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For several hundred years, breads, because of their food value, in one or the other
form have been used as one of the staple foods in many countries around the world. The
breads may vary in size, shape and texture because of eating habits in one country to
another country. The bread consumption in India has shown a marked increase in the past
few years. This trend, we believe, will continue because of present low per capita
consumption of bread, better nutritional values, increase in standard of living, and
because the bread is most conveniently prepared ready-to-serve food. The availability of
variety breads, on the counter of a retail bakery or at other retail outlets, could aid in
increasing the consumption of bakery foods, because the variety breads contain
ingredients which provide new taste, aroma and at times additional nutrition to the
In earlier days, bread was made from grinding wheat into whole meal flour which
was mixed with water and bake on hot stones or on the hearth of a very primitive type of
oven. earth is the heated baking surface of the floor of an oven. !ertain breads were
fermented by simple processes, while other breads which were not fermented took the
appearance of p cakes or chapattis.
"part from the different breads commercially available in balanced here are
several other breads which will fall into the realm of variety breads. These variety breads
are French, Italian, #ienna, $utch !runch, %aisin, %ye, &gg, Twist, !racked wheat or
many more. The name of variety of bread denotes either the area of its origin or the
presence of unconventional ingredients. The conventional ingredients in a regular white
bread are flour, water' salt, yeast, sugar, shortening, milk powder and certain enrichment
additives. " satisfactory loaf of regular white bread could be produced from four essential
ingredients - flour, water, salt and yeast or a (sour dough(.
For the production of bread, we must first know the type of bread that is to be
produced. )ecause all the variety breads re*uire a different formulation.
French Bread
The authentic( French bread is made from a very lean formula using sour dough.
The sour dough process calls for setting of a small sponge which when riped is mixed into
a sponge approximately twice as large as the original sponge. "t certain periods of time
the sponge is remixed and its size is doubled with each mixing. The dough is allowed to
ferment until it becomes sufficiently light for make-up. This type of bread usually has a
thick, hard crust and a characteristic sour taste. It is important to mould French bread
tightly that is a light stern must be formed without tearing. It is not necessary, however, to
mould as firm a loaf or to force out all the gases as with pan bread because the character
of the grain .for this bread is open. The typical French bread is best when it has many
large holes, i.e. less crumb.
French bread is made up in many shapes and lengths, the most popular of which
seems, to be the long loaves or sticks. The French sticks are usually made up to about +,-
long for the .// gms loaves and 0.- for the 1// gms. It is important that the bread be
proofed 2ust to the point where it will receive the cut and open slightly but not over
proofed to the extent when cut, it will recede.
Italian Bread
Italian bread dough is usually made from a very lean formula. The dough often
contains nothing but flour, water, and yeast arid salt. 3hen mixing the dough it is a
common practice to incorporate some old dough into the batch in order to obtain more
acid flavour. Italian bread must have a hard, thick crust with a dry crumb. 4ometimes the
bread is proofed in the oven so that it will be crusted when it goes in the oven for baking
thus producing a heavier crust on the baked loaf. 5ittle or no steam is re*uired for baking
this type of bread.
Italian bread is usually made up long and pointed and given two or three cuts
which must crack freely. 4ome give one cut lengthwise, slightly off centre, with the knife
held at a slant so that there is large shell-like break when the loaf is baked while others
make the loaves round with four cuts in the form of a s*uare.
Vienna Bread
The interior characteristics of #ienna bread differ from pan breads. The grain is
more open with some holes, the crumb drier and texture harsher. The crust and crumb are
more thoroughly baked than pan breads which accounts in part for the fine flavour and
taste. To produce *uality #ienna bread, the dough should be fully fermented but not
overaged. 6oung dough will result in loaves with a tough rubbery crust while loaves from
over-fermented dough will have a hard brittle crust.
#ienna loaves are made up in great variety of shapes, the most popular being the
pointed shape. #ienna bread should have an almost full proof before it is placed in the
oven. The loaves are usually given two or three more diagonal cuts before being loaded
into the oven. 4easame or poppy seeds are sometimes sprinkled on the loaves before
baking. If the seeds are to be used the loaves should be washed with water first so that the
seed will stick to the crust. 5ow pressure steam should be used freely in the oven while
loading and for the first few minutes of baking.
Dutch Crunch
The ingredients for topping are mixed thoroughly and are allowed fifteen minutes
rest before using. The topping is spread over the top of the bread 2ust before the bread
goes into the oven. $uring baking the dough expands and separates, the topping making
cracks which produce a crunchy effect. The same topping may be used on dinner rolls.
Raiin Bread
The procedure for making the raisin bread is the 7ame as for making the regular
bread except that the raisin should be soaked for a few hours before use. "dd raisin two
minutes before finishing mixing. The dough should be kept on the (young( side.
R!e Bread
"s far as possible, strong flour should be used for making rye bread. This strong
flour will be able to carry the dead weight of rye flour which does not contain gluten
forming proteins. In making rye bread, apart from yeast, sour is used as mentioned in the
formula. The recipe for sour is as follows8
%ye +//9
4our :ilk +;<9
6east !ompressed 19
Temperature ,/=F
Fermentation time +, to 0. hours.
In baking rye bread on the hearth, plenty of low pressure steam is used because it
re*uires a higher percent of moisture. The rye loaf is also cut three or four times as the
French bread before placing it in the oven.
F"r#ula $"r %ariet! "$ Bread
Italian Vienna
R!e E&&
%our +// +// - +// ;/ +// ;/ +//
%ice %our - - +// - - - - -
%ye Flour - - - - 7/ - - -
!racked 3heat - - - - - - 7/ -
1/ 1/ +0<
1. 1, 10 1/
+.;< +.;< +.;< , . 7 7 0
4alt +.< +.;< +.;< + 0 0 0 0
4ugar +< - 7 +0 . . . .
4hortening 0 - 7 - . . < .
@il - - - ,
6east Food - - - - /.0< /.0< /.0< /.0<
Aon Fat :ilk
- - - -
7 0 7 7
%aisins - - - - </ - - -
4our - - - - ; - -
!araway - - - - - +.< - -
&ggs - - - - - - +/
:ix to smooth dough
Temperature ;,- - ,/-F
Fermentation 0 hours to 7 hours
Broof .< - 1/ mts.
The formula is for making topping for the $utch crunch bread, the bread is made
with regular bread recipe.
E&& T'it
This bread may *e made into two different shapes i.e. either twisted or straight
regular bread in the manner the regular bread is made in the bakery.
The !racked wheat bread is made like regular bread except that cracked wheat is
soaked for a few hours prior to use. This bread has a nutty flavour.
Te#*erature C"ntr"l
In order to create conducive conditions for- fermentation temperature control
assumes a great degree of importance. For regular bread production the temperature for
fermentation ranges between ;. to ,//F. owever the re*uired temperature within this
range will, depend on the formula, type of flour and the condition of the bakery.
" rich formula could have somewhat of a retarding effect on the working of the
yeast' in this, situation a few degrees higher temperature will speed up the dough
fermentation so that the production schedule is not disturbed. If there are no temperature
controls in the bakery, a variation in dough temperature will be necessary in order to
conform to the atmospheric conditions. 3hen too low temperature is used, it will prevent
the dough from maturing and will also prolong production. @n the other hand higher
temperatures stimulate fermentation, and will create excessive lacitic and acetic acid
fermentation which will affect the flavour and other *ualities of the end product.
Therefore, it is essential that the dough temperature should be maintained not
only during mixing stages but also during the entire fermentation period. This
temperature control starts from the time the dough is mixed until it reaches a temperature
of +./=F during baking at which temperature the yeast is killed. The place where the
dough is allowed to ferment should have a temperature of about ,/.F. $uring the make up
period the dough should be kept away from a place where too low or too high
temperatures are prevailing. "t the proofing stage also, proper temperature and humidity
should be maintained.
Bread and Related Pr"duct
)aking is defined, as it is a method of cooking the food material making use of
dry heat. The term baking also includes the preliminary steps to get a baked product such
as selection of ingredients, weighing, preparing and baking. )akery products are
classified into . types, depending upon the type of leavening action.
6east leavened products 8 )read, rolls and pastry
!hemically leavened products 8 !akes, biscuits, cookies
"ir leavened products 8 4ponge cake and angel cake
Bartially leavened products 8 Bie crust >)oth air and chemicals?
)read is a yeast leavened product. ard wheat with gluten content from C-+/9 is
used for bread making. 4ugar and salt are added to improve the flavour of bread.
Selecti"n "$ in&redient
The essential ingredients for bread making are refined wheat flour, yeast, water,
salt, sugar, fat and milk solids.
Pr"*"rti"n "$ in&redient ued in +read
Fl"ur , It is customary in reporting the proportion of ingredients used in bread to give
percentages in relation to +// parts of flour. For example, if +// g of flour is used with 0
g of yeast, 7 of sugar, 7 of fat and 1/ g of water and the results are reported as 0, 7 and 7.
Fat , The proportion of fat used in different bread varies. ard bread does not re*uire fat.
The amount may be greater for rich, sweet goods or for short bread.
-i.uid , The optimum proportion of water or milk for a good loaf volume varies with the
hydration capacity of the gluten in the flour. This proportion is reported to vary from <+
to ;+9. Dood bread flour re*uires 1/-1<9 of water.
Su&ar , The proportion of sugar used in different types of breads and rolls may vary
widely. In bread 0-19 sugar with an average of 79 gives an ade*uate amount for yeast
growth. If sweet bread is desired more sugar can be added. 3ith large proportions of
sugar, around +19 sweet goods are produced.
Salt , "bout +.<-09 of salt is added to bread. 4alt helps to stabilize fermentation,
strengthens the gluten and develop flavor, owing to its effect on the flavor of other
Yeat , !ommercial yeast may be purchased in two types, the compressed yeast in cake
form, and the dry in granular form. 3ith the added moisture the yeast multiply rapidly to
produce a large *uantity of carbon dioxide. The temperature of the water in which the
yeast slurry is formed should be lukewarm of about 0;-7/
! for the compressed yeast'
but warm, about .7-.1
! for the active dry yeast.
"fter yeast is added to the bread a period of time elapses before the bread is
baked. This period, the length of which depends upon the proportion of ingredients and
the kind of yeast used, is called the fermentation period. )akers call it -proofing- and
generally as -rising-. )akers use 0-79 of yeast, although the amount may vary from + to
nearly 19.
/eth"d "$ +read #a(in&
D"u&h #i0in&
Denerally two methods are followed for dough mixing.
4ponge dough method
4traight dough method
S*"n&e d"u&h #eth"d , The sponge is prepared out of a certain amount of flour with
yeast, sugar and water, which will be separately fermented for a specific time. "fterwards
the sponge is broken into pieces and the remaining ingredients are mixed together.
Breparation of ingredients >weighing?
4ifting and blending flour
Tempering of water
Breliminary mixing of yeast
4ponge mixed
4ponge placed kin trough
4ponge allowed maturing >proofing?
4ponge broken up and mixed with dough ingredients
"llowed to rise sometime turned and folded
$ough dividing
$ividing and scaling
Intermediate proof
Ban proof
Strai&ht d"u&h *r"ce , The ingredients are mixed at one time.
3eighing ingredients
:ixing yeast, sugar, salt and water >< min?
"ddition of flour and water > < min ?
"ddition of shortening
)read dough
$ividing and weighing
Ban proof
Fer#entati"n , :ixed dough is placed in a fermentation room or proofing at ,/
F and
humidity of ;<9 %h. 6east activity begins slowly and increases along with fermentation
time. The volume of dough increases due to the release of carbondioxide. The gluten is
conditioned and becomes elastic as a result of the effect of the alcohol and the lower
acidity. The gluten forms thin walls which retain the gas and it is able to withstand the
pressure of fermentation. The dough matures until it reaches maximum spring and
The carbon dioxide formed during fermentation doesn(t produce new gas cells'
first it is dissolved in the a*ueous phase, then diffuses into and expands the gas-call
nuclei that have been formed during mixing. Thus, optimal rate of fermentation is
important. )ulk fermentation is an approximate doubling of volume is best done at a
temperature not exceeding 7/
!. $uring fermentation, the dough surface should be
protected from drying, either by a moist atmosphere or by a thin film of fat. "t the end of
an ade*uate fermentation period, a touch with the finger will leave an impression in the
dough' dough elasticity causes rapid disappearance of the impression at an earlier stage.
The time re*uired for fermentation depends on the concentration of yeast, sugar, salt and
on the strength of the gluten structure, in addition to the fermentation temperature. The
stronger the gluten structure, the greater is the time re*uired, the weaker the structure, the
greater is the possibility of over fermentation and conse*uent further weakening of the
"fter fermentation, the dough is sized, shaped, and placed in pans or on baking
sheets. These steps are automated in commercial bread production. The fermentation that
follows is referred to as proofing. It involves the same reaction as the earlier fermentation
but proceeds more *uickly.
1n"c(in& , The fermented dough is -knocked back- or -punched down-. In commercial
bread making, the punching of straight dough is done periodically during fermentation.
Its purpose is to force out carbon dioxide, e*ualize dough temperature, and redistribute
the yeast cells and their food supply into a more homogenous mixture. In addition, this
step serves to further subdivid the gas cells and increases the uniformity of their size.
This affects the ultimate crumb grain because larger cells expand more readily than
smaller ones and variations in size thus become enhanced with loaf expansion. There may
or may not be a second bulk fermentation.
Punchin& , Folding the ends and the sides of the dough from one side of the dough to the
others and punching. It is done for.
to keep the dough at an even temperature by actually turning the dough inside out.
release the accumulated carbon dioxide gas which restrict fermentation if allowed
to concentrate.
introduce fresh oxygen which produces vigorous fermentation and
to mechanically develop the gluten.
The first punch usually takes place after about </9 of the fermentation period is
passed. The second punch after an additional 7/9 has passed. The remaining +/9 is used
for scaling time.
Scalin& , 4caling the dough should be done *uickly and as accurately as possible. The
dough continues to ferment during scaling and delay will cause over fermentation of the
last unit scaled.
R"undin& the d"u&h , 3hen the dough is scaled, especially in a retail shop, the dough
usually is in uneven exposed pieces. There is a loss of gas. The pieces are in poor shape
to be molded into various bread shapes. %ounding provides a skin around the dough to
hold the gas in, eliminates the stickiness of the dough, and conse*uently less dusting flour
is re*uired at the time the dough is shaped into loaves.
Inter#ediate *r""$in& , This is a short resting period of about , to +0 minutes, in which
the rounded pieces of dough are relaxed. Fermentation continues and the pieces become
ease to handle.
/"ldin& , The dough should be properly conditioned. The rested units lend themselves
well to shaping. " minimum of dusting flour should be used during molding.
Pannin& , The panned dough is kept in the proofing room for half an hour to one hour
depending upon the product. The average temperature of the proofing room is C<-C,
with humidity of ,/-,<9.
Ba(in& , )aking changes the dough to an appetizing, digestible products, the temperature
for bread baking is between .// to .</
F. $uring baking the gas entrapped during
fermentation expands. 4tarch granules absorp moisture from other ingredients and swells.
!oagulation and setting of the gluten takes place, finally light brown crust is formed.
C""lin& , The baked bread is cooled in rack to avoid sweating or condensation of
moisture on the bottom side of the bread. "pplication of oil on the crust produces the
bread shiny and smooth appearance.
Slicin& , :aking use of bread cutter or slicing machine slices the cooled breads.
)ra**in& "r *ac(in& , The sliced bread is wrapped in a wax or butter paper to prevent
the moisture loss of the bread.
Bread +a(in&
The net effect of the previously described structural changes that occur during
baking of yeast dough is a great increase in volume and the development of rigidity.
)aking of the proofed loaves or rolls at a relatively high temperature, 0/. to 070
! for
bread and +;; to +C+
! for rolls of sweet dough.
The dough rises rapidly in the early stage of baking because of rapid expansion of
gases. The acceleration of yeast activity prior to inactivation contributes somewhat to the
supply of carbon dioxide.
The rapid rise of the dough, referred to as oven spring, is dependent on the
extensibility of the gluten structure, as well as on the expansion of gases. $ough
cohesiveness, on the other hand, is re*uired to prevent excessive rupture of gluten films
and loss of gas during this period.
In the second stage of baking, which consists of about </9 of the baking time, the
maximum internal temperature, C, to CC
! is reached. It is during this period that gluten
proteins are coagulated and starch is partially gelatinized. Delatinization is partial
because bread dough is a limited - water system.
In the final stage of baking, internal bread structure becomes firm. " curst
develops through surface drying, and crust browning occurs, primarily as the result of
carbonyl-amine >:aillard? reactions. )rowning is accelerated by the crust temperature of
+</ to 0/<
! that develops as a result of surface drying.
&vaporation during baking reduces moisture content of the crumb form about
.<9 to 7<9 Aot only does considerable redistribution of water from gluten to starch
occur, but a gradient in water content also develops' the center of the loaf is moisture than
the outer portion by the end of the baking period. :ost of the water loss is form the
protein of the loaf within 7 to . mm of the surface.
!ompounds that are responsible for the characteristic flavour of yeast bread are
formed during baking. The activity of yeast continues in the early stage of baking,
producing flavour components. The carbonyl - amine reactions that occur in the final
stage are known to be important to bread flavour.
Bread *r"*ertie and chan&e
)read should have a large volume relative to its weight >i.e. high specific
volume?. Boor volume can be caused by improper mixing >over - or underdeveloped
dough?, excessive slat, lack of shortening, poor *uality yeast, weak flour, insufficient
proofing, or excessively hot oven. The crust should be golden brown. " pale crust can be
caused by undertaking low oven temperature or insufficient residual sugar a dark crust
can result from over baking, high oven temperature, excessive added sugar, or excessive
milk solid. The crumb should be elastic and reasonably fine and' cell walls should be
thin. Boor grain can be caused by improper mixing, lack of shortening, over proofing, or
low oven temperature.
)read staling is a ma2or change that is a concern of both the consumer and the
researcher and has received much attention. 4taling in terms of the sensory *ualities that
are affected, taste, aroma, firmness, crumb texture, and crust crispness. In the broadcast
sense, the process includes all of the changes, exclusive of those resulting from spoilage
organisms that occur in bread after baking.
Eust as the interactions among components contributing to crumb properties in
fresh bread are complex, so also are the interactions involved in staling. !riteria starch
crystallinity, crumb firmness, crumbliness, and opacity, all of which increase during
staling' and water absorption capacity, soluble starch content, and susceptibility to
amylolytic attack, all of which decrease during staling. 4ensory effect include loss of
crust crispness, deterioration of flavour, and development of crumb harshness.
The firming of bread crumb during storage is known to involve starch
retrogradation. The linear starch molecules that are leached from the granules during the
baking process become *uite concentrated in the limited amount of water outside the
granules. )ecause these linear molecules in the interstitial spaces are prone to retrograde
3hen the total extent of water loss from the loaf during storage, transfer of water
within the loaf occurs and has been studied extensively. Transfer of moisture from the
crumb to the crust results in the crust(s becoming soft and leathery while the crumb
becomes increasingly firm.
Other +i"l"&icall! lea%ened *r"duct
S"urd"u&h Bread 4ourdough breads are characterized by their distinctive sour
flavour, which is produced by the action of acid - forming bacteria.
Salt 2 Riin& Bread salt - rising bread is made from dough that is similar to
sourdough in that both yeast and bacterial fermentation occur in its preparation. -3ild-
yeast cultures that are able to withstand reconstitution in very hot water are used.
Yeat -ea%ened Ca(e The leavening system is a combination of Saccharomyces
cerevisiae and a sour dough starter. The sour dough starter is used not so much for
leavening as for acid production.
Bread R"ll Pr"ducti"n
The production of bread rolls differs principally from that used in making bread
in that a richer formula is used and less mixing is re*uired. The dough usually is much
softer. The significant ingredients that make richer formula are the fat and sugar content,
and in some instances, soft wheat flour is combined with hard wheat flour. Formulas for
rolls differ widely i however, regular bread dough may be used to make rolls of good
*uality. )asic formulas for rolls are as follows8 +. &vaporated F 0. Aonfat dry
Bread2R"ll F"r#ula
H"t R"ll
3uic( Raied
Yeat R"ll
Hard R"ll
4Baed "n
French Bread
S"$t R"ll
Standard H"t
R"ll Reci*e5
Pu$$ R"ll
%our, ard wheat +//.// +//.// +//.// . ,<.// +//.//
%our, soft wheat - - - +<.// -
3ater >vaiable?, total ./.// 01./C <1.1; 10.// ;1.+C
6east +.0. 0.,< +.,< (7.// ..;1
4alt +.1C 0.+; +.1; +.;< /.1/
4ugar >total? C... C.;, 0.C0 .,.// C.<0
4hortening +/.// +7./. 0./, +0.// +C./;
:ilk ++70.00 1<.00 <.// 0C.<0
6eneral Directi"n $"r Bread R"ll *r"ducti"n
The steps in roll production are the same as for bread production. These are as
+. 3eighing and measuring of ingredients
0. :ixing
7. Fermenting
.. $ividing
<. 4caling
1. %ounding
; . Intermediate proof
,. :akeup
C. Banning
+/. Ban proof
++. )aking
+0. !ooling.
Pr"+le# A"ciated 'ith Bread2R"ll Pr"ducti"n
The following problems are associated with bread-roll production.
Te#*erature 2 "s with loaf bread production, temperature control is of paramount
importance. $ough temperature should remain at ,/
F. Too high a temperature will cause
dough to ferment too rapidly and rolls will become 4our or yeasty tasting. @n the other
hand, too low temperature causes heavy tough rolls.
Fer#entati"n 2 The amount of time needed depends upon the amount of yeast and sugar
used. In *uick-raised rolls, for example about twice more yeast is used and only one
fermentation period is re*uired because there is no make up. Broof time is only of 7/
minutes duration.
Scalin& and Sha*in& 2 :akeup of bread rolls constitutes the ma2or step in production.
The variety of shapes possible with soft and hard rolls is most endless. "ccurate scaling
of dough and skilled manipulation of it in forming shapes is re*uired of the baker.
Pr""$in& 2 4ince rolls are considerably smaller in size than loaf bread, proofing time is
very critical. The following points should be controlled8
Volume - %olls should be proofed until about doubled in volume from makeup size.
Time required -Gnder normal conditions of temperature-humidity, this will re*uire
approximately two hours. .
Overproofing - @ver proof rolls will have blisters on the surface, appear flattened
upon placing in oven, and will coarsen in texture when baked.
@ther than the points discussed, problems in bread-roll production do not differ from
those in bread production.
/a(eu* "$ Bread R"ll
4teps in making bread rolls are as follows
Sand'ich R"ll2/a(eu* a $"ll"',
>+? $ivide dough into +.<Hg.pieces.%ound up and let rest +< minutes. Form each
piece of dough into a rope +in. in diameter.
>0? !ut strips of dough into pieces weighing approximately </ gms. each. >step +?.
>7? %ound the </ gms. Bieces into balls by rolling them with a circular motion on
the work bench. >4tep 0?.
>.? Blace rolls in rows on a greased baking sheet ++I0 to 0 in. apart.
><? Broof for +< minutes.
>1? Flatten rolls with fingers or small !an to the desired thickness and finish
proofing. >4tep 7?.
Ste* 7 2 Cut tri* "$ d"u&h. Ste* 8 9R"und
Ste* 3 2Flatten and $inih *r""$in&
/a(eu* "$ Plain R"ll
Pan R"ll 2 Broceed as for sandwich rolls, except omit step 1.
)iener 4"r $in&er5 R"ll 2 :ake up as follows8
>+? $ivide dough and roll into strips as for sandwich rolls. +
>0? !ut strips of dough into pieces weighing approximately </ gms each.
>Gse only 7/ gms. of dough for linger rolls.?
>7? %ound dough slightly and roll into pieces approximately .lI0 in. long.
>.? Blace rolls in rows on a greased baking sheet lI0 in. apart.
Par(er h"ue R"ll 2 :akeup as follow8
>+? $ivide and roll dough as for sandwich rolls.
>0? !ut strips into portions weighing approximately </ gms. >+ in thick?
>7? 4hape dough into balls by rolling with a circular motion on workbench.
>.? "llow balls to rest for +/ to +< minutes.
><? &longate with small rolling pin. !rease rolls across center with hand, dull edge of
knife, or rolling pin. )rush with melted fat. >4tep +.?
Ste* 7 2 El"n&ate 'ith a #all r"llin& *in
>1? Fold roll on crease and press together with palm of hand. Blace rolls in rows on
greased baking sheet about +I0in. >apart step 0?.
Ste* 82 F"ld "n creae & *re t"&ether.
Sha*in& Par(erh"ue R"ll
Cl"%erlea$ R"lI- :ake up as follows8
>+? %oll +.< kg. piece of dough into a rope approximately + in. in diameter and cut
into pieces </ gms each.
>0? $ivide each small piece of dough into threes
and shape in small balls.
>7? -Blace into oiled muffin pans allowing three balls for each cup, as shown.
Pannin& "$ Cl"%erlea$ R"ll
T'in R"ll 2 Broceed as for cloverleaf rolls but allow only two balls for each cup.
Butterh"# R"ll 2 :ake up as follows8
>+? %oll dough into a C in. circle or a thin rectangular sheet.
>0? !ut circle into eight wedge-shaped pieces or cut sheet of dough into triangle.
>7? )rush with melted butter. )egin at base, roll each triangle keeping point in
middle of roll. Blace on greased baking sheet +9 in. apart.
Crecent 2 Broceed as for butter-horn rolls and bring ends of butter horn towards each
other to form a crescent shape.
P"**!eed "r Seaa#e eed r"ll 2 4hape as for twin rolls, braids, or pinwheels. )rush
with egg wash or milk after panning and sprinkle generously with seeds.
Butter Pin'heel 2 :akeup as follows8
>+? %oll out a( 0.< kgs. 4trip of dough into a rectangular sheet about lI. in. thick.
>0? (4pread with creamed butter. ,
>7? %oll dough as for 2ellyroll, cut into slices 7I. in. thick.
>.? Blace >cut surface down? on greased baking sheet +I0in. apart.
><? )rush top with melted butter.
Bread R"ll /ade Fr"# Retarded D"u&h 2 %etarded doughs are those that are mixed up
ahead of need, the dough is kneaded and allowed to undergo one fermentation after which
they are punched to release gas, closely covered, and stored at refrigerator temperatures
until needed. If an appreciable amount of gas has expanded the dough during storage,
then it must be punched down while still in refrigeration t1 release the gas. &nough gas
may form to re*uire several punching, so the dough should be checked every few hours.
3hen needed, the entire dough mass, or that amount re*uired, is removed from
the refrigerator, shaped into rolls' and pan proofed until doubled in bulk. :ost tread on
roll dough formulas can be held in the refrigerator up to ., hours before baking if
temperatures are carefully controlled. 6east action will become inactive at 7,( to .0(F, but
dough must not be sub2ected to lower temperatures. Too much gas formation is
characteristic of doughs held above .0(F. owever, better *uality rolls are produced if
yeast in roll formulas is ad2usted for retarded dough use because over fermentation may
result. In doughs to be held over ., hours an additional sugar will be re*uired to furnish
the yeast food.
Hard R"ll 2 The *uality most sought after in -hard rolls, like that in French and #ienna
breads, is crispness of crust. To obtain the flavour, hard rolls must be thoroughly
fermented or well aged because young dough produces tough, rubbery crusts. Gse of
strong flour is necessary for properly fermented or aged dough. "bout + JI0 hours should
be allowed before first punch and 3/;J hour for second. #arieties of hard rolls are round,
french, vienna and seed. Brocedure for hard-roll production is as follow8
+. Gse any French-bread formula, ferment as directed.
0. 4cale dough into +.< to 0 kgs.
7. %ound and let rest +/ to +< minutes.
.. Flatten and cut into rolls >by hand or roll divider? and shape up in anyone of the
varieties described earlier.
<. "llow to rise until double in size.
1. )ack hard rolls at .</(F. Gse of steam to saturate oven is desirable to allow the
dough surface to expand and convert starch to dextrose which causes better

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