)
has proved to be the ideal solution for
instrumenting a full-scale railroad equipment crash test.
Research into crash energy management structures
for passenger rail vehicles has involved signicant
design, analysis and modeling efforts to address
the unique requirements placed on railroad vehicles.
Unlike an automobile, a railroad vehicle must utilize
the same structures to absorb the energy of a front
or rear collision, while also carrying the normal
loads associated with being one vehicle in a long train
of rail vehicles. As part of this important research,
full-scale crash testing has been carried out to
validate the dynamic structural modeling efforts.
The train-to-train validation tests involved
two vehicle groupings: a Target group consisting
of a stationary locomotive followed by two loaded
hopper cars, and a Bullet group consisting of ve
heavy-rail passenger coaches followed by a trailing
locomotive. Each vehicle in the Target and Bullet
groups was instrumented to measure various aspects
of the crash dynamics, utilizing accelerometers,
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 045
RAILROAD
ABOVE AND LEFT: Train before
and after the crash
RIGHT: The rugged data
acquisition system from GMH
strain gauges, string pots, load cells and contact
switches. Overall, the test requirements specied
339 channels of data acquisition distributed over
the two vehicle groups. The Target group was 49m
long and required 20 instrumentation channels.
The Bullet group was 146m long and required 319
instrumentation channels. Given the signicant
end-to-end length of each vehicle group, cable
length between each specied sensor and the
DAS was of great concern. Resistive sensors
may exhibit unacceptable signal bandwidth
limitations due to their typical output impedance
interacting with the parasitic capacitance of
excessively long signal cables. The signal output
of active sensors may exhibit stability issues due
to the same parasitic capacitance of an excessively
long signal cable.
The modular design of Utah-based GMH
Engineerings DataBRICK3 Data Acquisition System
allowed the DAS for these tests to be distributed
throughout the Bullet and Target vehicle groups with
the sensor cable lengths kept below the threshold
where signal bandwidth or stability could adversely
This effort has supported the
development of research-based
government and industry standards

affect the acquired data. The resulting independent
deployment of each DataBRICK3 module also
guaranteed that the effects of any single-point
failure of a main battery, power supply or trigger
system would be isolated to the single eight-channel
module that experienced the failure.
The invaluable data generated in these full-scale
crash tests has provided the insight needed to
rene and validate the extensive modeling effort
that is at the core of rail equipment crashworthiness
research. This effort has supported the development
of research-based government and industry
standards and recommended practices that have
resulted in a signicant improvement in the
crashworthiness of state-of-the-art passenger rail
vehicle designs.
CONTACT
GMH Engineering
Tel: +1 801 225 8970
Email: sales@gmheng.com
Web: www.gmheng.com
ONLINE READER ENQUIRY NUMBER 505
UNIVERSITY FOCUS
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 046
The anti-terrorism work of the Crash Safety
Research Facility at Penn State University
places extreme demands on its test equipment
WORDS BY GRAHAM HEEPS
Protect
and serve
UNIVERSITY FOCUS
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 047
The increased terrorist threat to the USA
and other nations in the 12 years since
the September 11 attacks has spawned a
specialist research unit at Penn State Universitys
Crash Safety Research Facility, part of the Thomas D
Larson Pennsylvania Transportation Institute (LTI).
The man in charge of projects that have included
developing anti-ram barriers that look like bus
stops, is managing director of the institute Dr Zoltan
Rado, a senior research associate with wide interests
across the automotive and aerospace sectors. Having
completed his PhD at Penn State in 1994, Rado
returned to Pennsylvania in 2001 to head up research
in several areas, including crash testing.
The crash facility was established in 1995 but had
not been active since 1998. Rado set about refocusing
the research from automotive to roadside safety and
anti-terrorist barriers, following the capture of a
major research project in this area. LTIs facilities and
equipment were targeted more specically to this
Protect
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UNIVERSITY FOCUS
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 048
On patrol
One of LTIs sideline projects
involved researching occupant
safety to support the State of
Pennsylvanias introduction of the
2013 Ford Police Interceptor sedan
and SUV to replace the outgoing
Crown Victoria, for which a similar
exercise had previously been
undertaken.
The police were installing
equipment in the vehicle, so when
a crash deployed the airbags, the
equipment became projectiles and
a danger to the inhabitants of the
car, explains Zoltan Rado. We did
research for them into how to position
the equipment laptops, cameras,
rearms, etc and what kind of
protective designs and structures
could be installed around it, so that
when the airbags deployed, the
occupants were protected from harm.
To achieve it, we deployed the
airbags in 15 cars, he continues.
We developed an electronic control
box that we connected to the control
system of the car and used it to
deploy the airbag and trigger the
data acquisition and camera systems.
We then used the recordings to make
a sophisticated three-dimensional
analysis of the movement of the items
in the passenger and drivers spaces.
We also analyzed whether the
deployment of the airbag was
hindered to the point where it was
ineffective; we calculated what
the difference would be in terms of
injury to the passenger if the airbag
didnt inate properly because
of the structures infringing on it.
We then made some suggestions
for the placement of these containing
structures and designed some
suitable examples.
kind of crash research: high-speed cameras were
added and the outdoor testing facility revamped to
be capable of executing up to six tests on permanent
installations in a single day. Today, LTI is a leader in
the eld, with US government agencies and highway
infrastructure companies its biggest customers.
For the crash test work, Rado heads a permanent
research staff of ve, plus a team of 10 administrative
and technical support staff. They are supported by
experts from a number of departments across this
very large university.
We do a lot of materials research, says Rado. We
are very lucky to have expertise in materials science
we can reach out to. We have experts in nite
element analysis. We have supercomputers that are
accessible and relatively inexpensive to use to set up
models. And we have the test track, which is not very
common within universities.
A problem with this type of testing is that most
of the test items are semi-permanent and require a
large installation space, so the testing cant be done
indoors. However, LTI has a -mile by -mile test
track that can accommodate large structures; one test
required part of a bridge to be built for impact testing.
If you try to do that in a normal facility then you
have to wait 28 days for the concrete to cure and cant
do any other tests, says Rado. But our facility allows
us to carry on testing other things at the same time.
The track is a closed-loop design, one mile (1.6km)
in length. The permanent guiding system is 1,100ft
(335m) long and can be expanded to 1,400ft (427m)
if necessary. Our system allows vehicles to travel
both sides of the guiding rail, quite far from it, which
allows us to create separate installations of even quite
large structures at both ends up to three or even
RIGHT: A high-energy terrorist
barrier fails a truck-impact test
We are lucky to have supercomputers
that are accessible and relatively
inexpensive to use to set up models
Dr Zoltan Rado, senior research associate, Penn State University
UNIVERSITY FOCUS
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 049
four structures simultaneously, depending on how
large they are.
Both the test structure and the vehicle are equipped
to record the impact for subsequent analysis.
We have modular data-recording equipment from
Diversied Technical Systems (DTS) built into the
crashing vehicle that allows us to simultaneously
record on multiple channels at up to 100,000Hz,
he continues. We then install strain gauges, force
sensors and pressure sensors into the ground and
onto the test structure. We have a top-of-the-line
National Instruments data acquisition system
capable of collecting several hundred sensor readings
simultaneously, at up to 1MHz speeds per channel.
These two systems are triggered just before the crash.
The data collected from the crashing vehicle, and
the structure it crashes into, is synchronized, which
enables us to compare the crash events in the data.
Post-crash analysis is aided by data-synchronized
images from six very high-speed, high-resolution
HD, full-color cameras. These are triggered
simultaneously with the data acquisition systems
and wirelessly transmit their recordings during
the crash. LTI has three Photron cameras that were
supplemented last year by three new Redlake Nx
series cameras from Dell Imaging Technologies.
On the modeling side, Rados team starts from rst
principles with calculations before moving into crash
ABOVE AND RIGHT, TOP
TO BOTTOM: High-energy
impacts on the LTI test track
as commercial vehicles collide
with a specially developed
gate, sign and bollard
UNIVERSITY FOCUS
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 050
modeling in LS-DYNA nite element software. We
develop our own vehicle models and have a large
library of validated material models, he says. We
even did substantial research into soil and rock
modeling for a project that required the use of
naturally occurring features.
A large portion of the teams research concerns
material properties and the design of structures,
which requires many iterations and validations of
the FEA software. Only then is a physical structure
created and a crash test carried out.
We use the cameras and the data to validate our
FEA models, and repeat the process until we achieve
our goals, Rado explains. We try to limit the use
of the data acquisition systems and cameras because
even though they are designed to withstand the
extremes of some of the testing we have to do, it is
demanding on them. The data acquisition system
in the car is rated to much higher g limits than
in normal automotive crash testing. Some of the
requirements we face here involve stopping a vehicle
from up to 70mph (113km/h) within 3ft (0.9m),
so there are huge g forces acting on the equipment.
Sometimes we have to install cameras into the
vehicle, so they must also withstand up to 200g. We
therefore try to minimize the use of the equipment.
The results of LTIs work can be seen both in the
USA at important government sites such as the White
House and Capitol, and abroad around embassies,
company buildings and banks, for example. The
foreign projects can demand some of the most
creative solutions: If the USA builds a new embassy,
the anti-ram barriers must conform to a certain
rating, says Rado. Sometimes the hosting country
isnt keen on a fortress-like structure and demands
more aesthetically appropriate solutions. If you build
something in a historic district of Paris, it has to t
the environment, which is where we come in. We
do research and try to fashion, say, a bus stop or trash
can thats capable of stopping a large truck. The LTI
is part of a users group that meets in Washington
annually to share experience with other institutions
from the USA, Canada and the UK, such as TTI
(Texas Transportation Institute). It also presents
results in conferences and writes white papers.
PhD and Masters students write theses based on
the research at the center; a two-year-plus research
project will normally support more than one student.
For the future, Rados diary is looking busier than
ever. One of our long-term US government research
partners has just extended its contract for anti-
terrorist barrier research, which will take most of
the resources at the testing center, he reveals. We
also have returning companies seeking help with
materials or structural research, which well t into
our schedule, along with several certication testing
requests for structures developed by an external
company. So we have a full schedule for the next
18 months at least.
ABOVE: One of the reinforced
bus shelters developed by
Rados team stops a truck
BELOW: Penn State
Universitys LTI test track
We try to limit the use of the data
acquisition systems and cameras
because the testing is so demanding
Dr Zoltan Rado, senior research associate, Penn State University
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 052
Is carbon ber for so long the exclusive
preserve of motorsport and supercar exotica
nally about to go mainstream? November
2013 sees the European launch of BMWs i3 megacity
vehicle, the rst mass-production car with a body
structure made entirely from carbon ber reinforced
polymer (CFRP).
But although it appears that Munich has fully
bought into the benets of composites, much of the
automotive world still has questions. In particular,
the misguided belief persists that carbon ber
is too brittle for crash structure applications. In
a conventional metal car body, impact energy is
absorbed by plastic deformation, with ductile metal
structures folding and pleating as they pass their
yield point.
Carbon ber is a non-ductile material, with a
minuscule elongation to failure even when laminated.
But dont be fooled into thinking that because its
brittle, it doesnt absorb energy: it simply does so
in a different way. In fact, its recognized that CFRP
structures can absorb over ve times as much energy
per mass (SEA) as steel.
Composites absorb energy by fragmentation of
the material. At the macroscopic level, whole layers
of bers can separate from the matrix, known as
ABOVE: Sheet of at test
coupons formed from
composite material
According to Engenuity, the key to the wider adoption
of automotive crash structures made of composite
materials is a change in thinking
Carbon-ber
crashworthiness
delamination; at the microscopic level, the plethora
of failure modes has kept researchers engaged for
decades. In an optimized composite design, these
failures occur locally in the crush zone, with the
structure being reduced to dust as the energy is
absorbed.
The other attributes that make CFRP ideal for
crashworthiness structures are its stiffness and
strength-to-weight ratios. Stiffness gives the crush
structures a stable platform to act against, while the
strength ensures it can react to loads without failure
of the all-important passenger compartment.
These potential safety benets were recognized
in Formula 1 as long ago as 1980, when McLaren
introduced its MP4/1 chassis, designed by John
Barnard, which incorporated a monocoque carbon-
ber safety cell. But as driver John Watson recalled
in 2006, The question all Formula 1 drivers
were asking was, what was going to happen in
an accident? Watson and his team-mate Andrea
de Cesaris provided the answer by walking away
from a number of crashes, including Watsons
spectacular shunt at 140mph in the Lesmo bends
at Monza in 1981. By 1985, all F1 teams were using
carbon-ber safety cells. A decade later, McLaren,
together with other manufacturers including
Mercedes-Benz, Jaguar and Porsche, pioneered
the use of composites at Le Mans, where, again, the
technology proved its worth in a series of dramatic
crashes.
The lessons learned in motorsport have informed
the development of road supercars, including the
COMPOSITES
COMPOSITES
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 053
A typical at test coupon of the
type pioneered by Engenuity
(TOP) and carbon bers in raw
format (ABOVE)
Porsche Carrera GT, Ferrari Enzo and McLaren
MP4-12C with similar safety benets for drivers
from the safety cell. Crash data reveals that the
composite safety cell generally provides greater
integrity than comparable aluminum or steel
structures in the event of crash impacts where
severity exceeds design intent: serious injuries
and fatalities have generally resulted from excessive
forces on the human body, rather than intrusion and
collapse, as is anticipated with metal body-in-white
(BIW) structures.
Improved safety is only one reason composites
are so desirable in high-performance cars. The other,
of course, is their vastly superior strength-to-weight
ratio when compared with steel and aluminum.
In the drive for greater fuel efciency and lower
emissions, reducing overall vehicle weight is a
priority for volume manufacturers, not just the
supercar marques.
The focus on the BIW is motivated by an effect
known as mass de-compounding. Lowering a
vehicles body weight allows a corresponding
lightening of the powertrain, suspension and other
major components, leading to a virtuous circle
where all systems of the vehicle benet from the
weight saving. However, steel and aluminum are now
being pushed to their structural limits. With some
A-pillar, cant and header rail pressings routinely
less than 0.75mm thick, theres little scope for
saving weight by reducing thickness, without either
increasing section sizes, or succumbing to stiffness
or buckling issues.
CONTACT
Engenuity
Tel: +44 1444 457257
Email: info@engenuity.net
Web: www.engenuity.net
ONLINE READER
ENQUIRY NUMBER 506
At around one-fth the density of steel, composite
structures can be thicker and/or larger (and thus
more stable) than their metal equivalents, and still
achieve considerable weight savings. Motorsport has
exploited this capability for decades: the imperative
now is to adapt these principles to create a new
generation of lightweight, fuel-efcient mainstream
road cars. This need has been recognized at the
highest level: in the USA, Congress is funding
research into a Plastic and Composite Intensive
Vehicle (PCIV), with the ambitious goal of developing
a high-volume BIW structure that is both 60% lighter
and delivers 80mpg.
One reason that the benets of CFRP in vehicle
crush structures and safety cells have not been
realized is the inability to reliably simulate their
performance in a crash event. This has changed
since Engenuity, a UK-based engineering consultancy
specializing in composite materials, introduced
its CZone extension for Abaqus, which is capable
of developing crash structures with comparable
predictability to steel cars for whole-body composite
structures.
Engenuity has been measuring the crush strength
of carbon ber for many years, and has built up a
substantial body of data on specic energy absorption
(SEA) for hundreds of composite materials. Its at
coupon test method has been adopted by OEMs
and universities, and in motorsport, where its used
in the development and characterization of crush
performance.
With this crush property data built into the
model, CZone predicts how whole vehicle structures,
including the passenger safety cell, will perform
in a crash, by applying the forces generated as the
composite fragments to dust at the crush interface
to the adjacent nite elements.
In a recent BMW project, Engenuity used a limited
set of material coupon data to simulate one low-speed
and two high-speed impacts on a CFRP version of
an existing series production front-end BIW. Working
within the strict package limitations of the current
vehicle, CZone effectively enabled the development
of the composite design to absorb energy in a
stable manner with crushing behavior and the
corresponding section forces, producing good
comparisons with physical test results. The CZone
simulations proved that composites could absorb
high-speed impact energy for the full-size vehicle:
furthermore, they showed that deploying CFRP in
place of aluminum in the series front end BIW would
reduce mass by 45%.
Cost and high-speed manufacturing issues mean
that, for the time being, CFRP cars remain exclusive
products, but the tide is turning.
In particular, CZone removes a major technical
and design barrier to composites more widespread
application. The technology allows designers
to evaluate the materials potential, and begin
to understand the specic architectures required
for crash, without the risk and expense of building
prototypes. And as the economic, resource and
political pressures to deliver lighter, more fuel-
efcient vehicles intensify, its an area that every
designer should be actively investigating.
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October in Michigan
can mean only one
thing the return
of Automotive Testing Expo
North America. As always,
forming part of the larger
show will be the Crash Test
Zone, focusing on the very
latest technologies from the
world of crash testing.
The Suburban Collection
Showplace will once again
play host to exhibitors as
varied as AOS Technologies,
HYGE and Plascore, all of
which will be showcasing
their latest products designed
to help crash test engineers
make vehicles safer. Over
the following pages you can
nd some of the highlights
of this years show, so you
can start planning your trip
right away!
Beyond the Crash
Test Zone, the wider
Automotive Testing Expo is
set for another bumper year.
With over 230 exhibitors
taking advantage of a
resurgent US market, this
years show is set to be one of
the best yet. We look forward
to seeing you there!
Event: Crash Test Zone at Automotive
Testing Expo North America 2013
Venue: The Suburban Collection Showplace,
Novi, Michigan, USA
Date: October 22-24, 2013
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 054
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REGISTER ONLINE NOW FOR YOUR FREE PASS!
www.testing-expo.com/usa
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AOS TECHNOLOGIES
will be showcasing Q-MIZE
a compact high-speed
camera for application
under harsh environmental
conditions, as part of the
Crash Test Zone. The
highly light-sensitive 3MP
sensor with its resolution
of 1,360x1,060 pixels
at 1,000fps, and the
sophisticated image
quality algorithm
embedded in the
camera, suits even the
most ambitious
of applications.
Representatives from AOS
will be in booth C134 to
explain how the Q-MIZE
is designed and certied
to withstand g-forces in
excess of 100g for 10ms
in all axes and spikes
up to 200g. Offering
a wide range of signals
for external control or
feedback on camera status
during tests, the Q-MIZE
is a genuine all-in-one
camera. Fast download
of image sequence
is achieved via Gigabit
Ethernet.
Q-MIZE offers a wide
variety of options and
extensions, such as an
additional external battery
pack to extend autonomous
time to hours, a built-in
ash memory-card
interface, live SDI or analog
video out, and IRIG-B.
VISIT BOOTH C134
ATLAS/KHS TECHNICAL
LIGHTING, a leader in the
development of technical
lighting solutions for
more than 35 years, has
entered into an alliance
with Messring Systembau.
Atlas/KHS and Messring
have partnered in the eld
of lighting technology for
automotive test facilities.
The partnerships goal is
to offer new and existing
customers comprehensive
expertise in lighting
system solutions from
a single source, including
guaranteed superior
worldwide service.
With many years of
experience in the custom
design and manufacture
of high-speed lighting
systems, Atlas/KHS is
pleased to collaborate
with Messring, which
brings more than 40
years of experience in the
design and development
of crash-test facilities,
components and
data-acquisition systems.
Since the introduction of its
LED oodlights in 2012,
Messring has established
itself as a leader in the eld
of lighting for crash testing.
By coupling Atlas/KHSs
years of project experience
and system-solution
expertise with
Messrings state-of-
the-art trendsetting LED
technology for recording
high-speed images,
both rms expect the
partnership to yield
substantial synergies and
become a formidable force
in the automotive lighting
industry.
The obvious advantages
to customers are access
to the highest-possible
level of quality and the
long-term experience of
two established suppliers
in the development of
custom-designed system
solutions that t perfectly.
Stop by Atlas Material
Testing Technologys
booth (C126) to speak with
George Coonley and learn
more about this exciting
partnership and how it can
benet your testing needs.
VISIT BOOTH C126
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 055
Compact
high-speed camera
Lighting collaboration
3
ABOVE: Atlass lighting is
just one of the many new
crash test technologies
that will be on show in Novi
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Full preview of Automotive
Testing Expo North America,
October 22-24, Novi, USA
SHOWISSUE
SEPTEMBER 2013
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com September 2013
UKIP Media & Events Ltd
The full development story
behind Mexicos rst
trackday sports car
VHL 05
A roundup of the latest
sensing technologies
for automotive testing
Sensors
We investigate the test methods
and challenges behind mobile
cranes, mining trucks and tanks
Extreme vehicles
New test tracks, new locations and new
targets: Jeep goes all-out to develop
a vehicle it can sell in 150 countries
Michigan focus
Fords new robot driving system, a Q&A with
SVT, and a visit to Mercedes tech center
Chief marketability engineer,
Nissan Technical Center
North America
Steve Monk
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
Driving simulators
Full details of two exciting new projects,
including Europes largest simulator
Jaguar Land Rover is investing
heavily in virtual development
for its new-model programs
Simulation
MARCH 2013
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com March 2013
UKIP Media & Events Ltd
How Nissan plans to
bring motorsport chic
to its regular models
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
Lamborghini balances
road-car style with
on-track performance
Aerodynamics Juke Nismo
Renaults new performance-car
partner is taking on third-party
test and development projects
Caterham Technology
A new UK powertrain test facility
spawns SAICs rst passenger
car diesel, for the MG6 sedan
SAIC goes diesel
Bentleys technical chief
on developing the British
marques rst SUV
Rolf Frech
Psychoacoustics
How the workings of the inner ear
are being modeled to help auto makers
deliver an appealing soundtrack
koda safety
The Czech OEMs top
safety engineer gives the
lowdown on crash testing,
Mlad Boleslav-style
Reducing mass without compromising
durability: the conict at the core of the
C7 Corvette development program
Stingray
Full preview of Automotive
Testing Expo North America,
October 23-25, Novi, Michigan, USA
SEPTEMBER 2012
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com September 2012
UKIP Media & Events Ltd
Audis quest for the
tightest, most consistent
panel gaps ever on its A3
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
The latest technologies
for automotive testing
applications
Sensors Quality
The need to balance simulation
with physical testing is more
important than ever
Transmissions
How the USA and Europe
went separate ways in
developing the high-selling SUV
Honda CR-V
OPCs engineering
manager on developing
GMs pocket rockets
How OEM and supplier test programs are responding
to the rapid changes in infotainment technology
Linked in
Wilfried Diehl
SHOWISSUE
Race engine testing
Simulators
Developing a multipoint fuel injection system
that NASCAR could embrace
The future of driver-in-the-loop
simulators, including Europes
newest for-hire facility
SEPTEMBER 2012
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
Carbon ber
The long road to predicting the crash
behavior of composite materials
Rollover innovation
The National Crash Analysis Centers new
proposal for repeatable rollover testing
impact impact
Pedestrian
How Euro NCAPs
tougher scoring system
is driving up standards
A look ahead to the innovative
crash test technology at Automotive
Testing Expo North America
Fords safety experts talk
exclusively about crash testing
under the One Ford philosophy
Steven Keller and Wayne Bahr
CRASH TEST ZONE CASE STUDIES
The safety development
programs for the Volvo V40
and Mercedes-Benz GL
JUNE 2013
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com June 2013
UKIP Media & Events Ltd
Moves are afoot to make battery
durability testing specications
more relevant to cars
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
Vehicle dynamics
development and a chat
with Qoross chief engineer
China Durability
We visit Goodyears Mireval
proving ground and round up
the latest testing equipment
Tire development
Thatcham has invested in new
equipment to become a fully
edged Euro NCAP test center
Crash-test lab
Driver assistance
How test methods and technologies are
evolving in one of the fastest growing elds
of automotive development: ADAS
Stuttgart focus
Inside the Automotive Simulation Center and
an insight into the regions automotive future
McLaren
Renaults entry-program
vice president on the secret
of Dacias success
Arnaud Deboeuf
Active aerodynamics and
900 horsepower: how to test
a 21st century hypercar
Full preview of Automotive Testing Expo
Europe, June 4-6, Stuttgart, Germany
SHOWISSUE
Automotive Testing Expo Korea,
Seoul, March 18-20, 2013
NOVEMBER 2012
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com November 2012
UKIP Media & Events Ltd
Tire development at
the Nrburgring with
Falken Motorsports
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
CFD and tunnel testing
are key to Corvettes
latest Grand-Am racer
Aerodynamics Slick work
The latest test track news from
Dudenhofen, IDIADA, MIRA,
and Guangde, China
Proving grounds
With a ban on prototype tooling,
Mazdas engineers had to get
their latest project right rst time
Mazda6
Auriss chief engineer
on how Toyota plans to
compete with Europes
best hatchbacks
Electronics development special:
Clemsons Professor Todd Hubing on
EMC testings future, plus automotive
Ethernet, and meeting ISO 26262
Hiroya Fujita
Winners 2012
Ford in focus
This years best facilities and
technologies are rewarded in the
Automotive Testing Technology
International Awards!
Aachens research directors discuss
future testing challenges, including
car-to-car communication
Cable guys Cable guys Cable guys
SHOWPREVIEW
SEPTEMBER 2013
Imaging
Smaller, faster, higher de nition: crash test
cameras are more capable than ever
Battery safety
Research into how electric and hybrid
vehicle batteries perform in a crash
The future of crash testing
at style-led Jaguar Land Rover
The latest crash test technology
awaiting visitors to Automotive
Testing Expo North America
Chryslers senior manager for
vehicle safety engineering on
the transatlantic cooperation
with Fiat and the emphasis on
virtual technologies
CRASH TEST ZONE
UNIVERSITY FOCUS
How data acquisition systems are
stressed to remarkable levels to
develop crash barriers at Penn State
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
fo
r life
Andrew Regan
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Reliable AEB testing
OXFORD TECHNICAL
SOLUTIONS (OxTS),
located in booth 7016,
understands that
autonomous emergency
braking (AEB) is an
increasingly important
feature for modern
vehicles. AEB systems
identify a stationary or
slowing vehicle ahead, and
in some cases pedestrians,
and apply the brakes if
the driver fails to do so, in
order to avoid or mitigate
an accident. As such,
OxTS will be using
Automotive Testing
Expo North America to
showcase its RT-Range
system, which provides
all the necessary tools and
measurements required
to test and validate these
systems. These tests
become even more
important as from 2014 an
AEB system will be almost
essential in order to
achieve a top safety rating
from Euro NCAP.
Visitors to the stand will
see at rst hand how the
AEB test protocol requires
accurate measurements of
the test and target vehicle
speeds, lateral deviation
from a set path, and
relative distances.
The RT-Range used
in conjunction with an
OxTS RT inertial and GPS
measurement system
(e.g. the RT3003 or the
cost-effective RT2002)
easily satises these
specications. Not
only does the RT-Range
calculate all these
parameters and more,
but it is already used
by Euro NCAP members
Thatcham and ADACs test
and benchmark vehicles
with new AEB features.
The RT-Range is an
ideal ADAS test solution for
car manufacturers looking
to achieve a ve-star safety
rating for their vehicles in
the coming years.
VISIT BOOTH 7016
Forming part of the Crash
Test Zone is OLYMPUS,
which will be displaying
its i-SPEED series of
cameras. These latest
units build on Olympuss
reputation for image
quality, using years of
unparalleled experience
in digital image
processing.
Booth representatives
will explain how cameras
in the i-SPEED range
can be completely
operated by the unique
CDU, independent of
a PC, and are solidly
constructed from
aluminum housing
making them extremely
portable and ideal for a
wide range of industrial
applications.
The i-SPEEDs video
images are able to be
digitally captured onto
onboard memory, where
they can be written to
a compact ash card or
downloaded via Ethernet
connection to a PC.
Custom-designed
software provides the
operator with the ability
to analyze and enhance
images, automatically
tracking data points
to generate velocity,
acceleration and
distance measurements.
VISIT BOOTH C104
i-Speed Cameras
3
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 057
KEY SAFETY SYSTEMS
(KSS), a global supplier
of safety products, has
had a highly successful
year thus far, and 2013
has seen the Michigan-
based company
recognized by several
global OEMs for its
contribution toward
crash safety.
Earlier this year, KSS
picked up a certicate
of recognition in the
area of cost, from Toyota
Motor Europe, during
the 2013 Annual Business
Meeting.
In addition to this,
KSS and its joint-venture
partner, Yangfeng Key
Safety Systems (YFKSS),
have been equally
successful in China.
The Annual Supplier
Conference held in Hefei,
China, saw the joint
venture receive the
Shanghai Volkswagen
Best Supplier Award, the
FAW Volkswagen Best
Technology Development
Award, as well as
the JAC Best Supplier
Award for the fourth
consecutive year.
We are honored to
have received such a
high distinction and
deeply appreciate the
opportunity to serve JAC
now and in the future,
says Richard Chen,
general manager of
YFKSS. Our continued
investment in our China
Technical Center and
our China manufacturing
operations provide
a foundation for both
customer satisfaction
and success.
VISIT BOOTH C139
Successful year for KSS
A leader in honeycomb
engineering and
manufacturing,
PLASCORE is a global
supplier of crash test
barriers and energy
absorbers. Staff will be
on hand in booth C112
to provide details on
the companys full range
of certied deformable
crash test barriers,
crushable core, as well
as custom honeycomb
congurations for the
crash test industry.
Plascore honeycomb
core, manufactured in
various materials, and
offered in different
congurations of cell
size, thicknesses and
densities, are also used
in a wide range of OEM
and R&D applications.
VISIT BOOTH C112
Barriers
REGISTER ONLINE NOW
FOR YOUR FREE PASS!
www.testing-expo.com/usa
Pennsylvania-based
HYGE is a manufacturer of
crash simulation systems.
Its systems are used in
developing equipment
used in the automotive,
aerospace, rail and military
industries.
Representatives from
HYGE will be in booth C116
to explain how its extensive
systems are used to
develop safety devices
such as seats, seatbelts,
child restraints and
airbags, as well as
components such as door
latches, windshield/motor/
fuel tank mounting and
wheelchair securing.
HYGEs tests are
performed by acceleration
versus deceleration
technology.
This enables better
control requirements
at the time of the event,
explains HYGEs Dean
Myers. This is as well as
increasing the chances
of success by better
maintaining the four
main factors: reliability,
repeatability, accuracy
and exibility.
VISIT BOOTH C116
Increased chance
of success
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Whole-vehicle
development
CONCEPT TECH will
be showcasing its latest
products in Novi this
year. With many years of
experience in every area of
vehicle safety development,
Concept Tech focuses
on the development of
vehicle interiors, pedestrian
protection, vehicle bodies,
engineering, crash tests and
test system development
under the brand of Microsys.
Other areas of expertise
include virtual product
development, something
Concept Tech sees as a key
development tool alongside
test investigations. As
an accredited test center,
Concept Tech is renowned
for its various test
procedures in Europe (e.g.
(EC) No.78/2009, ECE-R127,
GTR-9, ECE-R21). As a
development partner of
well-known automobile
manufacturers,
Concept is able to provide
comprehensive, fast and
efcient development
processes.
VISIT BOOTH C124
3
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 058
High-intensity lighting for
high-speed/slow-motion
image capture is what
LUMINYS specializes
in. Combining its
professional Academy
Award winning lighting
expertise with leading-
edge lighting technology
in the elds of LED and
plasma, Luminys is able
to provide the foundations
for the highest image
quality when crash
testing. Its icker-free
lights range in size from
miniature 600W LED HiG
on board, up to 150,000W
overhead plasma lamps.
Dont miss Luminyss new
HiG onboard LED sled
lighting system, with
wireless control.
VISIT BOOTH C108
Flicker-free lighting
High-speed imaging
NAC IMAGE
TECHNOLOGY is a
supplier of high-speed
camera systems to the
worlds largest automotive
manufacturers and Tier 1
automotive suppliers. Booth
representatives will be on
hand to explain how NAC
Image Technology has
installed and implemented
multi-camera systems
in some of the most
demanding locations
throughout North America,
Latin America, Europe
and Asia. NAC Image
Technology will also happily
discuss its high-speed
cameras, from singular
units through to complete,
integrated systems,
with a claimed best light
sensitivity, highest image
quality, smallest camera
heads, fastest download
times and the most inclusive
software packages in the
industry.
VISIT BOOTH C100
VISION RESEARCH
designs and manufactures
a broad line of digital
high-speed cameras for
use in a wide variety of
applications. The companys
products will be on show
in Booth C130, where
potential customers can
see how they are applicable
for applications as diverse
as defense, automotive,
sports broadcast, TV
production and digital
cinematography.
Representatives will be on
hand to demonstrate the
Phantom brand, and explain
how they are the ideal
cameras for both onboard
and offboard applications in
crash test scenarios, as well
as research applications.
VISIT BOOTH C130
Versatile
cameras
REGISTER ONLINE NOW FOR YOUR FREE PASS!
www.testing-expo.com/usa
Evaluating to FMVSS standards
Crash Zone exhibitor
CALSPAN has what it
describes as unparalleled
experience with standard
and specialist test
techniques for crash
testing vehicles and
roadside structures. Stop
by at booth C136 to nd
out more on how Calspans
expansive crash lab is
used to evaluate vehicle
conformance with Federal
Motor Vehicle Safety
Standards; determine
star safety ratings via the
National Highway Trafc
Safety Administrations
(NHTSA) New Car
Assessment Program
(NCAP); and rate the
effectiveness of retail,
perimeter and embassy
barriers.
Representatives will
be on hand to explain
how Calspan can also
accommodate custom test
requirements and how it
has built a reputation as
a respected, independent
leader in accident
reconstruction. For
example, for the past two
years, Calspan has been
performing advanced
research to develop
NHTSAs small overlap/
oblique test protocol
featuring THOR (test
device for human occupant
restraint) dummies.
VISIT BOOTH C136
To request a free subscription to Crash Test Technology International go online to:
www.automotivetestingtechnologyinternational.com
FREE ONLINE READER ENQUIRY SERVICE ALSO AVAILABLE
subscribe now
SEPTEMBER 2013
Imaging
Smaller, faster, higher de nition: crash test
cameras are more capable than ever
Battery safety
Research into how electric and hybrid
vehicle batteries perform in a crash
The future of crash testing
at style-led Jaguar Land Rover
The latest crash test technology
awaiting visitors to Automotive
Testing Expo North America
Chryslers senior manager for
vehicle safety engineering on
the transatlantic cooperation
with Fiat and the emphasis on
virtual technologies
CRASH TEST ZONE
UNIVERSITY FOCUS
How data acquisition systems are
stressed to remarkable levels to
develop crash barriers at Penn State
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
for life
Andrew Regan
D I G I T A L H I G H - S P E E D C A M E R A S
100 Dey Road, Wayne, NJ 07470, USA
P: 1.973.696.4500
TF: 1.866.450.PHANTOM
E: phantom@visionresearch.com
Vision Research provides
the broadest range of cameras for
automotive test applications ranging from
on-board crash test to off-board, airbag,
ABS, and combustion research.
Visit our web site today www.visionresearch.com
When its too fast to see,
and too important
not to.

Twitter: @phantomhispeed
FaceBook: VisionResearch
LinkedIn: vision-research
13608_VR_8.7_Auto Test Tech Int Ad_ 183mmX115mm.indd 1 8/7/13 3:21 PM
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The introduction of
LED (light-emitting
diode) technology
revolutionized the world of
conventional and industrial
lighting unlike anything that
came before it. For almost
one year now, the Munich-
based company Messring has
offered the worlds rst LED
oodlight that was specially
developed for crash test
facilities and other automotive
testing systems.
Light is one of a crash
tests key subsystems, since
the better illuminated the
crash situation is, the more
accurately the camera can
record even the tiniest of
details. The development of
lighting systems for crash tests
has progressed over the past
30 years from halogen to
HMI to LED, with todays
LED technology representing
a true quantum leap in the
eld of crash testing.
Advances in the
manufacture of LEDs has
proceeded at a rapid pace.
As such, thanks to a new
generation of LEDs, Messring
has succeeded in increasing
the light output of the
companys M=LIGHT LED
oodlight by 20%. With
this device, LEDs advantages
compared with HMI
technology (metal-halide
lamps) become clear.
The rst major benet
is the lack of warm-up
time. HMI oodlights always
require a certain period of
time to warm up before they
reach their full light output,
as well as a considerable
period of time to cool down
before they can be reused.
In addition, with HMI lamps,
maximum light output can
only be guaranteed for a short
time. When an LED oodlight
is turned on, its maximum
light output is available
immediately for unlimited
hours, and the color
temperature of approximately
6,500K is also reached
immediately after turning
on the lamp.
In addition, the maximum
output of the M=LIGHT LED
is constantly available, both
during continuous use as well
as in synchronous mode, with
the new LED technology really
demonstrating its added value
in synchronous operation.
When synchronized with the
camera, the M=LIGHT LED
oodlight can be congured
to only produce light when the
camera needs it. This means
the oodlight only ashes
when the cameras aperture
opens. Thanks to the short
ash time in synchronous
mode, the M=LIGHT LED can
produce twice the maximum
light output generated during
continuous operation. It
can immediately produce its
maximum output once again
because the oodlight boosts
itself up instantly during each
individual ash. Doing so,
it can increase the amount
of light produced per ash
by more than 100%.
In contrast to HMI
technology, the LED oodlight
can be operated in this mode
for as long as it is needed. The
LEDs used by Messring have
an operating lifetime of over
50,000 hours an extremely
high gure compared with
HMI or halogen lighting
The benets of
LED lighting
Messring argues that there are far-reaching benets from using
state-of-the-art LED lighting setups in automotive testing facilities
Messring GmbH
Tel: +49 89 89 8139 330
Web: www.messring.de
ABOVE: Lighting is one of the key
subsystems to any successful crash
test facility. The better the illumination,
the better the quality of recording
captured
OPPOSITE PAGE: The M=LIGHT
LED oodlight has seen its
performance boosted 20% thanks
to advances in LED technologies
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 060
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systems, which means
the lamp has extremely
low maintenance costs.
During crash tests,
high-speed cameras
usually need to take 1,000
photographs per second in
order to accurately record
the crash in its entirety.
When conducting crash tests
with airbags, which deploy
similarly to an explosion,
this gure can be even
higher, with up to 10,000
photographs per second.
With images taken at these
frequencies, rapid ash
speeds are extremely
important. Highly efcient
LED lighting systems can
fully meet these requirements.
As a result of constantly
increasing energy prices, HMI
and halogen oodlights can
quickly become serious power
hogs in crash test facilities.
In contrast, LED oodlights
consume a fraction of the
power. Due to the continuous
sequence of ashes and
pauses, the aforementioned
synchronous mode during
which the LEDs can ash at
up to 10,000 times per second
consumes signicantly less
power than continuous mode.
cooling unit. This is particularly
important when conducting
crash tests with dummies.
These tests must be conducted
within a narrow temperature
range with the temperature
neither exceeding nor falling
below this range.
Messring says that the
M=LIGHT LED oodlights
are very safe to handle and
are light, weighing only about
5.5kg each. A color-coded
status bar shows the devices
respective operational state.
Being easy-to-use is a
characteristic that all Messring
products share, and as such,
the M=LIGHT LEDs can be
operated quite easily using
either the integrated panel or
a (tablet) PC.
In order to offer customers
even better service, Messring
recently entered into a
partnership with the lighting
specialist Atlas/KHS. The
two manufacturers expect
synergistic effects in many
areas as a result of the
partnership and from
recommending each other to
customers. Messring supplies
its customers with state-of-
the-art LED technology,
and in this context, benets
from Atlas/KHSs many years
of project experience and
expertise in system solutions.
In turn, the LED technology
enables Atlas/KHS to
expand its classic range
of products to include an
important new solution.
The customer only needs
to provide the desired
illumination level to
determine the number of
M=LIGHT LED oodlights
that are required.
As for upgrading existing
lighting systems, in most
cases, HMI light xtures used
in crash test facilities are easy
to upgrade to state-of-the-art
LED systems. Usually, the
company does not even need
to change the existing frame
structure or cables, which
makes upgrading to LED
even more affordable.
Customers are increasingly
relying on groundbreaking
LED technology. The
accelerator sled system at
IAVs test center in Gifhorn,
Germany, is the rst crash test
facility completely equipped
with LED oodlights. For this
project, Messring provided
M=LIGHT LEDs. Additional
LED lighting systems from
Messring have already been
ordered by Daimler, Chrysler
and other OEMs.
The development of
LED technology is progressing
rapidly and offers really
signicant benets for
documenting crash tests,
says Dierk Arp, CEO of
Messring. We at Messring
are denitely in favor of this
development. In addition,
the positive feedback we have
received from customers and
the quantity of oodlights
we have already shipped
both support our decision to
rely on this technology. The
M=LIGHT LED series makes
test engineers work easier,
saves power, lasts much
longer, and is much more
effective than anything else
previously on the market.
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
In contrast,
HMI-oodlights
consume twice
as much power
because of the
warm-up time
they need to reach
full light output.
Messring states
that through the
combination of the
aforementioned
benets for
LED oodlights, they
become more affordable
then a HMI solution.
In addition, combining
individual LED oodlights
into a complete system is
relatively simple. Normally, a
certain number of oodlights
are mounted to a frame
structure and are controlled
by daisy-chain-operation. As
a result, up to 255 oodlights
can be connected with just
one cable each, and only one
cable leads to the crash test
facilitys main control PC. The
entire oodlight system can
then be controlled together
with the other components
(data acquisition system,
sleds, etc) using a PC at the
control station. The intensity
of the M=LIGHT LED
oodlights is continuously
adjustable and can be
managed from the control
station by the operator.
Another benet of LED
oodlights compared with
conventional lighting systems
such as HMI is that they
do not radiate any heat
onto the test object, since
the oodlights heat loss is
dissipated through an efcient
HMI light xtures used in crash test facilities are easy to upgrade
to state-of-the-art LED systems. Usually, the company does not
even need to change the existing frame structure or cables
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Crash test data
is a valuable asset.
And, just like with
any valuable asset, one needs
to take care of it. That not only
means efcient storage for
easy retrieval, but also getting
the most out of every crash.
MaDaM-C is a
measurement data
management system
(MDM) and the newest
entry in AMSs tool chain
for the crash engineer. It
was developed with the
aforementioned requirements
in mind, and supports the
whole analysis process up
to the full NCAP report.
The system was built on
three core concepts: import
data using specialized
importer components full
of business logic; search the
data with a powerful and
fast search engine; and lastly,
when the user has found the
crash test he was seeking,
create standardized analyses,
perform an interactive
analysis or compare it
with other crash tests.
One very important
aspect of a crash MDM
is data consistency. Only
consistent data can be reliably
searched and used. AMSs
specialized importers enforce
data consistency during the
import process. For example,
the Crash Composer import
client supports editing all the
crash metadata and validating
with the server. This way,
the users data stays consistent
and easily retrievable.
MaDaM-C is the only
completely web-based
measurement data
management system. A
modern, HTML5-based
web front-end provides the
test engineer with a simple,
easy way to search his data.
The web front-end not only
supports free text queries, but
also several types of ltering,
for example by category or
by test date. The system tries
to minimize the effort that
engineers have to spend on
the most basic tasks. And they
Crash data
management
MaDaM-C software offers powerful search technology
and an exceptional post-processing tool
AMS GmbH
Tel: +49 371 918668 0
Email: info@jbeam.com
Web: www.jbeam.com
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 062
ABOVE: Synchronized video
analysis with MaDaM-C
RIGHT: Overview of the system
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can do it from anywhere, too,
because HTML5 works on
every device with a modern
browser. This means the
customer can use MaDaM-C
from a desktop PC running
Windows or Mac OS.
Additionally, a smart device
(iPad, Android tablet, etc.)
can access the system from
anywhere, even on the go.
A measurement data
management system needs
to deal with large amounts of
data and very heterogeneous
metadata. Metadata is the data
that the user wants to search
for. According to ISO13499,
a crash test measurement le
knows not only the laboratory
and test engineer, but also has
descriptions for every single
photo and video le inside
the project. Not to mention
the implicit data, such
as statistical values of the
measured channels, which
have to be searchable, too.
Only in this way can a crash
test be efciently retrieved
from a database with
thousands of tests.
With MaDaM, AMS chose
to forego a relational database
in lieu of an index-based
solution. This means that
instead of a complicated
model into which to force
the data, MaDaM crawls the
test data and employs the
same form of technology that
Google uses to search the web.
During the import of the data,
all the interesting aspects
of the measurement le
are extracted and indexed.
Searching the index is a
matter of milliseconds. To
search all the measurements
where the maximum of the
lateral head acceleration
channel exceeded 600m/sec
takes around 10ms. And
that is while searching 1,000
measurements. This level of
performance is the reason for
using an index instead of a
database, especially for very
diverse test data.
But what do you do
when you have successfully
retrieved a measurement le
from the system? MaDaM-C
offers two ways to use the
data: creating standardized
reports and performing
interactive analyses. If
the test engineer wants an
overview of the data, he can
use customized templates to
generate PDF reports. The
complexity of those reports
can vary, from showing a
few graphs up to a complete
ve-star NCAP report.
MaDaM-C uses the jBEAM
web server as a calculation
and graphics engine, which
means that PDF creation is
done entirely on the server.
If a static report is not
enough, the engineer can
use the interactive approach.
Using Java WebStart
technology, AMSs agship
product jBEAM is started
on the client machine.
With jBEAM, a powerful
post-processing software,
the test engineer can
perform video analyses,
calculate crash metrics such
as HIC, and design report
templates that can be reused
again and again. The EnCom
protocol reduces the data
trafc necessary for these
analyses. Only the data
that is actually used by the
client is transferred, and
this includes video les
and photos.
Apropos videos: until
recently ISO13499 dened
Indeo as the codec of choice
for crash test video. This
codec has severe problems
with new machines, and has
now been replaced by H264.
AMSs MaDaM importers
automatically convert old
crash test projects into the
new format. That way the
customer can analyze older
crash tests even on newer
machines without the hassle
of getting codecs to work.
To summarize: AMS
believes its MaDaM-C
is a solution for efcient
crash data management and
analysis that has powerful
search technology and, in
jBEAM, an exceptional
post-processing tool.
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
AMS believes its MaDaM-C is a solution for efcient crash data
management and analysis that has powerful search technology
and, in jBEAM, an exceptional post-processing tool
TOP: Users can access the
system on an iPad in Safari
MIDDLE: The crash composer
ABOVE: The EnCom protocol
reduces the data trafc necessary
for video analysis
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The continuous
production growth
of the electric and
hybrid vehicle market requires
a deeper analysis of all safety
aspects related to the relatively
new components involved in
these technologies. One of the
most critical and discussed
components is high-voltage
batteries. A large amount of
energy is stored in these units,
with the potential risk of
injuries to the passengers
in the vehicle and others.
In the automotive testing
industry as both a supplier
and partner for the
development of innovative
testing equipment since 1986,
BIA is currently developing a
complete set of tools for
battery testing, both for
performance evaluation
and for safety assessment.
Performance evaluation
is run through charge and
discharge cycling within
controlled boundary
conditions: environment
simulation (climatic chamber);
vibrations (electrodynamic
shaker); and temperature
control (air/liquid cooling).
Safety assessment is
the result of a long process
that includes a variety
of so-called abuse tests:
mechanical abuse (such as
controlled crush penetration,
drop, immersion, rollover
simulation, mechanical
shock); thermal abuse
(thermal stability, simulated
fuel re, elevated temperature
storage, rapid charge/
discharge, thermal shock
cycling); and electric abuse
(overcharge/overvoltage, short
circuit, over-discharge/voltage
reversal, partial short circuit).
The mechanical crush
and shock unit described
here is one piece of equipment
necessary in this process.
The test bench can
carry out tests on cells and
modules, as well as high-
voltage battery packs, with
a focus on Li-ion technology,
but is also available for testing
on any type of batteries.
The test rig is composed
of a hydraulic unit with
an actuator performing
a maximum force of 500kN
and maximum speed of
22m/sec; an impactor,
installed on the actuator or on
a trolley (up to 500kg mass)
for guided ight impact; a
liftable climatic enclosure with
temperature controlled in the
range -20C to +60C; a
pushing unit to move the
battery to the pool; and a
salted water pool for quick
battery discharge.
This test may be carried
out in a quasi-static or
dynamic run on both
charged and uncharged
battery. The dynamic tests
may be performed directly
Battery
abuse tests
BIA is developing a toolset for testers to carry out effective
performance evaluation and safety assessments on batteries
BIA
Tel: +33 1 34 90 22 22
Email: contact@bia.fr
Web: www.bia.fr
ABOVE: Compact BMC800 Universal
Test Application Controller
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 064
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with the actuator or with a
mass over a guided trolley
accelerated at the required
impact speed (or better
energy) by the hydraulic
piston. The quasi-static test
is performed directly by the
actuator pushing the impactor
on the specimen side.
A typical test cycle begins
with the test setup where the
climatic enclosure is lifted and
the battery placed in position.
The test cycle continues with
the battery conditioning at
controlled temperature inside
the climatic enclosure. A set
of temperature transducers
monitors the temperature
of battery elements and cells.
Crush or crash tests may be
run. A porthole is opened on
the enclosure side, allowing
impactor travel to as far as the
battery sidewall. Battery status
is monitored and managed
with high-speed cameras,
which can record the whole
phenomena, from the
mechanical input to all side
effects cracks, leaks, re,
explosion etc. The enclosure
is equipped with re detection
and extinguishing provision,
as well as an explosion
overpressure relief valve.
At the end of the test, the
enclosure is lifted and the
battery is either manually
removed or automatically
shifted to the salt-water pool
for quick and complete
discharge.
The whole test run is
managed by BIAs BMC800
control unit. BMC800 is
a multi-application controller
used to easily drive in
closed-loop independent
servo-actuators or complete
test systems. It is designed
for a wide range of durability
and performance testing
equipment, from the simplest
to the most complex
application. Based on more
than 20 years of experience,
it is a eld-proven solution
integrating advanced digital
technology used to control
all BIA test systems.
All the units installed
in the test rig are controlled
by the BMC, giving the
possibility to run really
complex and fully
synchronized simulation
cycles involving the control
of all available physical
parameters temperature,
force, speed, energy, time etc.
A drag-and-drop cycle editor,
based on a comprehensive
library of functions, supports
the creation of custom tests,
while a built-in oscilloscope
is useful for data display and
analysis.
A user-friendly interface
enables testers to play
with the whole test rig as an
instrument. The application
is completely open, so further
custom development can
easily be carried out.
Drag-and-drop cycle
editing, high-speed (10kHz)
PID controller and data
acquisition, specimen data
base, as well as test report,
complete the state-of-the-art
performance.
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
The test bench can carry out tests on cells and modules, as well
as high-voltage battery packs, with a focus on Li-ion technology,
but is also available for testing on any type of batteries
ABOVE: Test bench
in position for dynamic tests
LEFT: Test bench in position
for static tests
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As vehicle
development
inevitably advances,
so do demands on passive
safety, and in turn the ability
to simulate crash dynamics
with greater accuracy.
Lightweight materials and
small car platforms can further
increase the burden on passive
safety systems. This places
additional demands on
component and system
optimization and, as part of
that, laboratory-based crash
sled testing. The mission of
Instron Structural Testing
Systems GmbH (IST) is to
add value to the development
process by producing
world-class crash sled systems.
As evidence of this, IST has
introduced an innovative
solution to enable its customers
to meet new demands. Called a
two-piece sled, this new design
offers increased performance
and usability.
Traditionally the sled, or
carriage, was constructed as a
rigid, monolithic structure
upon which the user xed the
test article, usually in the form
of a reinforced car body,
component or other xture.
Its job was to provide a stable
platform on which to conduct
the test, including the transfer
of accelerative force to the
specimen, post-test braking,
and support for peripheral
devices including cameras
and lighting.
As demands on
productivity increased,
various designs were adapted
to allow different test
congurations to be brought
to the simulator (and
removed) as quickly as
possible. These included the
ability to make use of multiple
sleds with quick exchange,
and also the option for fast
exchange of test specimens
either directly or via a
xturing pallet. These systems
continue to be the standard in
terms of efcient laboratory
management. However each
has its drawbacks: managing
multiple sleds can be
expensive in equipment, and
redundant xtures adds
weight and decreases
performance.
The new two-piece
design provides a dramatic
improvement by separating
the traditional sled carriage
into two parts: a pusher and a
pallet. The 1.5m long pusher
has all the same functions as a
normal sled, but no room for
customer xturing. Included
added mass. An innite
number of designs for the
pallet are possible, from
simple to more universal.
Pallet designs can
be customized to meet
specic user needs, and unlike
complete sleds they can be
stocked in numbers with
relatively modest investment.
The pusher and pallet
can be rigidly coupled
and released within minutes.
While the pusher remains
on the rails at all times, the
pallet may be decoupled and
easily exchanged. There are
several key benets to this
new design.
Efciency: Because pallets
do not carry any electrical,
hydraulic or other services,
once decoupled they can be
easily removed from the rails
and exchanged. Facilities can
be optimized for workow
around the pallets, thereby
Advanced sled
capabilities
Instron says that its new two-piece sled design provides higher
performance and increased exibility for testers
Instron
Tel: +49 6151 3917 0
Web: www.ist-testing-systems.com
ABOVE: Traditional pallet system in
use. Pallets are exchanged on top
of a rigid one-piece sled carriage,
which remains on the rails at all times
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 066
in the construction of the
pusher are the brakes to
slow the assembly after the
test, transport pin for sled
movement, acceleration
feedback sensor, and various
safety and process sensors. A
mechanical coupling system
that can be easily actuated
ensures that the pusher and
pallet are rigidly connected
before the test.
The pallet, on the other
hand, is a relatively simple
platform that has only
a rigid structure and the
normal rail guides. It
provides end users with a
wide range of possibilities for
test congurations without
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be dedicated to a specic
test. This can eliminate
the redundant layers of
reinforcement and structure
often seen on sled carriages,
therefore reducing moving
mass and increasing
performance. The ability
to integrate the sled and
specimen structure to a
dedicated test skid can reduce
moving mass by as much
as 500kg. New, lightweight
camera supports are also
designed for direct attachment
to the pallet, therefore further
reducing moving mass.
Performance, efciency
and exibility are all delivered
as part of ISTs innovative
approach to what had been an
overlooked aspect of modern
crash sled systems. The ability
of this system to increase
efciency for laboratory
throughput and performance
for simulation accuracy
represents considerable
value for end users.
In addition to the two-piece
sled, IST is actively updating
performance for its benchmark
pitching simulation capability.
Improvements include
enhanced performance
potential and the ability to
make better simulations of
small-car crash dynamics. The
basic system is also receiving
attention, with improved
system control and modeling
to greatly reduce the number
of preparatory tests and
further increase lab efciency.
As demands for sled
performance increase, IST
will continue to offer new
and valuable solutions.
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
The new two-piece design provides a dramatic improvement
by separating the traditional sled carriage into two parts:
a pusher and a pallet
increasing the productivity
of the sled system.
Flexibility: Pallets can be
designed for general-purpose
use but also for specic needs.
The general structure can
be relatively easily adapted
for larger or smaller test
specimens, and general
purpose or specic needs.
As a working concept, this
provides the ability to scale
the productivity of the lab to
meet future demand on an
as-needed basis, and without
major up-front costs.
Performance: Perhaps
the most important advantage
is performance. The pallet
provides a platform that can
ABOVE: Assembled two-piece sled
showing pusher element connected to
xturing pallet with camera outriggers
BELOW LEFT: Typical universal pallet
congured for a range of tests. Custom
dedicated designs are possible
BOTTOM LEFT: Compact pusher sled
with service brakes, coupling system,
sled transport and all sensors
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High-speed videos
are increasingly
being used in crash
testing in order to make
more accurate measurements,
which will lead to a better
understanding of the physical
phenomena involved in a
crash, and also to ensure
compliance with an
increasing amount of
tougher certication rules.
The analysis of these videos
thus becomes more and more
complex and time consuming,
with more points to track.
For example, precisely
measuring the complete
deformation of the edge of
an object during the crash
would mean tracking many
markers, and analyzing
them repeatedly. Also,
these markers would need
to be stuck on the object to
materialize the shape to track,
which is not easy when they
are located on an edge. In
addition, when one wishes
to analyze the point where the
deformation of a contour will
be at its maximum, one can
never be sure that the marker
was stuck precisely in the
right place.
One way to measure
the deformation at the point
where its needed, is to track
the whole deformation of
the object instead of only
tracking some points where
the markers have been stuck.
A specic analysis method
enables testers to do this: it
is based upon an advanced
image processing algorithm
called active curves, which
makes use of dynamic
Contour tracking
algorithm
Ormes TrackImage software uses an active curves algorithm to help
testers analyze high-speed video to a high level of accuracy
ORME
Tel: +33 5 61 00 25 70
Email: info@orme-toulouse.com
Web: www.orme-toulouse.com
ABOVE: 2D view of an impact test enables test engineers to analyze physical deformation of a seatback during impact
ABOVE: The TrackImage software also allows the virtual limit of any deformation to be laid over video footage
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 068
programming to achieve a
high time performance.
How does it work? From
the users point of view, the
contour of the object is rst
enhanced using a classical
pre-processing method,
for instance image spatial
gradient. Then the contour is
roughly initialized by clicking
on the contour with the
mouse. The detection can then
be run automatically and the
user interface shows the active
curve tracking the contour
through the sequence, gently
getting nearer and sticking
to it on each image. The
detection phase is very fast,
and the positions of all the
points of the contour versus
time are then available at once.
Each point of the contour can
then be extracted to obtain its
own trajectory, using a spatial
resampling of the whole curve.
The active curve algorithm
uses the contrast of the image
to t to the contour of interest.
This contrast may be natural
or it can also be created by
painting a line on the contour.
LEFT: Analysis of the
pedestrian leg deformation
during an impact test
BELOW: Automatic
detection of the
deformation in
TrackImage
In Ormes TrackImage
software, the detection is
straightforward. The number
of points in the contour may
be chosen at any time, before
or after the detection phase.
At the end of the detection
phase, the deformation of the
contour in all the images of
the sequence can be saved,
and the user can then choose
either to analyze the whole
deformation versus time, or
to select one or several points
in the contour to measure
their trajectories, velocities,
accelerations and angles in the
appropriate spatial reference.
Orme believes that crash
test analysis engineers will be
surprised at the time they can
save using this method.
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PICK UP YOUR
FREE COPY
AT AUTOMOTIVE
TESTING EXPO 2013
SEPTEMBER 2013
Imaging
Smaller, faster, higher de nition: crash test
cameras are more capable than ever
Battery safety
Research into how electric and hybrid
vehicle batteries perform in a crash
The future of crash testing
at style-led Jaguar Land Rover
The latest crash test technology
awaiting visitors to Automotive
Testing Expo North America
Chryslers senior manager for
vehicle safety engineering on
the transatlantic cooperation
with Fiat and the emphasis on
virtual technologies
CRASH TEST ZONE
UNIVERSITY FOCUS
How data acquisition systems are
stressed to remarkable levels to
develop crash barriers at Penn State
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
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The full development story
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VHL 05
A roundup of the latest
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Sensors
We investigate the test methods
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Extreme vehicles
New test tracks, new locations and new
targets: Jeep goes all-out to develop
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Michigan focus
Fords new robot driving system, a Q&A with
SVT, and a visit to Mercedes tech center
Chief marketability engineer,
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North America
Steve Monk
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Full details of two exciting new projects,
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MARCH 2013
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Aerodynamics Juke Nismo
Renaults new performance-car
partner is taking on third-party
test and development projects
Caterham Technology
A new UK powertrain test facility
spawns SAICs rst passenger
car diesel, for the MG6 sedan
SAIC goes diesel
Bentleys technical chief
on developing the British
marques rst SUV
Rolf Frech
Psychoacoustics
How the workings of the inner ear
are being modeled to help auto makers
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koda safety
The Czech OEMs top
safety engineer gives the
lowdown on crash testing,
Mlad Boleslav-style
Reducing mass without compromising
durability: the conict at the core of the
C7 Corvette development program
Stingray
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Audis quest for the
tightest, most consistent
panel gaps ever on its A3
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The latest technologies
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Sensors Quality
The need to balance simulation
with physical testing is more
important than ever
Transmissions
How the USA and Europe
went separate ways in
developing the high-selling SUV
Honda CR-V
OPCs engineering
manager on developing
GMs pocket rockets
How OEM and supplier test programs are responding
to the rapid changes in infotainment technology
Linked in
Wilfried Diehl
SHOWISSUE
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Simulators
Developing a multipoint fuel injection system
that NASCAR could embrace
The future of driver-in-the-loop
simulators, including Europes
newest for-hire facility
SEPTEMBER 2012
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Carbon ber
The long road to predicting the crash
behavior of composite materials
Rollover innovation
The National Crash Analysis Centers new
proposal for repeatable rollover testing
impact impact
Pedestrian
How Euro NCAPs
tougher scoring system
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A look ahead to the innovative
crash test technology at Automotive
Testing Expo North America
Fords safety experts talk
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Steven Keller and Wayne Bahr
CRASH TEST ZONE CASE STUDIES
The safety development
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JUNE 2013
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Moves are afoot to make battery
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China Durability
We visit Goodyears Mireval
proving ground and round up
the latest testing equipment
Tire development
Thatcham has invested in new
equipment to become a fully
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Crash-test lab
Driver assistance
How test methods and technologies are
evolving in one of the fastest growing elds
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Stuttgart focus
Inside the Automotive Simulation Center and
an insight into the regions automotive future
McLaren
Renaults entry-program
vice president on the secret
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Arnaud Deboeuf
Active aerodynamics and
900 horsepower: how to test
a 21st century hypercar
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Falken Motorsports
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latest Grand-Am racer
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The latest test track news from
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and Guangde, China
Proving grounds
With a ban on prototype tooling,
Mazdas engineers had to get
their latest project right rst time
Mazda6
Auriss chief engineer
on how Toyota plans to
compete with Europes
best hatchbacks
Electronics development special:
Clemsons Professor Todd Hubing on
EMC testings future, plus automotive
Ethernet, and meeting ISO 26262
Hiroya Fujita
Winners 2012
Ford in focus
This years best facilities and
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Aachens research directors discuss
future testing challenges, including
car-to-car communication
Cable guys Cable guys Cable guys
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For more than
40 years and across
thousands of
successful installations,
Meggitt Sensing Systems
Endevco piezoresistive
accelerometers have been
regarded as the industry
standard for a wide range
of crash test requirements,
ranging from rollover
detection; to vehicle front, side
and rear impact; to crush zone
testing; and passenger safety
testing applications. These
sensors are valued for their
compact size; high output;
low mass; and high-reliability
measurement of shock,
vibration and rotational
acceleration/deceleration.
Now, they offer seamless
compatibility to the
WorldSID 50
th
percentile
crash test dummy (ATD)
instrumentation, which is
currently being adopted by
the worlds largest automotive
OEMs and their associated
crash test laboratories.
Rotational acceleration
measurements typically
encountered in ATD
applications to measure
body acceleration experienced
during crash testing and
vehicle rollover detection
applications call for the
Endevco model 7302BM4
accelerometer. This
temperature-compensated
rotational accelerometer
is uniquely designed to
reject cross-axis angular and
linear accelerations within
automotive safety testing
applications. The sensor is
lightly damped to optimize
frequency and phase response
throughout its operating
temperature range of -18C
to +121C (0F to +250F),
with a stable frequency
response between 0-1,600Hz.
Model 7302BM4 is offered
with a nominal sensitivity
of 5.0 mV per krad/sec
2
at
10 Vdc excitation with
a nominal 250 mV full-scale
output. For 5V excitation,
specify model 7302BM5.
For the WorldSID ATD
and other crash testing
applications in which the
direction or source of vehicle
impact may be unclear,
the highly rugged Endevco
model 7268C, an undamped,
high output miniature
piezoresistive triaxial
accelerometer, is specied.
Offered in full-scale ranges
of either 500g, rugged to
5,000g shock, or 2,000g,
rugged to 10,000g shock,
this accelerometer offers
simultaneous shock
measurement on three
orthogonal axes within
a compact package for
minimal mass loading and
a broad frequency response.
The sensors feature integral
mechanical stops for added
durability, with two xed
resistors to enable shunt
calibration on each axis.
Units are supplied with
a 10m integral cable, and
10V or 5V excitation voltage.
The Endevco 7264C
series is also recommended
for vehicle side, rear and
frontal crash testing. Offered
in weights as low as 1g, these
piezoresistive sensors use an
advanced MEMS sensor
with integral mechanical
stops in a monolithic design,
for ruggedness, stability
and reliability. With
a frequency response
extending down to DC or
steady-state acceleration, they
are ideal for measuring both
short and long-duration
transient shocks.
In addition to high-
reliability sensors and
instrumentation for crash test,
Meggitt Sensing Systems offers
a full range of sensors, signal
conditioning and accessories
for other areas of automotive
testing. These range from
piezoelectric sensors for
automotive modal analysis,
body-in-white testing,
and automotive component
durability testing; to acoustic
sensors for NVH; to high-
temperature charge mode
sensors for engine monitoring
applications; and servo
accelerometers for vehicle
dynamics and ride-and-
handling applications.
Extra versatility
for accelerometers
Meggitts Endevco sensors now support WorldSID
50
th
percentile dummies for greater exibility
Meggitt Sensing Systems
Tel: +1 949 493 8181
Email: jennifer.macdonell@meggitt.com
Web: www.meggittsensingsystems.com
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 070
TOP: Meggitts Endevco model
7302BM4 accelerometer
ABOVE: The highly rugged Endevco
model 7268C miniature piezoresistive
triaxial accelerometer
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Pulse simulation
development is a
complex and often
misunderstood process. But
Hyges metering pin design
software can make the most
demanding pulse simulation
development faster, easier,
and more precise.
The potential effect that
many parameters can have
on the pulse is frequently
oversimplied or overlooked.
In the past, this wasnt a
major problem because the
pulses required by the test
parameters of the time could
still be produced despite
oversimplication. But as
pulses have become more
complex, and test parameters
and specications have
become more demanding, it
has become crucial to factor in
the effect of every parameter
in pulse development.
Hyge says its metering pin
development software is the
solution. Designed for use
with the 6in, 9in, 12in and
24in Hyge models, it runs
on Windows and requires
no special operating
environment. The program
enables the engineer to
quickly, efciently and
accurately design a metering
pin to produce a desired pulse,
or modify an existing pin to
produce a new pulse.
The pulse is entered into
the program, along with
desired test parameters
(such as payload, weight,
set volume, load volume
and pressures). The software
enables the operator to enter
simple or complex pulses, and
provides templates that can be
used for basic pulses such as
half-sine, sawtooth, square,
and sine square, as well
as other combinations or
a point-by-point plot. The
program then designs a
metering pin prole and
operating parameters. This
prole may be easily modied
by changing pressure or length
parameters to achieve the
desired effect on pin shape.
The software produces
export les in text format,
which can be opened with any
text editor. A second output is
available in comma-separated
value (CSV) format for easy
transfer to programs for
plotting or CNC manufacture.
Both export les are simple
and easy to follow. The pin
design can be calculated for
machining a solid pin or table
for assembly of a functioning
pin from the modular pin
available through Hyge.
There are an innite
number of combinations that
can achieve the desired effect,
enabling the engineer to
modify operating parameters
and/or pulse. Each time
a parameter is changed,
the program automatically
recalculates and displays the
new results. If the entered
design is not achievable within
system limits, the engineer
can override system limits
to get a result, then see what
options he can change to get
within operating parameters.
This allows the engineer to
design to the full capabilities
of the systems operation.
Efciency and simplicity
are only part of the many
advantages Hyges metering
pin development software
offers. The program also
assures that system operating
parameters are not exceeded
and makes suggestions to
assist with development.
It provides a preview of the
pin shape, along with a table
illustrating plotted points and
dimensions for machining
xed pin or modular
pin design and showing
acceleration and velocity
at each point.
Metering pin
design tool
Hyges latest metering pin software can be used to speed
up the development of demanding pulse simulations
Hyge Inc
Tel: +1 724 545 8331
Email: hyge@hyge.com
Web: www.hyge.com
TOP: The Metering Pin software can
be used with the Modular Metering
Pin kit to ne-tune the nal design
ABOVE: Four different pin shapes.
Each can produce can produce the
same pulse with proper adjustment
of other Hyge operating parameters
BELOW: Screenshot of Hyges
metering pin design software
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Good photographic
images, whether
shot for the pages
of a high-fashion magazine
or for high-speed image
capture evaluation of stress on
metal parts, are achieved by
respecting basic photographic
principles. In simple terms
this means having the right
amount of light in the right
place. Determining the answer
to what is the right amount
of light and where it should
be is not always as simple as it
might at rst appear. Getting a
good image is not just a matter
of luck, although it may seem
that all one needs to do is
trip the camera shutter at
just the right moment and
voil! a beautiful, exciting
image will appear.
A good image must have
some important elements
such as shape, dimension
and volume, or, getting more
into the aesthetic, we may
also consider texture, contrast
and tonality. Not all of these
elements are necessary or
meaningful when it comes
to industrial photography.
However the rst three do
certainly play an important
role in providing a realistic
understanding of what is
taking place in the violent
few fractions of a second
of a catastrophic crash event.
The shape of an object must
be clear and precise, so that it
can be accurately identied for
what it is supposed to be, and
so that, if and when it distorts
or breaks down, the details
of the deformation can be
accurately assessed and
realistically understood.
The dimensions of an object
may seem obvious at rst
glance, but the nature and
details of stress and distortion
are not always easy to discern.
Volume is even less apparent
to the casual observer, but it
can be discerned with careful
attention to detail. Other
more subtle elements also play
a role, but become increasingly
difcult to dene and detail.
How to achieve these
elements is the burning
question for any photographer.
You are not trying to create a
mood or reaction; you merely
want to enable accurate
images for analysis. This
shouldnt be too difcult but
of course there are many other
elements in play in an actual
crash situation. Camera
positions are mostly
predetermined by industry
requirements, with little room
for variance. Much of the
lighting is already xed
due to facility planning for
predetermined installations.
Still, a careful look and
a mindset for obtaining the
best-possible photographic
result will always enable a
better outcome. Begin by
thinking in the photographic
grammar of three-point
lighting key light, ll
light and back light. Every
crash-testing event setup
should have these elements in
some fashion or another. The
trick is to work with them
to your best advantage.
The opposite of good three-
point lighting is single-point
lighting positioned so close to
the camera that it produces a
at light. This is what often
comes from the built-in ash
on a compact camera. You
get an image, but the at light
renders it one dimensional
and often misleading. So what
is the solution?
Start by moving your
strongest light, or key light,
off to one side. You might
think this will introduce an
unwanted shadow. Well it
might, unless you soften that
shadow with a ll light, and
then give it more shape and
volume by separating it from
the background with a back
light. Agreed, this is not a
photographic portrait studio
but an automotive crash test
setup. Yet knowledge of what
makes a good image is where
you need to start. You may
not be able to bring all these
elements into every situation,
but if you begin to have an
understanding of what these
lighting principles will do for
an image, you will begin to
nd ways to improve your
images so that better and more
complete analysis will emerge,
as the three-point lighting
techniques are explored.
Classic three-point
lighting
Luminys explains why every crash test setup should incorporate the
basic photographic elements of key light, ll light and back light
Luminys
Email: dpringle@luminyscorp.com
Tel: +1 323 461 6361 x127
Web: www.luminyscorp.com
ABOVE: Three-point lighting
techniques can be used to improve
images for a more thorough analysis
in crash testing
Crash Test Technology International
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Larsen & Toubro Limited
Email: infodesk@larsentoubro.com
Web: www.lnttechserv.com
Automotive safety has never been more important. L&T believes that
within a decade, crash avoidance technology will be the priority
The companys engineers
analyze customer requirements
and execute projects to meet
global safety standards using
commercially available safety
simulation tools such as Visual
Crash PAM, LS-DYNA and
Mathematical Dynamic Model
Solvers. The aim is to develop
digital simulation methods
and solutions for occupant,
driver and pedestrian safety.
Customized occupant
safety features are supported
for OEMs across the globe.
L&T successfully executes
simulations of occupant head
impact on IP in passenger
cars and commercial vehicles.
This helps detect sharp edges
and corners in a 3D model,
while complying with the
statutory requirements of
different geographies, such as
the FMVSS 201 and ECE R-21
and EEC 74/60 regulations.
Virtual simulation tools
are used to target the
maximum reduction in
time-to-market. Additionally,
Collaborating with
various automotive
companies, OEMs,
and Tier 1 suppliers, L&T
Technology Services strives to
create products and systems
that make vehicles safer. In
addition to this, it underpins
its clients commitment to
build high-tech solutions that
protect human life and reduce
fatalities from trafc accidents.
The company engineers
solutions in crash test
simulations for full vehicle
crash, occupant safety and
pedestrian safety through the
system- and component-level
simulation of body-in-white
(BIW) structures, seatbelts,
airbags, instrument panels
(IP), etc. In parallel, its
electronics team supports
the development of safety
products such as antilock
braking systems (ABS), lane
departure warning systems
and crash avoidance systems,
with the use of model-in-the-
loop (MIL) to real-time tests
with software-in-the-loop
(SIL) in a simulated
environment.
As an engineering partner,
L&T offers expertise in
computer-aided engineering
(CAE), multibody dynamics,
structural simulations and
embedded electronics. While
CAE tools help improve
process efciencies for OEMs
and suppliers with faster-to-
market products within
budget and to the required
quality, the automated
simulation techniques help to
increase the productivity of
virtual simulations.
the company provides
complete predictive
simulations that are important
for enhancing material
models, material failure
predictions, and correlations
related to crash tests. Various
other crash analyses carried
out by L&T concentrate on
BIW, roof crush analysis,
and rollover protective
structure analysis to
specic requirements.
The company has
completed projects in
complex airbag folding and
static deployment analysis,
integrating the full vehicle
systems before the crash
test simulation. Engineers
use software tools to simulate
the effective deployment
of airbags and any failure
instances. As well as airbag
folding and deployment, static
and dynamic loading analysis
for the seatbelt retractors and
pretensions is also carried out
through enhanced crash test
simulation, thereby shortening
the product development cycle
and making designs safer.
The L&T Image Processing
Centre of Excellence provides
optimized algorithms for
pedestrian safety through its
image processing capabilities
and vision-based advanced
driver-assistance systems
(ADAS). The active safety
expertise includes image
restoration and enhancement,
feature extraction, and 3D
structure from motion (SFM).
The vision-based ADAS
includes support for smart
beam control and forward
collision warning.
Crash safety
simulation partner
ABOVE: L&T has undertaken projects
in complex airbag folding and static
deployment analysis
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Lemo is an
acknowledged leader
in the design and
manufacture of precision
custom connection solutions.
The companys precision
Push-Pull connectors, which
it has been manufacturing
for six decades, are found
in a variety of challenging
application environments
including medical,
industrial control,
test and measurement,
audio-video and
telecommunications.
Lemo offers a range
of rugged connectors
that are used in crash test
dummies, transducers
and data acquisition units.
The connectors can also be
found in airbag deployment
systems, small accelerometers,
lighting systems and high-
speed cameras, and are ideal
for use in vehicle electronic
development, crash test
setups, gasoline level sensors,
ECU calibration and test,
and battery status diagnosis.
Among the standard
product range (B and K series)
are push-pull connectors that
are available in two-way to
64-way congurations. In
addition, the M-Series is
a screw-coupling connector
made of high-strength
aluminum. It is one of
the lightest, most compact
connectors of the Lemo
range and offers high contact
density with up to 114-way
congurations.
The connector is available
in two outer shell designs:
arctic grip or knurled outer
shell. The arctic grip makes
it easy to manipulate while
wearing gloves or when the
connector is in a difcult-to-
access area. The key feature
of this connector is its high
density it offers a very
large number of contacts
in a small outer shell.
The connectors have
passed the lightning test
(EIA-364-75). After applying
a 10,000A waveform, the
M-Series connectors
were intact
and showed
no signs of
damage.
Recent
additions include
a small power
connector with four 5A
continuously rated contacts
in a 17mm diameter shell,
and a new ber optic range
of connectors.
Lemo began manufacturing
electrical contacts in noble
metals in 1946, and electrical
connectors two years later.
From the beginning, Lemo has
been able to draw on the local
expertise and know-how of
well-trained operators from
the precision mechanical
sector who are procient
in working with the metal
lathe equipment used in the
watch-making industry. As
a highly vertically integrated
corporation, Lemo also
controls the vast majority
of its manufacturing process,
from procuring raw materials,
through tool making to
production, plating, nal
assembly and testing.
During these past few
years we have introduced
numerous new product
designs and have worked
on improving older designs.
Lemos specialty is to make
models and products available
for many years, so the
probability of a product you
Rugged
connectors
Lemos M-Series of connectors, designed and manufactured
in Switzerland, offers a solid foundation for crash test equipment
Tel: +41 21 695 16 00
Email: info@lemo.com
Web: www.lemo.com
ABOVE: Lemos M-Series
screw-coupling connector
comes in two outer shell designs
LEFT: Close-up of the connector
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013 074
selected
yesterday
being
unavailable
tomorrow is
very low, says
sales manager
Dario Maggini.
This enables customers
to ensure that spare
parts are readily available.
Lemos main sales
subsidiaries are equipped
for cable assembly with
the latest cable preparation,
termination and test
equipment, both manual
and automatic. Each year
the company receives over 70
specic customer development
requests. To complete the
development phase, Lemo
will supply detailed laboratory
test reports and connector
performance results.
Lemo Group is represented
by 18 sales subsidiaries in
the USA, Europe and Asia,
providing customers with
services such as technical
support and cable assembly.
Lemo SA
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ABOVE: Screenshot of the CCTS
small-scale crash facility in operation
The small-scale crash system for component testing,
developed by HuDe, is cost-efcient and reliable
The CCTS is completed
with several high-speed
cameras and powerful HMI
daylight illumination to
investigate the crash behavior
with high-speed video
recording. The CCTS
operation software
includes a special toolkit
for video analysis, to measure
deformation distances
and angles, velocity and
deceleration from the video.
Marker, edge and particle
tracking is applied to generate
data curves from a high-speed
video sequence. These
synthesized data curves are
stored in a common test data
set together with all sensor
data and drive parameters.
Finally, an evaluation of
mechanical data readout of the
video versus sensor data
acquired from real sensors is
easily possible. To complete
the evaluation functions, many
In the supply chain
of the automotive
industry, there is
a high demand for dynamic
test rigs to simulate crash
events. Full-scale crash
facilities are used to make
car-to-car and single-car crash
tests, for example to test
compliance of the various
x-NCAP regulations.
At the supplier sites of steel
and other metal components
for the car body, there is an
additional demand for crash
simulation without the full
body in white. Structure
parts are tested in their
vehicle environment situation
without using a car. Here
the new CCTS the HuDe
small-scale crash facility
for dynamic component
testing is needed.
On a space less than 30m
in length, crash simulation
with pillars, bumper zones,
crash tubes and metal sheet
samples can be performed
with an effective impact mass
between 250kg and 900kg.
The maximum impact speed
is more than 65km/h. Based
on the classic pulled-rope
crash drive principle, the
acceleration range for the
impactor trolley is 18m.
The xed rugged crash
wall is equipped with a T-slot
mounting base for devices
under test, and 3D load cells
are used to x the test samples
on the mounting base. On
the impactor side, additional
acceleration and deection
sensors are applied to detect
the deceleration and intrusion
into the device under test.
ltering and mathematical
functions are included in
the CCTS software.
Based on its experience
of many linear impact
test machines, HuDe has
designed the CCTS to close
the gap between laboratory
component testing and the
full-scale vehicle crash lab.
The advantages of the CCTS
are the very short setup time
and the wide variety of test
bodies. On the driving trolley,
different impact forms and
masses can be exchanged
very quickly. Typical
impactors are hemispheres,
plane plates and the pole
according to Euro and US
NCAP, FMVSS 201 and 214.
The HuDe CCTS generates
crash test results in a fast
and reliable manner. If a full-
scale crash lab is too big, and
the laboratory component test
rigs are not powerful enough,
then HuDe believes the CCTS
is the best alternative.
Tel: +49 24 31 96 80 0
Email: info@hude.com
Web: www.hude.com
HuDe
Component
crash-test system
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Because all Euro
NCAP laboratories
use the X-Crash
software package as the
standard analysis tool, it has
also become the rst choice
for automotive companies
and suppliers worldwide.
In vehicle safety, the
standardization of tests
and processes is an essential
prerequisite for worldwide
comparable results. The
intention is to have car
safety ratings independent
of test time and location.
The algorithms and rating
processes in different NCAP
regulations, such as those
for Europe, the USA, China
and Japan, are standardized.
All regulations include the
dened performance of tests
such as frontal impact, side
impact, roll over, pedestrian
safety and others.
The X-Crash application
is based on the National
Instruments DIAdem standard
software and the application
platform X-Frame developed
by measX. This combination
is well proven in widespread
applications in the automotive
industry, for crash analysis
and the evaluation of engine
test data. It represents a highly
cost-effective basis for all
kinds of test data evaluation
applications. The development
of X-Crash was strongly led
by the long-term experience
of measX engineers, as well
as the demands of, and the
experience with, customers.
X-Crash allows viewing,
error correction, analysis
and documentation of crash
test data, dummy calibration
and component test data.
Evaluation is according to
international norms and
regulations. The important
topic of comparative analysis
of several tests is core in
X-Crash. The integrated
data concept allows the
comparative evaluation
of series of tests either
automatically or manually.
For norm and regulation-
compliant analysis and report
purposes, a great variety
of algorithms is available.
Analysis macros carry out
all necessary calculations
automatically and present
the results in tables and
diagrams. The results
can be stored in different
formats and used to
generate complete reports.
The analysis part contains
the proved macros of the
Crash Base System. Using
the DIAdem programming
and VBS Libraries, the
functionality of X-Crash
can easily be extended.
QuickLook, QuickCalc
and QuickEdit contain
a variety of functions to
explore and preview data.
Testers can store and
manage test data either
in le-oriented systems or
databases, and also in an
ASAM conformal database.
Automatic analysis
procedures and reports are
available for the following
permit regulations: FMVSS
208 (USA), MVSS208
(Canada); Occupant Crash
Protection for Hybrid II
and Hybrid III; FMVSS 214
(USA), Side Impact Protection;
ECE R94 (Europe), Frontal
Collision Protection; ECE
R95 (Europe), Lateral
Collision Protection; ECE
R80 (Europe), Regulation
for Motor Vehicle Equipment
and Parts, Hybrid II.
Standardization in
crash analysis
The measX X-Crash software package is increasingly
being used by companies worldwide
measX
Tel: +49 2166 9520 0
Email: info@measx.com
Web: www.measx.com
ABOVE: measX believes its X-Crash
software package sets standards in
the crash testing eld
Crash Test Technology International
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ABOVE: The PPBB module was
designed following Encopims All
in one concept
ABOVE: Surface scan attachment is
just one of the many available modules
for Encopims UITS system
077
Encopim has combined occupant and pedestrian
protection into a universal impact test system
Pedestrian and
occupant safety
Tel: +34 93 594 23 47
Email: comercial@encopim.com
Web: www.encopim.com
Encopim SL
As a result of deep
specialization and
continued investment
in R&D for many years,
Encopim has designed,
developed and manufactured
a versatile test system, for
vehicle passive safety, that is
related to both occupant and
pedestrian protection. It is
called the Universal Impact
Test System (UITS).
The UITS is intended
for impact tests according
to regulations currently in
force in Europe, USA, China,
Japan and Australia, as well
as NCAP testing procedures.
For instance, Pedestrian
Protection EC631/2009
(lower leg form, upper leg
form, head form windscreen
tests etc.), R12 (body block
test and guided head form
test), JNCAP, knee impact,
FMH FMVSS 201U (free ight
head form inside vehicles),
FMVSS 226 (ejection
mitigation), and the pendulum
tests (R17, R25, R21 and R80).
The UITS is designed
in a exible way; modules
are interchangeable to
perform all tests in the
same machine structure.
The mechanical structure
has been optimized using
nite element methods and
tested in the eld to ensure
an outstanding stiffness and
strength. All linear movements
(x, y, z) are equipped with
caged linear motion guides
and pneumatic clamping
devices, featuring high rigidity
as well as very accurate
and smooth motion. Those
characteristics are also present
in the rotary movement
of the tower due to a high
performance rotary table
with bearings, ring gears
and worm gears. To adjust
all movements, a wireless
handheld remote control
that is also equipped with
a display showing the actual
linear positions and angles
is provided.
Encopims real-time,
closed-loop servocontroller,
together with its management
software (RTEST-UITS)
are specically designed to
obtain excellent accuracy
without trials.
Encopims control system
has distinct advantages.
For example, it enables the
transformation from the
machine coordinates system
(MCS) to the car coordinates
system (CCS), with the
result that the controller
can automatically perform
calculations and machine
movements in CCS and the
user can directly key in and
display target points from
CAD designs, etc.
Launching angles are also
corrected by scanning the
cars surface near the target
point and determining its
transverse and longitudinal
inclination angles.
Gravity compensation
and ballistic correction for the
lower leg form impactor are
also automatically carried out.
A lot of other equipment
can also be integrated in
the UITS system, including
videos, high-speed cameras
and lighting systems. It is also
possible to synchronize airbag
ignition to impact at the
desired point and moment.
During an impact test,
the results are logged and
recorded by the acquisition
system and displayed at
the software interface. This
enables data to be processed
and standard reports created,
as well as various adaptations
made, depending on the
customers requirements.
LEFT: The modular nature of UITS
allows for expansion and the ability
to cover future needs or legislation
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PCB Automotive
Sensors division is
introducing a new
series of DC MEMS shock
accelerometers for automotive
crash testing. Available in damped
and undamped versions, the PCB
Series 3641 and 3651 are designed
for applications that require
DC response for long duration
transients and low mass, such as
crash testing, drop testing and sled
testing. Both sensors offer a 2,000g
full-scale measurement range with
mechanical overload limit stops,
and a frequency range of 0 to
5,000Hz. In addition, these models
meet SAE J211 and SAE J2570
specications.
PCB Series 3641 and 3651
are effective drop-in replacements
for competitor models. They
are designed with standard
low transverse sensitivity and
standard low zero-g offset.
Reliable performance, combined
with PCBs excellent customer
service and support, make the
PCB Series 3641 and 3651 crash
accelerometers the right choice
for demanding applications
and environments.
Other product highlights
include low 1g mass, sensitivity
of 0.20mV/g, overload to 10,000g
without damage, 30ft (10m)
integrated cable (pigtail), and
a rugged aluminum housing.
PCB Piezotronics claims it
is one of the global leaders in
the design and manufacture of
microphones, vibration, force,
torque, load, strain, and pressure
sensors, as well as a pioneer
of ICP technology. PCBs Platinum
Products program ensures
fast delivery of over 10,000
sensors that are covered by
lifetime warranty.
Rugged crash accelerometers
PCB Piezotronics Inc
Email: rmydzian@pcb.com
Web: www.pcb.com
520
Advanced Car
Technology Systems
(ACTS) is one of
the leading companies in the
vehicle safety market in Europe.
In one of the worlds most
modern development and
test centers, ACTS develops,
simulates and tests components
and functional systems.
Over a period of more than
15 years, ACTS has earned an
excellent reputation as a
reliable and exible partner.
The companys test engineers
are the link between testing and
engineering departments in todays
challenging vehicle safety projects.
ACTS has chosen SpeedCam
VISART software from High Speed
Vision to operate its high-speed
cameras when carrying out tests.
Our time requirements have
been reduced from several hours
to about 30 minutes,
thanks to the installation
of VISART software and
the ability to congure
camera settings via tablet
PC through a second
wireless network,
explains Mario
Wohlfahrt, project
engineer at ACTS.
Straightforward, intuitive
operation makes it easy for
newcomers to quickly understand
what to do. Template automation,
hardware conguration and the
work with projects all mean that
most processes can be automated,
thereby reducing potential sources
of error to a minimum.
The status of each individual
high-speed camera can be seen
at a glance during each phase of
a test. An extremely important
aspect of crash tests, says
Wohlfahrt.
Impatient observers can be
shown the rst video just two
minutes following the crash test
a service many customers have
come to appreciate.
Of course, following completion
of the test, untreated raw data is
available for use. New algorithms
used by VISART for calculating the
images have led to an enormous
improvement in image quality.
The decision to use new
software for controlling our
high-speed cameras was not
easy to make, since it always calls
for an effort to change a running
system. But the advantages of
increased safety, as well as the
economies of time and cost, were
convincing arguments. Today, we
are extremely satised with our
decision to use VISART software,
Wohlfahrt concludes.
Camera software reduces lead times
High Speed Vision GmbH
Tel: +49 721 66324 22
Email: info@hsvision.de
Web: www.hsvision.de
AMS GMBH .......................................................................................25
AOS Technologies AG ........................................................................28
Automotive Testing Expo 2013 North America ............................. 4, 7, 8
Automotive Testing Expo 2014 India .................................................43
BIA .................................................................................................... 12
Crash Test Technology International Online Reader
Enquiry Service .......................................................................58, 80
DTS Corporate Headquarters ..................................... Inside Back Cover
ENCOPIM SL................................................................................39, 51
Engenuity Limited .............................................................................. 15
GMH Engineering ...............................................................................31
GNS ...................................................................................................51
High Speed Vision GmbH ...................................................................43
HuDe Datenmesstechnik GmbH .........................................................37
Humanetics .......................................................................................22
Hyge Inc ............................................................................................56
Instron Structural Testing Systems (IST) ...................Inside Front Cover
Larsen & Toubro Limited .....................................................................3
LEMO SA ...........................................................................................39
Luminys Systems Corp ......................................................................34
MeasX GmbH & Co KG .......................................................................34
Meggitt Sensing Systems ..................................................................35
Messring Systembau MSG GmbH ........................... Outside Back Cover
ORME ................................................................................................31
PCB Load & Torque Inc ......................................................................25
PCO AG .............................................................................................37
Seattle Safety ..............................................................................28, 59
Vision Research .................................................................................59
Vision Zero International ....................................................................79
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com .................56, 69
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS
Crash Test Technology International
SEPTEMBER 2013
3
EXHIBITOR
www.ukipme.com/vz
The worlds only
publication dedicated
to advanced automotive
safety technologies
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One for
the road?
How the auto sector is taking
matters into its own hands
with high-tech ways to rid
the world of a lethal cocktail
Gerhard Steiger
Boschs Chassis Systems Control
chief assesses when not if
driverless cars will hit our highways
Festival of light
Pioneers in illumination celebrate
the safety advances appearing
on the automotive horizon
THE WORLDS ONLY PUBLICATION DEDICATED TO ADVANCED AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY TECHNOLOGIES
Are we getting there?
The World Health Organizations
Dr Margie Peden reveals whether the
UNs Decade of Action is on track
JUNE 2013 A TRAFFI C TECHNOLOGY I NTERNATI ONAL PUBLI CATI ON
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Viewing platform
Is augmented reality a saviour
for safety or a distraction
waiting to happen?
JANUARY 2013
Network premiere
The innovators hoping to drive
wide-scale adoption of Ethernet-
based automotive connectivity
THE WORLDS ONLY PUBLICATION DEDICATED TO ADVANCED AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY TECHNOLOGIES
Smooth talkers
MITs latest Agelab research reveals
humanist dashboard typefaces
could be used to enhance safety
A TRAFFI C TECHNOLOGY I NTERNATI ONAL PUBLI CATI ON
Medical miracles
Why OEMs want next-gen
cars to monitor your vital signs
Passive attack
Is there a future for airbags
in a crash-proof era?
Driving
forces
Meet the safety experts determined
to realise accident-free driving
JANUARY 2013
Symposium edition
Karlsruhe, Germany,
3-5 December 2012
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Natural
defence
From bees to bats, how safety experts
are looking to the animal kingdom
for collision avoidance inspiration
Dr Pim van der Jagt
The leader of Fords Aachen
Research Centre on the promise
of V2X technologies
JUNE 2012
Traction men
Could the tyre industrys pursuit
of efficiency and market share
take safety to a whole new level?
THE WORLDS ONLY PUBLICATION DEDICATED TO ADVANCED AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY TECHNOLOGIES
Behind the lens
Looking at ways in which
vision-based data acquisition and
processing is revolutionising ADAS
Mind readers
How MIT is measuring the cognitive component
of driver workload and distraction

Emotionally charged
Tjark Kreuzinger reveals why Toyota is in the
mood to do more with facial recognition
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Killers at
the wheel?
Laser power
Why Volker Levering is beaming about
BMWs futuristic lighting concepts

Animal instinct
Dr Uwe Frankes naturalistic vision for
Daimlers 6D stereo technology
Experts debate whether an ageing driving
population will lead to more carnage on
the roads and if technology can help
Sudden impact
Byron Bloch asks if the USDOTs
Ray LaHood is going far enough
to overhaul motor coach safety
JANUARY 2012
Look, no hands!
A sneak peek beneath the bonnet
of the Highly Automated Driving
prototype 5 Series
SAVING LIVES AND REDUCING INJURY THROUGH ADVANCED VEHICLE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY
The road ahead
The very latest research into DLR,
laser, full adaptive systems and the
safety benefits of marking lights
To receive your FREE copy
of Vision Zero international
register online
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SEPTEMBER 2013 080
LEGENDS
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A ight experiment called the
Controlled Impact Demonstration was
conducted in 1984 by NASAs Dryden
Flight Research Center and the Federal Aviation
Administration. The main aim was to test a
fuel additive for retarding or suppressing re
in a real-world aircraft crash-landing scenario.
In addition, NASAs Langley Research
Center conducted a structural loads measurement
experiment with instrumented dummies in
the cabin. The Boeing 720 was also instrumented
for a variety of other impact-survivability
experiments, including new seat designs,
ight data recorders, galley and stowage-bin
attachments, cabin reproof materials, and
burn-resistant windows.
Cameras inside the aircraft showed the crash
dummies being shaken and small panels falling
during the crash-landing, although the seats
remained attached to the oor.
The new seat designs, ight data recorders,
galley and stowage-bin attachments, reproof
materials and windows were also tested under
real-world conditions. Research data from
the project in these areas yielded new data
on impact survivability that helped the FAA
establish new rules regarding re prevention and
re-retardant materials.
In 2012, a dummy-lled, remote-controlled
Boeing 727 was crashed in Mexico for a television
documentary on ight safety. A team of scientists
also instrumented the jet for research purposes.
To request more information on the advertisers in Crash Test Technology International go online to:
www.ukipme.com/mag_crashtest
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SEPTEMBER 2013
Imaging
Smaller, faster, higher denition: crash test
cameras are more capable than ever
Battery safety
Research into how electric and hybrid
vehicle batteries perform in a crash
The future of crash testing
at style-led Jaguar Land Rover
The latest crash test technology
awaiting visitors to Automotive
Testing Expo North America
Chryslers senior manager for
vehicle safety engineering on
the transatlantic cooperation
with Fiat and the emphasis on
virtual technologies
CRASH TEST ZONE
UNIVERSITY FOCUS
How data acquisition systems are
stressed to remarkable levels to
develop crash barriers at Penn State
www.AutomotiveTestingTechnologyInternational.com
for life
Andrew Regan
MAIN: The plane crashes,
sliding sideways, almost
entirely engulfed in ames
FAR LEFT: NASAs
Langley Research Center
instrumented a large
portion of the airplane and
the dummies in the cabin,
to record the crash loads
LEFT: The Boeing makes
a practice approach over
the prepared impact site
PHOTO: NASA

completecrashsystemsoluonincludingairbagre,digitalIOandEthernetorUSBcontrollermodules
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