LOAD CRITERION
JOO C. S. CAMPOS
*
Ext ended abst ract of t he MSc t hesi s wi t h t he same t i t l e (i n Port uuese!
*AFA  Portuguese Air Force Academy, and IST  Instituto Superior Tcnico, Technical University of is!on, Portugal"
Abstract: "n this wor#$ an o%timi&ation method to maximi&e linear buc#lin load factors was im%lemented. 'he structural elastic stabilit( was
studied usin a )inite Element Method based on the Mindlin Plate 'heor(. 'he o%timi&ation im%lementation uses commercial finite element
software Ansys
#
to obtain the linear buc#lin res%onse and the Method of Mo*in As(m%totes. 'o sol*e the o%timi&ation %roblem the buc#lin
load sensiti*it( with res%ect to desin *ariables was deri*ed from direct differentiation method with the ad+oint method and im%lemented at
$ata!
,
. 'he conce%t of enerali&ed radient is a%%lied to o*ercome the re%eated eien*alue %roblem which ma#es the %roblem non.smooth.
'he method was *erified with sim%le o%timi&ation exam%les and results were *alidated com%arin the o%timi&ation buc#lin factors of beams
and %lates with results from the literature. Authors underline that in structures with a sinificant %resence of nonlinear effects$ linear buc#lin
anal(sis and o%timi&ation ma( not be the correct strate(. /owe*er$ in some cases$ there is the %ossibilit( to sim%lif( the eometr( and loads in
order to be within the linear buc#lin assum%tions. "n this wor#$ such an a%%roach is tested to an u%%er surface win %anel which is
characteri&ed b( local buc#lin. 'he first bifurcation load$ obtained with nonlinear anal(sis$ increased 012 after the %ro%osed linear buc#lin
o%timi&ation. "n linear buc#lin o%timi&ation$ structures with re%eated or almost re%eated buc#lin loads fre3uentl( arise. "n these structures$ the
buc#lin load im%erfections4 sensiti*it( can be hih. "n this wor#$ a %arametric stud( of buc#lin load sensiti*it( due to the %roximit( between the
lowest critical loads is %resented. "n the tested cases was obser*ed that$ buc#lin load does not decrease due to the %roximit( between the first
and second buc#lin load.
Key!r"s: 5inear 6uc#lin O%timi&ation7 8onlinear 6uc#lin Anal(sis7 "m%erfections sensiti*it(7 5ocal 6uc#lin7 Aeronautic Structures.
#$ INTRODUCTION
#$# MOTI%ATION
9eiht is one of the main factors that influence aircraft
%erformance. )urthermore$ weiht also translates into
cost due to its influence on s%ecific consum%tion$
aerod(namic resistance and trans%ortin ca%abilit( of
caro and:or %asseners.
Aeronautical structures4 confiuration$ t(%icall( consist
of slender elements which %ro*ide structurall( efficient
solutions. 'he structural efficienc( has also increased
with the recent contribution of new materials introduced
in the aircraft industr( ;<=$ includin aluminum allo(s
and com%osites with a hih ratio of ultimate mechanical
strenth and weiht. /owe*er$ in some cases$
structurall( efficient solutions are limited for reasons of
structural stabilit($ which is a ma+or desin re3uirement
in com%onents sub+ected to com%ressi*e forces$
twistin and:or shear. 6uc#lin is one of the most
im%ortant ob+ecti*e:constraints in structural desin. "n
this wor# and for sim%licit( reasons$ it is assumed that
buc#lin is the onl( mode of structural colla%se in
consideration.
'raditionall($ in o%timi&ation$ stabilit( is treated as linear
buc#lin load. Most desin codes are based on linear
buc#lin anal(sis (i.e. Euler a%%roach! which is
calculated b( the lineari&ed eien*alue %roblem. 'he
a%%licabilit( of this anal(sis is reduced b( its limitations$
namel( inca%acit( to include im%erfections and
nonlinear effects in structural res%onse. 6ecause of
that$ buc#lin load is an u%%er bound. Exam%les in
which the ex%erimental results aree with this a%%roach
were %resented b( 'imoshen#o and ere ;>=.
'a#in into account eometric im%erfections and:or
eccentric loads re3uires nonlinear anal(sis. 9hen
includin these effects in stabilit( anal(sis$ the
e3uilibrium %ath do not exhibit the bifurcation of
e3uilibrium$ instead$ there is the %ossibilit( that a limit
%oint occurs. 'his %oint is associated with a i*en load$
z
I
$ lower than the bifurcation load$ z
c
. 'hus$ critical
load com%utation usin nonlinear anal(sis ma#es a
stabilit( stud( more realistic as in ?real? structures
im%erfections are alwa(s %resent.
#$& BRIE' LITERATURE RE%IEW
5indaard and 5und recentl( de*elo%ed an o%timi&ation
methodolo( with nonlinear stabilit( criterion in
com%osites and laminates$ where the desin *ariables
are the fibers4 orientations. 'he lower critical load factor
is detected b( limit %oint ;0= and bifurcation and:or limit
%oint in reference ;@=. "n both wor#s$ the o%timi&ation
%roblem is sol*ed b( Mathematical Prorammin and
the radients are calculated semi.anal(ticall(. 'he
eneral t(%e nonlinear buc#lin formulation was
benchmar#ed aainst the traditional linear buc#lin
formulation and much better results were achie*ed
throuh nonlinear buc#lin o%timi&ation. 'his
com%arison was made in two numerical exam%lesA a
beam with B.section and a blade of a wind turbine$ both
modeled with shell finite elements. "n reference ;C=
o%timi&ation results are com%ared usin different
methods to %redict failure in terms of local buc#lin. 'he
criteria stud( includesA linear buc#lin$ nonlinear
buc#lin and local criterion (e.. extensions$
dis%lacements$ etc.!. "n the last criterion$ the
o%timi&ation formulation o%erates in a criterion function
formulated in terms of strain measures instead of
directl( on buc#lin.
"n o%timi&ed structures with stabilit( criterion the
buc#lin load is sensiti*e to eometric im%erfections.
5und studied the eometric im%erfections sensiti*it(
throuh the conce%t of the worst im%erfection ;D$ E=.
>
Aeronautic Com%onent O%timi&ation 9ith 8on.Smooth 6uc#lin 5oad Criterion
JoFo Cam%os 8o*ember >1<>
9orst im%erfection was defined as one which causes
the reatest decrease in the first critical load. 'his is
determined b( a minimi&ation %roblem where the
im%erfection sha%e is calculated throuh linear
combination of the first buc#lin modes and its
am%litude is limited b( linear constraints. After worst
im%erfection determination$ the critical load$ which is
defined as the bifurcation %oint or limit %oint that
a%%ears first in the e3uilibrium %ath$ is o%timi&ed. 'his
o%timi&ation %rocess was also im%lemented startin in
re*erse order$ i.e.$ the %rocess starts with the
o%timi&ation of the critical load and then the worst
im%erfection and the effects in the structure %re*iousl(
o%timi&ed are determined.
Gahmatalla and Swan ;H= im%lemented two o%timi&ation
formulations ta#in into account buc#lin
considerations. "n the first one$ the structure underoin
a s%ecific loadin is modeled as a h(%erelastic
continuum at finite deformations and is o%timi&ed to
maximi&e the minimum critical load. "n this case$ it is
considered that the instabilit( corres%onds to the first
limit %oint which arises in the load.dis%lacement
diaram. Sensiti*it( of critical load (i.e. %oint limit! is
calculated usin the ad+oint method. "n the second one$
the structure under a similar loadin is modeled as
linear elastic$ and the critical buc#lin load is com%uted.
'his o%timi&ation %roblem is de*elo%ed based on the
method %ro%osed b( 8e*es et al. ;I=. One of the
research findins relates to the fact that the formulation
based on lineari&ed stabilit( anal(sis is much more
com%utationall( efficient than the formulation based on
nonlinear anal(sis. "n some of their exam%les$ Swan
and Gahmatalla com%ared the solutions obtained with
both methods which were found to reliabl( (ield hih
buc#lin stabilit( desins.
'o%olo( o%timi&ation with linear elastic stabilit(
criterion can be a%%lied to aircraft com%onents.
Structural com%onents without cur*ature and sub+ect
onl( or mainl( to membrane efforts are ood exam%les.
Jhou ;<1= a%%lied to%olo( o%timi&ation with stabilit(
constraints to a win rib and com%ared the critical load
and weiht with results based on com%liance
minimi&ation. Jhou also discussed the existin
difficulties in to%olo( o%timi&ation with stabilit(
constraints$ namel( the sinularities and its influence on
the o%timal solution. "n addition$ it is discussed the
critical buc#lin modes %roblem a%%earin in low
densit( reion and their elimination throuh the use of
filters. 'his %roblem was first discussed b( 8e*es et al.
;I= who %ro%osed inorin the eometric stiffness matrix
in elements with low densit(. 'o a*oid discontinuit( of
the densit( function$ Simund and 6endsKe ;<<=
suested a different %enalt( for stiffness matrix and for
eometric matrix.
)olado and Godriues ;<>= im%lemented the
o%timi&ation method with stabilit( criterion in beams and
laminated %lates usin the homoeni&ation method.
8e*es et al. ;<0= a%%lies also to%olo( o%timi&ation with
stabilit( constraints to %eriodic structures modeled b(
linear elastic microstructures. 5ocal stabilit($ studied at
microstructure le*el$ is used to com%are different
material distributions in a base cell sub+ect to a field of
e3ual strains on macrosco%ic le*el.
#$( SCOPE O' THIS WORK
"n this wor#$ an o%timi&ation method to maximi&e the
minimum critical buc#lin load is im%lemented. 'he
critical load is achie*ed throuh linear buc#lin anal(sis.
'he desin *ariables are the com%onents thic#nesses
and the constraint is the total *olume of the structure.
As mentioned abo*e$ in structures with nonlinear
structural res%onse$ linear stabilit( anal(sis and linear
buc#lin o%timi&ation ma( not be a%%ro%riate$
%articularl( when instabilities arise b( limit %oint.
/owe*er$ in some cases there is the %ossibilit( of
sim%lif( eometr( and loads to ensure linear stabilit(
conditions. "n such cases$ the 3uestion that arises isA
when a structure is modeled$ anal(&ed and o%timi&ed
with sim%lifications of linear stabilit($ whether if it is$
e*en so$ %ossible to obtain an increase in critical load
achie*ed with nonlinear stabilit( anal(sis.
"n this extended abstract$ this a%%roach is a%%lied on a
sam%le win %anel which is sim%lified (eometricall(
and loadin.wise! and o%timi&ed in linear elastic
stabilit( conditions. 'he oal is to chec#$ with a
nonlinear stabilit( anal(sis$ if there is an increase in
critical load.
Another addressed %roblem concerns the fact that
linear stabilit( a%%roach cannot ta#e into account the
effects of im%erfections. Moreo*er$ in o%timi&ation of
buc#lin loads$ structures with re%eated critical loads
often arise. "n these structures$ critical load can be
hihl( sensiti*e to im%erfections ;<@$ <C$ <D$ <E=.
"n this extended abstract$ a %arametrical stud( of critical
load sensiti*it( to trans*ersal load disturbance is also
%resented. 'he aim is to *erif( the critical load
sensiti*it( (for this t(%e of disturbance! to the %roximit(
or e*en re%etition of the lowest critical loads$ usin
nonlinear stabilit( anal(sis to com%ute the critical load
of the %re*iousl( o%timi&ed structure.
&$ ANAL)SIS 'ORMULATION
9hen sol*in a structural o%timi&ation %roblem$ it is
fundamental to obtain$ anal(ticall( or numericall($ the
e3uilibrium e3uations solution.
Shell elements are widel( used to model the cur*ed
eometr( of a structure. Shell elements based on
classical shell theor( are difficult to de*elo%. 'hese
t(%es of elements are *er( efficient in modelin the
structure4s cur*ed eometr(. /owe*er$ because of the
com%lexities$ the alternati*e a%%roach is to model the
structure with series of flat elements$ which are sim%ler
and easier to formulate and im%lement.
"n this wor#$ Mindlin Plate 'heor( (MP'! is used
combined with a membrane theor($ resultin in a )lat
Shell Element. 'he %late element has three derees of
freedom b( node (two rotations and one trans*erse
dis%lacement! while the membrane element contains
0
Aeronautic Com%onent O%timi&ation 9ith 8on.Smooth 6uc#lin 5oad Criterion
JoFo Cam%os 8o*ember >1<>
two derees of freedom (membrane dis%lacements!.
'he drillin rotation 0
z
is not %art of %late4s theor(. "n
order to a*oid an ill.conditioned or e*en sinular
stiffness matrix$ flat shell elements are i*en a small
stiffness for drillin rotations 0
z
$ accordin to 6athe ;<H=.
"n the followin section$ we %resent the main
sim%lifications and assum%tions of MP'. 'his element
was com%utationall( im%lemented (in $ata!
,
! to
obtainin the structural matrices needed for the
sensiti*it( anal(sis of buc#lin load.
&$# MINDLIN PLATE THEOR)
'he assum%tions of MP' used for the %ur%oses of
re%resentin the dis%lacement and stresses field in
isotro%ic %lates are ;<I=A
the deformations are such that the %lanes
%er%endicular to the midsurface remain straiht$
but not necessaril( %er%endicular after deforma.
tion7
the strain %er%endicular to the midsurface is
neliible com%ared with the others$ so e
zz
= u7
the tension %er%endicular to the midsurface is
neliible com%ared with the others$ so o
zz
= u7
the dis%lacement of an arbitrar( %oint of the shell is
small com%ared with the thic#ness7
the deformations are infinitesimal.
Bnder this assum%tions$ the dis%lacement field of MP'
is of the formA
u = u
0
(x, y) z
0
1
(x, y) = u
0
(x, y) + z
(x, y)
: = :
0
(x, y) z
0
2
(x, y) = :
0
(x, y) z
0
x
(x, y)
w = w
0
(x, y),
E*$#
where u
0
$ :
0
e w
0
denote dis%lacements of a %oint on
%lane z = u.
'he reen.5arane strains for M'P$ assumin
infinitesimal dis%lacements and inorin the nonlinear
terms are;<I=A
s (x, y, z) =
`
1
1
1
1
e
xx
e
y
x
y
z
y
xz 1
1
1
1
1
=
`
1
1
1
1
u,
x
:,
u,
+:,
x
:,
z
+ w,
u,
z
+ w,
x
1
1
1
1
1
, E*$&
where a comma denotes differentiation with res%ect to
the corres%ondin subscri%t. Ge%lacin the dis%lace.
ment field from E3.< into E3.>$ we obtain the strains.
dis%lacements relation for the %lateA
s
M
=
`
1
1
1
1
e
xx
e
y
x
y
z
y
xz 1
1
1
1
1
=
`
1
1
1
1
u
0,x
:
0,
u
0,
+ :
0,x
0
x
+ w,
+ w,
x 1
1
1
1
1
+ z
`
1
1
1
1
0
,x
0
x,
0
,
0
x,x
u
u
1
1
1
1
1
E*$(
where M means Mindlin %late. Bnli#e the Classical
'heor( of Plates$ rotations 0
x
and 0
os
NL
o
m
c]
(ou
c]
)
J0 =
_ou
c
1
J
reJ
U
J0 +_ ou
c
1
t
reJ
U
2
J o0
2
.
E*$
"f z is below z
c
$ the dis%lacement field is uni3ue. 9hen
z increases and reaches z
c
$ the dis%lacement field is
no loner uni3ue$ i.e. for z = z
c
buc#lin ma( occur a
bifurcation$ which means that a reference structure
confiuration and an infinitesimall( close (buc#led!
confiuration are both %ossible at the same load ;><=.
@
Aeronautic Com%onent O%timi&ation 9ith 8on.Smooth 6uc#lin 5oad Criterion
JoFo Cam%os 8o*ember >1<>
8ote that os
6
1
onl( includes the first.order strains
associated with the %late deformation. 'he nonlinear
term (i.e. the second term in E3.D! re%resents the wor#
done b( membrane forces (%er unit lenth! and
membrane strains associated with a small lateral
deflection (small %erturbation!. 'he small %erturbation of
the e3uilibrium confiuration (i.e. dis%lacements
associated with a small lateral %late deflection! is lin#ed
to second order membrane strains i*en b( ;>>=A
e
xx
NL
= 1 2 / (u
,x
2
+ :
,x
2
+ w
,x
2
);
e
NL
= 1 2 / (u
,
2
+ :
,
2
+ w
,
2
);
y
x
NL
= u
,x
u
,
+ :
,x
:
,
+ w
,x
w
,
,
s
6
NL
= {e
xx
NL
, e
NL
, y
x
NL
] .
E*$.
8ote that$ in this anal(sis$ the second order shear
strains y
z
and y
xz
are discarded. 'he membrane forces
%er unit lenth o
m
c]
$ corres%ond to an initial or
reference stress state. 'his initial state corres%onds to
an e3uilibrium confiuration of the structure (ou
c]
! that
satisfies the e3uilibrium (i.e. ou
c]
is solution of E3.@!$
when sub+ected to a load reference.
&$( 'INITE ELEMENT DISCRETIZATION
6( means of finite element a%%roximation$ E3.D can be
stated s(mbolicall( as the enerali&ed eien*alue
%roblem$
(K(x) + z
K
c
(x, U)) 1
= ,
E*$/
"n this %roblem$ 1
$ the
critical load factor is defined b( z
c
= z
1
. 9ith this
notation the o%timi&ation %roblem can be stated as
mox
x
]
_min
r
z
] min _
1
z
c
] ;
E*$#1
sub+ected toA
Lolume constrainsA
:
c
n
c=1
I
ntuI
; E*$##
'hic#ness bound constraintsA
x
]
mn
x
]
x
]
mux
, ] = 1, ., N; E*$#&
E3uilibrium e3uation (E3.I! which characteri&es
the fundamental dis%lacement field7
Stabilit( e3uation (E3.H! which characteri&es
the critical buc#lin load factor$ z
c
$ and the
mode 1
.
'he o%timi&ation %roblem %re*iousl( laid out is sol*ed
b( the Method of Mo*in As(m%totes (MMA!. 'he
documentation of the alorithm lies in se*eral S*anber
%ublications ;>@$ >C$ >D=.
($# DESIGN SENSITI%IT) ANAL)SIS O' SIMPLE
EIGEN%ALUES
'he radients are calculated from the direct
differentiation and the ad+oint method. 'he deri*ation of
sensiti*ities of sim%le eien*alues is made for finite
element e3uations. 'he sensiti*it( of a sim%le
eien*alue is the deri*ati*e of z
1
$ the deri*ati*e
of z
isA
Jz
Jx
]
=
J
Jx
]
_
1
1
K1
1
K
c
1
_ E*$#(
A%%l(in the 3uotient rule deri*ati*e$ and assumin that
the eien*ectors are normali&ed with res%ect to K
c
$ i.e.$
1
1
K
c
1
Jx
]
= _1
1
JK
Jx
]
1
1
JK
c
Jx
]
1
_,
E*$#+
'he deri*ati*e of the stiffness matrix and the initial
stress matrix (i.e. JK Jx
]
/ and JK
c
Jx
]
/ ! are determined
anal(ticall( at the finite element le*el. 'he deri*ati*e of
the stiffness matrix with res%ect to thic#ness$ JK Jx
]
/ is
tri*ial$ since JK Jx
]
/ de%ends on thic#ness ex%licitl(.
'he initial stress matrix$ K
c
$ is a function that de%ends
on thic#ness ex%licitl( and im%licitl( throuh the
dis%lacement field$ i.e. K
c
= K
c
(U(t), t). Accordin to
the nomenclature of the ad+oint method$ if 1
1
K
o
U
1
is
the ad+oint force$ R
ud]
$ then the ad+oint *ariable$ F
ud]
$ is
defined as ;I=A
F
ud]
_1
1
oK
c
oU
1
K
1
]
1
= K
1
_1
1
oK
c
oU
1
]
1
.
E*$#,
'his definition ma#es use of the s(mmetr( %ro%ert( of
the stiffness matrix K. 'he calculation of the ad+oint
*ariable re3uires the in*ersion of matrix$ i.e. K
1
.
/owe*er$ this in*ersion is com%utationall( too
ex%ensi*e. Multi%l(in both sides of the e3uation b( K$
the ad+oint %roblem similar to static anal(sis with finite
element a%%roximation is obtainedA
K F
ud]
= R
ud]
.
E*$#
C
Aeronautic Com%onent O%timi&ation 9ith 8on.Smooth 6uc#lin 5oad Criterion
JoFo Cam%os 8o*ember >1<>
9e chose to sol*e the %roblem in $ata!
,
usin the
command ?mldi*ide M?. 'he calculation of initial stress
matrix sensiti*it( usin the ad+oint *ariable isA
1
1
JK
c
Jx
]
1
= _1
1
oK
c
ox
]
1
F
ud]
1
JK
Jx
]
U_. E*$#.
)inall($ introducin E3.<E into E3.<@$ the sensiti*it( of
the sim%le eien*alue is i*en b(A
Jz
Jx
]
= 1
1
JK
Jx
]
1
+ z
_1
1
oK
c
ox
]
1
F
ud]
1
JK
Jx
]
U_. E*$#/
'he ob+ecti*e function is the in*erse of z
(see E3.<1!.
'herefore$ we calculate the sensiti*it( of the ob+ecti*e
function usin the 3uotient deri*ati*e ruleA
J
Jx
]
_
1
z
] =
1
z
2
Jz
Jx
]
. E*$#0
Bntil now$ the sensiti*it( was deri*ed for sinle
eien*alues. 9hen there are re%eated eien*alues$ the
ob+ecti*e function is not differentiated. "n order to
o*ercome this difficult($ an auxiliar( routine based on
the enerali&ed radient conce%t ;>H= is introduced$
whose mathematical formulation is %resented in the
next section.
($& DESIGN SENSITI%IT) ANAL)SIS O'
MULTIPLE EIGEN%ALUES
'his enerali&ed radient techni3ue was %re*iousl(
used for dimensional o%timi&ation of %lates and beams
with critical buc#lin load criterion b( )olado and
Godriues ;<>= and Godriues et al. ;>E=.
5et consider a eneral iteration ?k?. At this iteration it is
necessar( to define the decreasin direction of the
ob+ecti*e function in the current desin. 'o characteri&e
that direction let e > u be a small number defined b( the
user (e.. e = u.uS! and let m
s
$ which we will call e.
multi%licit( of z
c
$ be e3ual to the number of
eien*alues satisf(in the ine3ualit(A
(z
z
c
) e z
c
. E*$&1
After definin this criterion$ sub.radients$ Jz
Jx
]
/ $
which satisf( the %re*ious condition (i.e. Jz
Jx
]
/ with
r = 1,2, . . . , m
s
! are calculated. 9ith the sub.radients$ a
con*ex s%ace w is constructed ;>I=A
w = co _J
g
=
J z
Jx
]
m
s
=1
u c
= 1
m
s
=1
. E*$&#
'he descent direction of the ob+ecti*e function is i*en
b( *ector J
g
2
= min
J
g
w
J
g
2
.
E*$&&
"f u w$ then J
g
z
1
< . E*$&(
where is defined b( the user.
+$ RESULTS
'he o%timi&ation method was *alidated throuh some
benchmar# exam%les$ namel($ beam and %lates
buc#lin o%timi&ation and it was *erified that results are
in ood areement with theoretical and Ansys
#
o%timi&ation results. 9e %resent here the case of
'234re #  I567e5e8te" !6t2529at2!8 sc:e5e$
D
Aeronautic Com%onent O%timi&ation 9ith 8on.Smooth 6uc#lin 5oad Criterion
JoFo Cam%os 8o*ember >1<>
clam%ed (fixed! . clam%ed (slidin! beam$ for which the
o%timi&ed solution is #nown as bein bi.modal ;0@=.
+$# BEAM OPTIMIZATION
'he structure consists on a beam com%osed b( a finite
number of sements$ N$ with uniform sections and
e3ual lenth. 'he oal of the o%timi&ation %roblem is to
identif( the thic#nesses of each (%iecewise! section
x
]
, ] = 1, . . . , N$ to maximi&e the critical load (ob+ecti*e
function! considerin the *olume constraints.
'234re &  '282te e7e5e8t 5es: !; bea5$
)iure > shows a beam di*ided into >1 e3ual sections
(N = 2u!. 'he initial thic#ness$ uniforml( distributed
alon the beam$ is x
]
= u.1 m and sectional area is
(x) = u.u m
2
. 'he material %ro%erties are constantA
NounOs modulus is = 2uu o and PoissonOs ratio is
: = u.S. 'he beam section width is constant and e3ual
for all sectionsA b = u.m. 'he beam lenth is l = 1u m
and the lenth of each section is l
= l N / = u. m.
)or the followin exam%les$ we introduce here the
Critical 5oad O%timi&ation )actor (! in order to
com%are the efficienc( of o%timal solutions concernin
initial buc#lin load. 'his factor is defined as the ratio
between the o%timi&ed critical load$ z
t
$ and the initial
critical load$ z
ntuI
$ i.e. = z
t
z
ntuI
.
'he o%timi&ation %roblem was sol*ed b( the alorithm
described in the %re*ious section. 'he o%timi&ation
%roblem is stated b( E3.<1 to E3.<>. 'he lower bound
for desin *ariables is x
]
mn
= 1u

.
'he same %roblem was also sol*ed in Ansys
#
usin its
)irst Order O%timi&ation Method ()S'OP'! to
determine the o%timum desin %oint. )S'OP' uses
finite differences to a%%roximate radients which ma#es
the alorithm slower.
)iure 0 shows e*olution alon the o%timi&ation
%rocess in Ansys
#
()S'OP'! and with MMA$ where we
can see faster con*erence with MMA.
a< b<
'234re (  a< 'STOPT c!8=er3e8ce> b< MMA c!8=er3e8ce$
'he buc#lin modes for the o%timum solution were
illustrated in )iure @$ where we can see a s(mmetric
and an anti.s(mmetric modes.
'234re +  B4c?7283 5!"es ;!r !6t2545 s!74t2!8$
'he obtained thic#ness distribution is the illustrated in
)iure C.
'234re ,  T:2c?8ess "2str2b4t2!8$
'o com%are results$ the o%timum solution of the Euler.
6ernoulli beam is also %resented. 6imodal solutions for
elastic columns are described in Olhoff and Gasmussen
;0@=. )or a sectional relation of (x) = c (x)
$ bimodal
solution was obtained b( Atanac#o*ic e Alexander ;0C=.
Tab7e #  B4c?7283 L!a" C!56ar2s!8$
I82t2a7 MMA Ansys
E47erBer8!4772
s!74t2!8 @(,A
1
N S SS. .9 S2. .
2
N 77u.S SS.1 .
. 1.S8871 1.S81
. 82 ( n
2
) /
= 1.S887
)rom 'able < can be seen that is *er( close to
the one deri*ed anal(ticall( in ;0C=.
+$& PARAMETRIC STUD) O' IMPER'ECTION
SENSITI%IT) IN A BEAM WITH REPEATED BUCKLING
LOADS
Structural o%timi&ation ma( %roduce coincident buc#lin
modes$ which is sometimes mentioned as *er(
sensiti*e to im%erfections. 'his %henomenon is called
modes interaction and is associated with the
simultaneous occurrence (or nearl(! of more than one
mode. Conse3uentl( the load at the first limit %oint of an
im%erfect structure is considerabl( lower than the
bifurcation load of the %erfect structure ;<@$ <C$ <D$ <E=.
One a%%roach$ that allows for the im%erfections4 effect
to be included$ is based on numericall( trac#in of the
e3uilibrium %ath of the im%erfect structure before the
limit %oint. 'his method is *er( useful$ but it re3uires a
se%arate anal(sis for each manitude and im%erfection
t(%e. "n this wor#$ the 3uestion is restricted onl( to a
%arametric stud( of critical load sensiti*it( due to a
trans*erse disturbance on a beam clam%ed.clam%ed
slidin.
'he clam%ed (fixed! . clam%ed (slidin! beam is illus.
trated in )iure D. "t is axiall( loaded (! and the onl(
t(%e of im%erfections is a trans*erse load (p! at mid.
s%an.
'234re   I56er;ect2!8 28tr!"4ce" by a s5a77 tra8s=erse 7!a"$
'he ob+ecti*es of this stud( areA
to *erif( the ?im%erfect structure? sensiti*it( in the
o%timum solutions7
to chec# the structure sensiti*it( due to the
%roximit( between the lowest bifurcation load
factors$ i.e.$ if there is hiher sensiti*it( when
critical loads are re%eated or closed7
to *erif( the influence of the trans*erse load
intensit( in the limit load.
E
Aeronautic Com%onent O%timi&ation 9ith 8on.Smooth 6uc#lin 5oad Criterion
JoFo Cam%os 8o*ember >1<>
"n this wa($ the stud( consists of two ste%sA one is linear
buc#lin o%timi&ation in order to et a beam with
re%eated and closed buc#lin loads7 the other one is the
nonlinear anal(sis in order to et the e3uilibrium %ath of
the %erturbed structure$ before the limit %oint.
+$&$# OPTIMIZATION RESULTS
'he o%timi&ation %roblem is stated b( E3.<1 to E3.<>.
"t was sol*ed in Ansys
#
with the )irst Order
O%timi&ation Method ()S'OP'!. An additional
constraint is im%osed to limit the two lowest critical load
factors %roximit($ i.e.$ for z
1
< z
2
we ha*eA
_
z
2
z
1
z
1
] > _. E*$&+
'he %arameter _ *aries from &ero throuh _ = u.u$
_ = u.1 and _ = u.S. 9hen _ = u one obtains a
bi.modal solution.
'he critical loads resultin from linear stabilit(
o%timi&ation are shown in 'able >.
Tab7e &  O6t25a7 b4c?7283 7!a"s 28 ;48ct2!8 !; $
= = . 5 = . 1 = . 3
1
N S2. S1. 1u.2 19.7
1
Pecrease . u.u2 % u.8 % 2.S %
2
N SS.1 92.9 1u8.7 1u7.8
As shown in 'able >$
1
decreases with increasin _.
a< b<
'234re .  a< CLOF c!8=er3e8ce 2t: = > b< CLOF c!8=er3e8ce
2t: = . 5$
)iure E a! shows e*olution alon the
o%timi&ation %rocess in Ansys
#
with _ = u and )iure E
b! shows the same e*olution but with _ = u.u.
a<
b<
'234re /  a< CLOF c!8=er3e8ce 2t: = . 1> b< CLOF
c!8=er3e8ce 2t: = . 3$
)iure H a! shows the e*olution alon the
o%timi&ation %rocess in Ansys
#
with _ = u.1 and )iure
H b! shows the same e*olution but with _ = u.S. 'he
distance between the first and second cur*es in the
final solution is clearl( *isible.
+$&$& NONLINEAR ANAL)SIS
"n nonlinear stabilit( anal(sis$ a trans*erse load (p! at
mid.s%an was introduced$ with the intensit( p = 1 N$
as shown in )iure D. 'hus$ the trans*erse load
(p = 1 N! has a relati*e intensit( of u.uu22 % about
1
. "n a second stud($ the trans*erse load p = 1u N
was introduced$ which corres%onds to a relati*e
intensit( of u.u22 %.
"n nonlinear anal(sis$ axial loadin was *aried form u %
to 11u % of the o%timum critical load (
1
= S2.!.
'his *alue of 11u% was established with the aim of
anal(&in the beha*ior after the bifurcation$ if it exists.
'he loadin was di*ided into uu e3uall( s%aced
increments. 9ith nonlinear anal(sis$ e3uilibrium %ath of
the %erturbed structure is trac#ed$ before the limit %oint.
"n order to com%are the efficienc( of %re*ious o%timum
solutions (see 'able >! the 8onlinear Critical 5oad
)actor (N! was used. 'he factor is defined as the
ratio between the a%%lied load on nonlinear anal(sis$
z
NL
$ and the o%timum critical load (z
t
=
1
with
_ = u! i.e. N = z
NL
z
t
.
'234re 0  E*4272br245 6at: !; bea5 2t: # KN tra8s=erse 7!a"$
)iure I shows the diaram of N *ersus axial
dis%lacement for an a%%lied disturbance p = 1u N. "t
can be obser*ed that the end %oint of each e3uilibrium
cur*e decreases as _ increases and there is no
increase of resistance after buc#lin or$ when it exists
(for _ = u.S! $ it is small. )or _ = u the critical load was
decreased 1.u% and for _ = u.u was decreased
1.7%. )or _ = u.2$ critical load diminished 1.8% and
for _ = u.S it diminished 18.2%.
'234re #1  E*4272br245 6at: !; bea5 2t: #1 KN tra8s=erse 7!a"$
)iure <1 shows the diaram of N *ersus axial
dis%lacement for an a%%lied disturbance p = 1u N. )or
_ = u and _ = u.u was obtained a 17.9% decrease of
the critical load for _ = u.1 it was obser*ed a decrease
of 18.% and for _ = u.S it was 17.S%.
H
Aeronautic Com%onent O%timi&ation 9ith 8on.Smooth 6uc#lin 5oad Criterion
JoFo Cam%os 8o*ember >1<>
+$&$( RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
i*en these results$ it can be concluded that$ in this
structure$ sensiti*it( to trans*ersal loads in the *arious
o%timi&ed solutions exists$ once critical load decreases
between <D2 and <H2.
"t seems that the structure sensiti*it( to trans*erse
%erturbations does not *ar( with %roximit( between the
first bifurcation loads. Also in the nonlinear anal(sis$ the
trend obser*ed in 'able > remains$ i.e. limit %oint
decreases with increasin _$ with exce%tion for _ = u.S
where the %ost.buc#lin has some resistance increase.
So$ it can be stated that$ critical load %roximit( did not
show to be more sensiti*e to %erturbations in these
cases.
)urthermore$ inde%endentl( of the intensit( of p$ it is
obser*ed that _ = u solution has a hiher limit %oint$
which indicates that %erturbation intensit( seems not
brin critical load sensiti*it( due to %roximit(:re%etition
critical loads. /owe*er$ critical load sensiti*it( de%ends
on p intensit(. More s%ecificall($ increasin the
trans*ersal disturbance 9uu% (p %asses from 1 N to
1u N! the critical load decreased about 1.9% for
o%timum solution with _ = u.
+$( OPTIMIZATION O' A SIMPLI'IED
AERONAUTIC COMPONENT
As mentioned abo*e$ in structures where nonlinearities
are rele*ant$ linear stabilit( anal(sis and critical Euler
load o%timi&ation ma( not be a%%ro%riate. /owe*er$ in
some cases there is a h(%othesis of eometr( and
loadin sim%lification so that the %roblem com%lies with
the necessar( conditions to stud( the stabilit( with
linear a%%roach. 'he %ur%ose of this section is to test$
usin nonlinear stabilit( anal(sis$ if the critical load
increases after o%timi&ation of critical load. 'o o%timi&e
the buc#lin load it was necessar( to sim%lif( eometr(
(%lannin! and loads (onl( membrane forces are
a%%lied! to chec# the linear stabilit( conditions.
'he methodolo( used in this section consists of a
se3uence of ste%s which are outlined in )iure <<.
'he methodolo( is a%%lied to a structural model based
on A0>1:6E0E win with 9hitcomb su%ercritical airfoil.
'he internal structure is in areement with the
constraints resultin from structural drawins. 'he
aerod(namic loadin is related to fliht at Mach 1.E$
<<111 meters altitude and > derees of anle of attac#.
"nitiall($ a nonlinear stabilit( anal(sis of aircraft structure
(win! is %erformed loball($ with the aim of identif(in
local instabilities. 5ater$ a com%onent %resentin local
instabilities (i.e. one %anel! in the former anal(sis is
selected. "n order to maximi&e the linear buc#lin load
factor the %roblem was sim%lified$ i.e.$ onl( membrane
forces are a%%lied and the %anel was flattened. )inall($
the o%timal %anel thic#ness was u%dated in the o*erall
structure (win!. Aain$ a nonlinear anal(sis was
%erformed to com%are the load.dis%lacement diaram
and the *alue of the first load branch. 'he followin
section %resents some details on the abo*e mentioned
ste%s.
+$($# NONLINEAR STABILIT) ANAL)SIS
Purin nonlinear anal(sis$ althouh chane in stiffness
is ta#en into account$ due to deformation$ there is no
chane in the aerod(namic loadin$ which means that
load is sim%lified. 'o sol*e the nonlinear e3uations$ the
8ewton.Ga%hson method is used. "n this method the
load is incrementall( a%%lied and in this %roblem it was
di*ided into >C e3uall( s%aced increments. 'he
a%%lication of load is referenced to the win loadin
factor (w! defined asA
w =
pplicJ looJ
ligbt looJing conJition
E*$&,
'he incremental load is a%%lied on the nodes *ar(in
from w = u to w = 1.2.
'234re #&  U66er s4r;ace 283 6a8e7s c:aracter29e" by 7!ca7
b4c?7283$
'he first buc#lin modes corres%ond to u%%er surface
win %anel indicated b( the circle in )iure <>$ is shown
in )iure <0 for different w.
a< b<
'234re #(  a< Pa8e7 7!ca7 b4c?7283 2t: WLF = . 2> b< Pa8e7 7!ca7
b4c?7283 2t: WLF = . 2$
"n )iure <0 a!$ with w = u.u2 buc#lin deformation
is characteri&ed b( one wa*e and b( a maximum
'234re ##  A8a7ys2s a8" !6t2529at2!8 ;7!c:art$
I
Aeronautic Com%onent O%timi&ation 9ith 8on.Smooth 6uc#lin 5oad Criterion
JoFo Cam%os 8o*ember >1<>
dis%lacement at node >1CD0. As we can see for
w = u.2 the buc#lin deformation has one wa*e too.
"n the followin section$ the o%timi&ation method
described abo*e is a%%lied to the isolated %anel.
+$($& LINEAR BUCKLING PANEL OPTIMIZATION
"n order to simulate the beha*ior of the %anel
embedded in the win$ the boundar( conditions that
allow extremities rotation without allowin axial
dis%lacements are a%%lied.
'o obtain the linear stabilit( conditions$ it was
necessar( to ma#e two sim%lifications in the %anelA onl(
membrane forces were a%%lied and the %anel was
flattened. 'hus$ the stabilit( res%onse was studied b(
usin the Euler a%%roach$ i.e. usin E3.H.
Membrane efforts were ta#en from a nonlinear anal(sis
with w = u.u. 9ith this$ buc#lin deformation in
nonlinear anal(sis is similar to buc#lin mode that
becomes with linear stabilit( anal(sis. 'hus$ the
lineari&ed %roblem consists of tra%e&oidal %late with
uniform section and constants and homoeneous
material %ro%erties$ which has 9 elements. NounOs
modulus is = 7u o and PoissonOs ratio is : = u.S.
'he oal is to determine the thic#nesses distribution x
]
in order to maximi&e the critical load. 'he minimum
allowable thic#ness is x
]
mn
= 1u

m and the maximum
is x
]
mux
= 8 1u

m. 'he initial *olume is
I
ntuI
= u.u1uS78 m
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